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with SPSS

A practical approach

Johan Smits

An Edition of Koala Press Limited

E-mail:

j.smits@koalapress.com

Marketing Research

with SPSS

A practical approach

............................................................................ 82 Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.35 3..................Table of Contents 1......................3.....................................................5............. Exporting Graphs .............................4.............................. Analysing Subgroups with SPLIT FILE ......................4................ Levels of Measurement ..................8............5..................................................5....5 Crosstabs ..............................................................................2............................................................. Editing a Histogram ............................................................................................ 54 3.6.. Editing a Bar Chart ....................3 1.. Smits et......................................................................................................................7 Feedback on the Research Questions ............................ 41 3.......................... Question-Response Formats ..3..................5 Creating a Categorical Variable from a Scale Variable ........ 33 3............................... 48 3.............26 3....................................................................9..2...................................2 Comparing Groups with a Simple Bar Chart.......... Displaying Data File Information ..................................... 63 3.........................................................................2...................4..................................1...................................................... Analysing a Subgroup with SELECT CASES. 53 3...................... 62 3.............. Creating a Bar Chart ........................6...........................................................................................10 2...........................4..................................10...............19 2......5 Using the SPSS Codebook to Validate the Data ............3..54 3................................................................................ 34 3.........6 Documenting and Publishing SPSS-output .................................... Boxplot and Histogram ........................................ Scale Characteristics ..72 4................................4...........5.....................1 1.................60 3................... 81 4............1 Defining the Variables ....2 Deleting or Inserting Variables .......... Transferring SPSS Graphs to WORD ............................ Opening an Existing Output File .. 79 4...1........................................... March 2011 page v ..7................................................71 4......................................................................1 The Marketing Research Process ..........4............................................... 61 3.... Cell Display ......... Research Questions with Respect to Two Variables 69 4.................................. Analysing Subgroups with MEANS .........................................................2........................................ al.........................................................................6.................................................................................................3...6............................... 21 3..................4 The Data Entry ................. Different SPSS File Types .......4 Graphs: Pie........ 72 4.................4.. Bar.......... Editing a Pie Chart .18 2.... 43 3...................................3............................................................................................................................................3 Comparing Groups with a Boxplot ........... 61 3....................................4.......................................4................. Editing a Boxplot ..................33 3............. Displaying a User Defined Codebook .................... 81 4.................................................. 19 2.................... 38 3.............................................................1...................1 1................................................4..........................1........3..................................................................... DESCRIPTIVES ............ The Manual Classification Process .16 2.............3.........63 4.................................................................. 6 1........................................ 60 3...................25 3.2.2 Measurement in Marketing Research ..................................................................................... 74 4...................... Transferring SPSS Tables to WORD ............2................... 40 3.....................1......................................................................................6................4....13 2...........5...........................4................................................................................................3 Calculating Statistics ............................................................ The SPSS Data Editor 13 2.......................................................................... Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.............................................................................. 19 2.............................2...................................................................... Creating a Pie Chart ............................................3 Data Type of Variables ......................................3................................................4..........................................4 Creating Subgroups and Making a Comparison ...... 47 3......................1..... Strength and Direction of Association ..........................................................................................................................................17 2. Creating a Boxplot ..................................................................................................................5............................. Documenting the Output ...................2 Creating and Cleaning up Frequency Tables ....... 57 3... 36 3................................................. A Classification by SPSS (VISUAL BINNER) .................70 4...................2...............3 Coding Data and the Data Code Book ........... FREQUENCIES ................1 Introduction ..........................................................5......................................... 7 1...............80 4.. 50 3..................69 4........... 51 3................................2............................. Starting with the Research Process 1 Case...1.............5.........................................1................................................4....................1 Introduction ........................ Checking the Value Labels .................. Editing a Pie Chart (Extra) ........................... Research Questions with Respect to One Variable 25 3.................. 4 1...................... Creating a Histogram ......................................... The CROSSTABS Procedure ....................................docx 16/03/2011 © J............................................................................2......................6.4...................5.......................................2..............5.

..................................................4...............8............7 Feedback on the Research Questions ...................................... 176 8......................1..........2.............1 Introduction to Scaled Response Questions........................8 Regression and Correlation ........................................................................... Graphical Display of the Data .................4....7............................... 172 8........................................................................................................................................................................ 123 6................................ 181 Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54... 138 7.............. 149 7................7......................................2 Case ‘Move On’............................. Smits et.. Drawing the Regression Line in the Scatter Plot ................3 Creating a Cross Tabulation with CUSTOM TABLES ................................................... 85 4.............................................................5.. 115 5............................... 158 7.......89 4.............. 133 6. 172 8..........................1 Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test ......................................................1..................... Applying the Statistical Test ........1... 143 7.............................4........ Graphical Display of the Data ...................... 173 8...............................................................4 Creating a Band Diagram in EXCEL................................. The Basic Lay-out ............ 84 4...............................................5 Sorting the Categories ....................................................................... 172 8.................................. 166 8............................................................5......................................................3......3 Conditions for Chi-Square Crosstab Test ......8........................................................................... Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.....................................................3 Using CUSTOM TABLES............................................. 115 5......3......... Adding Percentages .... 181 8......6 Assessing the Normality ..2............................ 179 8........................................ Chi-square tests 143 Case...............................5 Constructing a Bar Chart ..2.................... 94 4...6 Creating and editing a clustered bar chart ......................... Applying the Statistical Test ...................................................................... ANOVA Assumptions .............3.............................................................. 136 6...................5......7 Semantic Differential Scale ............................................................ 165 8...........................5 Banding a Variable to Do a Chi-Square test .2 Creating a Simple Table with CUSTOM TABLES ... 176 8.................................................................................. 169 8..................2................................................ 95 4......................................................92 4....................... Pivoting Rows and Columns ..........................................1................... 96 4.............................. Elaboration of the t-Test .............1.................................................... A Regression Model without an Intercept................8.............................7 Creating and Editing a Band Diagram ........ 107 5............................................................... Applying the Statistical Test .......................................4......8...........................5...........................................................6 Recoding a Scaled-Response for a Better Chart.. Dealing with Multiple Response 105 5....2......................5 Comparing More than Two Groups on an Ordinal Variable: Kruskal-Wallis Rank Test ...2.............................................. 164 8........................................................................ Making a Scatter Plot ............ 127 6..............................1..............................................................4 Comparing More than two Groups on a Scale Variable: Analysis of Variance ................ 111 5..................... March 2011 page vi ............................... 144 7.....................................................................................2.................................5.....................................................................................97 5.............................................. 113 5..................................... Testing for Differences between Groups 163 8................. Calculating Statistics ........................1 Introduction .................................. 176 8.......................... Calculating the Coefficients of Correlation and Determination .................. 121 6......................................................................2 Comparing Two Groups on a Scale Variable: t-Test ................................................................................. 86 4................................... 174 8............. 125 6..4 Creating a Simple Bar Chart .......8.................. Calculating the Regression Line ...................2.................3..................................................................................................docx 16/03/2011 © J......................1 Defining the Multiple Response Set ............................................... 97 4.... 153 7...........................................6.................................... 83 4....... Scaled Response Questions 121 6................................................................. 105 5........ 119 6................................8 Assignment ...................3.........................................................4......4........7 Lab (with Answers) .....................................87 4....... 129 6..................................9 Feedback on the Research Questions ................. 167 8...........2 Chi-Square Crosstab Test .........5................ Graphical Display of the Data ......... 130 6........... 4.........3.......3................................... Checking the Conditions ...........4....................................................6 Creating a Clustered Bar Chart......................... al........................ 168 8......................................... Graphical Display of the Data ...................4 How to Use Cochran’s Rule in Practice .................... 168 8.........5...................... 159 8................... Running the Statistical Test ............5... 92 4.............................3 Comparing Two Groups on an Ordinal Variable: Mann-Whitney Rank Test .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Formulating Conclusions................................................ 163 8.............. Post Hoc Comparison of the Groups .......................... SPSS Output from CROSSTABS ......2. 125 6...................1......................

........................7..................... 182 8..2 SPSS Distribution of Saxion .1 Adjustment of SPSS Settings ........... Bibliography 194 11.......................................docx 16/03/2011 © J.......... Elaboration of the Mann-Whitney Test ........ 8........7............4.. March 2011 page vii ............................... Glossary 195 Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54...................2................................................ Elaboration of ANOVA ................................. 182 8.3.. Appendix 185 9......... 183 9...................................................................................... 185 9..........7...................... Elaboration of the Kruskal-Wallis Test ...... Saxion Hogeschool Enschede......3 How to Create and Customise a Chart in EXCEL ....... 190 9............................................................................................. al................ 190 10...... Smits et..........

Smits et.Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. March 2011 page viii .. al.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.

Define the problem 3. For university campus restaurants it has developed a concept that is appreciated by many students and lecturers. products from the salad bar. also a luxury assortment. an answer can be given to the research objectives. The Pandion University is situated in the eastern part of the Netherlands. Establish the research objectives 4. two years after the start of Suxes’ catering activities at Pandion University. are set so that. Conduct the field research: qualitative and quantitative 7. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Now. Interpretation of the data. 1. Identify information types and sources: desk research 6. This luxury assortment consists of nutritious soups. This section introduces you to the steps involved in the marketing research process. Suxes offers. Some of the research objectives can be answered by means of desk research or qualitative field research like observation studies.docx 16/03/2011 © J. soup. because a firm may spend literally hundreds of dollars doing market research but. The formula used by Suxes can be characterised as 'value for money' in an attractive campus restaurant. etcetera. Starting with the Research Process Case Suxes is the market leader on the Dutch catering market. 1. Smits. The next step (step 2). This is done by constructing a questionnaire. the first step is taken. research objectives. when achieved. coffee. extra luxury sandwiches. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. collecting the data and analysing it. defining the problem. depth interviews or focus groups’ conversations. At Pandion University. is the most important step in the research process. graphs and statistical tests. tea. When this is clear. Prepare and present the final research report Market research is needed when decision makers must make a decision and they do not have the information to help them make the decision. Often a form of exploratory research is needed to clearly identify the problem so that proper research may be conducted. Establish the need for marketing research 2. donuts. Determine the research design 5. Other research questions must be answered by means of quantitative field research. the governing board of Pandion wants to do a customer satisfaction survey among the students and employees. Main points are the wishes and needs of the university and those of the users (students and lecturers). although related to and determined by the problem definition. By using tables. The steps are: 1.1 The Marketing Research Process The research process is the map that identifies the researchers’ path that leads to a qualitative understanding of the market. All courses are given in this new building with a large and brand-new campus restaurant for both students and lecturers. The company is successful in several market segments. leading to conclusions and recommendations 9. June 2010 page 1 . For two years it has been housed in a new building. those dollars will be wasted. Collect and analyze the data 8. milk). if it has not correctly identified the problem. From the start the catering was contracted all to Suxes. Nine steps can be identified in the marketing research process. After that. they provide the information necessary to solve the problem. in addition to the basic assortment (sandwiches.

number of study years)? (8) What is the overall level of satisfaction of the catering services expressed as a score on a scale from 1 up to 10? (9) Is there a difference between men and women in appreciation? (10) Is there a difference between students and lecturers in appreciation? (11) Is there a difference between students and lecturers in the amount spent? (12) Is there a difference between students and lecturers in overall satisfaction? (13) Is there a relationship between the score given by customers and the amount spent? (14) …… For the field research a questionnaire is constructed on the basis of the research questions. Generally speaking. Smits. In general the quantity data will be such that we need statistical software: SPSS.docx 16/03/2011 © J. even on an ongoing basis. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. manual processing of the inquiry results is not an option. There are software products with which you can realise web inquiries. As an example. June 2010 page 2 . This questionnaire is based on the next problem definition and research objectives. you can monitor the results daily. During the research. For the customer satisfaction survey in this case. we have to use a questionnaire to gather information from the employees and students of Pandion University. put it online and invite people via email. You can construct the questionnaire with this software. we will outline this process by means of the next questionnaire which the researchers have established for the Suxes Customer Satisfaction Survey at Pandion University. Defining the problem In which way can Suxes raise the customer satisfaction by better anticipating the wishes and needs of the students and lecturers of Pandion University? Research Objectives (1) How many days per week does one use the restaurant? (2) What is the average spending in the restaurant on a weekly basis? (3) How does one assess the range of choice in the basic assortment and in the luxury assortment? (4) How does one assess the customer service offered by the staff? (5) Which products does one buy in the restaurant? (6) Is there a need for products which are not in the assortment at this moment? (7) Who is the customer (gender. Now days questionnaires are distributed via the Internet increasingly. student or lecturer. At the end you can export all data to SPSS. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.

2 Measurement in Marketing Research Questionnaires are designed to collect information........ I would like to have the assortment extended with the following products: ..................... What is your average expenditure in the restaurant on a weekly basis? ……… euro per week 3. 9.......... but how is this information collected? It is gathered via measurement.... which is defined as determining the amount Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. The variety of products in the luxury assortment (salad bar................ croissant or baguette Dairy products Coffee or tea Fruits Soup Salads Dinner 7.. Your satisfaction with the customer service of the staff of Suxes is . 4 or 5) 2.... How often (days per week) do you visit the restaurant (on average)? ……… days a week (fill is a 1... Your relationship with Pandion University is: O Student O Lecturer (please continue with question 11) 10......... How many years have you been registered as a student at Pandion University? ……… year(s) 11..... 1.....docx 16/03/2011 © J... There are only a few more questions for clarification purposes.. The variety of products in the basic assortment is … O Enough O Sufficient O Insufficient O Poor 4...... June 2010 page 3 . O Excellent O Good O Bad O Very bad 6. Smits.... How do you rate the university caterer Suxes on a scale from 1 to 10? …… 8.............. Which products do you buy in the restaurant? (more than one answer is allowed) Cheese or ham sandwich Other kinds of sandwiches Donut... 3.. Please indicate your gender: O Female O Male Figure 1.... Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.. 2... extra luxury sandwiches) is … O Enough O Sufficient O Insufficient O Poor 5.1 The questionnaire for the Suxes Customer Satisfaction Survey for the students and lecturers of Pandion University 1.....

Furthermore. Examples from the Suxes Survey at Pandion are: 5. For instance. which includes such things as the buyer's impressions or perceptions of various brands.docx 16/03/2011 © J.1. income level. and buyer behaviour.. Properties are the specific features or characteristics of an object that can be used to distinguish it from another object. researchers are often given the task of finding relevant differences in the profiles of various customer types. or intensity of some characteristic of interest to the researcher. In order to be able to make that transformation you should be aware of the four basic question-response formats which are: • Closed-Ended • Open-Ended with numerical response • Open-Ended with text response • Multiple response questions We will discuss these different formats in the next sections. assume the object we want to research is a consumer. Both the dichotomous and the multiple-category closed-ended question formats are very common on questionnaires because they facilitate the questioning process as well as the data entry. then we are dealing with a multiple-category closed-ended question. such ‘yes’ or ‘no’. brands. SPSS. If there are more than two options for the response. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Each question of this type corresponds to one variable in SPSS and the response options are coded with numbers.2. A dichotomous closed-ended question has only two response options. Smits. once compiled. O Excellent O Good O Bad O Very bad 11. gender. Measurement underlies marketing research to a very great extent because researchers are keenly interested in describing market phenomena. These codes are numerical because numbers are quick and easy to input. Objects include consumers. stores.. This information. Your satisfaction with the customer service of the staff of Suxes is . June 2010 page 4 . a marketing manager may wish to know how a person feels about a certain product. Once the object's designation on a property has been determined. or whatever subject is of interest to the researcher working with a particular manager. and computers work with numbers more efficiently than they do with alphanumeric codes. we say that the object has been measured on that property. it is necessary to transform each question into a variable. The properties of interest to a manager who is trying to define who buys a specific product are a combination of demographics such as age. For example. advertisements. 1. Question-Response Formats When the data collected by a questionnaire is to be processed by statistical software. can help to solve specific questions such as brand usage. Please indicate your gender: O Female O Male The response options to question 5 can be coded in the following way: 1 = Excellent 2 = Good Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. or how much of the product he or she uses in a certain time period. But what are we really measuring? We are measuring properties—sometimes called attributes or qualities—of objects. Note that each property has the potential to further differentiate consumers. Closed-Ended Response Format Questions The closed-ended question provides response options on the questionnaire that can be answered quickly and easily.

.. Very bad)... 3 = Bad 4 = Very bad By using these codes the data entry is limited to the entry of codes (1.... Good. What is your average expenditure in the restaurant on a weekly basis? ……… euro per week 10... We prefer to use numbers because numbers are easier and faster to keystroke into a computer file......docx 16/03/2011 © J..... We can define a numerical variable in SPSS and code the responses afterwards... 3..... because the response is already numerical and has its meaning by nature.......... to process the data and count twinge words. Bad.......... 4) instead of the entry of the literal answers (Excellent... This is not dealt with in this book..... 2. I would like to have the assortment extended with the following products: ... or perhaps a (short or long) story. The nature of the question implies a numerical answer which is written down by the respondent or interviewer. During the data input you maintain a list of answers and their codes. The example of the Suxes Survey questionnaire is: Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Smits.. Examples from the questionnaire: 2.. How many years have you been registered as a student at Pandion University? ……… year(s) Open-Ended Questions with Text Response Again no response options have been printed on the questionnaire.. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.. We can code question 11 as: 1 = Female 2 = Male Open-Ended Questions with Numerical Response An open-ended question presents no response options to the respondent. a complete sentence.. For this we have to define a text variable in SPSS........... If the number of answers is limited. called ‘SPSS Text Analysis for Surveys’...... It is no use coding the answers........ This answer will be a text: a word... June 2010 page 5 ....... couple of words.. We can use an extra module of SPSS.. An example from the questionnaire: 8. 2.... We can transform this type of question into one variable in SPSS... Multiple Response Questions This type of question allows the user to give more than one response. Instead there is a box or a couple of lines where the respondent can write his/her answer... We can take over the answer literally and type in the text..... This is the way we have dealt with question 8 of the questionnaire... this method is to be recommended... For questions like ‘what is your age’ it is not possible (neither convenient) to provide a list of all ages.......... There are two ways to transform the question and the responses into: 1.

Thus question 6 of the questionnaire is processed in SPSS by defining nine variables each having a dichotomous response structure: 1=yes. The level of measurement. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. 1. each of which possesses different charac- teristics. the market researcher must develop question formats that are very clear and that are used identically by the respondents. Order Order refers to the relative sizes of the descriptors. All scales include description in the form of characteristic labels that identify what is being measured.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Here. number of bottles purchased. you are free to choose your codes. Which products do you buy in the restaurant? (more than one answer is allowed) Cheese or ham sandwich Other kinds of sandwiches Donut. So each response category transforms into a variable in SPSS. Description Description refers to the use of a unique descriptor. The respondent who purchases Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. is a ‘buyer’ greater than or less than a ‘nonbuyer’? We have no way of making a relative size distinction. or label. It is simple as long as we are measuring objective properties. There are various types of scale. To do this.2. whereas a ‘1’ is used if it is checked by a respondent. Of course. which cannot be directly observed because they are mental constructs such as a person's attitude or intentions.’ ‘agree’ and ‘disagree’ and the number of years of a respondent's age are descriptors on a simple scale. Distance A scale has the characteristic of distance when absolute differences between the descriptors are known and may be expressed in units. croissant or baguette Dairy products Coffee or tea Fruits Soup Salads Dinner In fact. which are physically verifiable characteristics such as age. but the standard approach is to have each response category option coded with a 0 or a 1. In this case. is very important. For instance. 6. the market researcher must ask a respondent to translate his or her mental constructs onto a continuum of intensity— no easy task. 0=no. June 2010 page 6 .’ A respondent's least-preferred brand is ‘less than’ his or her most-preferred brand and respondents who check the same income category are the same (‘equal to’). Smits. market researchers often desire to measure subjective properties. store last visited. to represent each designation on the scale. income. There are four characteristics of scales: description. The designation ‘0’ will be used if the category is not checked. as you shall see. ‘yes’ and ‘no. in this example the respondent is asked nine questions: Do you buy a cheese or ham sandwich? Do you buy another kind of sandwich? Etcetera For each response category the respondent can only answer with ‘yes’ or ‘no’. The characteristics of a scale determine the scale’s level of measurement. the key word is ‘relative’ and includes such descriptors as ‘greater than. This process is known as scale development.2. measurement may appear to be a very simple process. Scale development is designing questions to measure the subjective properties of an object. order. distance and origin.’ and ‘equal to.’ ‘less than. For instance. Scale Characteristics On the surface. Not all scales possess order characteristics. and so on. However.

As said. Throughout this course.1 also introduces two new concepts: categorical versus metric scales. 1. we distinguish four levels of measurements. The other concept is a metric scale.’ As you can see in the table. and they are interval and ratio scales. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. it also possesses description. We know not only that the three-car family has ‘more than’ the number of cars of the two-car family. An elementary data summarizing method is calculating average values.’ to the question ‘Do you agree or disagree with the statement The Lexus is the best car on the road today?’ We cannot say that the person has a true zero level of agreement. A scale is said to have the characteristic of origin if there is a unique beginning or true zero point for the scale. Scale characteristics possessed Level of measurement Distanc Description Order e Origin Categorical scales Nominal scale + – – – Ordinal scale + + – – Metric Scales Interval scale + + + – Ratio scale + + + + Table 1. In fact. order. we are also given order. and description. it also has all lower-level characteristics. but they do not possess origins. but on the other hand.’ or ‘married’ versus ‘single’ versus ‘widowed. and ratio. as is explained in the next section. Just a small example to make this clear. and if a scale has origin. e. But it should not surprise you that for some variables this is nonsense and for other variables this is meaningful. computing mean values for variables. This is clearly related to the level of measurement of the variable involved. for Expenditure we can calculate the mean value with sense. but we also know the distance between the two (one car).3. Thus. if a scale has a higher-level characteristic. when a respondent says. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. 0 is the origin for an age scale just as it is for the number of miles travelled to the store or for the number of bottles of soda consumed. Not all scales have a true zero point for the property they are measuring.2. Levels of Measurement You may ask. Note that when the characteristic of distance exists. it also has distance. To be more precise: the level of measurement determines the statistical method to be used. A categorical scale is one that is typically composed of a small number of distinct values or categories such as ‘male’ versus ‘female. three bottles of diet cola buys two more than the one who purchases only one bottle. there are two categorical scale types: nominal and ordinal.g. which is composed of numbers or labels that have an underlying measurement continuum. Perhaps you noticed that each scaling characteristic builds on the previous one. The statistical method you can use depends on the type of question in the questionnaire. Smits. ‘Why is it important to know the characteristics of scales?’ The answer is that the characteristics possessed by a scale determine that scale’s level of measurement.1 When you are interpreting the data by means of statistical analyses you have to come up with answers to the research questions. a three-car family owns one more automobile than a two-car family. That is. There are two metric scales that are also described in this section. If a scale has distance. Let us now examine the four levels of measurement. These will be described in detail in this section. Table 1.1 shows how each scale type differs with respect to the scaling characteristics we have just discussed. In other words.docx 16/03/2011 © J. It is no use talking about the mean Gender. If a scale has order. Table 1. it also possesses order and description. They are nominal. interval. June 2010 page 7 . ‘No opinion. we will try to convince you that it is very important for a market researcher to understand the level of measurement of the scale he or she chooses to use. many scales used by market researchers have arbitrary neutral points. For instance. ordinal. description is the most basic and is present on every scale. But the opposite is not true.

Examples include designations such as race. second. Ordinal Scales Ordinal scales permit the researcher to rank-order the respondents or their responses. other).’ and so forth. They do not provide other information such as ‘greater than. if you were asked to evaluate a store's salespeople by selecting a single designation from a list of ‘extremely friendly. would you say the prices at Wal-Mart are O Higher than Sears O About the same as Sears O Lower than Sears • What is your age? O 15–<25 O 25–<40 O 40–<60 O 60–<90 Interval Scales Interval scales are those in which the distance between each descriptor is known. doctor. They possess description and order. Note that these examples of a nominal scale only label the consumers. Nominal Scales Nominal scales are defined as those that only use labels.docx 16/03/2011 © J. • Smoker or non smoker (yes. Place a ‘1’ by your first choice. answers that involve yes-no. Ordinal scales indicate only relative size differences among objects. and fourth choices of brands.’ the result would be an ordinal measurement. Examples of ordinal-scaled questions are: • Please rank each brand in terms of your preference. a ‘2’ by your second choice. buyer/nonbuyer. Business administration. For example. brand last purchased. The only statistical activity is counting the frequencies. If you describe respondents in a survey according to their occupation—banker. Aldi. Security). Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. For variables with a nominal scale there are hardly any calculations available. Calculating the median makes no sense either. Wal-Mart. That is. no). But the calculated value of the mean is meaningless. You might wonder how SPSS is able to calculate a mean value for the variable gender. Sears.’ ‘somewhat unfriendly. Smits. Some other examples of nominal-scaled questions are: • Your course at Pandion (Marketing. __ Sony __ Zenith __ Philips __ BasF __ Grundig • In your opinion. and so on. they possess only the characteristic of description. if one respondent checked the category ‘Buy every week or more often’ on a purchase-frequency scale and another checked the category ‘Buy once per month or less. The distance is normally defined as one scale unit. Interpretation of the calculations done by SPSS is a human activity. For instance. Int. Int. we say that the scale is Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. gender. a coffee brand rated ‘3’ in taste is one unit away from one rated ‘4.’ Sometimes the researcher must impose a belief that equal intervals exist between the descriptors.’ or ‘extremely unfriendly. Business and languages. Similarly. Health studies. In these cases. or any other instance in which the descriptors cannot be differentiated except qualitatively. That is done on the basis of the numbers (the codes) used for the values ‘male’ and ‘female’. but we do not know how far apart the descriptors are on the scale because ordinal scales do not possess distance or origin. computer programmer—you have used a nominal scale. religion. • Choice of a supermarket (A&P. You cannot compute an average (mean) value. Management and law.’ ‘twice as large. if the respondent was asked to indicate his or her first.’ ‘very unfriendly. agree-disagree.’ ‘very friendly. that is. third. June 2010 page 8 .’ the researcher would probably assume that each designation was one unit away from the preceding one. the results would be ordinally scaled. type of dwelling.’ ‘somewhat friendly.

or years of college education. With higher-order scales. Examples of ratio-scaled questions are: • Please indicate your age. these descriptors are evenly spaced on a questionnaire. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Slow pickup ___ ___ ___ ___ Fast pickup Good design ___ ___ ___ ___ Bad price Low price ___ ___ ___ ___ High price Ratio Scales Ratio scales are ones in which a true zero origin exists—such as an actual number of purchases in a certain time period.000 term life insurance policy pays per year for that policy? $ ____ • What is the probability that you will use a lawyer’s service when you are ready to make a will? ___ percent Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. so we are not allowed to say that one store was one-half as friendly as another. By wording or spacing the response options on a scale so they appear to have equal intervals between them. miles travelled. I enjoy being outdoors 1 2 3 4 5 c. as such. Strongly Strongly Statement disagree agree a.’ As shown in the examples below. ___ Years • Approximately how many times in the last month have you purchased anything over $5 in value at a convenience store? 0 1 2 3 4 5 More (specify: ___) • How much do you think a typical purchaser of a $100.docx 16/03/2011 © J. the labels connote a continuum and the check lines are equal distances apart. Smits. This characteristic allows us to construct ratios when comparing results of the measurement. I love to cook 1 2 3 4 5 • Please rate the Pontiac Firebird by checking the line that best corresponds to your evaluation of each item listed. Such ratios are inappropriate for interval scales. the researcher is permitted to apply more powerful statistical techniques such as correlation analysis. ‘assumed interval. dollars spent. June 2010 page 9 . • Please rate each brand in terms of its overall performance Rating (circle one) Brand Very Poor Very Good Mont Blanc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Parker 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Cross 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 • Indicate your degree of agreement with the following statements by circling the appropriate number. I always look for bargains 1 2 3 4 5 b. the researcher achieves a higher level of measurement than ordinal or nominal. number of children. One person may spend twice as much as another or travel one-third as far.

