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Cuckoo Search Algorithm for
Optimization Problems—A Literature
Review and its Applications
a a a
Azizah Binti Mohamad , Azlan Mohd Zain & Nor Erne Nazira Bazin
a
Soft Computing Research Group, Faculty of Computing, Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia
Published online: 14 May 2014.

To cite this article: Azizah Binti Mohamad, Azlan Mohd Zain & Nor Erne Nazira Bazin (2014) Cuckoo
Search Algorithm for Optimization Problems—A Literature Review and its Applications, Applied
Artificial Intelligence: An International Journal, 28:5, 419-448, DOI: 10.1080/08839514.2014.904599

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Applied Artificial Intelligence, 28:419–448, 2014
Copyright © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
ISSN: 0883-9514 print/1087-6545 online
DOI: 10.1080/08839514.2014.904599

CUCKOO SEARCH ALGORITHM FOR OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS—A
LITERATURE REVIEW AND ITS APPLICATIONS

Azizah Binti Mohamad, Azlan Mohd Zain, and Nor Erne Nazira Bazin
Soft Computing Research Group, Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,
Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014

Johor, Malaysia

 Cuckoo Search (CS) is an optimization algorithm developed by Yang and Deb in 2009. This
article describes an overview of CS, which is inspired by the life of a bird family, as well as an
overview of CS applications in various categories for solving optimization problems. Optimization is
a process of determining the best solution to make something as functional and effective as possible
by minimizing or maximizing the parameters involved in the problems. The categories reviewed are
Engineering, Pattern Recognition, Job Scheduling, Networking, Object-Oriented Software (Software
Testing), and Data Fusion in Wireless Sensor Networks. From the reviewed literature, CS is mostly
applied in the engineering area for solving optimization problems. The objective of this study is to
provide an overview and to summarize the review of applications of the CS.

INTRODUCTION
Cuckoo search (CS) is an evolutionary optimization algorithm that is
inspired by Yang and Deb (2009). The theory of cuckoo search was inspired
by the species of bird called the cuckoo. Cuckoos are fascinating birds, not
only because of the beautiful sounds they can make, but also because of their
aggressive reproduction strategy, by which mature cuckoos lay their eggs in
the nests of other host birds or species.
This is known as obligate brood parasitism. Each egg in a nest represents a
solution, and a cuckoo egg represents a new solution. Basically, the basis of
this algorithm is the specific egg laying and breeding of cuckoos themselves.
In this case, if a host bird discovers the eggs are not its own, it will either
throw these alien eggs away or simply abandon its nest and build a new nest
elsewhere.
Address correspondence to Azizah Binti Mohamad, Soft Computing Research Group, Faculty
of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia. E-mail: azizahbt
mohamad@yahoo.com.my
Color versions of one or more of the figures in the article can be found online at www.tandfonline.
com/uaai.

420 A. B. Mohamad et al.

In general, the cuckoo eggs usually hatch earlier than the host eggs.
Some of these eggs also can mimic or look similar to the host bird’s nest
and have the opportunity to grow up and get more feeding than the host
birds. Then, if these eggs are not recognized by host birds, they will grow
and become mature cuckoos.
Cuckoos used in this modeling exist in two forms, which are mature cuck-
oos and eggs. After remaining eggs grow and turn into mature cuckoos, they
will form a group or society. Environmental features and the immigration of
societies or groups of cuckoos hopefully lead them to converge and find the
best environment for breeding and reproduction. The CS algorithm finds
the global maximum of objective functions through the best environment
for breeding and reproduction.
Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014

This study is an overview of the CS algorithm for optimization prob-
lems. The remainder of this article is divided into three sections: “Cuckoo
Search Methodology”deals with the methodology of CS; “Previous Studies
on the Application of Cuckoo Search” presents the review of papers
on CS application for optimization problems. The final section is the
“Conclusion.”

CUCKOO SEARCH METHODOLOGY
Cuckoo Search is basically based on three idealized important rules.

1. Each cuckoo lays one egg at a time and dumps its egg in a randomly
chosen nest.
2. The best nest with high-quality eggs will carry over to the next generation.
3. The number of available hosts’ nests is fixed, and the egg laid by a cuckoo
is discovered by the host bird with a probability pa ε[0, 1].

Based on these three rules, the possibility is that the host bird can either
throw the egg away or abandon the nest and build a completely new nest.
For simplicity, this last assumption can be approximated by the fraction pa
of the n nests that are replaced by new nests (with new random solutions).
Table 1 shows symbols that are used in this paper.

Generating Initial Cuckoo Habitat
In order to solve an optimization problem, it is necessary that the values
of problem variables be formed as an array. In this algorithm, this array is
called a “habitat.” Thus, the following formulas are used for generating a
cuckoo habitat.

Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Optimization Problems 421 TABLE 1 Symbols Used in this Article Symbol Meaning pa probability x habitat fp profit function fc cost varhi upper limit varlow lower limit λ random number ω a parameter that constrains the deviation from the goal habitat f(x) objective function n population size Fi fitness Et a standard normal distribution with zero mean and unity standard deviation for Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014 random walks. or drawn from Lévy distribution for Lévy flights i cuckoo j nest α step size L length scale g’ group’s current size w machine word length v task mapping c path mapping ϕ random angles in radians u and v normal distribution R average k cluster d Minkowski distance μ minimum step β Lévy exponent t iteration W inertia weight Vt. velocity vector C 1 and C 2 acceleration constants xt current position of the particle ε size of each addressing tables x0 location of the peak of the distribution P value of peak α scaling factor r solution n number of vertices (hash table capacity) m number of edges (hashed items) d number of buckets of each item hash k bucket size t page size β memory utilization V a set of vertices A max Lévy Step Size ϕ golden ratio G generation number G β scale factor .

xNvar ) → This algorithm is to maximize a profit function. as show in Figure 1. Habitat = [x1 . and also variable limits of varhi and varlow . . . pink stars are the eggs’ new nest. . a habitat is an array of 1 × Nvar representing current living position of the cuckoo. xNvar ) → The profit of a habitat is obtained by the evaluation of profit function fp at a habitat of (x1 . 3. 422 A. x2 . After that. . x2 . In an optimization problem with upper limit of varhi and lower limit of varlow for variables. x2 . 1. . x2 . . 2. in which cuckoos lay eggs within a maximum distance from their habitat. as shown in Figure 1. some cuckoo eggs that are . The important thing about a real cuckoo is the egg-laying radius (ELR). supposed to handle the maximum value of ELR. (Rajabioun 2011). central red star is the initial habitat of the cuckoo with 5 eggs. . xNvar ] → In a Nvar – dimensional optimization prob- lem. Mohamad et al. . B. So ELR is defined as: ELR = α × Number of current cuckoo’s eggs/Total number of eggs × (varhi − varlow ) where α is an integer. number of current cuckoo’s eggs. Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014 FIGURE 1 Random egg laying in ELR. xNvar ). Profit = −Cost (habitat) = −fc (x1 . each cuckoo has an ELR that is proportional to the total number of eggs. Profit = fp (habitat) = fp (x1 . Cuckoos’ Style for Egg Laying Each cuckoo starts laying eggs randomly in some other host bird’s nest within her ELR. also called a maximum distance.

they immigrate to new and better habitats where their eggs are more similar to eggs of the host birds and also where there is more food for new youngsters. the host bird’s own chicks die from hunger and only the cuckoo chick Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014 remains in the nest. The maximum value of these mean profit values deter- mines the goal group and. after the egg–laying process. the grouping of cuckoos is done with the k-means clustering method (a k of 3–5 seems to be sufficient in simulations). φ ∼ U (−ω. So. λ and φ. After a couple of days. λ and φ are defined as follows: λ ∼ U (0. each cuckoo flies only λ % of the entire distance toward the goal habitat and also has a deviation of φ radians. But when the time for egg laying approaches. Immigration of Cuckoos After cuckoos have laid their eggs. These eggs have no chance to grow. it throws the host bird’s own eggs out of the nest. This movement is clearly shown in Figure 2. For each cuckoo. p% of all eggs (usually 10%). ω) . the cuckoo chick pushes other chicks and eats more). Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Optimization Problems 423 less similar to host birds’ own eggs are detected by the host birds and are thrown out of the nests. These two parameters. 1) . In the case that the host bird’s eggs hatch earlier and the cuckoo egg hatches later. Also. hatch. As seen in Figure 2. the next stage is the immigration of the cuckoos. When moving toward a goal point. the best-group habitat is the new destination habitat for immigrant cuckoos. the cuckoo groups are constituted and their mean profit value is calculated. only one egg has the chance to grow in a nest. When mature cuckoos live all over the environment. The society with the best profit is the goal point for cuckoos to immigrate. Young cuckoos will grow and become mature and they will live in their own area and society for some time. will be killed. with less profit values. . it is difficult to recognize which cuckoo belongs to which group. This situation will make the cuckoo group form in a different area. This happens because when a cuckoo egg hatches and the chick comes out. To solve this problem. the cuckoo’s chick eats most of the food the host bird brings to the nest (because of the three-times-bigger body. For that. They fly only a part of the way and also have a deviation. consequently. The rest of the eggs grow in host nests. The clustering method means to group cuckoos in a cluster and find the best group and select the goal habitat. help cuckoos search for more posi- tions in all environments. the cuckoos do not fly all the way to the destination habitat. and are fed by host birds.

