Biology

“Observing Osmosis in Gummy Bear”

Name:
Nice, Thitirat Pipopwattana
Mind, Poonnapha Kittiratanaviwat
Pong, Kittikhom Wannapak
Bird, Apiwat Puttansri

Introduction: ​Osmosis is the movement of solvent molecule especially movement
of water through the membrane by the area of the low solute concentration towards
to the high concentration, it means water moves from high water concentration to
low water concentration until there are equal concentration in both sides. Osmosis
has 3 terms of tonicity, which are hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic. Hypotonic is
the movement of water that move into inside cell because the water concentration
inside cell is more than outside. Hypertonic is the movement of water that move out
from the cell because the water concentration inside cell is less than outside. And
lastly, Isotonic does not have gaining and losing water because of the equal of both
solute and water concentrations inside and outside cell. For this experiment, we
used gummy bear as the cel , distilled water and salt water to observe how water
moves in and out gummy bear and identify which one is hypertonic, hypotonic and
isotonic.

Purpose: ​We did this experiment to observe and identify the process of osmosis of
gummy bear in distilled water and in salt water.

Hypothesis: ​If we put the gummy bear in the distilled water which is a hypotonic
then the gummy bear will be swell. In the opposite, If we put the gummy bear in the
salt water which is a hypertonic, then the gummy bear will become shrink.
Material List:
- 2 Beakers
- Electronic Balance
- Ruler Groups bring their own ruler
- Distilled water
- Concentrated salt water
- 2 Gummy Bears
- Calculator groups bring their own calculator Weighing paper
- Gloves
- Lab Coat
- Goggles

Procedure:
Day 1
1. Collect materials for your group
2. Use your ruler to find the height, length, and width of each gummy bear
3. Calculate the volume of your gummy bear (LxWxH)
4. Use the electronic balance to find the mass of your gummy bear. Remember to lay
down a piece of weighing paper and set to zero.
5. Record descriptive observations in your notebook about the gummy bears prior to
the experiment.
6. Fill your beaker half way with distilled water. Put one of your gummy bears into the
beaker. Set the beaker aside for one day.
7. Fill your 2nd beaker with concentrated salt solution half way. Put your 2nd gummy
bear into that beaker. Set beaker aside for one day.

Day 2
1. Collect groups beakers with gummy bears.
2. Carefully remove the gummy bears from the beakers.
3. Repeat steps 2-5 from Day 1
4. Calculate the percent change in the size of each gummy bear.
๐ Percent change in height (Height after- Height before/ Height before x 100% = ?)
๐ Percent change in width
๐ Percent change in length
๐ Percent change in volume
๐ Percent change in mass
Data Tables:
Data Table A: Gummy Bear Volume
Gummy Bear 1: Yellow Gummy Bear 2: Orange

Dimensions Initial: Final: After Initial: Final: After
Before Soaking in Before Soaking in
Soaking Distilled water Soaking Distilled water

Length (cm) 0.9 cm 1 cm 0.9 cm 1 cm

Width (cm) 1 cm 1 cm 1 cm 1 cm

Height (cm) 1.9 cm 2 cm 1.9 cm 1.8 cm

Volume 1.71 cm3 2 cm3 1.71 cm3 1.8 cm3
(LxWxH)

Data Table B: Gummy Bear Description
Gummy Bear 1: Yellow Gummy Bear 2: Orange

Descriptive observations before soaking Descriptive observations before soaking
in distilled water in salt water

soft yellowish gummy bear soft orangish gummy bear

Descriptive observations after soaking Descriptive observations after soaking
in distilled water in salt water

become swell, softer, bigger and fade become shrink, harder, smaller and fade

Data Table C: Gummy Bear Mass
Mass in grams Gummy Bear 1: Yellow Gummy Bear 2: Orange

Gummy Bear Initial: Final: Initial: Final:
Mass(g.) Before After soaking Before After soaking
soaking in in distilled soaking in salt in salt water
distilled water water water