**Note There are different ways to measure a variable, leading to a
**

different level of measurement. We showed you an example of Age

measured on a ordinal level (with classes) and an example on a

ratio level. But suppose the question was formed this way:

To which category do you belong? Younger / Elder

or

Please indicate your age? Younger than 35 / 35 years or older

Measurement in this way is only on a nominal level.

Summary:

The level of measurement of a variable is determined by the way in which it is

measured. You have to take into account the possible responses. We distinguish

categorical scales (nominal and ordinal) and metric scales (interval and ratio). The

metric scale is denoted as Scale by SPSS.

**1.3 Coding Data and the Data Code Book
**

For processing the collected data in SPSS you have to translate each question into a

variable. The data entry requires an operation called data coding, defined as the

identification of codes that pertain to the possible responses for each question on the

questionnaire. Typically, these codes are numerical because numbers are quick and

easy to input, and computers work with numbers more efficiently than they do with

alphanumeric codes. In large-scale projects, and especially in cases which the data

entry is performed by a subcontractor, researchers utilize a data code book, which

identifies all variable names and code numbers associated with each possible response

to each question that makes up the dataset. With a code book that describes the data

file, any researcher can work on the data set, regardless of whether or not that

researcher was involved in the research project during its earlier stages.

**So the data code book is a list of transformations of questions into variables, their
**

(variable) labels, the codes of the answers with their (value) labels, and the level of

measurement. Recall that we discussed in Section 1.2 that each question corresponds

with one variable except multiple response questions where we need as many variables

as there are response options.

Some remarks at the choice of names for variables and codes:

**• Choose a short name for a variable in SPSS. The first character of the name must
**

be a letter, where letters and numbers are allowed for the other characters. The

use of symbols like @, #, $ and _ is also allowed. Spaces have been prohibited and

we strongly dissuade the use of a point or comma.

• The name of the variable entered in SPSS is often a concise reproduction of the

characteristic measured in the questionnaire. This name of the variable is

extended with a (variable) label to provide SPSS with a full description. The

variable label is used as a title in tables and graphs. So this label must be very

clear and meaningful.

• The codes you use for entering the data in SPSS must also be provided with labels.

SPSS will use these value labels in tables and graphs as well. So it is very important

to use clear and concise descriptions for value labels.

• The level of measurement of a variable is especially important in the phase of data

analysing. As we have explained the statistical analysis to be used is restricted to

variables with the required level of measurement. In displaying variable lists

within dialogs of statistical procedures SPSS takes the level of measurement into

account.

In Figure 1.2 we have constructed the data code book for the Pandion survey.

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**Number Name of the Variable label Value labels Measure
**

variable (data codes)

RespNum Respondent number Not applicable Nominal

1 Visits Number of visits to the restaurant (days per Not applicable Ratio

week)

2 Expenditure Expenditure in the restaurant on a weekly Not applicable Ratio

basis

3 Variety_basic Variety of products in the basic assortment 1 = Enough Ordinal

2 = Sufficient

3 = Insufficient

4 = Poor

4 Variety_luxe Variety of products in the luxury assortment 1 = Enough Ordinal

2 = Sufficient

3 = Insufficient

4 = Poor

5 Staff Satisfaction with the customer service of the 1 = Excellent Ordinal

staff 2 = Good

3 = Bad

4 = Very bad

6 Product1 Cheese or ham sandwich 0 = No, 1 = Yes Nominal

Product2 Other sandwich 0 = No, 1 = Yes Nominal

Product3 Donut, croissant or baguette 0 = No, 1 = Yes Nominal

Product4 Dairy products 0 = No, 1 = Yes Nominal

Product5 Coffee or tea 0 = No, 1 = Yes Nominal

Product6 Fruits 0 = No, 1 = Yes Nominal

Product7 Soup 0 = No, 1 = Yes Nominal

Product8 Salads 0 = No, 1 = Yes Nominal

Product9 Dinner 0 = No, 1 = Yes Nominal

7 Mark Score for the catering service of Suxes Not applicable Ratio

8 Assortment Suggestions for extension of the assortment 1 = More biological products Nominal

2 = More snacks

3 = More kinds of soup

4 = More choice in fruits

5 = Hot Chocolate

6 = Pea soup (in the winter)

9 Customer_type Student or lecturer 1 = Student Nominal

2 = Lecturer

10 YearStud Number of years registered as a student at Not applicable Ratio

Pandion University

11 Gender 1 = Female Nominal

2 = Male

Figure 1.2 Data code book of the questionnaire in the Suxes Customer Satisfaction Survey

**Attention Please remember that the ratio level of measurement is denoted as
**

Scale in SPSS.

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2. The SPSS Data Editor

**2.1 Defining the Variables
**

The data code book contains a list of variable names corresponding to the questions in

the questionnaire. We need to enter those variable names, their labels, value labels

and level of measurement.

1. Start SPSS.

**If your version of SPSS starts with a dialog ‘What would you like to do?’, select the
**

option box ‘Type in data’ (halfway through the dialog) and also select the option ‘Don’t

show this in the future’ (at the bottom of the dialog) to prevent this dialog from

reappearing.

Check this option.

After clicking OK SPSS will show you the Data Editor window.

2. Maximize this window.

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Name Stores the name of the variable (must start with a letter) Type Sets the data type for a variable. Decimals Sets the number of decimal places for a numeric value. (See also Section 2. 3.1) Missing Specifies whether the data set contains missing values.3. Role Specifies the role of the variable for advanced models. In our data files. Other data types will be discussed in Section 2. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.3). On this sheet we can define the variables. Variables represent questions asked in the survey. In the Data View sheet you can tell SPSS to display these value labels by selecting View Value Labels in the menu.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Columns Sets the width of the column of the variable on the screen. This window has a certain resemblance to EXCEL. Label Stores the description used by SPSS to identify the variable in output. if present. which we discussed in Chapter 1 (see Figure 1. Align Sets the alignment of the column (only on screen). This sheet is called Data View. The bold entries refer to the columns of the data code book. SPSS data files are organized by cases (rows) and variables (columns). Metric variables are denoted as Scale by SPSS.2. Change this to 0. Click on the second tab. Smits. June 2010 page 14 . are coded. unless you want to use decimals.2). Leave this at 8. Click here to create variables.5. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. This originates from the software programme Clementine (PASW MODELLER). Width Specifies the maximum number of characters for a variable value. Values Sets the labels for the coded values of a categorical variable. Most often you will use Numeric. (Variable View). a worksheet with columns (variables) and rows (the data of each respondent). cases represent individual respondents to a survey. Measure Specifies the level of measurement (see Section 1. We will give a short description of the columns. and the missing values. We will use the second sheet Variable View to enter the data code book.

At that very moment a button with three dots appears. Finally you click the OK-button to leave the dialog because otherwise all your work will disappear.2. Value labels can only be used with coded variables. The other columns of the Variable View are used only if necessary. Smits. Fill in the Variable View. Use your mouse (or the Tab-button) to proceed to the next input box. June 2010 page 15 . Refer to the data code book of Figure 1. The first part of the window looks like this: Button to build the Value labels In order to enter the Value labels you click in the cell which displays None. You should not define such variables as string variables! 4. Tip: Adjust the column width in order to fit all columns on the screen. If the name of the variable is sufficiently clear you are allowed to leave the variable label empty (see the variable Gender for instance). 6. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. you should define them as numerically coded variables and then establish the meaning of those codes in the Label column.docx 16/03/2011 © J. 5. Click this button. After clicking the dialog Value Labels appears. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Process all variables of the data code book in the Variable View. Note If you are defining categorical variables.

in case something terrible happens … Create. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. 9. a folder ‘SPSS Basic Course’ and save your data file with the name ‘Suxes Survey’.2 Deleting or Inserting Variables This section gives you some extra information about deleting and inserting variables. Ordinal and Scale (which combines the levels Interval and Ratio). 2. Sometimes there is a need to add an extra variable. Click with the right mouse button on the row heading and choose the option Insert Variables. June 2010 page 16 . With the right mouse button you can easily delete (clear) or insert a variable. Have you entered all variables? 8. Or: • Right click the row heading of the variable and select the option Clear. on your memory stick or on your own hard disc. Switch to the Data View. Just read it because you may need this information later. Fortunately this is very easy in SPSS using the Variable View. Smits. Now save your data file. Please remember the three levels Nominal. maybe because you skip one by accident. Do not forget to enter the correct level of measurement in the last column. As you will see that SPSS automatically adds the extension .sav. 7.docx 16/03/2011 © J.sav to it. Here you see the names of the variables appear as the column names. Note A spss data file must always have the extension . Deleting a variable goes even faster than inserting: • Click with the left mouse button on the row heading and press the Delete button of your keyboard. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.

Click on this button to choose an other data type. there are some other data types available which need to be used in special cases. The data type Date has a number of different formats. Smits. 2. To be used for Date or Time variables. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. To be used for text. On the tab Variable View in the Data Editor you can choose another data type via the corresponding button.3 Data Type of Variables Besides the numerical data type which is generally used. Adjust the number of decimal places here. June 2010 page 17 . Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Examples of these kinds of calculations are the computation of the age of a customer on the basis of the date of birth or the number of days since the last visit of the customer on the basis of ‘last visiting date’.docx 16/03/2011 © J. If you want to input text you will need the data type String. Among the other data types you will need to use there are Date and String. For date or time related variables it is wise to use the Date data type. because you can use the date and time functions of SPSS to make calculations.

write it down on the questionnaire also. you are still able to make a table of frequencies of this variable. But if you prefer the codes over the labels you can deactivate this option by clicking the same button again. 2. If you have activated the Value labels you can use option lists to facilitate the input process. Click on the row heading (the number) and the whole row is selected. Work carefully in order to prevent making errors with the data entry. There is no limitation to this maximum but it is wise not to make this too high in order to keep your file size low. The discussion of procedures like ‘Text Analyses for Surveys’ is beyond the scope of this book. If you specify the number of characters to be used as 8 or lower. In order to input the answers on the questionnaire of a respondent you have to work row-wise. in order to be able to locate this form if needed at a later stage. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Smits. June 2010 page 18 . For the data type String you have to specify the maximum number of characters you are about to use. After entering the respondent number.docx 16/03/2011 © J. For analyzing text variables we advise you to use the procedure AUTORECODE which creates a new numerical variable which uses the texts of the old text variable as data codes. Enter the (code) numbers of each question and continue by pressing ENTER to enter to the next cell. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.4 The Data Entry In the Data View every row contains the data of one respondent.

use the Value labels button of the toolbar.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Switch to SPSS and paste the data via the menu Edit Paste. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. From the menus. June 2010 page 19 . 1.nl/docent/sms/SPSS).5 Using the SPSS Codebook to Validate the Data 2. While you have the Data View of the Data Editor on screen. The data is available for you in the file ‘Suxes Catering Services. 3.xls’ (from mim. Smits. The variable names must be excluded from the selection. choose File Display Data File Information working File. If there are codes without a label.xls’ and the only thing left to do is a copy and paste action. Either the code is not correct or the value label is missing. 2. Start EXCEL and open the file ‘Suxes Catering Services. The result is displayed in Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.2. The button Value labels is activated. there is an error. Displaying Data File Information The codebook as shown in Figure 1. 1. SPPS will create a table displaying all characteristics of all variables and adds another table which contains all value labels. Please note: Exclude the top line from your selection and select only the 50 data rows.2 can be produced by SPSS by using the option Display Data File Information. Check whether the cursor is in the top left cell of the sheet. From the menus. choose: File Save or use the corresponding icon of the toolbar.saxion.5. In this view check the column of your sheet. 1. It is handy to start your selection in the right bottom cell and go upwards to the left. After pasting the data you have to save the file (again). And now the good news is that your lecturer has entered the data for you already. Checking the Value Labels With the Value labels button of the toolbar you can activate or deactivate the value labels.5. Please note that the Data View-tab must be active. 2. Select the data cells and click Copy. 2. excluding the top line. Click one more time to see how this button toggles the display.1. If the Value labels are activated you can browse the data editor and check the data.

or text. The output produced can be statistical tables. For easier navigation. June 2010 page 20 . The results from most statistical procedures are displayed in pivot tables. Scroll downwards and check whether all variables have the correct value labels. Statistics (a table with the number of valid and missing observation for each variable). The results from running a statistical procedure are displayed in the Viewer. The output of the FILE INFORMATION procedure has a number of components. Use the scroll bars to navigate through the window’s content. name of the data file.docx 16/03/2011 © J. you can easily resize the window. and Frequency Table (which contains the frequency tables). Notes (containing the creation date. Active Dataset (a text output block with the full path and name of the data file). 3.1 The output of the command FILE INFORMATION If this is your first time working with SPSS output it is worthwhile to spend a few minutes to become familiar with the structure of the SPSS output window. graphs. charts. If you think that there is not enough room in the Viewer to see an entire table or that the outline view is too narrow. depending on the choices you make when you run the procedure. In the next chapter we will discuss how to edit a pivot table. The outline pane (on the left side) contains an outline of all information stored in the Viewer. Check the file information by comparing your SPSS output with the codebook from Figure 1. etcetera). click an item in the outline pane to display it in the contents pane. Smits. The Viewer window is divided into two parts. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. The contents pane (on the right) contains statistical tables. The content of each block is shown on the right side in the content pane.2. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. charts. and text output. 2. Outline pane Contents pane Figure 2. both vertically and horizontally. Title (which contains the title of the block).

Figure 2. 2. June 2010 page 21 . Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. which has the appropriate name CODEBOOK.5. 4.docx 16/03/2011 © J.2 The value labels defined for the variables. This option. will be used right now. Displaying a User Defined Codebook In order to control the output of SPSS. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Smits.3. choose Analyze Reports Codebook. From the menus. SPSS has an option that allows you to specify which elements from the codebook you want to display.

Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Select all variables except the respondent number and put them into the right pane. 5. You do not need to change these settings right now. By clicking the button OK. clicking on the variable Gender. Use this button after selecting the variables in the left pane. At the second tab of the dialog. while holding the Shift key. 6. an overview of all selected variables will be produced. June 2010 page 22 . Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.docx 16/03/2011 © J. You can select the variables most conveniently by clicking on the variable Visits and. you can select which variable and file information you want to display by SPSS. Output. Three tabs to specify which variables. Smits. The tab Statistics facilitates you to choose the way of summarizing the data on the basis of the measurement label of the variable. which output and which statistics you want to display.

Figure 2.3 The output of the command CODEBOOK

In the output file you can see a new branch added to the tree structure. This new

branch contains the name of the command as top label and each variable has its own

entry. Every leaf on the left (outline pane) corresponds to a table on the right side

(contents pane) of the window. Please note that variables with a ratio level of

measurement have a different table (see Figure 2.4) than the nominal and ordinal

variables (see Figure 2.5). For scale variables (this is ratio!) the table contains the

mean and standard deviation, while tables with nominal and ordinal variables contain

all observations and their frequencies and percentages.

Figure 2.4 The codebook display of the ratio variable Visits

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Figure 2.5 The codebook display of the ordinal variable Variety_basic

**Inspect the tables in the output file. You will discover that two frequency tables
**

contain an error.

Figure 2.6 In two frequency tables something is certainly wrong

**7. Repair the errors in the data editor. The one error is clear, because the 11 must
**

of course be a 1, and the other is a male. Use the search button to find these

values in the data editor.

8. Save your data file again.

**9. Remove the CODEBOOK tables (by selecting and deleting the whole output block).
**

Make new tables and check whether they are correct now.

**10. Save the output file in the folder ‘SPSS Basic Course’ also. Name it ‘Suxes Survey
**

Output 1’ and notice that SPSS adds the extension .spv.

**Note A SPSS output file always has the extension .spv. In version 15 and
**

older the SPSS output files have the extension .spo.

**Unfortunately CODEBOOK tables are not meant to be published in this raw format. They
**

can only be published after some elaborations have been made. In the next chapter we

will discuss how to create tables for a publication.

11. Exit SPSS. Close the output file and the data file. SPSS displays an alert to warn

you.

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**3. Research Questions with
**

R e s p e c t t o O n e Va r i a b l e

3.1 Introduction

In this chapter we will discuss analyses which deal with only one variable at a time.

This means that we will analyse the responses of one question of the questionnaire

without taking into account the answers to other questions. Examples of research

objectives with respect to one variable in the Suxes Survey are (see also Section 1.1):

(1) How many days per week does one use the restaurant?

(2) What is the average spending in the restaurant on a weekly basis?

(4) How does one assess the customer service offered by the staff?

(7) What is the customer’s gender?

**To answer these questions you have to make a choice from the available statistical
**

analyses. Firstly the level of measurement of the variable determines this choice. The

research objectives (1) and (2) are related to ratio scaled variables. You can come to an

answer by calculating the mean value. Research question (4) is related to an ordinal

scaled variable and (7) to a nominal scaled variable. Calculating a mean value to

answer these questions makes no sense of course.

**Secondly, it is up to the researcher how detailed the research question will be
**

answered. Calculating one statistic (mean, median or mode) only gives one indication

of the central (or most common) value of that variable. Also the researcher may wish

to report a statistic about the spread of the distribution of the variable. And, besides

calculating statistics, you can summarize the data by means of a table or graph. Again

the choice of the graph is dictated by the level of measurement.

**Table 3.1 summarizes how research questions with respect to one variable can be
**

analysed. There are many numerical descriptive measures available for scale 1

variables, including:

**• Measures of central tendency. The most common measures of central
**

tendency are the mean (arithmetic average) and median (value at which half the

cases fall above and below).

• Measures of dispersion. Statistics that measure the variation or spread in the

data include the standard deviation, range and inter quartile range (= difference

between third and first quartile).

For variables measured on an ordinal or nominal level, things are different because we

are dealing with categorical variables. Table 3.1 lists the available statistics and graphs.

**1 SPSS uses scale to denote the interval and ratio level of measurement.
**

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Level of measurement

Analysis Nominal Ordinal Interval/ratio

**Locate the centre Mode, Median, Mean,
**

value Modal class Mode, Median,

(3.3.1) Modal class Modal class

(3.3.1) (3.3.1, 3.3.2)

**Calculate the Range, Range,
**

spread Inter quartile range Inter quartile range

(3.3.1) Standard deviation

(3.3.1, 3.3.2)

**Summarize with a Table of frequencies Table of frequencies A frequency table is not
**

table. (2.5.2 en 3.2) (2.5.2 en 3.2) useful if there are many

distinct values.

Summarize with a Pie chart Pie chart Boxplot

graph. (3.4.1 –3.4.3) (3.4.1 – 3.4.3) (3.4.6 en 3.4.7)

**Bar chart Bar chart Histogram
**

(3.4.4 en 3.4.5) (3.4.4 en 3.4.5) (3.4.8 en 3.4.9)

Table 3.1

**In this chapter we will discuss how to conduct these statistical analyses with SPSS.
**

Furthermore we will show you how to edit tables and graphs so that you can use them

in your publications, like a research report in WORD or a POWERPOINT presentation.

**Section 3.5 will discuss how to document your SPSS output file in order to retrieve
**

tables, graphs and other output elements easily.

**The last section concludes by discussing all research questions with respect to one
**

variable. For each research question we will show the analysis in SPSS and we will give

an appropriate conclusion.

**3.2 Creating and Cleaning up Frequency Tables
**

A frequency table displays the answers of a question and how often these answers have

been given. A frequency table displays the frequencies and the percentages. The

researcher often encounters problems, because not all respondents have answered all

questions. So, these respondents have blanks as values for these variables, the answer

is missing. When you clean up a frequency table to make it ready for publication, you,

being the researcher, have to decide how to display these missing values in your table.

In this section we will discuss how to create and clean up frequency tables and how to

display missing values.

1. Start SPSS and open the data file ‘Suxes Survey.sav’ which you have created and

saved in the previous chapter.

**2. From the menus, choose: File Open Output and open the output file ‘Suxes
**

Survey Output 1.spv’. This file has been created in the previous chapter as well and

it contains the code book tables of all variables of the survey. In order to save this

file by a new name, from the menus choose File Save as. Name your new file

‘Suxes Survey Chapter 3.spv’

**Note Save all your output of this chapter in the output file ‘Suxes Survey
**

Chapter 3.spv’. This file is a large container in which all tables and

graphs are stored. At the end of this chapter you will learn how to

structure this file so that you can retrieve your work without effort.

**We are going to create a frequency table for the variables ‘Variety of products in the
**

basic assortment’, ‘Score for the catering service of Suxes’, ‘Numbers of years

registered as a student at Pandion University’. These variables have names like:

Variety_basic, Mark, YearStud.

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docx 16/03/2011 © J. If you prefer to use the names of the variables instead of their labels. The tables will be produced after clicking the OK button. you can select variables simultaneously. Select the three variables from the list and put them into the right pane. From the menus. 4. Hint: If you hold the Ctrl-button. In the viewer pane (right side) the frequency tables are displayed. 5.1 SPSS added a new branch to the existing tree structure. Please note that for ten respondents the variable YearStud has no value. choose Analyze Descriptive Statistics Frequencies. please change this setting of SPSS as is displayed in Section 9. Figure 3. Locate the frequency table of the variable YearStud in the viewer pane. SPSS starts by showing a summary with the number of valid outcomes and the number of missing observations for each variable. Smits. 6.1. 3. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. June 2010 page 27 .1 The output of the FREQUENCIES command As you can see in Figure 3.

Note It is up to the researcher to decide which percentages to report.5 5 3 6. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. If your table is difficult to read. Smits.5 100.0 Total 40 80.0 2 11 22.0 15.5 4 6 12.2. like: • Hiding the columns Percent and Cumulative Percent. 7. In the valid responses (students) it turns out that a quarter (25%) are freshman. Number of years registered as a student at Pandion University Valid Cumulative Frequency Percent Percent Percent Valid 1 10 20.docx 16/03/2011 © J.2 The format of your tables is a critical part of providing clear.0 25. That is the reason we display the column Valid Percent.0 Total 50 100. • Applying a table look.0 100.0 77.3 The output window with an active editor and the formatting toolbar Note If the formatting toolbar does not show up.0 25. As you can see there are some changes in the interface: a notched edge around the table and some menu entries have changed. You can choose to remove the last two rows from the table for this reason as well.0 Missing System 10 20.5 3 10 20.0 7. the information contained within that table may not be easily understood.0 Figure 3. The point is that those 10 lecturers skipped this question and that explains those 10 cases which are reported as system missing. In this example it is strange to communicate that there are for example 20% freshmen.0 92. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. use the menu View Toolbar.5 52. A rough table is displayed in Figure 3. June 2010 page 28 . concise and meaningful results.0 25. Figure 3. It is clear that there is a need for some adjustments. • Changing the display format of the percentages: without decimal places and with a percent sign. Double-click on the frequency table to start the editor.0 27. Moreover the ‘Formatting toolbar’ has appeared.

Smits. Now we change the display format of the percentages in the pivot table. We are going to hide two columns from the table. Right-click the highlighted column and choose Hide Category from the pop-up context menu. June 2010 page 29 . From the menus. 10. However. With the left mouse button drag the right border of the column Percent to the left. On the screen with the active editor you can alter the table and its make-up. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. 9. the editor will close and you will return to the output viewer. choose: Format Cell Properties. Please note that if you click outside the editor area (that is outside the notched edge). choose: Edit Select Data Cells.docx 16/03/2011 © J. While dragging. From the menus. Click on the Valid Percent column label to select it. the actual width of the column is displayed until SPSS shows the message ‘Hide’. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. This column is now hidden also. there is also a Undo entry in the Edit menu. It is very easy to recreate the table by running the FREQUENCIES procedure again. please do not panic. Appologies to heavy users: there is no keystroke Ctrl-z available. as far as possible. At that very moment you release the left mouse button and the column will disappear. Ctrl-Alt-click on the ‘Cumulative Percent’ column to select all of the cells in that column. Moreover. Note If things go wrong and you happen to destroy the table. There are two ways to hide a column: either you drag the right border of the column or you select the whole column and choose Hide Category from the popup context menu. the first button of the toolbar gives you that function as well. 8.

12.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.#% from the Format list. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. From the menus. Select ##. June 2010 page 30 . Smits.#% from the Format list. Type 0 in the Decimals field to hide all decimals in this column. Select the second tab Select ##. 11. choose: Format Table Properties. Type 0 in the Decimals field to hide all decimals in this column. Click OK to apply your changes. Select the second tab Format Values.

first click at the square next to Background and choose your colour. 13. 14. we prefer a gray (228) background. Switch to the tab Borders and point with your mouse at the line of interest. Ctrl-Alt-click on the label Total to select the whole row. Select the line style. Click OK to apply your changes. Smits. 15. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Select the appropriate line style: the dashed line. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Switch to the tab Font and Background and select a Bold Style. To change the background. From the menus. the option ‘Horizontal category border (rows)’ is selected automatically. The last action is shading the Total rows. June 2010 page 31 . In the Border list. choose: Format Cell Properties.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Click OK to apply your changes. SPSS selects the corres- ponding category by itself. With the Mouse point at the line you want to alter.

Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Customize the frequency tables of the variables ‘Variety Basic Assortment’ and Mark in the same way. Figure 3. June 2010 page 32 .docx 16/03/2011 © J.4 The customized frequency table 18. Smits.4. The final result is shown in Figure 3. Click outside the notched edge to close the pivot table editor. 17. Now we have finished. Perform these actions for both Total rows. Change the label of the bottom row into ‘Grand Total’. 16. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.

June 2010 page 33 .3. Smits. Median. FREQUENCIES We will discuss some features of the FREQUENCIES procedure by using it for the variable Mark.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Minimum. 3. In Section 3. 19. and Maximum. Again. We will introduce the procedures FREQUENCIES and DESCRIPTIVES to you. Figure 3. From the menus. The meaning of the statistics: • Mean: arithmetic average • Median: value at which half the cases fall above and below • Mode: value with the highest frequency • Std Deviation: spread of the scores around the mean value • Quartiles: values at which 25%. deviation.5 The customized frequency tables of two other variables Now there are three frequency tables ready for publication. 1.6.3 Calculating Statistics There are many procedures in SPSS to produce statistics. Mode. 3. Always take the level of measurement into account because otherwise the results can be without any meaning.1. select the variable Mark and move it into the Variable(s) list. Click Statistics.1 we will explain how to document your output file in order to retrieve these tables in an easy way. Std. 2. choose: Analyze Descriptive Statistics Frequencies. 50% and 75% of the scores fall respectively. Select Quartiles. Mean. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. save your output file. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.

Click OK to run the procedure. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. (Often frequency tables are not useful for scale variables since there may be almost as many distinct values as there are cases in the data file). Click Continue. The other differen- ces with the procedure FREQUENCIES are not significant. Deselect Display frequency tables in the main dialog box. June 2010 page 34 . Figure 3. choose: Analyze Descriptive Statistics Descriptives.6 FREQUENCIES Statistics table 3. The FREQUENCIES Statistics table is displayed in the Viewer window. If you deal with several variables at the same time the output is more convenient than FREQUENCIES. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. DESCRIPTIVES provides the calculation of z-scores. Select the variables Visits.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Smits.3. 2. 3. pie chart or histogram.2. whereas FREQUENCIES provides the option to produce a bar chart. From the menus. DESCRIPTIVES The procedure DESCRIPTIVES also calculates statistics. 5. 1. 4. Expenditure and Mark and move them into the Variable(s) list. Click Options to select statistics.

we will create a pie chart. From the menus choose the option Graphs Chart Builder. We have already seen that graphs can be made within the procedure FREQUENCIES. This is so obvious that we will not repeat this anymore. bar chart. because this interface facilitates your building process and shows you a preview of the graph. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. 3. Figure 3. To emphasise this. Bar. boxplot and histogram in this section and show you the graph editor to edit charts.7 The output of the DESCRIPTIVES command 3.7 shows the table with the statistics involved. You always have to save after producing new output. It is possible to display the variables in a different order. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. SPSS will popup a warning when you start the chart builder wizard and invites you to check the measurement levels. Save the output file again.4 Graphs: Pie. Figure 3.docx 16/03/2011 © J. To demonstrate the basics of creating and editing charts. Smits. We will use the CHART BUILDER wizard to create graphs. It is important to know that SPSS can produce a good graph only if the measurement levels of your variables have been set correctly. as you can see in the dialog Descriptives: Options. 1. Boxplot and Histogram You can create and edit a wide variety of chart types in SPSS. June 2010 page 35 .