This habitat will produce the maximum profit. . a number of Nmax of cuckoos survive that have better profit values than the others that demise. Eliminating Cuckoos in Worst Habitats In the cuckoo society. a CS flowchart is shown in Figure 4. Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014 FIGURE 2 Immigration of cuckoo (Rajabioun 2011). When all cuckoos have immigrated toward the goal point and new habitats are specified. the new-egg-laying process restarts. the entire cuckoo pop- ulation will move to one best habitat with maximum similarity of eggs to those of the host birds and with the maximum food resources. an ELR is calculated for each cuckoo. where λ∼U(0. This limit occurs because of food limitations. Because of that condition. 424 A. The pseudocode for CS is shown in Figure 3. Mohamad et al. Then. Convergence For the last phase or process of the cuckoo life. Afterward. B. being killed by predators. each mature cuckoo is given some eggs.1) means that λ is a random number (uniformly distributed) between 0 and 1. There will be fewest egg losses in this best habitat. An ω of π/6 (rad) seems to be enough for good convergence of the cuckoo population to global maximum profit. considering the number of eggs dedicated to each bird. ω is a parameter that constrains the deviation from the goal habitat. there are limits on the maximum number of live cuckoos. and inability to find proper nests for eggs.

in certain conditions in which s is too large. Then. or drawn from Lévy distribution for Lévy flights. Keep the best solutions (or nests with quality solutions). where Et is drawn from a standard normal distribution with zero mean and unity standard deviation for random walks. Rank the solutions and find the current best end while Postprocess results and visualization end FIGURE 3 Pseudocode of the Cuckoo Search (Yang and Deb 2010). replace j by the new solution. end Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014 A fraction (pa) of worse nests are abandoned and new ones are built. Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Optimization Problems 425 Generate initial population of n host nests xi (i = 1. j) randomly if (Fi > Fj ). the new solu- tion generated will be too far away from the old solution (or even will jump outside of the bounds). Additionally. a proper step size is important for maintaining the most efficient search possible. . So. If s is too small. Then. such a move is unlikely to be accepted. the change is too small to be significant. n) while (t <MaxGeneration) or (stop criterion) Get a cuckoo randomly by L´evy flights evaluate its quality/fitness Fi Choose a nest among n (say. Then.. x(t+1) : x t+1 = x t + sEt .. . which can be tricky in implementation. the step size s determines how far a random walker can go for a fixed number of iterations. An important issue of CS is the application of Lévy flights for generating new solutions. 2. and consequently such search is not efficient.. the random walks can also be linked with the sim- ilarity between a cuckoo’s egg and the host’s egg.

job scheduling. . A table of classification scheme was proposed as shown in Table 2. and data fusion in wireless sensor networks. pattern recognition. Table 7. Mohamad et al. and Table 8. Table 6. the major areas or cat- egories that use CS are engineering. Table 5. PREVIOUS STUDIES ON THE APPLICATION OF CUCKOO SEARCH This section reviews the several applications of CS in all categories by previous researches. 426 A. Based on the review articles. Object-Oriented software (software testing). Table 4. Start Initialize Cuckoos with Determine egg laying radius eggs for each cuckoo Lay eggs in different Move all cuckoos towards nests best environment Some of eggs are detected and killed Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014 Determine cuckoo societies Kill cuckoos in worst area Population is less than max value? Find nest with best survival rate No Check Survival of eggs in Let eggs grow nests (get profit values) Yes Stop condition No Satisfied? Yes End FIGURE 4 A flowchart of the Cuckoo Search algorithm (Rajabioun 2011). B. networking. Table 3.

Ackley. pa . x. (number of coils) L. Griewangk. F . and solve engineering design Rastrigin. It is Easom’s 2D apparent that MCS can become an attractive technique for practical engineering optimization problems. Generalized Rosenbrock’s 2 (Walton et al. mean coil minimize the weight of The purpose of this article is to 2010) GA. standard test examples. De Jong. λ. diameter d. x. PSO Schwefel’s. DE. minimum speed-up and Modified Cuckoo Search (MCS) 2011) Latin hyper-cube sampling Jong’s. Easom. F . j. width w. stochastic beam functions. j. Lévy Flights. α voltage β. λ. i. generation number G. step size α the standard CS for all of the Griewank’s. i. n. Rastrigin’s. Lévy Flights. golden ratio ϕ. α Lévy flight step size A. Ackley’s. λ. convergence rate has been shown to outperform (LHS). length L of the maximum end optimization problems. 3 (Noghrehabadi Standard Cuckoo. n. F . Author Different Technique(s) Function Cuckoo Parameter Process Parameter Performance Remarks 1 (Yang and Deb Standard Cuckoo. α wire diameter w. Cuckoo Search (PS-CS) deflection of which show the PS-CS method fixed-fixed using eight terms in very good microbeam-type agreement with numerical actuators results. PSO Schwefel. (Continued) 427 . Michaelwicz. x. depth h and deflection δ including the design of springs first and second thickness h of the main and welded beam structures. n. Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014 TABLE 2 Literature Review of Cuckoo Search Application in Engineering Test/ Benchmark No. De pa . 2011) hybrid Power series and deflection u buckling and with the numerical results. i. Modified Cuckoo. j. Yang’s welded area. length the spring and construct a CS algorithm to Rosenbrock. Lévy Flights. midpoint obtain a solution for The PS-CS results are compared et al. Not stated pa . Rosenbrock’s. fabrication cost.