2.27 g. 2.22 g. 2.19 g.
2.32 g.
Data Table D: Percent Changes
Gummy Bears Gummy Bear 1: Yellow Gummy Bear 2: Orange
2−1.9 1.8−1.9
Percent change in height 1.9 × 100 = 5.26 % 1.9 × 100 = − 5.26 %
1−1 1−1
Percent change in width 1 × 100 = 0 % 1 × 100 = 0 %
1−0.9 1−0.9
Percent change in length 0.9 × 100 = 11.11 % 0.9 × 100 = 11.11 %
2−1.71 1.8−1.71
Percent change in 1.71 × 100 = 16.96% 1.71 × 100 = 5.26 %
volume

Bar Graph of Results:

​Percent Change

Height Width Length Volume

Analysis Results:
1. What happened to the gummy bear after being soaked in distilled water over night?
Why? Be descriptive and detailed in your answer. Use your knowledge of membrane
transport.
After we had soaked the gummy bear in distilled water over night, gummy
bear became swell and bigger. It noticed that the distilled water is hypotonic, which
means the concentration of solute inside gummy bear is more than concentration of
solute in distilled water. Thus, the water moves toward to the area of high
concentration of solute, which is inside the gummy bear. And, gummy bear swelled.

2. What happened to the gummy bear after being soaked in salt water over night?
Why? Be descriptive and detailed in your answer. Use your knowledge of membrane
transport.
Gummy bear was shrink, smaller and harder after we had soaked it in salt
water over night. This is the process osmosis in term of hypertonic because salt
water have more concentration of solute than the gummy bear. The movement of
water is toward to the area of high concentration of solute, which is outside the
gummy bear. Therefore, the water went out from the gummy bear.

3. Define the terms diffusion, passive transport, active transport, and osmosis. In
each of your definitions, describe the role of a concentration gradient.
Passive transport​ is the movement of nonpolar and small substances without
using ATP. It moves from high concentration to low concentration.
Diffusion​ is the movement of substances that can pass through membrane easily.
It moves from high concentration to low concentration. Diffusion is one type of
passive transport.
Osmosis​ is the movement of water across the membrane. It moves from low
concentration of solute to high concentration of solute.
Active transport ​is the movement of substances with using ATP and protein
transport. It moves from high concentration to low concentration.
4.. ​Biological membranes are said to be selectively permeable (or semi- permeable).
What does this term mean, and how does this affect the way that molecules are able
to move through cellular membranes?
Biological membrane is selectively permeable that means it will allow some
substances to pass through the membrane easily by using transport processes,
such as diffusion and osmosis. These substance that can go through the membrane
are always nonpolar and small.

5.Which type of molecule is more likely to quickly pass through a cellular membrane
via simple diffusion, polar or nonpolar? Why?
Nonpolar and small molecule can more quickly pass through the membrane
by simple diffusion because if the polar and large molecule pass through the
membrane, this process will use protein transport and energy, and will take time to
transport. Therefore, small and nonpolar molecule can be transported easier than
other molecules because it does not need any energy and transport proteins.

Conclusion:
This experiment, we observed the process of osmosis in gummy bear, distilled
water and salt water. The results showed that when gummy bear was in distilled
water, it became swell and bigger. But when gummy bear was in salt water, it became
shrink and smaller. Although, the some measurement of gummy bear was differ
from we expected to be. For examples, the width of both gummy bears did not
change. And the gummy bear in salt water increase the length that it should
decrease. We can conclude that gummy bear in distilled water is hypotonic because
the concentration of solute in distilled water is less than the gummy bear. So, water
moved into the gummy bear. On the other hand, the gummy bear in salt water is
hypertonic because the concentration of solute in salt water is more than the
gummy bear. So, water moved out from the gummy bear. During doing this
experiment, there are some problems. For examples, the gummy bear disappeared
from the cups. We recognized that the majority of the ingredients would be sugar.
Therefore, the gummy bear dissolved in the water.