3. 2. if you do not want to have this dialog in the future. Staff.docx 16/03/2011 © J. The preview displays these labels also.8) at the tab Gallery. The preview pane of the chart The icon of a pie chart Figure 3. select the option Pie/Polar. Please note that if you select a categorical variable in the list. Drag the Pie chart icon into the preview pane. but not the real data.1. Since we have set all measurement levels for each variable and all our categorical variables have value labels we can proceed by clicking OK. You can build your graph by dragging the elements into the preview pane. Check this. Creating a Pie Chart We start by creating a simple pie chart that shows us how many respondents are satisfied with the customer service of the staff of Suxes.g. In the lower part of the dialog CHART BUILDER (Figure 3.8 The dialog CHART BUILDER The large dialog of the CHART BUILDER wizard will be shown. e. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.4. SPSS displays the value labels. Smits. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. June 2010 page 36 .

docx 16/03/2011 © J. Right now we are ready to discuss the dialog ‘Element Properties’ 5. Enter today’s date and your name and class right after the copyright symbol © (press Alt+0169) in the content box of Footnote 1. So the graphical file must contain all the information. In this dialog you can set the properties of the elements of your chart. Again. but we will discuss this dialog later. Note It is important to place the title (and footnote) in the graph itself. select the options ‘Title 1’ and ‘Footnote 1’. we will concentrate on the preview pane. June 2010 page 37 . Smits. Click OK to finish. 7. From the list Variables drag the variable Staff and drop it in the box ‘Slice by?’ which is right below the pie. 4. 3. use the button ‘Element Properties’ on the dialog of the CHART BUILDER wizard to display it. Select ‘Title 1’ from the list and enter ‘Rating customer service’. 6. Two elements are added to the preview of the pie chart and these two elements have entered the option list ‘Edit Properties’ in the dialog ‘Element Properties’ also. Right now. If the graph is copied to WORD (or exported to another software package) only the graphical data is included. 8. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. click Apply to confirm. If this dialog is not visible. SPSS will create the pie chart for you. On the tab Titles/Footnotes. Click Apply to confirm. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. The dialog Element Properties will show up. In the preview you will see that SPSS replaces the “vertical” box with Count to let you know that the chart will be based on the counts of each category of the variable Staff.

the interior part of the graph. It is not suitable for publication. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. The Chart Editor will open the chart in a new window. We will edit the graph including the following operations: • Display the percentages of the slices • Edit the title and the footnote • Edit the colours and shading of the slices 1. In this dialog you can change the properties of the elements of the graph. Maximise the Chart Editor.4. You can set the properties of each element of the graph after selecting it. which means that it consists of elements with their properties. each slice itself. Smits. Editing a Pie Chart The graph is rather empty because only the pie with the slices and a legend are displayed. The graph is object oriented. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Select the graph in the Output Viewer and double click the pie chart to open it in the Chart Editor. the labels and so on.2. Right-click on the pie and choose the option Show Data Labels. 2. June 2010 page 38 . As long as the chart is in progress in the Chart Editor you see that it is shaded in the Output Viewer. The dialog Properties appears. the titles. the collection of slices.3. The collection of elements contains the graph as a whole. 3.docx 16/03/2011 © J.

The result of editing can be seen after clicking the Apply button. Select the Data Value Labels tab. Since we want to display these labels in the chart. Note Move the dialog Properties to the right of the screen in order to see both windows simultanuously. You can also open the dialog Properties with the button on the toolbar. Now the labels are outside the pie and can be positioned individually. June 2010 page 39 . Click Apply to update the labels properties. Choose the option Custom at Label Position in order to place the label outside the slice (left button). Hide labels (= move downwards). Those labels are hidden in the chart. 6. add them to the box Displayed. Our preferred size is 9 which makes the label size easily readable. If you select an element of the graph (left) the corresponding tabs in the Properties window are displayed (right). 7. You do not want the labels to display decimal places. 5. 4. Smits. Display labels (= move upwards) Position of labels outside the pie. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. However the font size needs to be adjusted. so type 0 in the Decimal Places text box. Click Apply to see the result in the pie chart.docx 16/03/2011 © J. In the Displayed list you see Percent and in the Not Displayed list the value labels of the variable Staff. check the option Display connecting lines to label. Select the Text Style tab and adjust the font size. 8. Select the Number Format tab. After selecting another element of the graph different tabs will appear. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. At Display Options.

The result of our editing is shown in Figure 3. Editing a Pie Chart (Extra) The dialog Properties has two more tabs of interest. Use the Fill & Border tab to make the changes.9 The customized pie chart.4. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.docx 16/03/2011 © J.3. Select Footnote and change the font style to Italic. 3. 9. June 2010 page 40 . 11. 10. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. The Categories tab can be used to edit and sort the categories and at the Depth & Angle tab you can decorate the chart with a shadow or a 3-D perspective. Smits. The updated pie chart is shown in the Viewer. Hide the legend. Change the colour of one slice and the border of another one. Figure 3. Click on the pie and click again on a slice to select it. Since all information in the legend is in the chart itself. Please do some experiments with these options by yourselves. close the Chart Editor. 13. When you are done. 12.9. Select Title and change the font family and enlarge to preferred size. there is no need to have a legend anymore.

1. June 2010 page 41 .3. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.8). select the option Bar and drag the icon ‘Simple Bar’ into the preview pane. Smits.4.docx 16/03/2011 © J. We will create a bar chart of the variable ‘Variety of products in the basic assortment’. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. From the menus.4. 2. Creating a Bar Chart Bar charts can be made for variables with a nominal or ordinal (classified) level of measurement. For variables with a ratio level of measurement (scale) we prefer to use a histogram (see Section 3. choose: Graphs Chart Builder. On the tab Gallery.4. Use the button Reset to clean up the settings of the previous task.

select the element Bar1 and edit the property Statistic into Percentage and click Apply. 5. Click OK and SPSS will create the bar chart for you. At the tab Titles/Footnotes. 3. Smits. Do not forget to confirm by clicking Apply. enter the title ‘Variety of the basic assortment’ and today’s date. your name and class as footnote. 4. In the dialog Element Properties. Still in the dialog Element Properties. Drag the variable Variety_basic from the list into the box ‘X-axis’ below the graph.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. 7. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. June 2010 page 42 . check the options Title 1 and Footnote 1. 6.

docx 16/03/2011 © J. Smits. Style Italic. adjustment of the vertical axis and the position of the text on the horizontal axis. Choose Georgia from the Font Family list. After a (right-)click the Properties dialog containing the properties of this object will appear. Select the title of the horizontal axis. Size 12 and Colour Dark Blue. Eventually the graph could be transposed as well. 1.3.4. June 2010 page 43 . 2. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. 3. Editing a Bar Chart In order to make the chart ready for publication we need to edit a couple of things such as the layout of the title. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.5. Double-click on the chart to open the Chart Editor. Confirm your choices by clicking Apply. From the dialog Properties select the Text Style tab.

Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Click Apply to see the results. 6. On the Scale tab you can adjust the subdivisions on the vertical axis. Click the button Y on the toolbar to select the vertical axis. 7. So type 50 in the Maximum text box and 5 in the Major Increment text box. The vertical axis also needs some adjustments. Smits. Select the Text Layout tab and choose a justification to the right (Justify). Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Use the Number Format tab to suppress the decimal places. June 2010 page 44 . 5. There are three types of justification available for an axis title 4.

Select the Lines tab and choose a dashed Lines Style with a grey colour. choose: Options Show Grid Lines or use the button on the toolbar. Smits. Distance between the ticks 8. Select ‘Both major and minor ticks’ and click Apply to confirm. Horizontal grid lines are drawn and the Grid Lines tab appears in the Properties dialog. You see that gridlines are added to the graph. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Maximum at the vertical axis. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. 9.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Be sure that the vertical axis is still selected. June 2010 page 45 . From the Chart Editor menus.

type 0 in the Decimal Places text box and on the Text Style tab. In the Label Position panel. 10. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.docx 16/03/2011 © J. The bars: click on one of the bars to select them. 13. (This can also be achieved with the corresponding button on the toolbar. June 2010 page 46 .) 12. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. look at the Properties dialog on the Data Value Labels tab. choose a Font Size of 9. 11. On the Number Format tab. Below Centre. From the Chart Editor menus. Smits. Select the label of the vertical axis and on the Text Layout tab choose for left justification in order to place this label at the start of the axis. Select the position of the Data Labels. Now. Click Apply to confirm. select Custom. choose Elements Show Data Labels.

The lines outside the box contain the lower 25% and the upper 25% of the observations up to the outliers and extremes. change the Footnote into Italic. From the menus. Finally. Choose the font family Bookman Old Style. Choose a nice colour to fill the staves and a pattern if you wish. quartiles and outliers will give you good information about the distribution. Close the Chart Editor and save your output file. 3. 14. change it to bold and size 18. (Another font family is fine as well. the median. June 2010 page 47 . Figure 3. The boxplot provides graphical representation of the data based on the five-number summary that consists of Xsmallest Q1 Median Q3 Xlargest The vertical line in the middle of the box represents the median. 8 points and locate it at the bottom left in the chart. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Use the button Reset to clean up the settings of the previous task. In Section 4.3 we will produce a boxplot to compare the expenditures of students and lecturers. These observations are represented with a star or a circle symbol. Again select the bars and open the Fill & Border tab. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Thus the box contains the middle 50% of the observations in the distribution. Smits. 1. Skewness of the distribution can be recognized easily in the boxplot. In this section we will introduce the simple boxplot to you. 15. Creating a Boxplot For variables with a ratio level of measurement (scale) we can display the frequency distribution by means of a boxplot. The vertical line at the left side of the box represents the location of Q1 and the vertical line at the right side of the box represents Q3.) 16.4. The graph has been very much improved and now it is ready to be published.10 The bar chart after the editing process 17. choose: Graphs Chart Builder. Adjust the title. a boxplot of the expenditures per week in the restaurant.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Although the original scores are not visible anymore.6.

Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. 3.4. In the Element Properties dialog enter the title ‘Expenditures in the restaurant on a weekly basis’ and let the footer display the current date with your name and class after the copyright symbol (as always). Double-click the chart to open the Chart Editor. Click OK to create the boxplot. The two circles represent two outliers and the numbers are the corresponding respondent numbers. That is why we are going to edit this graph. 2. June 2010 page 48 . At the tab Titles/Footnotes. Moreover the scale at the axis is too rough and it should display the €-sign somewhere in the label. 1. Do not forget to confirm by clicking the Apply button. On the tab Gallery. Smits. from the category Boxplot. 5.7. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.docx 16/03/2011 © J. The boxplot displays the distribution of the variable Expenditure. Editing a Boxplot This graph is not yet suitable for a publication. Select the variable Expenditure from the list and drag it into the box ‘X-axis?’ at the left site of the graph. 4. select the options Title 1 and Footnote 1 again to add your texts to the to graph. 3. drag the ‘1-D Boxplot’ icon into the preview pane. It takes too much space and it’s better to draw the boxplot horizontally.

Note. Click Apply. Click Apply. In order to make the chart half as height you halve the Height. aspect ratio is the ratio of width and height and we want to change that ratio. Since the chart title contains the same text as the axis label. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. you can change this setting via the menu Edit Options. The tab General in this dialog has a pane with an option list. if you like). Enlarge the font size of the text and justify it to the right side of the axis. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. rotate the graph by clicking the button Tranpose chart coordinate system on the toolbar. However. Now. 5. Note: If your PC shows the units in inches. First. 3. In the Properties dialog. Halve this value to reduce the height of the graph. 7. we want to adjust the horizontal axis. 4. Smits. Uncheck this option because you don’t want the width to be changed. we are going to change the latter into ‘Amount in €’ (The €-sign is inserted by hitting Alt+0128). Use the X button on the toolbar to select it. 2. 6.1 for further details about the settings of SPSS. Now we need to change the size of the chart. (You can also change the font family etc.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Please see Section 9. Now the chart has improved a lot and it looks much better. select the tab Chart Size. The last step is to adjust the other texts of the graph. June 2010 page 49 . which has centimeters as a third entry. you do not want the width to be changed so uncheck the option ‘Maintain aspect ratio’ before changing the height. This number determines the scale of the axis. Select the Scale tab and change the Major Increment into 2.

It is important that the original figures are available. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Click Statistics and select the options displayed in the next figure. If you want to have a separate summary of the statistics (as well). click Reset to cancel all previous choices).8. mean and standard deviation can be computed as well. This graph will have a legend with the mean value. For interval/ratio variables statistics like median. Figure 3. You must have an open ended question in the questionnaire and not a closed one with classes. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.11 The boxplot with the adjusted layout. Do the same in the Charts dialog. (If this text box already contains a variable. The histogram has the (possible) values of the variable on its horizontal axis. the standard deviation and the number of observations. 1. then you can use the histogram option of the FREQUENCIES command. 3.docx 16/03/2011 © J. choose Analyze Descriptive Statistics Frequencies and move the variable Expenditure into the Variable(s) text box. The vertical axis represents the frequencies. Use the CHART BUILDER wizard if you want to make the histogram only. Creating a Histogram For scale variables (level of measurement ratio or interval) we can construct an histogram. From the menus. SPSS constructs a set of classes where all class widths are equal. Deselect to prevent the displaying of frequency tables 2. June 2010 page 50 . Smits.4. You can adjust these classes if you wish.

docx 16/03/2011 © J. If you are dealing with a rather large number of classes and relatively low frequencies it is preferred to adjust the classification. Because it is no use displaying the frequency table (too many values) you need to deselect the Display frequency tables option. 4. In the Chart Editor. The first block of the output contains the statistics. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Open the Chart Editor by double-clicking the graph.4. maximize the window and open the Properties dialog and place it at the rights side of the chart (see next figure). Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. 3. After that. June 2010 page 51 . Smits. The histogram sees rather capriciously. Editing a Histogram 1. click OK in the FREQUENCIES dialog to start the analysis. 3.9.

Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. 3. Here we customize the X axis by typing a 4 in the Interval width text box. Resize the graph to fill the whole width of the graph area it has behind it. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Give the horizontal and vertical axis a Major Increment of size 2. The Properties dialog has a tab Binning on which you can adjust either the number of staves (intervals) or the width of each stave (interval width) on the X axis. 4. 2. (See next figure which square to take.) Dragging this square to the right enlarges the graph to fill the whole canvas 5. June 2010 page 52 . Smits. Move the legend above the graph (upper right corner) and change the background and the border colours. Click Apply to inspect the result.docx 16/03/2011 © J.

such as a jpeg file. This file is like a container which contains all output (in a tree structure) and is saved as a whole. Exporting Graphs It is worthwhile to realise that all the graphs you have produced (four up to now) are located in the SPSS output file.4. Smits. With this option you can apply the lay-out of a chart saved before. Figure 3. There are. The File menu in the Chart Editor does not provide an option to save or export the chart. If you save the template SPSS raises a dialog to select the layout elements to be saved. This is very useful if you want to have all your charts with the same look (house style) In the output viewer you can export graphs to a graphical file. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.12. of course. 6. not the chart itself. June 2010 page 53 . It is however possible to save the layout as a template. many other ways to export your work to different software applications.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Change the layout of the titles and gridlines so that your histogram matches Figure 3. This is called a template.12 The histogram transformed into a layout suitable for a publication 3. Browse this entry if you are looking for a special format. This is very useful if you have to produce a number of charts with the same layout. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. You can find this in the Viewer menus under File Export. With this option you can save the lay-out.10.

For those analyses it is more convenient to create a categorical variable from that scale variable. Realize yourself how many categories are needed and what the boundaries must be. For the variable Expenditure we will show the transformation process into three classes. 2. Smits. choose: Transform Recode into Different Variables.5 21. which we will follow in our instructions.0 4.5 56.0 2.7 second class 5 10 20.2 lower bound of the 4 3 6.7 second class = 18 1 2.4 67% = 12 3 6. So the upper boundary of the first class is in the neighbourhood of 5. 1.0 Total 46 92.5 87. This procedure creates a new variable with the classification.2 100. June 2010 page 54 . Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.5 Creating a Categorical Variable from a Scale Variable Variables with a ratio scale usually have many outcomes.7 8. We will show you two methods. which makes a frequency table or cross tabulation rather unusable. Third category: exceeding 10 euro. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.1.0 Total 50 100.5 15. We will elaborate these three steps now.8 7 1 2.0 8. From the menus.0 100. From the menus. Second category: between 5 euro and 10 euro.0 upper bound of the 15 4 8.2 97.5 6 2 4. The upper boundary of the second class (67%) will be around about 10.9 80.docx 16/03/2011 © J. choose: Transform Recode into Different Variables. This table is too large and hard to interpret. Focus your attention on the Cumulative Percent column and look up the 33% value. The Manual Classification Process This first method has three steps.2 50.5 10 11 22. Create a frequency table of the variable Expenditure.0 2.7 43.7 95.3 47. More important is that the boundaries are ‘round’ numbers.5.0 6.0 6.0 23.0 8 3 6.0 21. 1. 3. 2. The last step is entering appropriate value labels and the correct level of measurement.0 With three classes or categories you must realize that each category has about 33% of the cases in it. 3.0 6. But we need the last column to find out what the boundaries for a classification into three categories must be. 3.8 lower bound of the third class 20 1 2.0 Missing System 4 8.0 8.7 class = 3 3 6. So we have: First category : all up to 5 euro. Expenditure in the restaurant on a weekly basis Valid Cumulative 33% = Frequency Percent Percent Percent upper bound of the first Valid 2 4 8.0 6.0 2. the first is a manual method (the ‘classical’ one) and in the second one SPSS will do the job for you.

docx 16/03/2011 © J. Enter the classification and use the three Range options as explained. Entering the lower and the upper boundary Handy for the first class. June 2010 page 55 . Click the Change button to create this new variable and click Old and New Values … to define the classification. only the upper boundary is needed Handy for the last class. Use the Change button to create the new output variable 3. Smits. only the lower boundary is needed 4. value through Highest: 10 3 and click Add Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Select the variable Expenditure from the list and move it into the transformation list. Lowest through value: 5 1 and click Add 5 — 10 Class 2 Range: 5 through 10 2 and click Add 10 through highest Class 3 Range. Create a new output variable Expenditure_categories and label ‘Expenditure in restaurant’. Classification Old Value New Value Lower through 5 Class 1 Range. (Note: through in SPSS means ‘up to and include’).

Continue and click OK in the main dialog. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. (If the OK button is disabled you probably did not click the Change button to apply the new variable name and label. the new variable is at the last line. If you entered the rules in another order. In the Variable View. Click here to enter the Value labels. 7. Change (in the Variable View) the columns Decimals (into 0) and Measure (into ordinal) of the new variable.) The new variable arrives in the Data Editor (in the Data View) at the right side. (SPSS puts an asterisk in the title bar before the file name to remind you that the file has not been saved.) Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Our last step is to create Value labels. The new created variable with the classification 6.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Enter Value labels for the new variable 1 = €5 or less 2 = €5 — €10 3 = more than €10. 5. Smits. Note The order of the transformation rules is important. 8. June 2010 page 56 . Save your data file again! Many changes have been made. it can happen that the border values 5 and 10 end up in the other class.

13 The customized frequency table of the new categorical variable Expenditure Figure 3. Smits. called VISUAL BINNING.14 Edited bar chart of the new categorical variable 3. make a frequency table and a bar chart of the new variable Expenditure_categories. 1. Finally. it needs to read the data file first. After editing the table should look like Figure 3. and then click Continue. that is a box or frame. A Classification by SPSS (VISUAL BINNER) SPSS has a complete and beautiful procedure for classification. Binning means putting into a bin.2.5. Since the VISUAL BINNING procedure relies on actual values in the data file to help you make good banding choices. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. June 2010 page 57 . Drag and drop Expenditure from the Variables list to the ‘Variables to Bin’ list. this initial dialog box also allows you to limit the number of cases to read (‘scan’).docx 16/03/2011 © J. From the menus. so it will group your continuous data into the same categories. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. 9. Figure 3. Since this can take some time if your data file contains a large number of cases.13 and Figure 3. choose: Transform Visual Binning. Customize the layout as shown in Figure 3. This is not necessary for our data files.14 Please note that you do not use the original variable! In the FREQUENCIES dialog you will find the new variable at the last entry of the variable list.13.

4. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. June 2010 page 58 . The new variable to be created 2. A histogram displays the distribution of the selected variable. 3. In the main Visual Binning dialog. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Click Make Cutpoint to define the border values of the classification. Smits. select Expenditure in the Scanned Variable List. Enter Expenditure_Cat2 for the name of the new banded variable and Expenditure (in €) for the variable label.

two cutpoints are needed. It is rather simple to create a classification. Click OK to create the new. and SPSS immediately understands that each category will have 33% of the observation. You can ask SPSS to make labels (by clicking the button). 6. So. banded variable (and click OK again). After that. Smits. in order to make three classes. two border values (cutpoints) are needed. (See figure above). if the distribution was perfect. For three classes. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Create (as a final check) a frequency table and a bar chart of the newly created variable Expenditure_Cat2. Generally speaking. but we prefer to do this ourselves. 7. June 2010 page 59 . Enter the labels for the classes. 8. Enter 2 in the Number of Cutpoints text box and click Apply.docx 16/03/2011 © J. the number of cut- points equals the number of classes minus 1. 5. SPSS comes up with the cutpoints 5 and 10. Are there any differences compared to the previous section? Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.

In order to be able to find your results later. Click the box with the minus sign (-) of the procedure whose results you want to hide. Please note that the file is stored in the folder SPSS Basic Course. 3. 2. Because we want to use meaningful names. June 2010 page 60 . section xx or task yy.spv automatically.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Document your output file as explained before. It is important to be able to insert SPSS output into a WORD document or PowerPoint presentation because your research report will be a word document and you want to tell the world about your results. It is also possible to print the SPSS output from the viewer. Again you need customized tables and graphs because no one wants to receive garbage. This section will discuss how to transfer (export) output to WORD. charts graphs.6 Documenting and Publishing SPSS -output All your results from running a statistical procedure are displayed in the Output Viewer. Please save this file in the same folder. In this chapter we have discussed how to clean up a frequency table and get a graph ready for publication. Do not forget to save your data.spv. we prefer to use File Save As and give the output file a name by ourselves. depending on the choices you make when you run the procedure. it is recommended that you rename the branches (blocks) in the tree. In this way it is Rename every easy to retrieve block to your results.6. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. The contents will be saved in a file with the extension . 3. That is why it is recommended to document your output in this way. SPSS will provide it with the extension . 3. If you document your output file as shown here it will guarantee that you can retrieve your work without any effort. An output file can be saved by choosing File Save. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Save your output file again with the name ‘Pandion Output Chapter 3’. Smits. 1. The bare procedure name is not very informative. The output produced can be statistical tables. or text. Documenting the Output The content of the output viewer is saved as one file.1.

Transferring SPSS Tables to WORD The frequency tables (see Section 3.docx 16/03/2011 © J. language. 3. Note If you use the button Open on the toolbar or the keystroke Ctrl+O. Repeat this procedure for the other tables. To open an existing output file.6. but you will not be able to open an output file. from the data editor you can open another (new) data file. from the menus choose: File Open Output. In WORD 2007: Use the arrow below the ‘Paste button’ on the ribbon. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. or start This dialog will show up in your favourite WORD. The SPSS-object is pasted as figure into your WORD document. 4. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Note: only include one of the tables in your selection and not other parts of the output.2. This is just a simple copy and paste action. 4. Smits. choose Edit Paste Special and select the option ‘Picture (Enhanced metafile)’ for the best result. In WORD: from the menus.3. SPSS will try to open a file of the same kind as you are working with. instruction point 18).2) must be transferred to our report in WORD. 2. June 2010 page 61 . from the menus. 3. Switch (via the Windows-taskbar) to WORD. 1. to get the option ‘Paste Special’. So.2. Select one of the tables and. 3. You have created three tables which are on top in the SPSS output viewer (see Section 3.6. Select ‘enhanced meta file’ to get the best quality picture. Opening an Existing Output File It is convenient to keep all output of a research task in the same output file. choose: Edit Copy or right-click and use the context menu. Please save your files before you switch to another windows application. Finally close all files and terminate your SPSS session. You also can use the short cut Alt+Ctrl+V to get the ‘Paste Special’ dialog.

**Note If you use the ‘ordinary’ paste action in WORD (by pressing Ctrl+V)
**

your tables will be inserted as word tables. This gives you the

opportunity to do the mark up by yourselves in WORD.

**If you select the three tables in one selection, you will get a large
**

picture which contains all three tables. This is not to be advised,

because you cannot place the table images individually in your

document

**3.6.4. Transferring SPSS Graphs to WORD
**

The export of SPSS graphs is a little bit different.

**1. Select the graph in the SPSS output viewer. In SPSS we have to use the option Copy
**

instead of Copy objects.

2. Switch to WORD.

**3. In WORD: from the menus, choose Edit Paste special and select the option
**

Bitmap in the dialog.

**The dialog Format Picture can be opened in several
**

ways, e.g. by double clicking on the picture, from the

context menu by right-clicking on the picture or via the

ribbon Format available after selecting the picture.

The button Text Wrapping has a

couple of ‘dog buttons’ to change

the wrap style of the picture.

**The dialog Format Picture can be
**

opened via the small button at the

right bottom of the size panel of the

ribbon.

**Explanation In WORD there are two ways to style a picture. Either in line with
**

the text or floating (the other option). If you want to move the

picture with your mouse to another place on the page or want to

have text beside the picture then you choose one of the floating

styles. Click Advanced to open a dialog to input the coordinates of

the position of the picture on the page. A major drawback of this

floating style is that the picture floats by itself to a place where you

do not want it to be. The option ‘In line with text’ does not have this

drawback. The picture is fixed in a paragraph like a (very) large

letter and cannot float anymore. That is why the ‘in line with text’

style is our favorite.

**5. Save the WORD-document by clicking the save–button (with the disk) on the
**

toolbar. Name it catering1.doc.

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**

© J. Smits, Saxion Hogeschool Enschede, June 2010 page 62

**6. Export the output of DESCRIPTIVES (see Section 3.3.2) and the four charts (see
**

Section 3.4) to the WORD-document also.

**7. Finally enter a title at the top of your WORD-document reading ‘Report of the Suxes
**

Survey at Pandion’ and a foot text with your name and class and a page number.

Save this document.

**3.6.5. Different SPSS File Types
**

In this section we will discuss the different file types of SPSS. You have used two file

types already, the data file (.sav) and the output viewer file (.spv).

**The data file (.sav) is displayed in the Data Editor. The information in the Data Editor
**

consists of variables and cases.

**• In Data View, columns represent variables and rows represent cases
**

(observations).

• In Variable View, each row is a variable, and each column is an attribute

associated with that variable.

In Data View, if you put the mouse cursor on a variable name (the column headings),

a more descriptive variable label is displayed if you have defined one for that variable.

By default, the actual data values are displayed. To display labels, from the menus

choose View Value Labels. Descriptive value labels are now displayed. This makes it

easier to interpret the responses. The switch from values to labels (and vice versa) can

be made by the button Value labels on the toolbar as well.

**All your results from running a statistical procedure are displayed in the Output
**

Viewer. The output produced can be statistical tables, charts, graphs, or text,

depending on the choices you make when you run the procedure. This file always has

the extension .spv and is like a container with a tree structure. The structure is

displayed in the outline pane (on the left side) and the contents pane, containing the

actual output, is on the right handside. This has been discussed in Section 3.6.1.