Improved Ant Colony Optimization (IACO). α. LZ constant α0 . Pareto front. Non-dominated Sorting F . yield stress fy. A random steps Sn . A three-bay random walk with n loads which W and w frames the performance of the 2011) Genetic Algorithm (GA). minimize the overall multiobjective cuckoo search. elasticity E. and number of the Results suggest that MOCS is an Genetic Algorithm friction surface S efficient multiobjective (NSGA-II). i. minimum step μ. Lévy ZDT2. iteration t discs. Lévy Flights. α width w and length L of the minimize both the overall This article proposes a new 2011) Multiobjective Cuckoo (SCH). depth d and fabrication cost and the algorithm for multiobjective Search (MOCS). distributions u and v. Vector Evaluated Genetic K . Differential Evolution for Multiobjective Optimization (DEMO). x. (HS). Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA) . beam. the engaging force time cuckoo search algorithm. i. Differential Evolution (MODE). inner radius r . Lévy exponent β outer radius R of the mass and the braking based on the recently developed Algorith (VEGA). Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA) 5 (Yang and Deb Standard Cuckoo. Author Different Technique(s) Function Cuckoo Parameter Process Parameter Performance Remarks 4 (Kaveh and Standard Cuckoo. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). optimum design of steel Result obtained by the CS is that Bakhshpoori Mantegna’s algorithm. F . ZDT3. j. x. n. welded area. λ. namely. Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014 428 TABLE 2 (Continued) Test/ Benchmark No. n. λ. Multiobjective optimizer. algorithm in several Ant Colony Optimization three-bay 24-story random step with ith independent runs is better than (ACO). Schaffer’s Min–Min pa . 15-story frame. A one-bay 10-story pa . Hybrid Big Bang-Big Crunch HBB-BC. frame. Distribution. ZDT1. Harmony Search frame Xi that of other algorithms. j. normal thickness h of the main end deflection d. F . Multiobjective bees algorithm (Bees). optimization.

length l. Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014 6 (Gandomi. structures. teeth m. payload utilizing CS. depth the vertical deflection mostly far better than the best Optimization (HPSO). α cross-sectional area A. g3 . elasticity E. Standard Cuckoo. of the gear ratio of the g6 .density q. length of cost of a reinforced shaft 1 between bearings concrete beam. length of the beam L. λ. The optimal Differential Evolution (DE). l1 . length of the cylindrical section of the vessel L. is 2011) Surface Method (ARSM). length of shaft parameter 2 between number of identification of loading states NLS. the inner minimize the weight radius R. width b.T. design of the thickness t. pressure thickness Ts. module of speed reducer. dummy lower chest Cl 429 . dummy upper chest Cu. minimum weight optimization tasks. length of the column minimization of the cost L. Lévy Flights. Ti number of gear train. Yang. yield stress ϕ corrugated bulkheads y . the total weight of the face width b. PSO. number of teeth optimization the total on pinion z. widths) of the different minimum-weight beam elements. F .g2 . minimize teeth of the gearwheel i. dummy middle chest Cm.g1 . Not stated pa . j. V . fixed base for introduced for solving structural Improved ARSM.d.lever L.g5 . design of a pin-jointed In this study. thickness of vessel design. n.g4 .Fmin . x. for a tanker. and the head Th. plane frame with a optimization algorithm. heights (or the oil volume. Fa . h. CS. minimize solutions obtained by CS are Hybrid Particle Swarm P . minimize solutions obtained by the HPSO with Q learning thickness t. existing methods. i. plate of an I-beam. length of the base l. Adaptive Response vertical forces P1 and P2. a new metaheuristic and Alavi GA.

Ackley number of nests N . F . i. x. Author Technique(s) Function Cuckoo Parameter Process Parameter Performance Remarks 1 (Bacanin Standard Cuckoo. . α total number of nodes in minimum number This article presents a et al. x. j. i. Sphere. current automation of test data number of input test generation.GA control flow graph of test cases heuristic method for (CFG) M . probability Pd problems in JAVA CS metaheuristic for language. CS programming unconstrained software (CS language optimization problems. The results show that the proposed algorithm performs better than GA. evolution life-span e search. F . pa . n. Tabu life-span Lévy flights and Tabu t. j. λ. 2 (Perumal Standard Cuckoo. numeric object-oriented software JAVA number of parameters optimization system that implements a programming D. Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014 430 TABLE 3 Literature Review of Cuckoo Search Application in Object-Oriented Software (Software Testing) Different Test/ Benchmark No. α runtime. App) Benchmark tests show that superior performance is ready to be applied to new optimization problems. λ. using CS with cases N . 2011) Tabu Search. Rastrigin. Triangle problem pa . n. Griewank. max cycle combinatorial and This article presents an 2011) Lévy Flights.

k. i. fitness It is an optimization function Fr algorithm and shows that CS is one of the evolutionary algorithms used to achieve multiobjectives of GA. λ. numeric software implementation number of parameters optimization of the CS algorithm that is D. j. Not stated population of host Not stated generation of test This article presents CS for and Purohit GA nests n. max cycle combinatorial and This article presents a 2012) Lévy Flights Rastrigin. α runtime. 431 . probability Pd problems in JAVA called CSApp. The system programming was successfully tested on language standard benchmark functions for unconstrained problems with various numbers of parameters. Sphere pa . 2011) r. n. x. 4 (Choudhary Standard Cuckoo. F . Griewank. solution cases generation of test cases. Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014 3 (Bacanin Standard Cuckoo. Ackley number of nests N .