**SPSS syntax provides a method for you to control the product without navigating
**

through dialog boxes, viewers, or data editors. Instead, you control the application

through syntax-based commands. Nearly every action you can achieve through the

user interface can be achieved through syntax. Using syntax allows you to save the

exact specification used during a session. The easiest way to create syntax is to use the

Paste button located on most dialog boxes. This facilitates repetitive analyses on

several data files in an easy way. You save your syntax file with extension .sps.

**Another way to automate tasks within SPSS is the scripting facility. In previous versions
**

of SPSS, this scripting language is called Visual Basic for Application and is used in

Microsoft Office applications as well. Since SPSS wants to provide software for different

operating systems, they have introduced the Python and the R scripting language into

their software. You can use the spss software not only on Windows systems (Microsoft

Windows XP (Professional, 32-bit) or Vista® (32-bit or 64-bit), Windows 7), but also

on Apple® Mac 10.5x (Leopard™) and 10.6x (Snow Leopard™), and Linux. In this

course we will not discuss the syntax and scripting facilities.

**3.7 Feedback on the Research Questions
**

In this chapter we have discussed how to analyze research questions with respect to

one variable. In our research of Suxes at the Pandion University we are able to answer

research objectives 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8 right now. Create your own report in WORD and

mail this to your instructor together with your SPSS data file and SPSS output file. Do

not forget to document your output file as is explained in Section 3.6.1.

**Research Objectives (Field research)
**

(1) How many days per week does one use the restaurant?

(2) What is the average spending in the restaurant on a weekly basis?

**(3) How does one assess the range of choice in the basic assortment and in the
**

luxury assortment?

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(4) How does one assess the customer service offered by the staff?

(6) Is there a need for products which are not in the assortment at this moment?

(7) Who is the customer (gender, student or lecturer, number of study years)?

**(8) What is the overall level of satisfaction of the catering services expressed as a
**

score on a scale from 1 up to 10?

Research Question 1

In the frequency table we see that 28% of the respondents visit the restaurant 5 days

per week. Moreover 28% visit the restaurant 2 days per week and only 4% 4 days a

week. It is important to realize that those who never visit the restaurant are excluded

from the survey.

(See Section 3.2 for cleaning up a frequency table.)

The chart will make clear that the answer ‘4 times a week’ is quite exceptional.

Research Question 2

The expenditures in the restaurant are between 4 and 8 Euro for the largest group of

respondents. The mean value is 8 Euro, but the spread is rather high (the standard

deviation is 4,47 Euro). The histogram clearly shows that the distribution is skewed to

the right.

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(See Sections 3.4.8 and 3.4.9 for instructions on how to create and edit a histogram.)

**Since the distribution is skewed to the right, the mean value will be greater than you
**

might expect. The boxplot shows that this is caused by two outliers of our data.

(See Sections 3.4.6 en 3.4.7 for instructions how on to create and edit a boxplot.)

Research Question 3

We can report the rating of the assortment by publishing two frequency tables.

**It is clear that 28% of the customers are not satisfied with the variety of the basic
**

assortment and 22% are not satisfied with the variety of the luxury assortment.

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**

© J. Smits, Saxion Hogeschool Enschede, June 2010 page 65

We will create a frequency table and a chart for each variable. Customer_type and YearStud. Smits. June 2010 page 66 . Research Question 7 This research question deals with the variables Gender.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Research Question 4 In this table we can see that almost 50% of the respondents are very satisfied with the customer service level of the staff. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Only 8% think customer service is bad. Research Question 6 Only 10 of our respondents mention specific products to extend the assortment. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Striking is that suggestions for more choice in soup and snacks are relatively frequent.

Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. The response Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Summarizing our response group. we can conclude that on the whole there are a slightly more men than women participating (27 males and 23 females).docx 16/03/2011 © J. Smits. June 2010 page 67 .

Tell a story and mention the remarkable outcomes of the graphs or tables and explain to the reader what makes this outcome worthwhile. group consists of 40 students and 10 lecturers.docx 16/03/2011 © J. We did this by formulating a conclusion after each graph or table. Smits. Research Question 8 The marking of the catering services is positive. The student group represents all year groups well. To Conclude In this section we have given an overview of tables and graphs needed to answer the research questions 1 to 4 and 6 to 8. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. except for the fourth-year students who are a little under represented with only 15% in our response group. all charts and tables in the appendices need to be referred to in the main text. You should always consider whether to include a graph or table in your main text or in an appendix. Remember. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. In your report it is important to be able to discuss the graphs and tables. June 2010 page 68 . Only 18% of our response group gives a negative score and the mean score is almost a 7.

In those situations we have a variable (factor) which defines the groups or levels.5) Ordinal or Clustered bar chart (§4. Type 1. Research Questions with R e s p e c t t o Tw o Va r i a b l e s 4.7) Table 4. lower values of the first variable lead to lower values of the second variable. Research question 9 will be analyzed in another way. high values of the first variable lead to Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. in research question (11) Customer_type is the independent variable which defines the groups. Smits. We can construct a cross tabulation and a clustered bar chart. These groups or levels are compared to each other by taking to the other variable into account. grouping variable or independent variable. 3.3) Contingency table or cross tabulation (§4.4. 4. 1. Expenditure is the dependent variable and is measured at a ratio level.6) Nominal Band diagram (§4. Table 4.3) Ratio Comparing MEANS (§4. Type 3). Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. 2. There is said to be a positive relationship if higher values of the one variable lead to higher values on the second variable and of course. and 5) or a factor such as customer type may have several categorical levels (e. Level of measurement of the dependent variable Statistical methods to be used Bar chart representing mean values (§4. Type 2. That level determines the statistical method to be used. A factor like registered years may have several numerical levels (e. If we are dealing with a negative relationship. The variable which defines the groups or levels is called a factor.docx 16/03/2011 © J.2) Interval or Boxplot for groups or levels (§4.1 The other kind of research questions in which two variables are involved deals with the relationship between those variables. The band diagram provides a graphical way to compare the groups mutually. The (mean) expenditure may depend on the type of customer.1 Introduction In a research project there are usually research questions where the differences between groups are of interest. The difference in height illustrates the differences in mean expenditure.g. In a bar chart you can define two bars representing the mean expenditure of students and lecturers. Examples of such research questions in the Suxes Customer Survey at Pandion are (see also Section 1. 4. June 2010 page 69 . because it’s value may be dependent on the group.1): (9) Is there a difference between men and women in appreciation? (10) Is there a difference between students and lecturers in appreciation? (11) Is there a difference between students and lecturers in the amount spent? (12) Is there a difference between students and lecturers in overall satisfaction? For example.g. The variable to be compared is called the dependent variable.1 gives an overview. From the examples it becomes clear that the dependent variable may have any level of measurement.

We will start to analyze research question (11): “Is there a difference between students and lecturers in the amount spent?”. The first step is creating a bar chart displaying the mean expenditures.spv’.1) Coefficient of correlation (§4.5. creating a bar chart displaying mean values is a special option in the dialog Define Simple Bar. Later we will perform statistical tests to see whether the results are significant. Smits. a table or a chart. The theory can be found in Berenson’s Basic Business Statistics. meaning valid for the population as a whole or just (lucky or unlucky) coincidence.3) Table 4. Move the variable Customer_type into the box representing the horizontal axis and the variable Expenditure to the vertical axis. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.8. Level of measurement Statistical method Cross tabulation (§4. lower values of the second variable.6) or Ordinal × Ordinal Band diagram (§4.sav’. From the menus. Save all output from this chapter in a new output file.1) Nominal × Nominal Clustered bar chart (§4. choose: Graphs Chart Builder. 3. 4.8.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Start SPSS and open the data file ‘Suxes Survey. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.2 Comparing Groups with a Simple Bar Chart 1. ‘Suxes Chapter 4.2 In this chapter. (This table only displays the most common situations).2 we again see that the level of measurement determines the method of analysis. In SPSS. 2. An example of such a research question from the Suxes Survey is: (13) Is there a relationship between the score given by customers and the amount spent? In Table 4.8) Ratio × Ratio Scatter plot (§4. research questions with respect to two variables are analyzed on a descriptive level by means of statistics.7) Regression and correlation (§4. June 2010 page 70 .5) + Cramér’s V (§4. In the Gallery from the category Bar choose the variant Simple Bar. This analysis is not valid if the grouping variable (here Customer_type) is dependent on the ratio level variable.

5. In this dialog. 4. For students the mean expenditure is 7 euro per week and for lecturers the mean value is almost 12 euro per week. 2. Figure 4. One way to do that is making a boxplot for both groups in one graph. in the Element Properties dialog. From the menus.3 Comparing Groups with a Boxplot In the previous section we only took the mean values of both groups into account. because may be there are only two lecturers who dine very extensively and the other lecturers only buy a cup of soup and a donut.1 A bar chart displaying the mean expenditure of students and lecturers From the chart it is clear that there is a difference in mean expenditure between students and lecturers. (An explanation and discussion of the implications can be given in the Section conclusions and recommendations at the end of your report). So. That is rather limited. June 2010 page 71 . in order to make a better comparison you have to take the spread (the mutual differences within each group) into account as well. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. It seems that there is a relationship between customer_type and expenditure. Note: Scales on the axes. gridlines. there is the button Transpose which will rotate your boxplot a quarter of a turn. choose: Graphs Chart Builder. Directly after ticking the checkbox. add ‘Expenditures in Suxes Restaurant at Pandion’ as a title and a footnote with the current date and your name and class directly after the copyright sign ©. If you do not use the Reset button. Edit the chart into the layout of Figure 4. you will notice that SPSS leaves the variables of the previous operation in the screen of the Chart Builder.1. Click OK to create the chart. footnote and so on. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. 4. layout of the chart title. we will use the Gallery category Boxplot to select the Simple Boxplot. On the tab Titles/Footnotes. Smits.docx 16/03/2011 © J. As indicated in the diagram of Section 4. title of the axes. 1. select the options Title1 and Footnote 1. At the tab page Basic Elements.1 this is the second way to compare groups if the level of measurement of the dependent variable is ratio or interval.

4. we feel the need to compare the statistics of both groups. do not create groups’. Smits. choose: Data Split File. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.4. FREQUENCIES and DESCRIPTIVES by which statistics can be computed. 1. do not forget to undo the split by running SPLIT FILE with the option ‘Analyze all cases. all analyses are done for each group separately. 4. With SELECT CASES the analysis is done for the selected group only. After your analysis. Again the graph needs some major editing. Make your graph like Figure 4.2.1. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. 3. From the menus. Which command you will actually use in your own research is a matter of personal preference. in our example Custom_type. Add a title and a footer and create the boxplot. We will use the FREQUENCIES command without displaying the frequency table.) Figure 4. Analysing Subgroups with SPLIT FILE The command SPLIT FILE creates groups in the data file based on the values of a certain variable. A third way is using COMPARE MEANS.2 The boxplots.4 Creating Subgroups and Making a Comparison After analyzing the two graphs in the previous sections.docx 16/03/2011 © J.7 how to edit a boxplot.4. June 2010 page 72 . (See Section 3. prepared for publication 4. By using SPLIT FILE we can do this separately for each group. We have already introduced two SPSS commands. because this command is specialized in comparing groups with respect to a number of variables. After running the SPLIT FILE command.

6. 5. 2. 3. The output contains a table with the statistics for each group. From the menus. Move the variable Customer_type to the Groups Based on text box 4. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Smits. June 2010 page 73 . choose: Analyze Descriptive Statistics Frequencies. Click OK. select the option Organize output by groups. Do not display frequency tables. If you want to have separate output blocks. Select the option Compare groups. Now choose the second or third option. so uncheck that option. Select the variable Expenditure and ask for the statistics Mean. Median. there is no output because no analysis has been done. deviation. The only thing done which has been done is the a change of a ‘setting’ allowing SPSS to run each command as often as there are subgroups. Of course. Quartiles and Std. Unchecking this option prevents the display of the frequency tables.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. The first option disables SPLIT FILE. With this option the output of the separate groups are organized in a table.

arithmetic and logical expressions and functions. date and time ranges.docx 16/03/2011 © J.2. This resets the split of the data file. 7. If you start a new session you have to activate SPLIT FILE again. Indicator SPLIT FILE (2) After activating SPLIT FILE the data file is sorted to make the groups. The important difference with SPLIT FILE is that the analysis is only executed once.3 A table with the statistics for each group in a separate row. do not create groups. For restoring the original sorting we have created the variable Respnum. After your analysis you must not forget to undo the split. choose: Data Split File and select the option Analyze all cases. The criteria used to define a subgroup can include: Variable values and ranges. case numbers. 4. This is skilful when you only want to analyse the respondents older than 40 years or want to focus on the students in our data file. Analysing a Subgroup with SELECT CASES You can restrict your analysis to a specific subgroup based on criteria that include variables and complex expressions. for the selected group of cases.4. the message Split by … will appear on the status bar at the bottom of the application window. That is why you must always have such a variable. It only remains in effect for the rest of the session unless you turn it off. (3) The SPLIT FILE status is not stored in the data file. Note (1) If the split-file processing is in effect. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Smits. June 2010 page 74 . Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Figure 4. From the menus.

Before you can proceed with another analysis you must deactivate the selection by turning the filtering off. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. June 2010 page 75 . we can create the histogram. be careful with this option. In this section we will create a histogram for the student respondents. Select the option If condition is satisfied and click the button If ….docx 16/03/2011 © J. 2. Click this button to enter the selection condition With this option unselected cases remain in the data file Note If you want to delete the unselected cases you choose the corresponding option in the panel Output. and after that. So we have to make the selection first. watch out. those deleted respondents will disappear for ever. From the menus. choose: Data Select Cases. 1. Smits. So. after saving your data file. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. However.

In the Data Editor (Data View) unselected cases are marked with a diagonal line through the row number. but SPSS uses the codes to identify them. This brings the variable (Customer_type) in the text box. 3. select the variable to be used in the selection process and click the arrow button. Now. SPSS uses this variable to work with the selection. students and lecturers. You can either type or use the calculator pad to complete the selection line (=1). So you have to remember that ‘1 = Student’ and ‘2 = Lecturer’.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Form the list. Click Continue and OK to activate the selection. The selection procedure generates a new variable named filter_$ with a value 1 for selected cases and a value 0 for unselected cases. Smits. it is important to realize that SPSS knows that there are two types of customers. Only after deactivating the filter are you free to delete this variable. 4. Moreover in the status bar the message Filter On is displayed. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. June 2010 page 76 . The actual selection is based on the values of a newly created variable.

an other sandwich. or dairy products (see question 6 ). Smits. select the option Simple Histogram. Note You can also make selections based on conditions involving two or more variables. So. enter ‘Student Expenditures’ as a title and a footnote containing the current date with your name and class directly after the copyright sign ©. Unselected cases are not included in the analysis. That is important because the graph contains no information about the selection on which it is based. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. a donut. To create a histogram. product1 = 1 | product2 = 1 | product3 = 1 | product4 = 1 (because product1 up to product4 have ‘1 = Yes’ en ‘0 = No’). June 2010 page 77 . Move the variable Expenditure into the X-Axis box and enter an appropriate title and footnote. in the chart builder. 2. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.docx 16/03/2011 © J. 1. (2) All respondents in the restaurant buying a cheese or ham sandwich. Here are two examples. Please note the indicator in the status bar. With our active selection we can start the analysis. the |- sign as OR-operator and the ~-sign as NOT. croissant or baguette. (1) All male students: Customer_type = 1 & Gender = 2 (because Customer_type has ‘1 = Student’ and Gender has ‘2 = Male’). The &-sign can be used for the AND-operator.

5. In order to get percentages in our histogram. Smits. See Section 3. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.9 how to edit a histogram.4. Click Apply to confirm your action.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. As said before.4. 4. Click OK and SPSS will create the next chart for you. June 2010 page 78 . the chart needs to be customized before it can be published. select Bar1 on the dialog Element Properties and change the statistic into Histogram Percent. Customize your histogram to the same layout as Figure 4. 3.

Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Move the variable to be analyzed. 6.4. Click Options to select the statistics you want to be computed. Customer_type. there is no need to split the data file (see Section 4. Smits.1) or to make a selection (see Section 4. From the menus. You can even do the analysis of the subgroups for more variables simultaneously. to the Independent List. 3. Analysing Subgroups with MEANS The statistical procedure MEANS is meant to compare groups with respect to their means (what is in a word?). The level of measurement of the dependent variable needs to be ratio or interval (Scale). to the Dependent List and the variable which defines the groups. 2. Expenditure.4 The student expenditures shown in a histogram For the next analysis you need to deactivate the filter.4. After clicking OK you see that all cases are available again.docx 16/03/2011 © J. choose: Analyze Compare Means Means. 4.3. Figure 4. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. June 2010 page 79 . 1. choose: Data Select Cases and select All Cases.4. Since you enter the variable which defines the groups in the dialog of this procedure. From the menus.2).

However you must know this for your conclusion of course. Smits. 6. The important distinction to the previous discussed analysis is that the variables must have been classified and that both are allowed to have only a nominal level of measurement. 4. Run this command.5. Customize the table into the layout shown in Figure 4. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. see action point number 6 on page 79). 5. June 2010 page 80 . Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. e.g. Usually the percentages are calculated for the levels or subgroups defined by the independent variable.docx 16/03/2011 © J. The percentages can add up across the rows or down the columns. The result of some editing is: Figure 4. you probably have forgotten to deactivate the selection of the previous section. Add Median to the Cell Statistics list and continue. Moreover it is not important (for the CROSSTABS procedure) which variable is independent and which one is dependent.5 Table with statistics 4. The result is a table shown below. (Note: if you only get the row ‘Student’.5 Crosstabs One other way to compare groups is to do a cross tabulation analysis (called CROSSTABS in SPSS) with percentages.

indicating differences between the groups. The Crosstabs procedure offers tests of independence and measures of association and agreement for nominal and ordinal data. choose: Analyze Descriptive Statistics Crosstabs. 2. This is a part of research question (9).4).5. Construct a cross tabulation with the correct percentages. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.5. Generally if you are analyzing a crosstab with a behaviour variable and a demographic variable it is preferred to calculate percentages within each category of this demographic variable.docx 16/03/2011 © J. From the menus. June 2010 page 81 . and.50 strong association • V ≈ 0. If there is a very weak association.1.25 a rather strong association • V ≈ 0. Summary Association of Two Variables The analysis always takes three steps: 1. in a sample can be expressed by the statistic Cramér’s V. The strength of a relationship between two variables in a crosstab (in a sample) can be expressed by the measure Cramér’s V. on the other hand.10 a weak association • V ≈ 0. 4. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Smits. or association. then there are hardly differences between the percentages. strong association.2. • V=0 no association • V ≈ 0.5. The cross tabulation is the basic technique for examining the relationship between two categorical (nominal or ordinal) variables. Strength and Direction of Association The strength of a relationship. For a comparison in a horizontal direction you need column percentages and vice versa. Compute Cramér’s V and explain its value (no association. a weak association.75 very strong association • V=1 maximal association By percenting in the correct direction (either within columns or within rows) you can formulate a conclusion about the direction of association. The outcome is a number between 0 and 1 and the table shows how to come to a conclusion. Give a conclusion based on Cramér’s V and the differences between the percentages. Gender is the variable defining the groups or independent (demographical) variable and the rating might be dependent (Variety_basic). This measure of association is based on chi-square and computed by SPSS (see Section 4. 4. … ) 3. The CROSSTABS Procedure In SPSS we have the CROSSTABS procedure to construct cross tabulations or contingency tables. a strong association implies major differences between the percentages. Note: In a crosstab only one type of percentage is allowed. The purpose of a cross tabulation is to show the relationship (or lack thereof) between two variables We are going to examine the sample to see whether there are differences between male and female respondents (variable Gender) with respect to the rating of the variety of products in the basic assortment (Variety_basic). 1. It is important to describe those differences.

5. (In the figure here below we left out the Noninteger Weights panel. 3. The default crosstab is shown below: The cells of the table show the count or number of cases for each joint combination of values. Start the CROSSTABS procedure by clicking OK and switch to the Output Viewer. 2. This panel will not be used in this course). Cell Display In the dialog CROSSTABS the button Cells raises a dialog in which you can select the cell contents. Move the variables respectively to the Row(s) and Column(s) text boxes. Smits. It is often difficult to analyze a cross tabulation simply by looking at the simple counts in each cell. The next sections will discuss how to insert percentages in the cells and how to calculate statistics. After we make the crosstab again with these adjustments. This can be used to check how many observations are used in the table. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.3. For example. The first output block is a summary with the number of processed cases. so that gives you a check but it is not meant to be inserted into reports. 4. June 2010 page 82 . Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.docx 16/03/2011 © J. 5 female rate the variety of products in the basic assortment as insufficient.

you choose either Row or Column.docx 16/03/2011 © J. which must always be selected. or theoretical frequency if there is no relationship between the two variables (statistically independent). the button Statistics raises a dialog with the available statistics. Column: the percentages add up down the column (vertically).4. Percentages and Residuals. . This last option is not important at this moment. 4. Calculating Statistics A number of statistics are available to determine the relationship between two cross tabulated variables. Total: percentages based on the total number of observations. Note You must make a choice about the cells contents.observed counts and row or column percentages. because otherwise the table becomes too large and too hard to interpret. Counts Observed frequency: the count or number of cases (this option must always be selected). because with more than two entries in a cell the table becomes too large and to hard to interpret. The dialog shows you the available options: Counts. only one other can be included. In the dialog CROSSTABS. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. June 2010 page 83 . but not all three options.observed and expected counts. Expected frequency: the expected count. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. This choice is limited to two entries at the utmost. When you include percentages in a crosstab. Percentages Row: the percentages add up across the rows (horizontally).5. Smits. With the observed counts. Usually you choose between the following options: .

4. use this statistic to indicate the strength of the association in the sample. SPSS Output from CROSSTABS Now we are going to make a cross tabulation with (also) percentages and Cramér’s V. such as Cramérs V. For details see Section 4. Note Strictly speaking you are free to place a variable in the rows or columns of a crosstab.5. 2. 4. choose: Analyze Descriptive Statistics Crosstabs.5. This button gives a dialog to define the cell contents. For details see Section 4. Ask for percentages based on the subgroups of the demographic variable Gender (in the columns). The well-know Chi- square test Cramér's V is known from section 4. If the relationship is significant. From the menus. Smits. 1.docx 16/03/2011 © J.5. 3. Our advice is to place the independent variable in the columns and to use column percentages. Click the button Statistics to calculate Cramér’s V.5. We will use Cramér’s V to analyze the strength of the relationship in our response group. This button gives you the available statistics. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. June 2010 page 84 . Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.3. interpret the level of significance and come to a correct conclusion. Use the button Cells and select the option Column. In Section 6.4 we will discuss the Chi-square cross tabulation test and we will explain how to formulate the corresponding hypotheses.1.5.

2.6. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. we see that women are more satisfied with the variety of the products in the basic assortment. you save this output block in the SPSS output file and it can be put in an appendix of your report. June 2010 page 85 . Of course. This table can be found in the previous section.279 which means that we have a rather strong relationship. We constructed a contingency table with column percentages in order to compare men and women. The value of Cramér’s V is 0. Customize the table into the layout shown in Figure 4. Right-click and choose Show Dimension Label to make the corner text visible Figure 4. So there are some differences between men and women.5. Formulating Conclusions 1. As much as 15% of the male respondents think the variety is poor. if needed. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.6.docx 16/03/2011 © J.279 and the meaning of that value. 4. 3. You just write in the text that Cramér’s V was computed and is equal to 0. The result is: 4.6 The crosstab with a customized layout The output of the statistics: This output block is never included in the report. Inspecting the differences between men and women. Smits.

For example.7. you can change a short. Drag the Statistics pivot icon from the Rows dimension to the bottom of the Column dimension. you can transpose rows and columns (‘flip’ the table).docx 16/03/2011 © J.7 The cross tabulation with counts and percentages on the same row 5. Drag the Statistics pivot icon from the Rows dimension to the bottom of the Column dimension The table is immediately reconfigured to reflect your changes. from the menus choose: View Toolbar. 4. The Column tray. The shaded area in the table indicates what will be moved when you move the pivot icon. Click the third button of the toolbar to open the Pivoting Trays window. Instead. The default tables produced may not display information as neatly or as clearly as you would like. The button to invoke the Pivoting Trays 3. Changing the layout of one table does not affect the results. adjust the order of data in a table. and modify the table in many other ways. Pivoting trays provide a way to move data between columns. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. 2. With pivot tables. thin one by transposing rows and columns. Pivoting Rows and Columns The results from most statistical procedures are displayed in pivot tables. Edit the table into the layout of Figure 4. Smits. The edit mode is characterized by the notched edge around the table. wide table into a long. If the toolbar is not visible.7. 1. 4.5. Figure 4. Select the contingency table and double-click to enter the edit mode. June 2010 page 86 . rows and layers. Click one of the pivot icons to see what it represents. A pop-up label also indicates what the icon represents in the table. it’s a way to display your information in a different or more desirable manner.

docx 16/03/2011 © J. As said before. Here comes the variable which defines the subgroups. We want to display percentages within the categories of the legend variable Gender. 4. 1. Smits. In the dialog Element Properties you can change the Statistic into Percentage() and via the button Set Parameters you can set the ‘Denominator for Computing Percentage’. Select the variable which defines the categories and the variable which defines the clusters (or subgroups). Click Continue and OK in the main dialog. Use the following text as a Title and Footer: Title 1: Variety of basis assortment Title 2: (Rated by females and males) Footnote 1: © current date. Use the Graphs Chart Builder and select the option Clustered Bar. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. 2. June 2010 page 87 . your name and class 5. we want the Legend Variable to be used.6 Creating and editing a clustered bar chart A clear picture is obtained by a clustered bar chart if it displays the same percentages as the cross tabulation. 4. 3. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.

8 A clustered bar chart to compare men and women.adding gridlines and changing their line style into dashed and grey. 7. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. .customizing justifying the labels of the axis’s. Double-click on the chart to activate the Chart Editor. . Smits. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Figure 4. . Remember how to edit a chart: First click the element of the graph.percentages inside the bars and a change of colour and pattern.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Figure 4. .8 show the result of the customizing. 6. You need to change the following elements of the graph: . June 2010 page 88 . make the changes on the tabs in the dialog Properties and click Apply to confirm and see the results.footnote moved to the left under in a smaller font.height and width of the graph.

**Note It is important to check whether the clustered bar chart displays
**

the same percentages as the corresponding crosstabulation. In our

example we see that the bar chart in Figure 4.8 displays the same

percentages as the table in Figure 4.6 and Figure 4.7.

**4.7 Creating and Editing a Band Diagram
**

Another graph which displays the percentages is a band diagram. This is actually a

stacked bar chart in which every bar adds up to 100%. By means of the CHART BUILDER

we can construct this chart.

**1. From the menus, choose: Graphs Chart Builder and select the option Stacked
**

Bar.

**2. Move the variables, Variety_basic and Gender, to the corresponding boxes.
**

On the tab Basic Elements, you can use the transpose to rotate your chart a quarter

of a turn.

**3. Do not forget to enter the titles:
**

Title 1: Variety of basic assortment

Title 2: (Rated by females and males)

Footnote 1: © current date, your name and class.

**4. In the dialog Element Properties you can set the Statistic to Percentage. Please
**

note that the denominator for computing percentages now is the Total for Each X-

Axis Category.

5. Continue and click Apply and create the graph with a simple OK.

The result is a graph which is not ready for publication yet, but we will work on that.

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6. Double click the graph to activate the Chart Editor and transform your lay-out into

Figure 4.9.

We will help you with some remarks to edit your chart.

**7. To arrange the categories in the order Enough downwards to Poor, select the staves
**

and use the tab Categories on the Properties dialog, and change the Direction into

Descending. Confirm your choice with Apply.

**Select the option Descending to get
**

the Categories in the reverse order.

**Uncheck this option to hide the
**

axis title.

8. In order to hide the text Gender, being the axis title, select the X-axis and uncheck

the option Display axis title on the Labels & Ticks tab of the Properties dialog.

Remember, since we have rotated (transposed) the chart, the X-axis now is in the

vertical direction.

9. You can use the button ‘Hide Legend’ to hide the legend.

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10. Select the staves and show the labels by clicking the button ‘Show data labels’. First,

adjust the decimals to zero, and after that, add the value labels. Note that after

adding text to the labels the Number Format has disappeared.

**To display the value labels of a
**

variable you need to put its icon in

the box Displayed. The order in this

box corresponds to the order in the

chart. Do not forget to confirm by

clicking Apply.

**11. Select the horizontal axis (the Y-axis, since we transposed our graph) and (if
**

necessary) adjust the scaling to 100% as the maximum and the Major Increment to

10.

12. Add gridlines and use a dashed line in grey.

**13. After closing the editor you can decrease the height of the picture in the viewer to
**

make it a little more sophisticated.

Figure 4.9 show the final result of our editing.

Figure 4.9 The band diagram, ready for publication

**Note Please note that Figure 4.9 has the same percentages as the
**

crosstabulation of Figure 4.7.

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**4.8 Regression and Correlation
**

If both variables are measured at a ratio level (scale), then can we use a scatter plot to

analyse the relationship. A scatter diagram is used to graphically display bivariate

numerical data. The strength of a relationship, or the association, between two

variables is typically measured by the coefficient of correlation, whose values range

from -1 for a perfect negative correlation up to +1 for a perfect positive correlation (see

Berenson, Chapters 3 and 13). The coefficient of correlation measures the degree of

linear association between two variables. The line is called the regression line.

**4.8.1. Making a Scatter Plot
**

In our Suxes Survey we expect a relationship between the number of visits to the

restaurant and the expenditure (both on a weekly basis). The first step of the analysis

is making a scatter plot to see whether this is true. In the graph the one variable

(Expenditure) is put on the vertical axis, the other (Visits) on the horizontal and the

observations are displayed as points of the scatter. The shape and direction of this

scatter will give us an idea about a possible relationship. Moreover, it is possible to

invoke a third variable (like Gender) in the scatter and mark the point differently, for

example the male a red square and the female a green triangle.

**1. From the menus, choose: Graphs Chart Builder and in the category Scatter/Dot
**

select the option Simple Scatter.

2. Move the variables Expenditure into the Y-Axis box, Visits into the X-Axis and the

respondent number Respnum to the Point Id Label. This latter box becomes

available by checking on the tab ‘Groups/Point ID’ the checkbox ‘Point ID label’.

(Right now we will not use the facility to mark subgroups differently.)

**Use this option to mark
**

subgroups differently.

Figure 4.10 Preview of the scatterplot, with options to include

**3. Add the text ‘Relationship between Visits and Expenditure’ as a title to the plot and
**

do not forget to include your footnote.

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although we have 50 cases in our data file.11. However. In the plot you will see that some points coincide and the marks get a little bold. Adjust the line style of the grid to dashed. There are more respondent numbers close to that mark as well.11 Scatter plot of Expenditure and Visits (customized) Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. without selecting the horizontal and the vertical axes to get a grid in both directions. Double click the graph to activate the editor and take care of the following things. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. If you would leave out these numbers you would only have 24 markers. From the menus. June 2010 page 93 .docx 16/03/2011 © J. the box Leading Characters). Figure 4. after some edits. The result is displayed in Figure 4. on the tab Number Format. choose Options Show Grid Lines. 4. Add a euro sign (Alt+0128) to the numbers on the vertical axis (after selecting the Y-axis. we will hide the respondent numbers to get a clear and clean plot. Smits. From the menus. choose Element Hide data labels or use the button on the toolbar to hide the respondent numbers.

Whether we have theoretical evidence. So. thus Visits. Just note that we made this choice in the previous section already by placing these variables on the Y-axis and the X-axis respectively. Due to several causes we cannot expect all our observations to be perfectly on that line. The simple linear regression equation used to estimate the linear model reads: Yˆ = β 0 + β 1 X Where β0 = the constant or intercept (sample Y intercept) β1 = the slope of the line (regression coefficient of X) In this equation Yˆ is the dependent variable. then you notice that those values are close to a rising line. The accuracy of our estimation will depend on the spread of our observations with respect to that ‘central’ line. choose: Analyze Regression Linear. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. you can find the equation of it by means of a regression analysis. and X the independent variable. we will show you how the calculations are done by SPSS. Calculating the Regression Line If you take Figure 4. June 2010 page 94 . From the menus. An examination of the graph leads to the conclusion that people who pay more visits to the restaurant have a higher level of expenditure. This ‘optimal’ line can be used for calculating predictions. we are looking for a line which minimizes the distance between the data points and that line. Move the dependent variable (Expenditure) to the Dependent text box and the independent variable (Visits) to the Independent(s) text box.docx 16/03/2011 © J. 1. So it seems reasonable to analyse this relationship. If there is a reason to assume that the relationship can be described by means of a straight line. Let us call this line the ‘central’ line for a moment. 4. on the basis of our data we can calculate an estimation of the weekly expenditures in the restaurant on the basis of the number of visits per week if we have a formula for that ‘central’ line. However.8. Smits.2. 2. 3 up to 5 visits a week. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. 2. we introduce the symbol Yˆ (Y hat) for the latter. in our example Expenditures. or not. To distinguish between the real data (Y) and our own predictions.11 into account and calculate the mean value of expenditure at 1.

These coefficients can tell us something about the quality of the regression line. but has an other functional form (for example quadratic). The closer the coefficient of correlation is to 1 or –1. our subject for the next section. There might be no association or the relationship is not linear. so the more accurate our prediction will be. remember that the regression coefficient and the coefficient of correlation always have the same sign. If the coefficient of correlation is negative. Calculating the Coefficients of Correlation and Determination The output block Model Summary shows us the coefficient of correlation R and the coefficient of determination R2 (R square). As you can observe in Figure 4. The accuracy of this estimation will be discussed by means of the coefficient of determination. In our example: more visits a week will lead to a higher level of expenditures. in other words: the fit of the line to the scatter. The constant or intercept The slope or regression coefficient This output block with the coefficients is important for the equation. the better the quality of the linear relationship is.11 the vertical line at two visits a week contains observations above and below the amount of € 5. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.3.8. the second line the slope.48 euro Because this outcome is not the real value but our estimation. we can calculate (predict) the expenditure of a person who pays two visits a week to the restaurant: ^ Expenditure = 1.005 + 2. we use a hat above the name of the variable in the equation. you must be aware of it and always take a close inspection to the scatter and decide whether a linear regression is reasonable.725 which indicates a positive association.236 × Visits According to this equation. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.005 + 2. So. 4. The regression coefficient (slope) will be negative.236 × 2 = 5. If the coefficient of correlation is positive. The prediction must be understood as an average spending by one who pays two visits a week to the restaurant. If the coefficient of correlation equals 0. In our example the regression equation reads: Yˆ = 1. there is a negative association (descending line). either both are positive.005 + 2. then there is no linear relationship. The coefficient of determination can be interpreted as a percentage The value of the coefficient of correlation R is always in between–1 and 1. Smits. The first line contains the constant.236 X . or both are negative or both are zero.48.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Although a discussion of non-linear regression models is beyond the scope of this book. it reads: ^ Expenditure = 1. our regression will rise. June 2010 page 95 . If we use the names of the variables. In our example we have a coefficient of correlation equal to 0.

Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Smits. In our example we want to estimate the expenditure on the basis of the number of visits to the restaurant.526. The proportion of variation of Y that is explained by the independent variable X in the regression model. To conclude. also known as the percentage of variation explained by the model. expenditures will depend on other factors as well. The measure for this quality concept is the coefficient of correlation.6% of the variation in expenditures can be explained by the variability in the number of visits per week.725. the average expenditure in the restaurant is 2. We wonder how much of the variation in the expenditures is related to the number of visits.50 euro per day. This can be found as an option in the Linear Regression dialog.4. 4. the better the regression model can be used for predictions. 52. Later we will discuss how to perform a statistical test whether or not this constant has a significant contribution to the model. This coefficient is just the square of the coefficient of correlation. The equation reads: Yˆ = bX In our example we would find: Yˆ = 2. Of course. is known as the coefficient of determination. and how much is left ‘unexplained’. Or.5 X This is easier to understand: Each extra visit to the restaurant increases the expenditure with 2. the closer the points are to the regression line. which measures the strength of the relationship.50 euro. But it is possible to do the regression analysis excluding the constant in the equation. So R2 equals 0. The square of the coefficient of correlation is the coefficient of determination.8. A Regression Model without an Intercept In our example it is hard to give a meaningful interpretation to the intercept (the constant in the regression model). In our example R equals 0. for example: are we dealing with a student or a lecturer. Therefore.docx 16/03/2011 © J. We are using the regression line to calculate predictions. If somebody has 0 visits a week to the restaurant we would expect the expenditure to be 0 euro. June 2010 page 96 . R2 is the percentage variation explained for 1 – R2 is the percentage unexplained The coefficient of determination R2 is always between 0 and 1.

4.8. In the chart editor. 1. Activate the chart by double clicking. Research Questions (Field Research) (9) Is there a difference between men and women in appreciation? (10) Is there a difference between students and lecturers in appreciation? (11) Is there a difference between students and lecturers in the amount spent? (12) Is there a difference between students and lecturers in overall satisfaction? Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. This option is available in the context menu (right mouse button) also. We will give an answer to the following research questions.9 Feedback on the Research Questions This chapter has answered research questions with respect to two variables.5. because you cannot compare this outcome with a model which includes the intercept (the previous section). Figure 4. We want to add the regression line in a copy of the plot. choose Elements Fit Line at Total. 4.12 The regression line added to the scatter plot 3. June 2010 page 97 .1.886 we must be careful. Although we might be glad that the coefficient of determination R2 (R square) increased to 0. 2. from the menus. Drawing the Regression Line in the Scatter Plot Take the scatter plot of Section 4. copy and paste this after your last entry in the output viewer. You can adjust the line style and enlarge the font size of the determination coefficient.8. Smits.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. It is important to distinguish between research questions about comparing groups and questions about a relationship between variables.

5 discussed how to make a cross tabulation. 4 and 5 of the questionnaire. Smits. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.252 Satisfaction customer service level × gender 0.205 Note: this table was made in WORD on the basis of the three statistic outputs (symmetric measures) of SPSS. We are going to make three cross tabulation with Gender and will also calculate Cramér’s V. This can be illustrated with a clustered bar chart (see Section 4.7). June 2010 page 98 . the variables Variety_basic.279 Variety luxury assortment × gender 0. That means that in our sample there are differences between male and female respondents. Variety_luxe and Staff. Section 4. On the whole we see that women are relatively more satisfied about the variety. (13) Is there a relationship between the score given by customers and the amount spent? Research Question 9 The customer satisfaction of the restaurant is measured by questions 3.6) or a band diagram (see Section 4. Cramér’s V Variety basic assortment × gender 0.docx 16/03/2011 © J. but that the male respondents are relatively more satisfied with the customer service level of the staff. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. The values of Cramér’s V in the three cross tabulations show that there is a rather strong association between customer satisfaction and gender in the sample.

docx 16/03/2011 © J.6) or a band diagram (see Section 4. We will not display the cross tabulations here. It is remarkable that 10% of the students rate the service level of the staff as poor.195 Variety luxury assortment × customer_type 0.230 Satisfaction customer service level × customer_type 0. Cramér’s V Variety basic assortment × customer_type 0. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. you must be careful in formulating a conclusion. The sample is rather small (only 40 students and 10 lecturers) to make conclusions which are statistically valid. Smits. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Research Question 10 This research question can be answered in the same way as research question 9.4 we shall discuss how to apply the chi-square cross tabulation test and see that the differences are not significant. In Section 6. but represent them by means of a clustered bar chart (see Section 4.167 The low values of Cramér’s V indicate that the differences between students and lecturers are rather small. Again we construct cross tabulations and compute Cramér’s V for each table. The (small) differences in the sample can be seen in the graphs. However.7). June 2010 page 99 .

Research Question 11 When you compare students and lecturers with respect to their expenditures you must realize that the dependent variable has a ratio level of measurement.docx 16/03/2011 © J. June 2010 page 100 . Smits. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.1 indicates that you can use a boxplot to compare the two groups. or you can use the SPSS procedure MEANS. The diagram of Section 4. This leads to the following results: Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.

whereas lecturers spend almost 12 euro. Research Question 12 There seems to hardly be any difference between the mean values of both groups.2) is a little bit higher than that of the students (6. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. June 2010 page 101 .6). That explains that the mean mark of the lecturers (7. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.) From the graph and the table it becomes clear that the students’ expenditures are on the average much lower.3 how to create this boxplot.docx 16/03/2011 © J. (See Section 4. although there are some students who are very negative and relatively more lecturers giving a score of 9. Students spend (on the average) 7 euro. It is striking that the spread (standard deviation) in the group lecturers is much higher than that of the students. Smits.

Mark for the catering service of Suxes Of course.868 2.000 service of Suxes a.docx 16/03/2011 © J. The relationship between the variables is not that strong.582a . the scatter seems to be around a straight line. So.547 -1. (Note: please do not forget to use the word Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.582 4. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.755 X . June 2010 page 102 .750 . Dependent Variable: Expenditure in the restaurant on a weekly basis Model Summary Adjusted R Std. 1 (Constant) -3.339 . Smits. Coefficientsa Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients Model B Std. Research Question 13 Both variables in this research question have a ratio level of measurement.136 Mark for the catering 1. but in an appendix. The coefficient of determination is R2 = 0.755 × Mark . Predictors: (Constant). So we can make a scatter diagram to see whether a linear regression model makes sense.339 meaning that 34% of the variation in expenditures can be explained by the variation in the marks. With the names of the variables instead: ^ Expenditure = − 3. We conclude that the regression equation reads: Yˆ = − 3.324 3. we can try and see what a linear model brings. Error Beta t Sig.673 a. Moreover. In the scatter plot there is a relationship between Expenditure and Mark.518 .868 + 1.369 . Error of Model R R Square Square the Estimate 1 .868 + 1. this output must not be included in your research memorandum itself.755 .

Note In this example the value of R2 is rather low. Smits. This can be done with markers for the groups. In the scatter plot we will get different markers for students and lecturers. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.docx 16/03/2011 © J. otherwise you ‘get your money back’. We conclude that there are no large differences between the two groups. In this reader we will not discuss statistical tests for the linear model. June 2010 page 103 .) It is important that you mention that this equation is valid only for marks between 3 and 9. We applied the use of a marker in the next figure by activating the option ‘Grouping/stacking variable’ (see Figure 4. the group of lecturers is actually too small to be able to make statements. but. variation in your explanation. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. It is obvious that we want to see these differences in the scatter plot. In the research questions we examined the differences between men and women and the differences between students and lecturers.10). That implies that the association between mark and expenditure is weak and therefore the equation not that useful.

June 2010 page 104 .Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Smits. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.

2. The graphs will be made by means of the CHART BUILDER.5. This results in a kind of super variable containing the count of the separate ones. 5. this set will also be saved within the data file. If your output file of the previous chapter is still open. We will use the procedure CUSTOM TABLES to tabulate. Which products do you buy in the restaurant? (more answers are allowed) Cheese or ham sandwich Other kind of sandwiches Donut. The questionnaire of the Suxes Survey contained one question where more answers are allowed: 6.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Now we want to summarize those separate variables into one table or graph. 2. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. If you save your data file. 1. We want to save the output of this chapter in a new output file.1 Defining the Multiple Response Set We start to combine the nine separate variables into one set. choose: Analyze Tables Multiple Response Sets. close this file by choosing from the menus: File Close. because the user interface with its preview of the table is very useful. June 2010 page 105 . Dealing with Multiple Response In this chapter we will discuss how to analyse multiple response variables by means of tables and graphs. Smits. called a Multiple Response Set.1 we introduced 9 dichotomous variables to process the answers to this question. So in future sessions the set is still available and that is very convenient. croissant or baguette Dairy products Coffee or tea Fruits Soup Salads Dinner In Section 1. From the menus.

Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.docx 16/03/2011 © J.1 Define Multiple Response Set dialog box As described in the code book (see Section 1. The output viewer shows you a diagram. Because we want to know how many respondents bought a certain product. but change the entry into ‘5. we must count the values 1 (Counted Value).3). So keep it in your output file. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Counts the value 1 for all variables in the set. This table is created for documenting the output file to remember which variables are included in the set.1. SPSSreports that a multiple response set was made. This table is just for your information and there is no need to publish it.1 Multiple Response Set’ and collapse this item. Fill in the dialog Multiple Response Sets as shown in Figure 5. 3. we have introduced the codes ‘1= Yes’ and ‘0= No’. June 2010 page 106 . Smits. Figure 5.

But the most important difference with the other procedures is the editing afterwards to make the table suitable for publication. With CUSTOM TABLES you design the table before actually creating it. The procedures FREQUENCIES and CROSSTABS from the menus: Analyze Multiple Response must be dissuaded because their output is not that useful.2 Creating a Simple Table with CUSTOM TABLES There are several ways to create tables. 2. although it might seem to be a little more complicated than the cross tabs procedure we used in the previous chapter.docx 16/03/2011 © J. click this option. So you will get tables. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. You must realize that this file has changed. choose: Analyze Tables Custom Tables. 1. Smits. which are (almost) ready for publication. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. 5. because a new multiple response set has been created and added to the data file. because they have not got time for all that editing work. This is because CUSTOM TABLES uses this information to build a preview of the table. In this chapter we choose to use the procedure CUSTOM TABLES. If you do not want to see this dialog again. SPSS advises you to define value labels for all categorical variables and to set the measurement levels correctly. 4. We already discussed the importance of Value labels and measurement levels in Chapter 1. They can even paste the syntax of the CUSTOM TABLES procedure to make batch jobs to run an analysis almost automatically. with respect to user interface and the layout of the table the procedure CUSTOM TABLES excels all other procedures. Click OK to continue. That is very welcome to research companies doing surveys on a daily or weekly basis. June 2010 page 107 . Moreover. The first time you use the CUSTOM TABLES dialog. From the menus. Save your output file as ‘Suxes Survey Output Chap 5’ and save your data file as well.

To make the table useful for a report. 3. indicating that they bought this recently.docx 16/03/2011 © J. June 2010 page 108 . 5. we will discuss a number of extra facilities. 4. but at this very moment we just want to see the basic table. Drag and drop the super variable $Product into the Rows area. The Multiple Response Set $Product containing the variables Product1 up to Product9 In the Variables list. the Categories textbox displays the variables contained in the multiple response set. Smits. it needs to contain extra information such as the total number of respondents buying products and not only counts but also percentages. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. This table shows us how many respondents checked a certain product. Reopen the CUSTOM TABLES dialog. Click OK and the next table is created by SPSS. you can find the ‘super variable’ $Product as the last entry. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Later. If you select this set.

6. If. If it is selected. Click Apply to return to the main dialog again. Note Instead of choosing from the menu and searching for the entries to open a recently used dialog. select it with a mouse click. Adjust the labels and change the decimals to 0. Finish this dialog with a click on ‘Apply to Selection’ to return to the main dialog. Now we are going to add percentages and a total row. in the Output Viewer it is the sixth one from the left. the first column of the preview table is not selected. in the Data Editor it is the fourth one from the left side. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. If you click this Dialog Recall button. This button is on the toolbar. The next step is entering the total. The top entry of this list is the last used procedure. We are not done yet. in the CUSTOM TABLES dialog. Click in the CUSTOM TABLES dialog on the other button: ‘Categories and Totals’.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Click this button and move from the Statistics panel the entry ‘Column N %’ into the Display list. June 2010 page 109 . In the lower part of this dialog you can click the option Total. Smits. a list with the recently used procedures pops up. it gets a bright yellow background and the button ‘Summary Statistics’ is enabled. it is more convient to use the Dialog Recall button. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. You can adjust the label if necessary. 7.

Smits. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. 8. 9. Adjust the label if necessary The last step is adding a title and a footer (Caption) to the table. Select the second tab of the CUSTOM TABLES dialog called Titles. A smart way to enter the current date. Click this option to insert a total. run the procedure CUSTOM TABLES. Select the Titles tab. June 2010 page 110 . Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Finally.docx 16/03/2011 © J.

so three of them did not buy any product. one of the research questions is whether there are differences between men and women with respect to the products they buy. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. and that is the basis of the percentage calculations. there are 50 respondents. If we extend our table and insert the variable Gender in the columns. 10. In our Suxes Survey. Recall the CUSTOM TABLES dialog. Figure 5. 1.docx 16/03/2011 © J. However. June 2010 page 111 . In our data file.2. Smits. in the total end row. Customize the table to the layout shown in Figure 5. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. It is important to realise that those three are excluded from this table. it is possible to include those three respondents in the table by defining an extra variable which registrates ‘No product bought’. The table shows us. Use the option Show Dimension Label in the context menu (right mouse button).3 Creating a Cross Tabulation with CUSTOM TABLES Many research questions are about differences between subgroups with respect to the products they buy. it becomes easy to make the comparison. So 47 makes 100%. Of course the percentages in the column do not add up to 100% because more than one answer is allowed for.2 Summary of products bought by visitors of the restaurant 5. that the number of respondents buying one or more products is 47.

5. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. more favourite to men (37%) than women (10%). Smits. June 2010 page 112 . split up to men and women.docx 16/03/2011 © J.3)! Figure 5. It is clear that there are almost no differences between men and women. The other settings remain in effect. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. The only product with a difference is soup. 2. Just a few clicks. Right-click on the Variable label of Gender and uncheck the option ‘Show Variable Label’ to remove it from the design. Insert a column with the row totals. Drag and drop the variable Gender into the columns area. and we have a perfect result (see Figure 5. 3.3 An overview of the bought products. so it is done already. Note With this table. 4. it is easy to come to a conclusion.

5. Edit the graph (see Figure 5. you need to specify the percentage base. In order to get the correct percentages. 1. choose: Graphs Chart Builder and on the tab Gallery under the category Bar select Simple Bar. In order to create the chart we need the Multiple Response Set we constructed in the first section. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Drag the variable $Product (the last one from the list Variables) into the X-Axis box. June 2010 page 113 . The charts will be based upon this ‘super’ variable. Please enter ‘Summary of bought products’ as a title and do not forget to include the footnote in this dialog. Click OK to produce the graph. from the Statistics drop down menu. 2.4 Creating a Simple Bar Chart We start to make a simple bar chart of the variables Product1 up to Product9.4). select the option Response Percentage.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Smits. 5. 3. Confirm this choice with Apply. 4. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. From the menus. In the dialog Element Properties.

the shape of the graph is the same.4 A bar chart displaying the number of products bought by the visitors A short enumeration of the concerning operations: • Rotate the graph (remember. • Change the label of the horizontal axis (Y) (if you think this is necessary). • Change the order of the labels of the vertical axis (X) into descending. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. size and justification. Note If we display the counts in the graph. June 2010 page 114 . the names X and Y are not updated). for comparing purposes. • Customize title and footnote. Figure 5. • Hide the label of the X-axis. it is better to work with percentages. in the points measurement system). • Change the chart size (canvas) into height 13 cm and width 20 cm (or height 300 and width 480.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Only. font family. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. colour grey. • Customize the horizontal axis (Y): scale. Smits. add gridlines and change then to dashed. add a % sign as trailing character.

June 2010 page 115 . The vertical axis starts on the horizontal axis and runs upwards.docx 16/03/2011 © J.3. this chart must display the same percentages as Figure 5. From the menus. 3. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. A work-around is using the separate (original) variables after changing the level of measurement within the CHART BUILDER. Select the Categories tab and select Sort by Statistic in an Ascending direction. The CHART BUILDER does not facilitate you using the multiple response set as the percentage base and SPSS will come up with different percentages.5 Sorting the Categories SPSS provides an easy way to sort the categories in the graph. Select the variables Product1 up to Product9 and change the level of measurement into Scale with the context menu (right mouse button). Of course. we can do some calculations with these variables. You can sort the staves by their label. Move the variable Gender into the box ‘Cluster on X: set color’.5 A bar chart sorted by the number of products bought by the visitors 5. 2. Smits. the values. we create a clustered bar chart which displays the percentages for males and females. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. the statistics or fully customized. So. choose: Graphs Chart Builder and select Clustered Bar. constructing a clustered bar chart will be quite different. 1. 5. Figure 5. By (temporarily) changing the level of measurement into a ratio level. 1.6 Creating a Clustered Bar Chart In order to compare men and women. A useful display is the Pareto order.

docx 16/03/2011 © J. June 2010 page 116 . After changing the measurement level into Scale. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Smits. Drag the nine product variables into the Y-axis box. SPSS is able to calculate statistics. Click OK to confirm. 4. SPSS will ask you to confirm this operation by showing a popup which contains the message that the variables will be summarized and that the name of each variable will be used as a category in the chart.

5 as a value for the question mark.5’. If you have coded the variables with 1= ‘Yes’ and 2= ‘No’. 6. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Apply this procedure to the other variables as well (sorry …) and finally confirm this whole operation by clicking the Apply button. the function ‘Percentages greater that 0. 5.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. In the dialog Element Properties we have to change the statistic function into ‘Percentage Greater Than (?)’ and via the button Set Parameters you can enter 0. one by one. On the Basic Elements tab you can find the Transpose button to rotate your chart by a quarter of a turn.5’ gives as exactly the percentage of people buying this product. Yes. sorry. all of them. Don’t forget to Apply this at the end. Note Since the variables Product1 up to Product9 are coded with 1= ‘Yes’ and 0= ‘No’. Smits. June 2010 page 117 . you should use the function ‘Percentage greater than 1.

If a respondent has not filled out one of the product questions. 7. However. By default.docx 16/03/2011 © J. June 2010 page 118 . 9. 8. Use the Options button to get the Options dialog and in the pane ‘Summary Statistics and Case Values’. your name and class The last thing we need to adjust is the way SPSS will cope with missing values. Edit the chart into the layout of Figure 5. Smits. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. check the option ‘Exclude variable-by-variable to maximize the use of data’. SPSS does this the severe way: the ‘listwise’ deletion. we do not want to exclude this person from our graph. so we have to change this setting. but the others are correct. Click OK and create the graph. Please use the next text as title and footnote: Title 1: Summary of bought products Title 2: (Comparison of men and women) Footnote 1: © current date.6. we want to maximize the use of our date. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.

On the Categories tab of the Properties dialog you can change the sort. Of course we can compare students and lecturers. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. We discussed how to create tables and graphs to answer research question (5).5 how to create the chart) we compared men and women. 5. June 2010 page 119 .2 how to create this table. Note The vertical axis starts in the origin which is down to the left in the diagram. that is why we place the two beside each other. Smits. That is why (in our perspective) the products are displayed in reverse order. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Figure 5. Unfortunately we cannot adjust the sort within the legend. There were hardly any differences between the groups (except for the soup).) In our analysis (see Section 5. That leads to the next table.7 Feedback on the Research Questions This chapter deals with multiple response questions.docx 16/03/2011 © J. down rightin the chart. (See Section 5.6 A clustered bar chart displaying the products bought by men and women.

7 A summary of bought products.8 A summary of bought products. Figure 5. But with a graph it is easier. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. with respect to customer type Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Smits. you can analyse the differences between students and lecturers. Figure 5.docx 16/03/2011 © J. with respect to customer type By comparing the percentages. June 2010 page 120 .