XMIN C. enhance accuracy This article proposed an Mohanna. 3 (Valian Improved Cuckoo. α. spike pattern recognition cutoff value vpeak . normally probability Pa. number of total convergence enhancing the accuracy Tavakoli Flights iterations NI . j. i. problems of spiking voltage reset value c. from the Distribution. Mantegna’s distributed flights step size L recognition the locations of array 2011b) algorithm. acceptable solution for instantaneous vt . n. Standard dataset. (min) pa . Not stated pa . x. membrane results. j. stochastic level SLL elements to exhibit an synthesis variables x and and/or nulls array pattern with either technique y. accuracy of the The CS algorithm is a good 2011) Izhikevich diabetes. fraction minimum average CS algorithm was proven Malek Lévy Flights. λ. breast cancer pa . d. i. F . x. θ. step size α (min) and improved CS algorithm and Cuckoo. iris plant. α probability pa . α nest (population). class k. n. neurons. i. Lévy dataset α (max). The results provided by the proposed algorithm is more effective. F . Lévy sidelobe pattern successfully to optimize 2011a. Author Technique(s) Function Cuckoo Parameter Process Parameter Performance Remarks 1 (Vazquez Standard Cuckoo. and. typical length control suppressed sidelobes conventional scale L and/or nulls placement in array specified directions. λ. input current I . XMAX. Lévy wine datasets MAXGEN. the synaptic weights of the DE. α integrator a and b. pa . iris (max). j. n. glass. λ. dt. current rate and convergence rate of 2011b) iteration gn the standard CS. x. it provides an Euler method potential vr . F . and solution recovery current u. Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014 432 TABLE 4 Literature Review of Cuckoo Search Application in Pattern Recognition Test/ Different Benchmark No. boundaries of membrane potential v spiking neuron alternative for adjusting neuron model liver-bupa. . membrane capacitance neuron. duration T 2 (Rani and Standard Cuckoo.

and fraction nulls control symmetric linear array algorithm. CS-optimizer result. Not stated pa . step minimum average This article proposed CS Malek Lévy Flight normally size factor. Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014 4 (Rani and Standard Cuckoo. random angles in radians ϕ 433 . the CS successfully exponent α. n. number of SLL and/or algorithm to optimize 2011a) Mantegna’s distributed nest. i. distribution type. stochastic probability. location array elements. optimized the locations of scale c. typical length rate of and/or nulls control. x. As a scale L. F . Pa. α α. λ. j. parameter τ. Lévy and geometry with minimum McCulloch’s variables x and flights step size L convergence sidelobe level (SLL) algorithm y. negative logarithm of random numbers w.

false positive rate f . total results show that the 2012) Flights. ECS outperforms false positive rate f . number of words n. large constant C max . system shows that number of words n. j. λ. invalidation outperforms BF. target minimize the In this work. x. Lévy F . λ. target total and ECS were 2012) Flights. training data D.weight w. n. α function C. total invalidation optimization of the (BBF) number of strings N. cost of the BFs BF. n. feature membership applied for Bloom Filter vector Yi. membership BBF using CS Bloom Filter feature vector Yi. the CS Subramanian Cuckoo.size of BF 2 (Natarajan and Standard Not stated pa . i. The proposed large constant C max . the minimize the The experimental Subramanian Cuckoo. α target function C. weight w.. bin size L. (BBF) total number of cost of the strings in a spam set BFs. number of nest. Author Technique(s) Function Parameter Process Parameter Performance Remarks 1 (Natarajan and Enhanced Not stated pa . i. bin size L. training data D. Bin target value Zi. number of iteration size of BF . Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014 434 TABLE 5 Literature Review of Cuckoo Search Application in Networking Test/ Different Benchmark Cuckoo No. CS. j. Lévy F . Bin value Zi. x. N .

conservation and formation of clusters 2011) Algorithm (GPMA). Low of nests. Generalized F . Lévy Not stated pa . initial energy E. round duration minimal number of clusters. Author Different Technique(s) Function Parameter Process Parameter Performance Remarks 1 (Dhivya. cuckoo step of lifetime. The (HEED) feasibility of the scheme is manifested by the simulation results in comparison with the traditional methods. Standard Cuckoo. balancing the The CS is proposed to Sundarambal LévyLévy Flights. CS is applied Sundarambal Flights. sensor deployment area. 2 (Dhivya. MAC WSNs and The hybrid approach Approach (CBPA). j. size. protocol. Not stated pa . number energy performance 2011) classification. εmp. number of eggs dissipation incorporating balanced Energy Adaptive in a nest. average energy consumption. λ. Cuckoo Based Particle of topology. i. i.Efs. n. number of nodes. 435 . results in the formation of (LEACH). mode of energy of among the sensor nodes. among the energy dissipation and Clustering Hierarchy number of rounds sensor nodes. and energy consumption per rounds. data minimization In this article. duty cycle maximization offers consistency in the duration. minimal obtain enhanced network and Vincent Clustering and number of nodes. electrical. Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014 TABLE 6 Literature Review of Cuckoo Search Application in Wireless Sensor Networks Test/ Benchmark Cuckoo No. Standard Cuckoo. α packet size. j. x. data packet size. Hybrid an optimum number of Energy Efficient clusters and minimal Distributed clustering energy consumption. F . control packet and for cluster head selection and Anand Particle Model size. n. λ. cluster formation. α base-station location. x.

F . n. 2 (Burnwal and Standard Not stated pa . submitted task Ti . CPU time and algorithm for Optimization capability Cj . resource requirement Rek Ti . deadline Di . i. j. cost of requirement of the the utilized resource costj . weight age factor W1 . remaining execution considering the time to complete task in Rj retj „ deadline completed execution time cetj . minimum This article proposes a 2012) Cuckoo. This system time cti.j . Standard Not stated pa . j. F . and results of existing PSO maximizing heuristic algorithms machine such as GA for the utilization given problem. original CPU capability cost. total penalty cost XP minimizing The results shown by Deb 2012) Cuckoo. estimated will allocate the job execution time of Ti in queue of optimally by resource Rj qeti. time . estimated completion node. Author Technique(s) Function Parameter Process Parameter Performance Remarks 1 (Prakash et al.j . x. workload wj .j . estimated resources on each Computing waiting time wti.j .j minimal execution time. resource Rj . α expected cost ECi . Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014 436 TABLE 7 Literature Review of Cuckoo Search Application in Job Scheduling Test/ Different Benchmark Cuckoo No. memory requirement execution cuckoo optimization Cuckoo Memi . GA. λ. OCj . x. i. n. estimated execution time Eti. allocation of Grid utilized CPU capability UCj . amount of users and also the time task Ti utilizes Rj mini. optimal job Algorithm. α the total CS have been found Lévy penalty cost to outperform the Flights. λ.

j. T-test. CS algorithm that is Nasrudin Flights. tion and algorithm for Stanarevic Cuckoo. max cycle. permute1. 2 (Tuba. discover an alien space more (CVT). host nests n. step size α standard CS in terms F-test. pa . pa . Lévy Griewank. space d. optimization software Rastrigi. The results (CSapp) Schwefel solutions nests. x. Dixon α. obtained by the Sphere. x. random number of randomiza. Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014 TABLE 8 Literature Review of Cuckoo Search Application in “Others” Test/ Different Benchmark Category/ No. Cuckoo. n. j. local unconstrained 2011) Flights. balance of the This study presents an Subotic. explore the based on centroidal 2011) Centroidal Ackley’s. number r . CS Penalized. n. result Tessellations Easom’s. problems. probability of search Voronoi tessellations Voronoi Rastringin’s. Rosenbrock’s. F . General runtime. λ. of computation and Shubert’s time. Schwefel’s. Michalewicz’s. λ. Modified Ackley. Author Technique(s) Function Cuckoo Parameter Area Process Parameter Performance Remarks 1 (Shatnawi Standard Griewangk’s. egg from the host efficiently provided better than (CVT). contains probability of search. Pa. improved CS and Standard And Price. number of and time. α Searching dimensional point computation This article proposed a and Cuckoo. parameters D. i. candidate discovery pd. Lévy DeJong’s. matrix that population size n.2 (Continued) 437 . different rows modified CS Step permutation algorithm are functions satisfying. F . i.

number of gence algorithm enhancing Cuckoo. Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014 438 TABLE 8 (Continued) Test/ Different Benchmark Category/ No. F . n. path for total number of system optimization and mapping c reli. the CS. services Npo. GA element(PE) and function U. The proposed Rotated probability p min . Rosenbrock. i. α General the number of accuracy and This article proposed an 2011b) Cuckoo. fitness Perf(ψ). of the reliability type b. mance and use of CS in 2011) type p. p max . found that CS is quite able performance efficient in embed. perfor. current convergence rate of Schwefel’s. step size well in several αmin . comparison with ded availability fitness other heuristic search sys. Author Technique(s) Function Cuckoo Parameter Area Process Parameter Performance Remarks 3 (Valian Improved Sphere. unit step cost. improved CS Standard Generalized N . Asys(ψ) algorithms such as tem GA. . 4 (Kumar and Standard Not stated processing allocation cost (ψ). approach performed ellipsoid. decision variables conver. iteration gn. task schedul. Lévy Rastrigrin. αmax benchmark problems in terms of the accuracy of the solutions found. total iterations rate the accuracy and Flights Ackley’s.number of availability multi-objective mapping v. λ. bus ing output services d. NI . j. x. This article presents the Chakarverty Cuckoo. pa .