“intensions”. The Likert-type response format. Scaled Response Questions 6. June 2010 page 121 . (from: Burns and Bush. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. which are designed to measure unobservable constructs. Sometimes numbers are used to indicate a single unit of distance between each position on the scale. So the marketing researcher must develop some means of allowing respondents to express the direction and the intensity of their impressions in both a convenient and understandable manner. These scales include the modified Likert scale.1 The intensity continuum underlying scaled-response question forms Marketing researchers often fall back on standard types of scaled-response question forms used by the industry. If a competitor is giving away free samples. opinions. brand loyalty can be defined as the last brand acquired. such as attitudes. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. we must actually measure concepts that we are studying as we conduct marketing research. the marketing researcher uses scaled-response questions. it is common practice to design scaled-response questions in an assumed interval-scale format. whereas the second one will yield a truer measurement. Marketing Research). in fact.docx 16/03/2011 © J. The way the researcher decides how to measure a concept greatly impacts what he or she can or cannot say about these concepts. “attitudes”. has been extensively modified and adapted by marketing researchers. To do this. it is considered a point along a continuum. All these constructs share the measurement difficulty that they are unobservable. 6. and so on is very important when it comes time to interpret our study. Marketing researchers often wish to measure subjective properties of consumers. the scale ranges from an extreme negative through a neutral to an extreme positive designation. evaluations. borrowed from a formal scale development approach developed by Rensis Likert. A good under- standing of measurement is basic knowledge among marketing researchers. that its definition varies from researcher to researcher. Since most of these psychological properties exist on a continuum ranging from one extreme to another in the mind of the respondent. The value of this scale is apparent because respondents are asked how much they agree or disagree with the statement. the scale captures the intensity of their feelings. and the semantic differential. Smits. The Modified Likert Scale The modified Likert scale is a scaled-response form in which respondents are asked to indicate their degree of agreement or disagreement on a symmetric agree-disagree scale for each of a series of statements. or it can be defined as the person’s most preferred brand. so much. perceptions. the first definition will give a false reading on brand loyalty. Usually. The neutral point is not considered zero or an origin. instead. How we measure “sales potential”. but not always. “demand”. feelings and intentions. For instance.1 Introduction to Scaled Response Questions In most cases. That is. Extremely Neutral Extremely Negative Positive Strongly Somewhat Neither Agree Somewhat Strongly Disagree Disagree nor Disagree Agree Agree 1 2 3 4 5 Extremely Very Somewhat No Opinion Somewhat Very Extremely Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Dissatisfied 4 Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied 1 2 3 5 6 7 Extremely Very Somewhat No Opinion Somewhat Very Extremely Unfavourable Unfavourable Unfavourable 4 Favourable Favourable Favourable 1 2 3 5 6 7 Figure 6. the life- style inventory.

Neither Strongly Agree Nor Strongly Statement Disagree Disagree Disagree Agree Agree I shop a lot for “specials”. The underlying belief is that knowledge of consumers’ lifestyles. a researcher must use a very large number of lifestyle statements. “high quality—low quality”. The construction of a semantic differential scale begins with the determination of a concept or object to be rated. These attributes are measured by a series of AIO statements. store or other images. or financially optimistic. To perform market segmentation. “slightly”. Others use the term only for questions with agree–disagree response options. or person. Many companies use psychographics as a market targeting tool. The focus of the semantic differential is on the measurement of the meaning of an object. See Burns and Bush “Marketing Insight 10. say a brand. this type of scale works very well when a marketing researcher is attempting to determine brand. “convenient— inconvenient”. or the like is a Likert variation. The closer the respondent checks to an endpoint on a line. by checking the appropriate line. The respondent then indicates his or her evaluation of the performance of the object. We tend to agree with the second opinion and prefer to refer to any scaled measurement other than an agree-disagree dimension as a “sensitivity” or “intensity” scale.docx 16/03/2011 © J. to use seven separators between the pairs. a sport enthusiast. although not mandatory. Herein lies a dilemma. store patrons versus nonpatrons. June 2010 page 122 . My children are the most important thing 1 2 3 4 5 in my life. not the least of which is as a market segmentation basis and tool. “hot—cold”. as opposed to just demographics. the more intense is his or her evaluation of the object being measured. I usually keep my house very neat and 1 2 3 4 5 clean. Lifestyle inventories are valuable to marketers in a number of ways. child oriented. I would rather spend a quiet evening at 1 2 3 4 5 home than go out and party. I think I have more self-confidence than 1 2 3 4 5 most people. mental associations. for potential respondents. concept. offers direction for marketing decisions. and opinions (AIO’s) with a Likert scale. These questions can be used to distinguish among types of purchasers such as heavy versus light users of a product. usually in the form presented in. home centred. even panel members who are compensated for their participation in surveys. Figure 6. and respondents indicate their impressions of each property by indicating locations along its continuum. Because many marketing stimuli have meaning. fashion-conscious. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. They can assess the degree to which a person is price-conscious. The Lifestyle Inventory Lifestyle questions measure a person’s activities. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.3” that describes a way to greatly reduce the size of the questionnaire but still achieve the goal of a lifestyle market segmentation survey. and it is customary. Some assume that any intensity scale using descriptors such as “strongly”. Smits. 1 2 3 4 5 I usually have one or more outfits that 1 2 3 4 5 are of the very latest style. “somewhat”. The Semantic Differential Scale The semantic differential scale contains a series of bipolar adjectives for the various properties of the object under study. or media vehicle users versus nonusers. or connotations. and a great many respondents must be involved in the survey. interests. dislike long questionnaires. The opposites are positioned at the endpoints of a continuum of intensity. Depending on the object. The researcher then selects bipolar pairs of words or phrases to be used to describe the object’s salient properties. some examples might be “friendly—unfriendly”. an opinion giver.2 Examples of Lifestyle Statements on a questionnaire The technique was originated by advertising strategists who wanted to obtain descriptions of groups of consumers as a means of establishing more effective advertising.

are customary. This flipping procedure is used to avoid the “halo effect”. Reasons with respect to the environment: Uncomfortable neighbourhood Too few facilities I want to live in another neighbourhood Unsafe neighbourhood The neighbourhood is too polluted Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. 1. Smits. However it is entirely possible that some specific aspect of the Suxes restaurant might not be as good as the others. you might be tempted to just check all of the answers on the right-hand side. 2.docx 16/03/2011 © J. 6. you should note that they have been randomly flipped to avoid having all the “good” ones on one side. High prices _____ _____ _____ ____ _____ _____ _____ Low prices Inconvenient location _____ _____ _____ ____ _____ _____ _____ Convenient location For me _____ _____ _____ ____ _____ _____ _____ Not for me Warm atmosphere _____ _____ _____ ____ _____ _____ _____ Cold atmosphere Limited menu _____ _____ _____ ____ _____ _____ _____ Wide menu Fast service _____ _____ _____ ____ _____ _____ _____ Slow service Low quality food _____ _____ _____ ____ _____ _____ _____ High-quality food A special place _____ _____ _____ ____ _____ _____ _____ An Everyday place Figure 6. the numbers 1. or the menu is not as broad as you would like. Indicate your impression of the Suxes restaurant at Pandion by checking the line corresponding to your opinion for each descriptors. Perhaps the restaurant is not located in a very convenient place. Dear customer. company or brand images As you look at the phrases. You have given us notice to leave. We will discuss this in Section 6. The reasons for moving What is your most urgent reasons for moving? (You can tick more answers. beginning from the left side.3 The semantic differential scale is useful when measuring store. 3. June 2010 page 123 . Then an average is computed for each bipolar pair. Usually. reasons for moving and get your evaluation of the house and its environment.2 Case ‘Move On’ The rental housing organisation ‘Move On’ wants to know how their customers evaluate their house or apartment. Suppose you have a very positive image of Suxes at Pandion. and the marketing researcher has a very nice graphical communication vehicle with which to report the findings to his or her client. Randomly flipping favourable and negative ends of the descriptors in a semantic differential scale minimizes the halo effect. We will explain this effect with an example. Each check line is assigned a number for coding. and so on.7 (see Figure 6. With this questionnaire we would like to get an insight in your motivation. Personal reasons: Considerations of health Divorce or end of a relationship Change in work or location of job Change of the family A marriage or get together Buying a house Moving to a retirement centre. The averages are plotted as you can see them. One of the most appealing aspects of the semantic differential is the ability of the researcher to compute averages and then to plot a “profile” of the brand or company image. Reasons related to the house: The house is too large The house is too small The house is in bad shape Too high a rent I would like to have another type of house _______________________________________ C. service flat or sheltered accommodation _______________________________________ B.) A. When a customer is about to move.10). he or she will be asked to fill out a short questionnaire. If all of the positive items were on the right-hand side. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Moreover we are highly interested in your opinion about our services.

Smits. please rate the next aspects. Leasing History The number of years I have leased this house or apartment 0 — 5 years 5 — 10 years exceeding 10 years Our co-ordinator will collect this form after his inspection visit. Evalation of our services In order to improve our service. Circle your choice. June 2010 page 124 . Thank you! Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. 1=Good 2=Sufficient 3=Insufficient 4=Bad Openings hours 1 2 3 4 Contacts with Residence Office 1 2 3 4 Technical Services 1 2 3 4 Rate of fixing technical problems 1 2 3 4 Establishment of leasing agreement 1 2 3 4 Support of doorkeeper 1 2 3 4 Contacts with our administration desk 1 2 3 4 Contactability by phone 1 2 3 4 General opinion about our services 1 2 3 4 5. ceiling or floors Problems with bathroom. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. shower or lavatory No central heating No separate kitchen Storage room is too small or inconvenient _______________________________________ 3.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Rating of the house Does your house have any shortcomings or failings? (More answers are allowed) Sound insulation Thermal insulation Moisture problems Problems with the roof. Would you be so kind to fill it out before? We appreciate your cooperation. We have difficulties with our neighbours Noise pollution _______________________________________ 2. Evaluation of the environment Please rate the next subjects with respect to your former neighbourhood. 1=Good 2=Sufficient 3=Insufficient 4=Bad Green place 1 2 3 4 Parking place 1 2 3 4 Road and traffic safety 1 2 3 4 Shops 1 2 3 4 Public transport 1 2 3 4 Social security 1 2 3 4 4.

It is clear that constructing separate tables for each item will not lead to a concise report. 4. i. From the menus.sav. Smits.1. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.sav. Question Variable Variable label Value labels Measurement number name 3 environment1 Green place 1 = Good ordinal environment2 Parking place 2 = Sufficient ordinal environment3 Road and traffic safety 3 = Insufficient ordinal environment4 Shops 4 = Bad ordinal environment5 Public transport ordinal environment6 Social security ordinal 4 service1 Openings hours 1 = Good ordinal service2 Contacts with Residence Office 2 = Sufficient ordinal service3 Technical Services 3 = Insufficient ordinal service4 Rate of fixing technical problems 4 = Bad ordinal service5 Establishment of leasing agreement ordinal service6 Support of doorkeeper ordinal service7 Contacts with our administration desk ordinal service8 Contactability by phone ordinal service9 General opinion about our services ordinal Table 6. Open your browser and download the data file MoveOn. We will use the module CUSTOM TABLE as we did in the previous chapter. Each item is a variable so our code book lists a number of variables. Drag the variables Environment1 to Environment6 into the box Rows of the table grid.3. June 2010 page 125 . Again. The Basic Lay-out We will start to download the data file from the site mim. choose Analyze Tables Custom Tables.e. the same set of value labels.4 The codebook for the questions 3 and 4 6. In this chapter we will focus on the questions 3 and 4 as they are the scaled response questions of this questionnaire.nl/docent/sms/spss.docx 16/03/2011 © J. 2. Of course. Start SPSS and open the data file MoveOn. If you did not (re)start SPSS when you started this chapter.saxion. you can use the Reset button in this dialog to remove the old settings. 6. for scaled response questions this is evident. you will enjoy the ‘table preview’ which has turned out to be very helpful. 1. 3. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.3 Using CUSTOM TABLES In SPSS we can construct one table of frequencies for separate variables if those variables have the same codes.

you can suppress the display of the statistics labels in the column headings by checking the option Hide. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. In our table. ‘Bad’ in the column headings.docx 16/03/2011 © J. 5. we want to have the value label ‘Good’. Moreover. …. To do this. 6. select in the list Category Position the option Row labels in Columns. June 2010 page 126 . Smits. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.

enter a title and caption for the table. June 2010 page 127 . The result is a concise table with an almost perfect lay-out.3. as is displayed in Table 6. Table 6. Smits.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Adding Percentages To improve the table we will add a column with the row based percentages. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. 1. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.5. From the menus choose Analyze Tables Custom Tables. On the second tab of this dialog.5 Table with the frequencies for each aspect of the environment 6. 7.2. Click OK to create the table.

Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. 4. Please note that the percentages will be placed directly below the counts which improves the readability. Hint: Use the Ctrl-button to increase your selection. Finally. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. adjust the labels (‘In %’) and change the Decimals setting into 0. we select the option Rows. click Apply to Selection to finish this dialog. Click (in the pane Define bottom left) the button Summary Statistics. Add ‘Row N %’ to the Display grid. Click (in the pane Define) the button ‘Categories and Totals’ and ask for showing totals in the table. June 2010 page 128 . 6. 5. 2.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Smits. from the Position list. On the pane Summary Statistics. Select the six variables in the box Rows. 3.

2. 7. Select the range A2:E8 and. the mark-up of the caption and the total column.5) into EXCEL. Smits. 6. choose Insert -> (Graphs:) Bar. June 2010 page 129 . from the menus. From the category 2D-bar take the third option: 100% stacked bar. Figure 6.4 Creating a Band Diagram in E XCEL To display the data of the table in a banddiagram is done in EXCEL quite efficiently.6 Table with frequencies and percentages for each aspect Please note that this table is ready for publication.3. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. 1. Apply this setting and click OK to create the table.docx 16/03/2011 © J.1 (Table 6. The only adjustment we made is the line style. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Copy the table from Section 6.

Fortunately. If you are going to create such bar charts. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. large staves representing the better ratings. we prefer to have this the other way around.7 Evaluation of the environment Again it turns out that a picture is clearer than a table. Shops. Smits. In the SPSS CHART BUILDER. it is impossible to display mean values of variables having an ordinal level of measurement. have this positive rating by roundabout 80% of the respondents. with SPSS it is very easy to recode the variables in the ‘reverse’ way and create a bar chart on the basis of the new variables. 2.e. So we have to temporarily change the measurement level into Scale. Road and traffic safety. select Bar and double click the icon ‘Simple Bar’.docx 16/03/2011 © J.6. A drawback of this diagram is its counter intuitive lay-out: small staves are displaying the better ratings. Public transport. 1. because the original coding was 1 = good up to 4 = Bad. 3. choose Graphs Chart Builder. On the tab Gallery. Although this is disputable from a theoretic point of view (since the measurement level of these variables is ordinal). Social security. Figure 6. one can easily inspect the differences between the aspects. Follow the steps of Appendix 3 to create the next chart. The other three aspects. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. The first three aspects. are rated as Good or Sufficient by more than 60% of the respondents.5 Constructing a Bar Chart When we construct a bar chart which displays the mean values of the aspects. 6. From the menus. it is done in practice quite often. i. Parking place. June 2010 page 130 . Green place. We will discuss this in Section 6.

Enter a footnote with the current date. Since this is exactly what we are up to. 4. SPSS will announce that it will use the values to summarize the data and that it will use the names of each variable as categories in the chart. Do not forget to apply your changes every time. 3. Finally click OK and SPSS will create the chart for you. June 2010 page 131 .docx 16/03/2011 © J. 7. your name and class. 5. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Select the option ‘Scale’ to change the measurement level. 6. click OK. Smits. Select the variables Environment1 up to Environment6 and use the context menu to change the measurement level into Scale. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Use the fourth tab ‘Titles/Footnotes’ to enter the title ‘Rating of the environment’. Drag the variables Environment1 to Environment6 into the Y-axis box.

• Reverse the labels of the vertical axes (X) on the tab Categories. • Change font and position of the title and footnote.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Figure 6. 8. • Adjust the caption of the horizontal axis (Y). Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.8. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. • Adjust the scaling of the horizontal axis (Y) on the tab Scale: enter 1 as the minimum. June 2010 page 132 . Add gridlines also. Smits.8 Rating of the environment A short list of the actions to take: • Rotate the chart a quarter of a turn (note that the references X en Y will be kept to the original axes). • Finally. choose a nice colour and shading for the staves. 4 as the maximum and a major increment of 1. Improve the lay-out of the chart to get Figure 6.

6. we are going to recode the variables as is pointed out in the next table. June 2010 page 133 . TRANSFORMATION TABLE Variable Environment1 Environment1pos to to Environment6 Environent6pos Value 1 (= good) 4 Value 2 (= sufficient) 3 Value 3 (= insufficient) 2 Value 4 (= bad) 1 1. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. So. he or she will definitely expect it the other way around and you need to explain that your graph does not follow the intuitive rule that higher staves correspond to better grades. Click the button ‘Old and New Values’ and enter the transformation table (see next dialog). If you present this graph to your manager. Enter the new names and labels and confirm by clicking Change. To be most safe.docx 16/03/2011 © J. From the menus. Smits. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.6 Recoding a Scaled-Response for a Better Chart A huge drawback of the chart we have created in the previous section is that low staves actually correspond to a better rating than the tall ones. 2. we will create new variables in order to keep the originals. choose Transform Recode into Different Variables.

Finally. The new variables need to have value lables. 3. 4. Continue and click OK to create the new variables. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Smits. Enter in the SPSS Data Editor the value labels for one of the new variables and copy those to the other five. change the measurement level of these variables into ordinal. 5. June 2010 page 134 .docx 16/03/2011 © J.

Since readers will follow their intuition by nature. you should always present charts that meet this requirement. The reader will intuitively understand that the first three aspects. June 2010 page 135 . Smits. 7. are rated a little lower than the last three aspects. ‘Insufficient’ and ‘Bad’. Figure 6.9 Rating the environment (adjusted version) This chart is ready to be published in a report or presentation. Edit the chart in the same way (see the note at the end of this section).docx 16/03/2011 © J. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. that is the level we will define in our data file. 8. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. although not negative. so transforming a scaled-response scale is not a superfluous extra but a basic requirement in your data processing activities. it is important to have the correct measurement level in the data file. ‘Sufficient’. 6. add four text boxes with the text ‘Good’. Create a bar chart of the mean values of the six new variables in the same way as the previous section. Moreover. Note Although we will use these new variables in a diagram in which we will temporarely set the measurement level to scale. Save your data file now. Since these variabels have a ordinal level.

which is a nice communication vehicle to report the finding. 2. 3. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. SPSS shows you the dialog ‘Create Summary Group’ which you can confirm by clicking OK. 4. spss facilitates that in a simple way: chart templates. 6. Activate on the tab Titles/Footnotes the options Title and Footnote1. Place the variable History in the box ‘Set Color’. Confirm (again and again) your actions with Apply. Smits. Select ‘All settings’ and Continue. 3. Select the variables Environment1pos to Environment6pos and (temporarily) change. just as we did in the previous two sections. Open the new chart and choose File Apply Chart Template to get your lay-out. 4. Please note that you can specificy exactly which elements of the chart you want to store in your template file. 5 to 10 or more than 10 years. A semantic differential scale is used to translate a person’s qualitative judgements into quantitative estimates and contains a series of bipolar adjectives for the various properties of the object under study. This is a very convenient way to apply your standard style to the charts you will create. Note Since this chart must have the same lay-out as the one you created in Section 6. 5. you might wonder whether you should do all this lay-out work again. To get a diagram in the same style as the previous section we will use the variables Environment1pos to Environment6pos of Section 6. choose File Save Chart Template. From the menus. 1. the measurement level to Scale. Open the old chart with your lay-out with a double click. 1. You can even specify the template file in the CHART BUILDER options to instruct SPSS to apply it automatically when it creates the chart. From the menus. 6. Enter ‘Rating of the environment’ as a title and restate your name. On the tab ‘Basic Elements’ you can use the button Transpose to rotate your chart by a quarter of a turn.7 Semantic Differential Scale The semantic differential scale is useful when measuring store. company. Nowadays this line diagram (remembered as the thunderbolt diagram) is also used for the modified likert scale and with an abuse of the name referred to as semantic differential itself. 5. class and current date in Footnote1. 2.docx 16/03/2011 © J.6 again. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. or brand images. Activate the icon Multiple Line. June 2010 page 136 . (Use the context menu within the CHART BUILDER). Move the variables Environment1pos to Environment6pos into the box ‘Y-axis’. Save your template file in your spss folder on your usb drive (and remember where you saved it!!). Close the chart editor. choose Graph Chart Builder and on the tab Gallery the option Line.5) chart to this new one? Well. The averages for each bipolar scale are plotted and displayed in a line diagram. Perhaps you just want to apply the lay-out of the old (6.5. In this section we will produce a semantic differential for the rating of the environment (question 3 of the questionnaire) to compare people who move after 0 to 5.

The following things need to be done: Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. The variables Environment1pos to Environment6pos with a (temporarily changed) Scale measurement level. Double click the chart to open the SPSS chart editor. Smits. 6. Use the Transpose button on the tab Basic Elements to rotate the chart a quarter of a turn. Finally. The option Multiple Line. June 2010 page 137 . 7. click OK to create the chart. Of course we need to style this chart a little to make it ready for publication.

15 and give a conclusion after each chart. Please finish Figure 6. question 4. 6. People moving within 5 years are not that satisfied with the shops in the neighbourhood of their houses. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.e. • Rotate the graph a quarter of a turn (only if you have not done that in the CHART BUILDER). Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. footnote and the captions of the axes. Use the techniques we discussed in this chapter to report the results of this part of our survey in tables and graphs. • Show the gridlines and choose a nice grey dash line style. Smits. • Change the font size of the aspects on the vertical axis. June 2010 page 138 .10 Semantic differential for the environment A conclusion from the semantic differential could be that people living for 5 to 10 years in their house are most satisfied with the environment of their houses. i. • Adjust the font size of the title. ‘Sufficient’. People who have rented their place over 10 years are less satisfied with the social security. ‘Insufficient’ and ‘Bad’ along the horizontal axis.8 Assignment The questionnaire from the rental housing organisation ‘MoveOn’ contains another scaled-response question.11 to Figure 6. Figure 6. • Insert four text boxes with the labels ‘Good’.docx 16/03/2011 © J. • Sort the categories on the vertical axis in a reverse (descending) order. • Change the line style in order to create three lines which can be distinguished most clearly.

Figure 6. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.12 Graphical display of the rating of the services of ‘MoveOn’ Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. June 2010 page 139 .11 The rating of the services of ‘MoveOn’ Figure 6.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Smits.

Figure 6. June 2010 page 140 . Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Smits.13 A bar chart displaying the mean values of the original variables Figure 6.docx 16/03/2011 © J.14 A bar chart displaying the mean values of the transformed variables Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.

15 Semantic differential for the services of ‘MoveOn’ If we take a look at the rating of the services of the rental housing organisation ‘MoveOn’ it is clear that all aspects are rated positive. June 2010 page 141 .docx 16/03/2011 © J. A comparison between people moving within 5 years. Figure 6. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. between 5 and 10 years and after 10 years does not show us large differences between these groups. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Smits.

Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. June 2010 page 142 .Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Smits.

Chi-square tests Case Aquariade is a swimming pool in a medium sized city in the Netherlands. the management has decided to carry out a survey with the visitors of the swimming pool. the visiting hours. the overall hygiene. By means of a statistical test one has to prove whether the statement is valid for the population. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. The management team of Aquariade has decided that they need to pay more attention to the opinions and wishes of Aquariade visitors.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Problem definition In which way can Aquariade improve their market position by giving more attention to the opinions and wishes of the customers? On the basis of this problem definition they have developed research objectives for the quantitative research. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. the visiting hours (b). To show these opinions and wishes. Research objectives (1) What is the opinion about the entrance fee. June 2010 page 143 . Smits. The first four objectives are descriptive and the others are explorative. the kindness of the staff (c) and the temperature of the pool water (d)? (8) Is there a significant difference between men and women in the number of visits to Aquariade? (9) Is there a significant difference between the three age groups in the number of visits to Aquariade? (10) Does the total opinion about Aquariade relate significantly to the gender or the age of the visitor? (11) Does the opinion towards the entrance fee have a significant influence on the total number of visits that the customers paid in the last two months to Aquariade? (12) Is there a significant difference between customers who visit the sauna and customers who do not visit the sauna in their rating of Aquariade? On the basis of the research questions a questionnaire is constructed.7. the kindness of the staff and the temperature of the pool water (in the sample)? (2) Is there a difference between the three age groups in the opinions about these four aspects (in the sample)? (3) Is there a difference between the customers who visit the sauna and the customers who do not visit the sauna in the opinions about these four aspects (in the sample)? (4) Are there any facilities that Aquariade should add? (5) Does the sample give a good view of the total customer population? (6) Are there significant differences between the three age groups in the usage of the sauna? (7) Are there significant differences between the three age groups in their opinion about the overall hygiene (a).

gender. To which age group do you belong? (1) O < 25 years (2) O 25-< 50 years (3) O ≥ 50 years 5. My mark (1 up to 10) for Aquariade is: …… (fill in grade) 7. 1.1 Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test The researchers will ask themselves whether their sample is a good representation of the customer population of the swimming pool Aquariade. To be able to check this.sav in SPSS (from mim. Open the data file Aquariade.nl/docent/sms/SPSS).docx 16/03/2011 © J. I would like to have the facilities extended with the following: Steam bath (0=do not add. According to the available information 35% of the customers are younger than 25. number of visits). Do you use the sauna in Aquariade? (1) O Yes (2) O No 4. Construct a frequency table of the variables age and gender.3 Kindness of the staff (1) O Very good (2) O Good (3) O Neutral (4) O Not so good (5) O Bad 8. We will start by making a frequency table for the variables age and gender. This is formulated in research question 5.saxion. We are going to compare the distribution of our survey with the expected (theoretical) distribution. 2. (1) O Male (2) O Female 6. Smits. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. June 2010 page 144 . What is your opinion of the entrance fee? (1) O Fair (2) O High (3) O Too high 3. 1.2 Visiting hours (1) O Very good (2) O Good (3) O Neutral (4) O Not so good (5) O Bad 8.1 Overall hygiene (1) O Very good (2) O Good (3) O Neutral (4) O Not so good (5) O Bad 8. With a chi-square goodness-of-fit we can check whether the distribution in our database matches with what we ‘theoretically’ would expect on grounds of earlier mentioned available information about the Age and the Gender. What is your opinion about the next aspects: 8. How many times did you visit Aquariade in the last two months? …… times 2. 20% are between 25 and 50 and 45% are 50 years old or older. Figure 7. It is also known that 60% of the customers are female and 40% are male.1 Tables of frequencies of the variables gender and age Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Please indicate your gender.g. age. 1=do add) High toboggan Flow acceleration 8.4 Temperature of the pool water (1) O Very good (2) O Good (3) O Neutral (4) O Not so good (5) O Bad 7. the researchers asked the respondents some personal questions (e.

Our objective is to do a customized analysis. The question is whether the discrepancies can be explained by the sampling process. Otherwise. From the menus. choose: Analyze Nonparametric Tests One Sample. like hypotheses. and leave Gender as the only one to be tested. if the deviations are so large that we cannot relate this to probability causes. The formal hypotheses are H0: The sample distribution (observed frequencies) corresponds to the theoretical distribution (population). June 2010 page 145 . 4. calculation of the test statistics and assumptions. We will start to analyse the variable gender. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. H1: The two distributions do not correspond. unfortunately we have to conclude that our survey is not representative. remove all variables. We will use the chi-square goodness-of-fit test to compare our sample with the known population distribution. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.docx 16/03/2011 © J. we will discuss age. On the second tab. Fields. After that. In that case we have no reason to question the representativeness of the sample. Berenson (Basic Business Statistics) discusses the theoretical aspects of the test. 3. Inspection of the frequency tables makes clear that the percentages found in our survey are not (exactly) equal to the ‘theoretical’ percentages. Smits.

June 2010 page 146 .60% distribution.docx 16/03/2011 © J. The Chi-Square test is the second one presented by SPSS as a customized test. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Smits. Click the Options button to enter the expected probabilities as relative frequencies. 5. For gender we expect a 40% . so that makes the odds 4 to 6. 6. Select the third tab Settings and choose the option Customize tests.

docx 16/03/2011 © J. in a decimal format. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Note Although you might expect to enter the expected values.5%) you can perform the test at once. you must enter the figures corresponding to the codes in the codebook. so we make it 0. If you double click on this item. On basis of the p- value (here 16. You will see a bar chart displaying the observed and expected values.6. SPSS will open the Model Viewer. June 2010 page 147 . The expected values must be entered as percentages in a decimal representation. SPSS will produce the following output. Close the ‘Chi Square Test Options’ by clicking OK and Run the test. The only problem here is that we cannot enter 40% and 60%. SPSS will calculate the expected values.4 and 0. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Because we have defined ‘1= Male’ and ‘2= Female’ we start to enter the percentage of males in the population and after that the percentage of females. Smits. However. 7. SPSS asks you to enter them as percentages.

which means asymptotic significance. Repeat this analysis for the variable Age. Sig.docx 16/03/2011 © J.2 SPSS output of the chi-square goodness-of-fit test (variable Gender) There are differences between the observed frequencies ‘Observed N’ and the (theoretical) expected frequencies ‘Expected N’. you reject the null hypothesis. Because this value exceeds α=5% we cannot reject our null hypothesis (H0). so we have no reason to reject the null hypothesis.3 SPSS output of the chi-square goodness-of-fit test (variable Age) With the p-value of 0. We must Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.) ≥ α ⇒ do not reject H0 8. Decision rule for testing statistical hypotheses If the p-value is less than the significance level α. This value (here 0. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Figure 7.) we can perform the test at once: It exceeds the significance level α=5%.316 (Asymp.) < α ⇒ reject H0 p-value (Asymp. With this line you can check Cochran’s rule. p-value (Asymp. Use the theoretical percentages mentioned in the beginning of this section. Smits. The expected values must be entered as percentages in a decimal representation. To perform the test we will use the value of the Asymp. The consequence will be that we have no reason to doubt the representativeness of our sample with respect to Gender.Sig. Sig. Sig.165) is the right tail probability (p-value) in the chi-square distribution. June 2010 page 148 . Figure 7.

Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. To test whether the relationship is significant we use the chi-square crosstab test. Inspecting the SPSS output (the last line in Figure 7. conclude that the age distribution in our sample does not deviate from the known population distribution in the same way. June 2010 page 149 . Use this button to invoke the chi-square crosstab test. Smits. To start. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. 3. we will focus on research objective 6: (6) Are there significant differences between the three age groups in the usage of the sauna? To answer our research objective we can make a cross tabulation. In Section 4. choose Analyze Descriptive Statistics Crosstabs. This option can be found in the dialog ‘Statistics’ (see also Section 4. 1. This button leads to the dialog to display the cell contents 2. Use the button Statistics to perform the chi-square crosstab test. 7.4). Move the variables Sauna and Age into the Row(s) and Column(s) textboxes respectively.2 Chi-Square Crosstab Test We discussed in Chapter 4 how to analyse research questions with respect to two variables.5 cross tabulations are dealt with.docx 16/03/2011 © J.5. From the menus. Note The check of the conditions (Cochran’s rule) is straightforward.2) makes clear that all expected values are greater than 5.

Smits.5. The Chi-square crosstab test Cramér’s V is known from section 4.docx 16/03/2011 © J.1 4. After this table SPSS gives the results of the chi-square analysis and of the calculation of Cramér’s V. Use the button Cells to display the expected frequencies in the cells (also). Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. June 2010 page 150 . Observed counts (to be displayed always) Expected values if the variables are independent The output shows us a cross tabulation with the observed counts and the expected counts displayed in the cells.

in the group ‘≥ 50 year’ we find an observed count of 34 where the expected count equals 25. of course). because there is no evidence for any relationship. there is no need to interpret the value of Cramér’s V. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. H1: In the population there is a relationship between these two variables (or.1). This last conclusion applies only to the sample.7. In our example we have statistical evidence that the age groups differ with respect to the usage of the sauna.028. (The expected values are left out now.20 Steps of the Chi-square Crosstab Test 1. It is important to say that the differences between the column or row percentages are not significant. Formulate the conclusion whether the null hypothesis is to be rejected or not. 3.116) Cramér’s V equals 0. that is 2. Recreate the cross tabulation of the variables Sauna and Age in the Row(s) and Column(s) textboxes respectively. In our example we have to reject the null hypothesis. 5. Start to formulate the hypotheses: H0: In the population. 2. Note If you conclude not to reject the null hypotheses. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. By comparing the expected frequencies in the cross tabulation you can discover where discrepancies can be found. strictly speaking. Transfer this conclusion to the original research objective. Sig. Make the layout of your table the same as in Figure 7. We are eager to know to which age group the sauna is more favourable. With the value of Cramér’s V you are able to characterise the magnitude of the relationship (we refer to Section 4. there exists no relationship between age and the usage of the sauna.The Chi-square The p-value crosstab-statistic equals 2. You can for example show whether the elder people are using the sauna more (or less) often than the younger.8% (value = 7. 5. the variables are dependent). Smits. In our example the p-value equals 0. June 2010 page 151 .5. We must conclude that in the sample the elder people ‘≥ 50 year’ are using the sauna on a more frequent basis than the younger. 4. In our example we have a certain degree of dependence between Age and the Usage of the sauna. Finally by percenting the crosstab you can compare the elder people with the younger.g. E.docx 16/03/2011 © J.8% which is less than α=5%. in this case. Calculate the value of the chi-square statistic and check whether the value mentioned as Asymp. Within the two other age groups it is the other way around. Ask for percentages to compare the age groups.4. (p-value) is greater or less than the significance level α you are using.

June 2010 page 152 .docx 16/03/2011 © J. From the menus. Finally. in the two other (younger) groups this percentage is equal to 26%. 11. we ask SPSS to calculate the percentage of cases less than 1. The next step is to display these results in a chart. The button ‘Set Parameters’ is used to enter the value 1. Double click the icon Simple Bar. Enter the Titles and Footnote: Title1: Usage of the sauna Title2: (comparison of age groups) Footer1: © Today’s date. with column percentages The table of Figure 7.4 indeed shows a clear difference between the age groups: Within the group ‘≥ 50 years’ 45% use the sauna. Figure 7. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Move the variable Age into the X-axis box. choose Graphs Chart Builder and on the tab Gallery for the option Bar. your name and class.5 at the place of the question mark. 6.4 Crosstab of Age and Sauna usage. 9. 12. Choose ‘Percentage less than (?)’ as statistic function. 10. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. create the chart and customise it into the lay-out of Figure 7. Since the codes of the variable Sauna have been chosen as 1= ‘Yes’ and 2= ‘No’ and we want to display the percentage ‘Yes’ answers.5. Smits. Change (temporary within the Chart Builder) the measurement level of the variable Sauna with the right mouse button into Scale and move it into the Y-axis box. 8.5. 7.

Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. The management of Aquariade wants to know whether the customers are satisfied. of course.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Within the two other age groups. Smits. by collapsing two rows in the cross tabulation we can satisfy Cochran’s rule.3 Conditions for Chi-Square Crosstab Test When performing a chi-square crosstab test it is highly important to check the conditions (Cochran’s rule). In this section we will discuss an example which violates Cochran’s rule. June 2010 page 153 . Rule of Cochran (1) All expected frequencies must exceed 1 (2) In at most 20% of the cells an expected frequency less than 5 is allowed. Within the eldest group (50 years and older) 45% are using the sauna. Of course you save all tables and graphs in your spss output file to have them available quickly in case there might be questions about the results. In the main text you only include the conclusion in plain text. For every analysis you have made. p= 0. However. df= 2. Figure 7. three age groups compared Formulate Your Conclusion There is a difference between the three age groups with respect to the use of the sauna.116.028). In the research report you include the crosstabulation. without all statistical details. The chi-square output can be included in an appendix. Research objective (7) deals with the opinion of customers about the visiting hours. this percentage is much lower.5 Usage of the sauna. you must wonder what the practical relevance is and what you want to say about it. We performed a statistical test and must conclude that this difference is significant (chi-square= 7. 7. In the next section we will discuss when these elaborations are worthwhile in practice. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. it is 26%. Note It is most important that you present your research findings fast and clear. if you want to.

Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Display percentages to compare the age groups and calculate the chi-square statistic as well. the opinion about the visiting hours. After that. (See Section 4. Figure 7. June 2010 page 154 . By means of a chi-square crosstab test we are able to detect whether these differences are significant. Customise this table to make it suitable for publication. 2. Figure 7.6 Frequency table of visiting hours From this table it is clear that 13% of the visitors are not satisfied with the visiting hours. We start by making a frequency table of the opinion about the visiting hours. To know whether there is a relationship with the age of the visitors we construct a cross tabulation and perform a chi-square crosstab test.7). By collapsing classes we get a smaller cross tabulation with the expected values large enough to do a valid analysis.7 Cross tabulation of Age × Opinion about visiting hours In this table we discover differences between the age groups. For example. From the menus. Construct a frequency table of Aspect2. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. In this section we will show you how to collapse classes of a variable. Customise the table into the following layout. Smits. and whether there are differences between the age groups. within the age group 25 -< 50 a relatively large group (13%) thinks the visiting hours are bad. That is substantially more than within the other age groups. But there are more differences between the age groups.docx 16/03/2011 © J. In this analysis the conditions of the chi-square test are not met. 1. The next section will discuss when this is worthwhile in practise and when this method will have no result.5. we will make a cross tabulation to see whether the differences between age groups are significant. choose Analyze Descriptive Statistics Crosstabs. Move the variable Aspect2 into the Row(s) textbox and the variable Age into the Column(s) textbox.

82. the minimum expected value equals 1. Smits. 3.8 makes clear that the problems can be found in the last two rows.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Because in 5 out of 15 cells (that is 33%) the expected count is less than 5. but display expected frequencies instead of percentages. Figure 7. with the label ‘negative’.8 Cross tabulation with observed and expected counts. A solution is to collapse these two categories into one category. the second requirement is not met. June 2010 page 155 . From the menus. 4. So the first requirement is met. choose Transform Recode into Different Variables. In our case. the categories ‘not so good’ and ‘bad’. So we need to adjust the table dimensions in order to perform a valid chi-square analysis. With the footer you can check Cochran’s rule at one glance. Construct the cross tabulation again. With the numbers displayed in the footer of the chi-square output we can easily check Cochran’s rule. The table in Figure 7. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. In these rows we have expected values which are less than 5.

Smits.docx 16/03/2011 © J. -. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Continue and click OK to do the transformation. June 2010 page 156 . Please note that this new variable is added in the Data Editor as the last variable. That is because you did not ask to produce output. Perhaps you are surprised that there is no output right now.The value 5 must be transformed into 4 -. 5. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. but you asked to make a new variable. This new variable Aspect2Adjusted needs to get Value Labels and the right measurement level. Selecting these options gives the transformation ‘ELSE Copy’ 6.and all other values remain the same (can be copied). The dialog ‘Old and New Values’ facilitates the definition of the transformation we want to make.

You can copy the labels from Aspect2 and adjust them. June 2010 page 157 . !!! And do not forget to set the measurement level! 8. Now we meet Cochran’s rule (easily). Hint: Copy the value labels from Aspect2 to the new Aspect2Adjusted variable and adjust the labels for the values 4 and 5: ‘4= Negative’ and 5 must be deleted. The p-value (0. but now with the variable Aspect2Adjusted instead of Aspect2. of course. Define value labels before you continue. Calculate the chi-square p-value as well. More practically stated: A significant difference between the age groups with respect to their opinion about the visiting hours exists. The smallest value equals 5. (See Section 2. Smits.1).01. Construct via the menus Analyze Descriptive Statistics Crosstabs a new cross tabulation. so we must come to the conclusion that in the population there is a relationship between age and the opinion about visiting hours. Change the measurement level into Ordinal 7.docx 16/03/2011 © J.4%) is less than our α value. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. The footnote of the output block Chi-Square Tests shows us that no cells (0%) have an expected count less than 5. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.

Sig. the kindness of the staff (c) and the temperature of the pool water (d)?’ In the previous section we discussed the aspect of the visiting hours. the visiting hours (b). major differences exist between the age groups.412 1 .997 Likelihood Ratio 7.991 8 . customers are satisfied with the visiting hours (almost 60% of the ratings are positive). 7 cells (46. Create for the other three variables Apect1.377 Pearson Chi-Square 1. Make all staves lining up to 100% and take care that your diagram shows the same percentages as the cross tabulation. 1. in general.188 8 .4 How to Use Cochran’s Rule in Practice Research objective (7) in full was: (7) ‘Are there significant differences between the three age groups in their opinion about the overall hygiene (a). 6 cells (40. choose the category Bar and drag the icon Stacked Bar into the previewer. 9. Smits. In order to perform a valid chi-square test we had to recode the variable Aspect2 and combine two classes. Aspect3 en Aspect4 a cross tabulation with the variable Age. minimum expected count is 1. Asymp. 2.607 a 8 .7 for the other instructions.434 Likelihood Ratio 1. In the Chart Builder.521 . Check Cochran’s rule. on the tab Gallery. Value df (2-sided) Value df (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square 8.997 Linear-by-Linear Linear-by-Linear . for the other two groups this percentage equals roundabout 45%.067 1 . June 2010 page 158 . Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Print the chi-square statistics also.21.47.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Sig. Figure 7.7%) have expected count less than 5. Please read Section 4. The minimum expected count is 1.796 Association Association N of Valid Cases 169 N of Valid Cases 175 a. These differences turned out to be significant.195 a 8 . Within the age group 25 to 50 we have 20% negative ratings of the visiting hours. Of the younger customers (up to 25 years old) 75% are very satisfied. Chi-Square Tests Chi-Square Tests Asymp. 7. The X-axis box should contain the variable which defines the groups to be compared (Age) and the variable which is the subject of comparison (Aspect2Adjusted)is put into the box Stack Set Color . The a.9 Band diagram Formulate Your Conclusion Although. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Create a stacked bar (band diagram) to show these differences. You will see that the cross tabulations with Aspect1 (overall hygiene) and Aspect3 (Kindness of staff) do not satisfy Cochran’s rule.0%) have expected count less than 5.

The cross tabulation itself is also not suitable to publish. 7. it is wise to review a practical rule formulated by Bert Nijdam: Practical application of Cochran’s rule Only if in a cross tabulation the p-value is less than the value of α. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. because it is far too large. in both cases there is no statistical evidence for a relationship between age and that aspect in the population. Smits. you need to check Cochran’s rule before you can reject the null hypothesis.25). you must take action. Construct a cross tabulation with the variables Number of visits and Age. These techniques however are restricted by rather severe requirements. Both chi-square analyses in Figure 7. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. or excluding classes from the analysis. In a cross tabulation with a p-value greater than α. We will now focus on research objective (9): ‘Is there a significant difference between the three age groups in the number of visits to Aquariade?’ Another formulation might be: ‘Is there a relationship between age and the number of visits to the swimming pool Aquariade?’ 1. The next chapter will introduce a couple of techniques to be used for comparing groups with respect to a scale test variable. we do not have to collapse classes.docx 16/03/2011 © J. there will be no statistical evidence. stated differently. In both tables the p-value is (very much) greater than α=5% and you cannot reject the null hypothesis. But. (1) All expected values must exceed 1.10 have a p-value greater than α.10 Left the crosstab test of Aspect1 and right of Aspect3 (with age). If those two requirements are not met. Figure 7. Or. June 2010 page 159 . Although Cochran’s rule is not met. You will see that this cross tabulation is far too large and that too many expected frequencies are less than 5 (45 to be precise) and some are even less than 1 (because the minimum expected count equals 0. there is no (significant) difference between the age groups and their rating of ‘overall hygiene’ and ‘kindness of staff’. So. In this situation Cochran’s rule is irrelevant. you do not reject the null hypothesis. If you are dealing with a scale level variable like the number of visits or the mark for Aquariade a cross tabulation of these variables and Age is not suitable for the chi-square crosstab test. Our conclusion (there is no relationship in the population) remains valid. like collapsing classes. Cochran’s rule is not met! But before collapsing classes. (2) In at most 20% of the cells an expected frequency less than 5 is allowed. in the population. In situations where those requirements are not met you can use the chi- square crosstab test after banding the test variable. There is no statistical evidence for a relationship between the variable and even after collapsing classes.5 Banding a Variable to Do a Chi-Square test The previous section makes clear that the dimensions of a cross tabulation are limited when perfoming a valid chi-square analysis. because we are not able to reject the null hypothesis.

691 6 . The minimum expected count is .003 Linear-by-Linear Association .9%) have expected count less than 5.002 Linear-by-Linear Association . Number of visits to Aquariade Aantal In % Of course. Figure 7. it is fine.docx 16/03/2011 © J.1 to find the border values. 45 cells (78. Sig.062 1 .11 Output of a chi-square crosstab test which is completely useless.015 Likelihood Ratio 65. The minimum expected count is 10. But we want you to find the borders yourself and come up with your own classification! 3.648 a 6 . Create a suitable classification for the variable Number of visits in four classes.0%) have expected count less than 5. Value df (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square 19.331 36 .14 Output of the chi-square crosstab test Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. you do not want to use these vague terms to characterize the classes. completely useless for Value df (2-sided) publication and analysis. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. The creation of a categorical variable from a scale variable is discussed in Section 3.790 a 36 . Sig. Figure 7.804 N of Valid Cases 175 a. Chi-Square Tests The crosstabulation is Asymp. June 2010 page 160 .12 Note Most likely. Often 42 24% Very Often 43 25% Totaal 175 100% Figure 7.381 1 . If you have at least 15% in the Regular 42 24% smallest class. your classification can be Sometimes 48 27% different.5.25.537 N of Valid Cases 175 a. See Section 3. Smits.13 Cross tabulation with column percentages Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Pearson Chi-Square 56.32.003 Likelihood Ratio 19. 2. Number of visits to Aquariade * Age group Crosstabulation Number of Age group visits to < 25 year 25 –< 50 year >= 50 year Total Aquariade Count In % Count In % Count In % Count In % Sometimes 13 23% 21 49% 14 19% 48 27% Regular 9 16% 10 23% 23 31% 42 24% Often 19 33% 4 9% 19 25% 42 24% Very Often 16 28% 8 19% 19 25% 43 25% Total 57 100% 43 100% 75 100% 175 100% Figure 7. Take care that every class contains at least 15% of the observations. Now construct the cross tabulation. A way to make a better cross tabulation is to band the Number of visits into a new variable with only a few classes. 0 cells (.5.

A graphical representation of the percentages is shown in the band diagram of Figure 7. H1: In the population. 5.335 . The differences between the age groups are substantial in our survey. Sig.docx 16/03/2011 © J. b. but that people in the age group 25-50 years are not visiting the swimming pool on a frequent basis. This means that there is statistical evidence indicating that the age groups are different with respect to the number of visits to the swimming pool. That means that in our sample the relationship is rather strong. Value Sig. 4. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. June 2010 page 161 .237.15 The value of Cramér’s V Performance of the Chi-Square Cross Tabulation Test 1. The corresponding p- value (Asymp. Figure 7. Not assuming the null hypothesis. formally speaking. The chi-statistic equals 19. Smits.5% which is less than our value of α (5%). Symmetric Measures Approx. We have to reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is a relationship between Age and the Number of visits to Aquariade. there is a relationship between these variables. Formulate the hypotheses.003 N of Valid Cases 175 a. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.237 . 3. H0: In the population there is no relationship between age and the number of visits to the swimming pool. When we compare the percentages it becomes clear that relatively younger people are visiting the swimming pool.) equals 0. Figure 7. This last conclusion is only valid for our survey.16. Nominal by Phi .648 with 6 degrees of freedom. 2.003 Nominal Cramer's V .16 The band diagram displaying the differences between the age groups clearly Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. The value of Cramér’s V in this crosstab equals 0.

docx 16/03/2011 © J. Smits.Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. June 2010 page 162 . Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.

the researcher wanted to know if significant differences exist between two groups of shoppers. In this chapter. For example.8. We already discussed in Chapter 4 how to analyze these kind of questions. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. you will learn how to use SPSS to test for significant statistical differences between two groups or among more than two groups. also had a couple of research questions about the differences between groups of visitors: (8) Is there a significant difference between men and women in the number of visits to Aquariade? (9) Is there a significant difference between the three age groups in the number of visits to Aquariade? (10) Does the total opinion about Aquariade relate significantly to the gender or the age of the visitor? (11) Does the opinion towards the entrance fee have a significant influence on the total number of visits that the customers paid in the last two months to Aquariade? (12) Is there a significant difference between customers who visit the sauna and customers who do not visit the sauna in their rating of Aquariade? All these questions relate to two variables.1 Introduction The case of Chapter Error! Reference source not found. Aquariade. Labour or Liberal supporter. June 2010 page 163 . A researcher in the political arena may want to know if opinions about a new tax plan for car drivers differ depending on whether the respondent is a Democratic. we can report that we have statistical evidence supporting the statement that in the population there is a difference between males and females with respect to the number of visits to the swimming pool on a monthly basis. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. This chapter will extend Chapter 4 which only described potential differences in tables or charts. In both these cases. Te s t i n g f o r D i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n G r o u p s In many studies. Another survey for the retail industry was about differences between customers who shop online or shop in person at a retail outlet. Smits. and which one is the test variable or independent variable. 8. This chapter will answer the question whether the differences are significant in the population by running statistical tests. The next table summarizes this and indicates which test is to be used..docx 16/03/2011 © J. That means that for every difference we have in the sample. a researcher who reports from a survey for the beverage industry may want to know if the preference for a new beverage concept differs depending on whether the respondent is or is not a current consumer of the company’s brand. if we relate it to the first research question. that defines the groups. It is important to recognize which variable is the independent one. Sometimes there will be more than two groups. This measurement level determines the statistical test to be used in combination with the number of groups to be compared. The test variable (dependent variable) can have any level of measurement as you might have noticed from the research questions. researchers are interested in knowing how subgroups within a sample differ on certain important issues. we will test the null hypothesis (‘There are no differences in the population’). If we have to reject the null hypothesis. a swimming pool in a medium sized city in the Netherlands. It is important to distinguish whether two groups or more than two groups are involved.

5) This chapter will discuss how to run the tests in SPSS. The test variable (dependent variable) in the research question is the variable Visits. Measurement Number of groups level of the test variable Two More than two t-test for two independent Oneway ANOVA groups (Analyse of Variance ) (§ 8. Figure 8. June 2010 page 164 . before testing whether the differences with respect to a variable are significant.sav in SPSS. However. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. 8.2 if you need help).2 we discussed how to create a bar chart displaying the mean values of each group and in Section 4.3) (§ 8. before you proceed. Customize your chart to the lay-out of Figure 8. representing the number of visits to the swimming pool in the last two months.2) (§ 8. Smits. Each section will begin by discussing a graphical display first.3 how to compare groups by means of a boxplot. we strongly advise you to start by creating a chart to get some insight into the potential differences.3) (§ 8. Create a bar chart that displays the mean number of visits of males and females.1 Mean number of visits to the swimming pool Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Open the data file Aquariade.docx 16/03/2011 © J. It is clear that this involves two groups. The independent variable (which defines the groups) is Gender.2 Comparing Two Groups on a Scale Variable: t-Test 1.1 (see Section 4.4) Scale (Interval or If the conditions of the t-test If the conditions of ANOVA are Ratio) are not fulfilled: not fulfilled: Mann-Whitney-test Kruskal-Wallis-test (§ 8. We will start to analyze research question (8) ‘Is there a significant difference between men and women in the number of visits to Aquariade?’. 2. Please read the case in Chapter Error! Reference source not found. In Section 4.5) Mann-Whitney-test Kruskal-Wallis-test Ordinal (§ 8.

Use the tab Titles/Footnotes to enter the title ‘95% Confidence Interval for the mean number of visits’. That is a chart which displays confidence intervals for the mean value of both groups. 5. The result is displayed in the next figure. A small difference in our sample. Smits. Drag the variable Gender into the X-axis box.1 clearly shows that in the past two months men had 11.2.1. June 2010 page 165 .2. choose Graphs Chart Builder. Do not forget to include a footnote with your name and class at this very moment. and the variable Visits into the Y- axis box.g. Of course. 6. The calculation of confidence intervals can be found in any statistical text (e. we will run the test to support this argument. 4.3 visits. Berenson: Basic Business Statistics). but is there is difference in the population? 8. So we expect that the difference between men and women with respect to the number of visits will not be significant.2 Confidence intervals displayed as Error Bars If we take a look at these confidence intervals we see that there is a great overlap. On the tab Gallery select the category Bar and double click the icon Simple Error Bar. Figure 8. Graphical Display of the Data In order to answer these kind of question for the whole population we need to have a chart which also displays the statistical uncertainty. Figure 8. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. This chart is knows as an Error Bar in SPSS. 3.9 visits and women had 11. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.docx 16/03/2011 © J. From the menus. Customize the chart into the display of Figure 8.

e. the mean number of visits of men (µmen) and the mean number of visits for women (µwomen). Define the two groups (Group1: 1=Men en Group2: 2=Women). First we will run the test. The test variable is Visits and the grouping variable is Gender. H0: µmen = µwomen H1: µmen ≠ µwomen 7. after that. The output is displayed in Figure 8. Smits. Running the Statistical Test In the introduction we have discussed that the t-test can compare two groups if the dependent variable has an interval or ratio level of measurement.2. 8. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.g.2. we will check the conditions. From the menus. choose Analyze Compare Means Independent-Samples T Test.3. Let us start formulating the hypotheses. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.docx 16/03/2011 © J. June 2010 page 166 . The statistical test involves a statement about the parameters of the two populations.8.

95. Smits. the t-test will be robust. provided that the sample size is large enough. It must be clear to you that these intervals have a major overlap.3. the first row applies.docx 16/03/2011 © J. the mean number of visits equals 11. Applying Levene’s Test By applying the Levene’s test for Equality of Variances we can decide which line to use. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. So we have no reason to reject the hypothesis that the variances are equal. Conclusion: We must use the first line of the output (equal variances assumed) Applying the t-Test The first line displays the value of the test statistic t = 0. there is no difference between men and women with respect to the number of visits to the swimming pool. use the first line. If the distributions in both groups have the same variance. The second block displays the result of the t-test. For the male group. for the females it equals 11. If you multiply the standard error of the mean with the z-score 1. Checking the Conditions When we apply the t-test as we described above. In other words: we will assume that the variances (standard deviations) in both groups are equal.982 which exceeds what ever value of alpha you might want to use. A way to say this is: ‘The difference between men and women with respect to the mean number of visits is not statistically significant. we assume that in both population groups the distribution of the number of visits is a normal (bell shaped) distribution with the same variance (or standard deviation). the degree of freedom df = 173 and the (2. Conclusion: In the population. Our research has a sample with 79 men and 96 women. Since this p-value exceeds our alpha value (5%) we fail to reject the null hypothesis. Error of the Mean is calculated by dividing the standard deviation by √n. The output gives us a significance 0f 0.33. June 2010 page 167 .750. you must use the second row. The statistic Std.’ 8.tailed) significance level (p-value) 45. If they are different.5%. If the standard deviations in both groups are equal. The standard deviations in the two groups are almost equal. Please note that the two lines refer to two different situations.3 SPSS output of the t-test The first block displays statistics for both groups.2.96 and respectively subtract from or add to the mean value you will get a 95% confidence interval for the mean value of each group. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. If the variances (or standard deviations) can be assumed to be equal. Figure 8. that means that the test will be valid even if the distribution deviates a little from the normal distribution.