with predefined problems. GA. β of machining Hybrid optimization Particle Swarm problems (PSRE). Immune algorithm. j. with n random speed. The results Method of length Xi. λ. labor cost. unit time manufacturing algorithm. rate and solving Mantegna steps Sn. Lévy dataset – α. i. step demonstrate that the Feasible length S. Hybrid Immune algorithm 6 (Goel. random step overhead cost optimization Handbook. F . and v. iterations. number of solutions Algorithm (CSCA) 2011) Cuckoo Satellite Minkowski solutions and the and highest yields good results on Search Image distance d. j. CS is a very effective Direction. Standard Benchmark pa . random walk per part. cluster k. average R. Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014 5 (Yildiz 2012) Standard Not stated pa . n. i. Cuckoo. F . λ. normal and robust approach Ant Colony distribution u for the optimization algorithm. Sciences number of optimal The proposed Cuckoo Sharma. n. machining cost of raw material maximize the This study introduces Cuckoo. Lévy α. feed rate. cutting total profit the CS algorithm for Flights. x. search of Search Clustering and Bedi Flights. IRIS. (Continued) 439 . probability to accuracy of benchmark dataset Clustering Datasets random value decide solution Algorithm q1 exploration and (CSCA) exploitation for searching the solutions q. x.

Tabu layer i of the tExecavg . total standard in search for the best Enhanced number of deviation. set of services ser. Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014 440 TABLE 8 (Continued) Test/ Different Benchmark Category/ No. Standard Not stated Solution element Semantic the average number execution This work proposes a 2011) Cuckoo composed of a Web of processed time and new hybrid algorithm Search. composition which reinforcement cluster j on simulation time was inspired by the learning. service from the average space. the behavior of cuckoos search. EPG si jk . k-th vice test noSolGenavg . solutions in each explored for selecting the evolutionary solElemi . selection algorithm. selection algorithm container’s outperforms the Tabu associated search based solution solcont . search optimal Web service computing. stDevavg eggs. Experimental Graph (EPG) container results demonstrate identification that the hybrid number idcont . semantic quality score Sem(sol). weights corresponding to user preference wQoS and wSem . Author Technique(s) Function Cuckoo Parameter Area Process Parameter Performance Remarks 7 (Pop et al. nest where to lay their Planning layers n. score of the composition solution QoS.

C2 . Result Schwefel range [0. cuckoos in search for noContainers. acceleration constants C1 . General population size n. λ. noStag the best nest where to average percent lay their eggs. destroyed Web service which was inspired by number of posi. vector Vt . number of solution in the optimal Web Planning cuckoos. F . inertia weight W reach to for solving Rastrigin. random better optimization Schwefel. of explored search space. number of web cuckoos noRec. noDCont.weight w.2. number composi. Dixon α. n. 1] show the hybrid 1. function in the solutions. problems. current algorithm observe SumSquares position of the more search space particle xt . x. velocity discovery pa . Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014 8 (Chifu et al. (Continued) 441 . average simulation time. PSO. ABC Powell. tion of stagnations tion. inertia weight probability of search hybrid Cuckoo 2012) Hybrid Price. W . rand. the behavior of containers. Standard Not stated EPG. i. and can effectively reach to better solutions. Griewank. Lévy Easom. com. acceleration can Particle Swarm Flights. effectively Optimization (PSO) DE. j. space and Search (CS) and CS/PSO. constants C1 . pa . average number of cases 9 (Ghodrati Standard Ackley. Semantic number of artificial selecting the This article proposes a 2012) Cuckoo. observe more This article presents the and Lotfi Cuckoo.C2 . vice containers to be semantic service composition Graph (EPG) noCuckoos. optimal method for selecting Enhanced artificial ser.

availability Asys . distribution shorter run time tion) parameters {} for without excessive parent. . design space This study demonstrats Chakarverty Cuckoo. gene and experimentation for probability of parameter tuning building a solution from scratch selection. in embedded system Cauchy peak value P . Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014 442 TABLE 8 (Continued) Test/ Different Benchmark Category/ No. set of cauchy populations in miza. scaling factor α tem maximum CS was able to GA design generation/iteration. distribution. produce better opti. sys. population size. distribution x0 . exploration the use of CS and GA 2011) Flights. ded cost CFsy . Author Technique(s) Function Cuckoo Parameter Area Process Parameter Performance Remarks 10 (Kumar and Standard Not stated location of the General performance Psys . design exploration. Lévy peak of the (embed.

Step Size A. proposed method Support called MI-MCS-SVM is Vector able to achieve higher Machine classification rate (SVM) than the previous works. β. The CK and DE algorithms supply more robust and precise results than the PSO and ABC algorithms. 443 . Particle swarm optimization search-space evaluation number of optimization (PSO). Differential evolution Differential upi . the and Besdok (CK). diagnosis of disease based on Mutual golden ratio ϕ. PSO. weight. parameters accuracy in method for Diabetes Flights. swarm rate of This article proposed 2012) Cuckoo. Standard Not stated pa . λ.C2. F. scale factor Cr. limits lowi and number. Support Vector (MI). C1. mutation limit ABC bee colony (ABC) (DE) and ABC probability algorithm algorithms have been value p 0 analyzed. Max Lévy size. Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014 11 (Giveki et al. 12 (Civicioglu Cuckoo-search Anova Test number of the General size of pattern runtime value In this work. DE and (DE) and Artificial evolution β. CK. Healthy Subsets k. G maximum Machines (FW-SVMs) Principal number of and Modified Cuckoo Component iterations Search. (PSO). n. Experimental Analysis results show that the (PCA).C2 . x. acceleration diabetes Feature Weighted Information generation num constants C1 . ω. disease. p0 . C and ϕ. j. F . i. maximum function of the Cuckoo-search swarm lower and upper function evaluation (CK). Lévy α. Particle generation g. random current matrix and the and algorithmic concepts 2011) walk.

Then. the proposed CBPA was compared with the standard low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) protocol and hybrid energy efficient . Burnwal and Deb (2012) proposed CS for scheduling optimization of a flexible manufacturing system by minimizing the penalty cost and maxi- mizing the machine utilization time the performance used. The objectives of the optimization were to minimize the weight of the spring and minimize the overall fabrication cost. CS was implemented in Object-Oriented software for unconstrained optimization problems. An enhanced cuckoo search (ECS) algorithm is employed to minimize the total member- ship invalidation cost of the bloom filters (BFs) by finding the optimal false positive rates and number of elements stored in every bin. Process parameters considered in Bacanin (2012) such as runtime. proposed an enhanced cuckoo search for optimization of bloom filter in spam filtering. the cuckoo- based particle approach (CBPA) is developed to achieve energy-efficient wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and multimodal objective functions. the proposed soft- ware has performed well and the system is ready to be applied to new problem-solving. In addition. The experimental results have demonstrated that. the results obtained with the spik- Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014 ing neuron model trained with the CS algorithm were slightly better. and it was shown that CS is very efficient and proves to be superior for the given tested problems. It is the combinational and numeric optimization problems in JAVA programming language. max cycle number of nests. for various numbers of bins. CS is applied for cluster head selection and formation of clusters among the sensor nodes. and it is a good alternative to adjusting the synaptic weights of the neuron. In the research by Dhivya. Mohamad et al. The results were com- pared with other evolutionary techniques such as genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) and proved that CS is very efficient and proves to be superior for almost all the tested problems. From the tests. and probability play a sig- nificant role in optimizing the measures of process performance. Yang and Deb (2010) proposed a new diagnosis technique using CS in the engineering field to solve engineering design optimization problems. Minimization and conservation of energy of WSNs and max- imization of lifetime are the performances that were measured. ECS outperforms CS. number of parameters. Natarajan and Subramanian (2012). The experiment result was compared to other evolutionary techniques such as GA. 444 A. including the design of springs and welded beam structures (Yang and Deb 2010). for CS and ECS. a comparison between the CS and differential evolution (DE) algorithms was performed. Vazquez (2011) measured accuracy and performance of the spiking neuron in pattern recognition or classification using the CS algorithm. From the benchmark test. Sundarambal and Anand (2011). B.

. the main technique that is used in CS was standard CS followed by Lévy flight. modified cuckoo. This section presents information about CS based on the statistical results from the articles that were reviewed. Highlights on CS CS is a new evolutionary optimization algorithm that is inspired by the lifestyle of the cuckoo bird family. the CS algo- rithm has been applied in different kinds of optimization problems across Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014 various categories. it is clear that the major category con- sidered for the CS algorithm was engineering. The performance measures considered in CS are execution time and cost followed by test cases. According to the statistical result that is shown in Figure 5. From Figure 6. enhanced cuckoo. as shown in Figure 7. and hybrid CS and PSO (CS-PSO). multiobjective cuckoo search. FIGURE 5 Major categories in Cuckoo Search algorithm. GA. The simulation results exhibit that CBPA pro- duces comparable results mainly because of the optimal search process in cluster formation and allocation of appropriate paths in transmission of sensed data. and balancing the minimal energy. Some modifications of CS are improved cuckoo. hybrid power series and CS (PS-CS). From Figure 5. and job scheduling. followed by Object-Oriented software (software testing). the majority of techniques are based on standard CS in combination with Lévy flight. pattern recognition. and DE. networking. data fusion in wireless sensor networks. According to the statistical results obtained from Figure 6. Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Optimization Problems 445 distributed (HEED) protocol. convergence rate.

job scheduling. 446 A. from the reviews. . FIGURE 7 Performance measures considered in CS. Mohamad et al. B. From the various researches in the literature. pattern recognition. Additionally. it was proven that standard CS in combination with Lévy flight was the main technique that is used in CS. we also obtained information that the applications indicate that CS is widely applied in engineering. Different Techniques considered in CS 30 25 20 Number 15 10 5 0 Downloaded by [University of Maastricht] at 05:20 02 June 2014 Technique FIGURE 6 Different techniques considered in CS. CONCLUSION This article presents a literature review of the cuckoo search algorithm. The objective of this study is to summarize the overview and the applica- tion of CS in all categories that were reviewed.

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