2 we will discuss how to check whether the normal distribution fits the sample distribution. Figure 8. 1. So.3 Comparing Two Groups on an Ordinal Variable: Mann- Whitney Rank Test When we compare two groups and the probability distributions are clearly different from the normal (bell shaped) distribution. so the median is a better measure of central tendency than the mean in those situations.5. In the situation that the normal distributions in the two groups have a different variance. In Section 8. although the power of this test is less than the power of the t-test.docx 16/03/2011 © J. The results of the modification will be displayed on the second row of the SPSS output. This also motivates to apply a non-parametric test. we are actually comparing the medians of the two groups instead of the mean values.3 you can read the instructions. 8. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. In Section 4. These tests only use the ordinal character of the test variable and provide a well suited alternative. However. we have to apply a modification of the t-test. In these situations we prefer the application of statistical tests based upon rank numbers of the observations. The application of the t-test as described in the previous section is to be preferred because all conditions are met.3. This method will use rank numbers instead of the raw scores. There are examples of test variables (like income) that have large outliers. 8. Create (and customize) a boxplot to compare the two groups. It will be clear that if the ordinal test variable only has a limited number of categories (like a 5-point scale ranging from very bad to very good) the ranking process is hard because of the large number of ties. Since the Mann-Whitney rank test only uses the ordinal character of the test variable. and it is up to the researcher to determine which row to use. Also when the measurement level is only ordinal. June 2010 page 168 .4 A boxplot to compare the two groups. We will discuss the Mann-Whitney rank test by answering the research question of the previous section: (8) ‘Is there a significant difference between men and women in the number of visits to Aquariade?’. Graphical Display of the Data We will create a boxplot to compare both groups. or when we deal with rather small samples. We can apply the Mann-Whitney rank test as well. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. We advise to apply the Chi-square crosstab test and calculate the percentages to compare the groups. SPSS will print both cases. These large outliers will raise the suspicion that the normal distribution will not fit.1. like the Mann-Whitney rank test. we have to use the method we will discuss in the next section. we cannot apply the t-test of the previous section. if we decide that the probability distributions in the two groups are significantly different from the normal distribution. Smits. we have to advise against the application of the t-test.

move the variable Visits into the ‘Test Fields’ box and Gender into the Groups box.3. the Mann-Whitney rank test will be used for testing whether there is a difference between two medians. select the option ‘Compare medians across groups’. The procedure is based upon the rank numbers assigned to the observations (arranging this from low to high) and compares the rank numbers between the two groups. So. on the first tab Objective. In the dialog ‘Nonparametric tests’. On the second tab Fields.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Select this options to compare the medians 2.2. From the menus. so in our sample. Applying the Statistical Test The Mann-Whitney rank test compares the distributions of the number of visits of the two groups. select the option ‘Use custom field assignments’. 3. 1. In this figure we see that the box of the males is a little to the right. Smits. That can be summarized with the following null and alternative hypotheses: H0: Median men = Median women H1: Median men ≠ Median women The application of the Mann-Whitney rank test in SPSS is described in the next steps. choose Analyze Nonparametric Tests Independent Samples. June 2010 page 169 . But does this statement hold for the entire population? 8. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. men visit the swimming pool a little more often than women.

Select this option to apply the Mann-Whitney test Unselect this option. since the latter applies for more than two groups. On the third Settings. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Click Run and SPSS will produce the results in a model. 4. We will discuss this option in section 8. 5.5.docx 16/03/2011 © J. June 2010 page 170 . Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. You will see the summary in your output viewer. Smits. select the option Mann-Whitney and unselect the Median test.

So we have no statistical evidence that there is a difference between the two groups. Since we only specified one test for these two variables the lists do not contain other entries. In our opinion the boxplot we made in the previous section is a better way to compare the two groups. June 2010 page 171 . Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. The SPSS output is displayed in Figure 8.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Note that SPSS tries to explain things most clearly to you. males and females. It states the Null Hypothesis. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Figure 8. Double click in this block of output to open the model viewer.6 The model viewer of the Mann-Whitney U test The output might be a little overwhelming. with respect to the number of visits to the swimming pool. The bottom line of the model viewer allows you to navigate to the results of other tests and other variables. Figure 8. Smits. it mentions the test and the p-value (significance).5. The chart tries to display two histograms to compare the two groups. Since the p-value exceeds the significance level (5%) the decision will be: “Retain the null hypothesis”.5 SPSS output of the Mann-Whitney U test 6.

7. On the tab Gallery. choose Analyze Compare Means One-Way ANOVA. Smits. after that. 1. However. We will compare these three groups with respect to the number of visits to the swimming pool during the last two months. 3.4. young (up to the age of 25). 8. 8.1 to construct a 95% confidence interval for the mean number of Visits for the three age groups. Again we must ask the question whether this holds for the population as a whole. Use the instructions in Section 8. From the menus.2. it is about comparing means. People in the age of 25 to 50 do not come to the swimming pool such a frequent basis. June 2010 page 172 .4. µ1=µ2=µ3 H1: Not all mean values are equal. despite its name. we will start with a graphical display of the data and.g. The middle group is totally below the other two.4 Comparing More than two Groups on a Scale Variable: Analysis of Variance If you compare more than two groups on a scale (ratio) variable you will use a procedure called analysis of variance. The hypotheses are: H0: The mean values of the three groups are equal. Conclusion: Applying the Mann-Whitney U test (p = 0. often abbreviated to ANOVA. choose Graphs Chart Builder. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.7 Error Bar This graph shows us a difference between the age groups. We will discuss the procedure by answering research question 9: ‘Is there a significant difference between the three age groups in the number of visits to Aquariade?’. Like the two previous sections. Figure 8. Our sample has three age groups.2.332) leads to the same result: Men and women visit the swimming pool equally frequently. choose the option Bar and double click the icon Simple Error Bar.docx 16/03/2011 © J. That is to be answered with the application of a statistical test. Graphical Display of the Data We start to create an Error Bar in which a 95% Confidence Interval for mean of each group will be constructed. From the menus. The theoretical background will explain the name analysis of variance. Customize the graph to the lay-out of Figure 8. middle (ages ranging from 25 to 50) and senior (ages exceeding 50). also known as ANOVA. not variances.1. 2. e. we will apply the test. 8. Applying the Statistical Test The statistical test to compare the means of more than two groups is called analysis of variance. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.

Equal variances … … or not? (See third condition of anava) Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Post Hoc Comparison of the Groups If we have statistical evidence supporting the claim that there are differences between the groups. From this table we will use the significance. 8. We will compare the mean values of the groups pairwise. This value equals 0.docx 16/03/2011 © J. 5. Click on the button Post Hoc. it is called post hoc test. June 2010 page 173 . We will reject our null hypothesis and we can state that we have statistical evidence that there is a difference between the groups. Smits.3. it makes sense to see which groups are different.4. Since this is done afterwards. SPSS will produce an ANOVA table as displayed. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Recall the dialog One-Way ANOVA.6% and is less than our alpha value of 5%. 4. The three mean values of the number of visits to the swimming pool are not equal. only after finding a significant result in the ANOVA table.

The next section will discuss how to check the assumption that the variances are equal. To avoid biases in the outcomes. you need to select random samples from the subpopulations.1%) are less than the alpha value of 5%. The non parametric alternative is known as the Kruskal-Wallis test. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.g. can be a problem in practice.4. One of them. To illustrate this: you cannot compare the mean age of frequent swimmers with the age of anomalous swimmers to jump to the conclusion that the former group is younger than the latter group.3) for two groups. e. it is important to check the conditions. this test is also based on rank numbers. The dialog ‘One-Way ANOVA: Post Hoc Multiple Comparisons’ offers a lot of tests. the one-way ANOVA F test is fairly robust against departures from the normal distribution. That implies we can use the tests in the upper pane and we will choose the test developed by John Tukey.docx 16/03/2011 © J. 8. it might be a good slogan for Aquariade: “Swimming keeps the age away”. This ensures that observations in a group are independent of any other value in the sample. As long as the Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. June 2010 page 174 . Randomness and Independence This first assumption is critically important. you run the risk of coming to a conclusion that turns out to be invalid. It is clear that age can have its influence on the number of visits. you must prevent that both (grand)parents and their (grand)children participate because they always swim together. more visits will not decrease the age. Smits. Although. Related to the age groups in our case. let us assume that they all are equal. 2. Just as in the case of the t test. the results of the ANOVA will not be valid. Normality The second assumption states that the sample values in each group are from a normally distributed population. In this multiple comparison the difference between the middle group and the other two are significant. Also a departure from this assumption is the case where males and females are compared and the sample contains a lot of married couples. because both p-values (0. 1.5% and 3. ANOVA Assumptions When you apply an analysis of variance. At this very moment. Just as the Mann-Whitney rank test (see Section 8. work with a stratified sampling process. our statement holds for the population as a whole. whether the variances within the subgroups are equal or not. It is obvious that you do not have independent observations. but not the other way around. Conclusion: When we compare the age group 25 to 50 years with the other two groups we can conclude that this group does not visit the swimming as frequently as the other two groups. If the conditions are not met. the fit of a normal distribution to all subgroups.4. An important thing to know is. We will discuss the three conditions in this section. Since these differences are significant. It is clear in such a situation. The validity of any experiment depends on random sampling and /or the randomisation process. Another point of attentions is that the grouping variable is the independent variable and the test variable the dependent one.

is the Levene test. June 2010 page 175 . If we compare the significance. From the menus. 6. when possible. A method to test whether all the variances of the populations are equal.2. 7.2 we will discuss how you can assess the normality of each subgroup. The output of the ‘Homogeneity of variance test’ is rather straight forward. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. A plot of the means is available also. In Section 8. Click the Options button and check the option ‘Homogeneity of variance test’. Homogeneity of Variance The third assumption states that the population variances of the groups are equal (i. 3. if you have unequal sample sizes. σ 12 = σ 22 = σ 32 ).4. distributions are not extremely different from a normal distribution. If you have equal sample sizes in each group. you should have equal sample sizes in all groups. the level of significance of the ANOVA F test is usually not greatly affected.2).docx 16/03/2011 © J. Smits.5. We will test the null hypothesis: H0: σ 12 = σ 22 = σ 32 against the alternative that not all variances are equal. Thus. inferences based on the F distribution are not seriously affected by unequal variances. However.3 to take the ‘Equal Variances Assumed’ side for the post hoc test turns out to be correct. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. If you want to have the statistics for the subgroups you can check the option Descriptives.e.9% with our alpha value (5%) it is clear that we can conclude that the variances are equal. 42. Our choice in Section 8. choose Analyze Compare Means One-Way ANOVA to recall the dialog One-Way ANOVA. We will discuss Levene’s test in SPSS right now (see also Section 8. particularly for large samples. Check the assumption of equal variances with Levene’s test. then unequal variances can have a serious effect on inferences developed from the ANOVA procedure.

8 A boxplot to compare the two groups. 2. Create (and customize) a boxplot to compare the three age groups. In this figure. we see that the median of the middle group is far less than the medians of the other two groups. Applying the Statistical Test The Kruskal-Wallis test will compare the distributions of the number of visits between the three age groups. In our case where we compare the three age groups. In this section we will discuss the Kruskal-Wallis test to answer the same research question as we dealt with in the previous section: ‘Is there a significant difference between the three age groups in the number of visits to Aquariade?’ 8. In Section 4.5. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. On the tab Fields: Test Field: Visits and Groups: Age.2). A rather large sample size will lead to many ties and we prefer to use the chi-square test for a crosstabulation (see Section 7. On the dialog ‘Nonparametric Tests: Two or More Independent Samples’ check the three tabs.1. On the tab Objective: Compare medians across groups. Graphical Display of the Data We will create a boxplot to compare both groups.5. 3.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Since these procedures use rank numbers (just as the Mann-Whitney test) there is no need for assumptions about the probability distributions involved. Again. Figure 8. Since mean rank number for the three groups will be compared. we must warn you when you use these methods for a test variable having an ordinal level of measurement with only has a few classes. 8. or the level of measurement of the test variable is ordinal. the procedure actually tests whether the medians of the three populations are equal. So we might conclude that the number of visits of the 25 to 50 years group drops back. The procedure is based on rank numbers assigned to the observations in an arrangement from low to high. But does this statement hold for the entire population? 8.2.3 you can read the instructions. the hypotheses we test are: H0: Median group 1 = Median group 2 = Median group 3 And the alternative hypothesis is that not all three medians are equal. On the tab Settings: Kruskal-Wallis 1-way ANOVA (k samples) Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.5 Comparing More than Two Groups on an Ordinal Variable: Kruskal-Wallis Rank Test If you want to compare more than two groups and think (or fear) that there is a departure from the assumptions of ANOVA. June 2010 page 176 . From the menus. Smits. choose Analyze Nonparametric Tests Independent Samples. SPSS offers you non parametric test procedures. 1.

The SPSS output viewer shows you the results. Run the test. Figure 8. 4. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. June 2010 page 177 .docx 16/03/2011 © J. Smits.9 SPSS output of the Kruskal-Wallis test Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.

Figure 8. In the model viewer.11 Changing the view in the model viewer 5.10 The model viewer of the Kruskal-Wallis test The Hypothesis Test Summary gives you the conclusion: since the p-value (0. Figure 8.docx 16/03/2011 © J. June 2010 page 178 .9%) is less than our alpha value (5%) we have to reject the null hypothesis. change the view to Pairwise Comparisions Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Select Pairwise comparisons to see the differences between the groups. Smits. The post hoc comparison can be found in the model viewer as well. so we have statistical evidence that the number of visits to the swimming pool are not equal for the three age groups.

June 2010 page 179 . Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.docx 16/03/2011 © J. This supports our conclusion that the age group 25 -< 50 years spends significantly fewer visits to the swimming pool than the other two age groups. Figure 8. Smits. 8. The table also displays significant differences with a yellow background. From the menus. choose Data Split File. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. 1.6 Assessing the Normality The t-test and the ANOVA are both based on the assumption that a normal (bell shaped) distribution fits to the distribution of the test variable. We start to split the data file in order to get separate analyses for the groups.12 The model viewer showing Pairwise comparisons The triangles displays significant difference with a yellow line. In this section we will discuss how to asses this normality assumption. Select the option ‘Compare groups’ and move the variable Age into the box labelled ‘Groups Based On’. Apply with OK. With that setting we will run the Kolmogorov- Smirnov test.

docx 16/03/2011 © J. From the menus. Age group = < 25 years Age group = 25 –< 50 years Age group = >= 50 years Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. 3. SPSS will produce separate calculations. On the tab Settings select: Customize tests and check the third option ‘Test observed distribution against hypothesized (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test)’ 4. On the tab Fields move the variable Visits into the Test Fields list. Since we invoked SPLIT FILE. Fields and Settings. 2. June 2010 page 180 . Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. On the tab Objective select: Customize Analysis. for each age group. The dialog ‘One-Sample Nonparametric Tests’ contains three tabs. choose Analyze Nonparametric Tests One Sample. Objective. Smits. Run the tests.

docx 16/03/2011 © J. 8. Finally. You can use the methods we discussed in this chapter. Answer the question whether this mark relates significantly to the gender or the age of the visitor.7 Lab (with Answers) Research question (10) is about the total opinion about Aquariade expressed in a mark.7. do not create groups’. so we have a departure from that important assumption of ANOVA. Smits.5%). 5.5. 8.1).4.13 SPSS output of the Kolomogorov-Smirnov test In neither of the three groups does the normal distribution fit the sample distribution. Figuur 8. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.2 is invalid. Conclusion: If we compare the mean mark between men and women the difference is not significant at an alpha level of 5% (p-value = 7.4%. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. meaning that the analysis of Section 8. do not forget to switch off the SPLIT FILE by selecting the option ‘Analyze all cases. So research question (9) should be answered by the Kruskal-Wallis test (see Section 8. June 2010 page 181 .1. So we have to use the bottom row of the SPSS output. Elaboration of the t-Test Note that in this situation we face the problem that the variances are not supposed to be equal since the significance of Levene’s Test equals 0.

Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.7.8. Elaboration of the Mann-Whitney Test Conclusion: If we compare men and women with respect to the mark.7. we cannot see any significance difference (p = 10. June 2010 page 182 . 8.3. Smits.7%).docx 16/03/2011 © J. Elaboration of ANOVA Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.2.

Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. From the SPSS output it will be clear that this assumption does not hold either. Conclusion: The error bar makes clear that the young group gives higher marks for the swimming pool than the other two groups. there is a serious departure from the assumptions. June 2010 page 183 . Smits. We also assessed (to be complete) the normality of the distribution of the mark within the groups with the Kolomogorov-Smirnov test.2%). Elaboration of the Kruskal-Wallis Test Conclusion: The Kruskal-Wallis test also gives a significant result. Age group = < 25 years Age group = 25 –< 50 years Age group = >= 50 years Figuur 8. so our conclusion that the rating of the swimming pool is different among the age groups is valid. Running the ANOVA test gives a significant result (p = 0.14 SPSS output of the Kolomogorov-Smirnov test 8.docx 16/03/2011 © J.4. So we will run the Kruskal-Wallis test for a valid analysis. Checking the homogeneity of the variances with Levene’s test gives a significant result (p=0. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. However.5%).7.

Smits. June 2010 page 184 . Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.docx 16/03/2011 © J.Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54.

Smits.docx 16/03/2011 © J.1 Adjustment of SPSS Settings SPSS offers a number of options which can be altered to your wishes. Appendix 9. Change the measurement system into centimetres. so change this into ‘Display names’. leave this to ‘File’. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Setting of the variable lists in the dialogs. In order to do so. choose from the menus Edit Options. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. We only mention a few settings explicitly. 9. (3) Change the measurement system into centimetres if you do not want to use inches. June 2010 page 185 . (2) The order of the variables. On the tab General: (1) In the variable lists of the dialogs we prefer to have the names of the variables.

Unchecking this option saves you a lot of space in the output viewer Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. each command you process will be mentioned in the output viewer as a log item.docx 16/03/2011 © J. June 2010 page 186 . Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. you can suppress this by unchecking the option ‘Display commands in the log’. When you use SPSS with the standard settings. On the tab Viewer. Smits.

Change this into 0 decimal places Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. the display format is set to two decimal places. We prefer to use the default of zero decimal places for our new variables. On the tab Data you can change this default setting. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. When you create new variables in SPSS.docx 16/03/2011 © J. June 2010 page 187 . Smits.

To apply your table look to every new pivot table change the setting ‘TableLook’ on the ‘Pivot Tables’ tab: Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. After creating your own table look.docx 16/03/2011 © J. June 2010 page 188 . you can save this look from within the output viewer. Smits. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.

Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. June 2010 page 189 . On the tab ‘File Locations’ you can specify the folder where you want to store your data files and output files. If you want to execute all commands of a session this knowledge can save you a lot of time and effort.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Moreover you can see that SPSS stores all the commands executed in a session journal. Smits. You can also specify to use the last folder used. This will save you a lot of time searching for your files. a text file at your drive.

You must start spss first. Take from the category 2D-bar the third option: 100% stacked bar. 9. Smits. the download will start. Create a table or copy one from SPSS into EXCEL. This zip-file contains a virtual application. Select the range A2:E8 and. If you empty this directory all specific configuration changes you made.2 SPSS Distribution of Saxion From the Saxion site you can download a Saxion distribution of SPSS. It is a 249Mb zip-file so your download might take a minute (or two). The applications can be started by a "double click" on the executable file PASW-Statistics-18 (filename ends with . Start Excel and check whether you have got an empty workbook ready to use. Unzip the distribution to any folder on your computer. If your login was successful.saxion. 1.exe). You might encounter a warning from the firewall.nl 4. 2.3 How to Create and Customise a Chart in EXCEL 1. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. 6.php//software/saxion-software/saxion or visit the MIM site at ‘Links for students’. This will only happen the first time if you allow SPSS to run on your computer. If you have any questions: mail to notebook@saxion. It will take 450 Mb of disk space. A subdirectory with the name Thinstall has been created also. 9. Note (1) Create a shortcut to the file PASW-Statistics-18 on your desktop to start SPSS in a convenient way. June 2010 page 190 . Click on the link to SPSS 18 and use your Saxion credentials to log in.docx 16/03/2011 © J. these should stay together. you can open files by using the spss menu File > Open > Data. (2) You cannot launch SPSS files to open them with SPSS. 2. You are allowed to use this application when you belong to Saxion (as a student or staff member). 3. 3. will be gone. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Open your browser and go to http://notebook. Find the file PASW-Statistics-18.nl/index. and after that. or File > Open > Output. After unzipping you can see one or more files. double click to launch and (be patient) after a couple of minutes SPSS will start. 5. from the menus. Do not remove this directory because application specific information will be stored here (it is a virtual registry and may contain virtual system files). choose Insert -> (Graphs:) Bar.

4. We will start by adding a title to the graph. Choose the option ‘Above chart’ to get a title at the top of the chart. June 2010 page 191 . Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. This option will display a title at the top of the chart 5.7. Smits. Social security Public transport Shops Good Sufficient Road and traffic safety Insufficient Bad Parking place Green place 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% We want to update the lay-out to get the result of Figure 6. We will use a couple of Excel menus which are available only if you have the graph selected. so take care of that.docx 16/03/2011 © J. choose Layout > (Labels:) > Chart Title. This will lead to the chart displayed here below. From the menus.

6. June 2010 page 192 . You can suppress the tick marks by selecting none. choose Layout > (Axes:) > Axes > Primary Vertical Axis > More Primary Vertical Axis Options. with the first at the top of the axis. Select this option to place the horizontal axis at the bottom of the chart. This option will put our first category at the top. Smits. We want to have this reduced. 7. The last aspect we will adjust is gap between the staves. The next thing to fix is to arrange the categories on the vertical axis the natural order.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Form the menus. Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Click with the right mouse button on one of the staves and select the option ‘Format Data Series’ from the context menu. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Choose the settings as indicated in the next dialog.

Evaluation of the environment Green place Parking place Road and traffic safety Good Sufficient Shops Insufficient Bad Public transport Social security 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Figure 9. June 2010 page 193 . Reduce the Gap With to 40%.docx 16/03/2011 © J. Reduce the gap width to 40% 8.1 The customized EXCEL chart Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. These steps will lead you to a customized layout as is displayed in Figure 9.1. Smits.

Smits.T. concepts and applications (11th edition) New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.G. Bush (2009). J.G.L.pearsoned. ISBN 0135009367 Burns. Levine & T. Armstrong. ISBN-13: 978-0-27370-148-4.prenhall. Principles of Marketing.M.C.com/burnsbush • http://wps. and G. ISBN 9043017272 (in Dutch). Saxion Hogeschool Enschede.F. Business Statistics (6th edition) New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. Onderzoek met SPSS en Excel 2nd edition (2009). Kotler. Sincich (2005). Shannon & P.saxion. ISBN 9780131469181 McClave.surfspot. M. A. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.docx 16/03/2011 © J. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. Lewis & A. Saunders.F.W. & P.php//software/saxion-software/saxion Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. Benson & T. P. & D. Internet References • www. J. M. and R.co. Amsterdam: Pearson Education. Smits. Smith (2005).D. Bibliography Books Berenson.spss. D. & P. Fry & K.C. Basic Business Statistics.uk/ema_uk_he_saunders_resmethbus_4 • www. Statistics for business and economics (9th edition) New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 0137135998 Groebner. 10.com • www. Marketing Research (6th edition). & P. Thornhill (2004). June 2010 page 194 .C. Research Methods for Business Students (4th edition) New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.nl/index. Krehbiel (2008). Edens. & R.nl • http://notebook.

small subgroups. interval. and a neutral one with a 3. Commitment card — A card that asks respondents to commit to participating in a survey Confidence band or interval confidence — A specified range around a survey result for which there is a high statistical probability that it includes the value that would be calculated from the whole population (if that were possible). There are four levels of measurement: nominal. questions left unanswered. marked incorrectly. or standard deviations of individual variables Exact tests — Tests that calculate the probabilities exactly. Also called a nominal variable. a model can be built comparing information that is available to data provided by other respondents.) Mean — See arithmetic mean Median — A measure of central tendency for continuous or ordinal data. that is. June 2010 page 195 . Frequencies — A table showing what number or percentage of respondents gave each answer to a question Histogram — A bar chart in which continuous variables are shown in groups Imputation — A methodical process for making an assumption about the value of missing data. defined for ungrouped data as the middle value when data are arranged in order of magnitude Missing data — Incomplete or invalid data. Such confidence intervals are commonly calculated for confidence levels of 0.docx 16/03/2011 © J. The discussion typically lasts about two hours and is led by a moderator who follows a topic guide but does not use a fixed questionnaire. Exact tests are necessary when you have small datasets. rather than by using estimates. For example. Continuous variable — A variable whose response options have an implied order and distance and for which one unit represents the same quantity throughout the scale. (See separate entries for descriptions. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. Factor analysis — An analytic technique that groups quantitative variables according to their degree of correlation Focus group — A moderated group discussion about a particular topic. Also called an interval variable.99. North. For example. South) is a categorical variable. and ratio. standard errors. 11. or unbalanced distributions.95 or 0. or marked “Don’t Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. whether the observed distribution is likely due to chance Closed-ended question — A question for which response categories are provided Coding scheme — A method for assigning a code (usually in the form of a number) to responses to a question. The model would then assign a likely value to the missing data. Branching — See skip pattern Categorical variable — A variable for which numbers are simply identifiers and do not have mathematical properties. For example. if you are researching customers’ opinions of a certain product feature. Interval variable — See continuous variable Level of measurement —The way in which a question may be answered. Census — An accounting of an entire population. Glossary Analysis of variance (ANOVA) — A method of analysis used when dealing with a continuous or integral dependent variable and one or more categorical or nominal variables Arithmetic mean —The sum of all observations divided by the number of observations. ordinal. if certain demographic information is missing from a respondent’s questionnaire. a negative one with a 2. you might devise a coding scheme to identify a positive opinion with a 1. Smits. as opposed to a survey of a sample of that population Chi-square — A statistic often used in crosstabulations to test the hypothesis that the row and column variables are independent. Crosstabulation — A table that shows the relationship between two or more variables by presenting all combinations of categories of variables Error bar chart — A chart that plots the confidence intervals. Also known as the mean. the sales territory in which a company’s customer lives (Central. Data can be missing for a number of reasons: for example. For example. to determine if there is a relationship between variables. Coding schemes are also used to turn open-ended text responses into data that can be analyzed. such as order. age in years or weight in pounds or kilograms.

Also called branching. Skewed — A distribution whose frequency curve is not symmetrical about its mean. Income level. This ensures that the sample accurately represents the population. groups defined by certain characteristics (See stratified sampling. equal distances between adjacent points. However.) Stratified sampling — A sampling procedure in which respondents are separated into subgroups or according to characteristics of interest. Population — The totality of things or people that you wish to study Pre-notification card — A card alerting prospective respondents that a survey will arrive Pretest — See pilot study Purposive sampling — A sampling procedure in which each element of the population is purposely selected for some characteristic or characteristics of interest Questionnaire — A set of questions designed to generate data necessary to accomplish the objectives of the research project Random digit dialing — The technique of dialing random numbers in working telephone exchanges so that people with unlisted phone numbers are not excluded from a sample population Random sampling — A sampling procedure that selects population elements based on chance. sometimes missing values can be assigned using imputation.” Pilot study — The administration of a questionnaire under field conditions to a small sample in order to time it and/or uncover problems. For example. This results in there being an equal probability of selection for all population members that appear in the frame. One variable defines the horizontal axis and the other variable defines the vertical axis. June 2010 page 196 . Ratio variables — Variables that have order among points. race. Strata — (Plural of stratum) In sampling. Mode — The value of a variable that occurs more frequently than any other value Nominal variable — See categorical variable Nonparametric tests — Statistical tests that require either no assumptions or very few assumptions about a population’s distribution Non-response rate — The proportion of sample population that did not respond to a survey Open-ended question — A question for which no response list is provided. based on their response to a previous question. Saxion Hogeschool Enschede. an area that contains no text or graphics Marketing Research with SPSS 18 vs 54. know.” Missing data are usually excluded when calculating percentages. Smits. Respondents are expected to supply a response in their own words. and samples drawn from each subgroup. having one “tail” longer than the other Skip pattern — A method of questionnaire design that enables respondents to skip questions. Simple random sampling — (SRS) A sampling procedure by which population members are selected directly from the sampling frame. Systematic sampling — A random sampling method that is equivalent to a simple random sample Survey — The process of collecting information about a topic or issue by means of sampling and interviewing selected individuals t test — A hypothesis test that uses the t statistic to determine whether or not two means are equal in the population Weighting — Assigning a numerical coefficient to an item to express its relative importance in a frequency distribution White space — On a printed page. and business title are examples of characteristics that might be used to create a stratified sample. Also called a pretest. and an absolute zero Regression — An estimation of the linear relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables Response rate — The proportion of a sample population that responded to a survey Sample — A subset of a population from which information is collected in order to obtain information and draw conclusions about the total population Scatterplot — A graph of data points based on two continuous variables. Ordinal variable — A variable whose response options have an implied order but no implied distance.docx 16/03/2011 © J. a scale that ranges from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree.

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