You are on page 1of 13

AGENDA ITEM: 650-608 Design Loads for Tank Roofs

DATE: January 28, 2008

CONTACT: Randy Kissell, TGB Partnership
PH: 919-644-8250 FX: 919-644-8252, email: randy.kissell@tgbpartnership.com

PURPOSE:
1) To allow reduced live loads for tank roofs where allowed by load standards
2) To include unbalanced snow loads on tank roofs

SOURCE: Committee members’ request

REVISION: 3

IMPACT:
1) Reduce cost where reduced live loads are allowed by load standards;
2) Reduce the likelihood of failures when roofs are subjected to drifting snow loads.

RATIONALE:

General
This version of the ballot addresses comments received in the ballot conducted before the Fall 2007
Refining meeting.

Committee members requested an investigation into more precise loads for tank roofs. The first ballot
addressed only aluminum dome roofs, but committee members requested that any changes to roof loads
apply to all tank roofs. This ballot, therefore, uniformly addresses snow loads, wind loads, and minimum
roof live loads for all tank roofs addressed by API 650.

Loads on tanks were recently revised in agenda item 650-472, which provided more precise loads than
previously required by API 650. For example, API 650 previously specified a 25 psf roof live load for all
tanks in all locations. 650-472 (published in 650’s 10th edition, addendum 4) changed this, providing
rules for determining the uniform snow load for the tank based on its location. Changes were also made
to more accurately determine other loads such as minimum roof live load and wind load, and address load
combinations.

The 650-472 load changes were based on ASCE 7, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other
Structures, but the 650-472 snow load and minimum roof live load were simplified from the ASCE 7
approach. Now that the committee is requesting more precise loads, this ballot proposes to revise 650’s
snow load and minimum roof live load requirements to more closely match ASCE 7.

This will have the benefit of reducing costs in low snow load regions where ASCE 7 provides for lower
minimum roof live loads, and making tank design more consistent with accepted practice for other
structures. Another advantage will be to reduce roof failures due to drifting snow loads by addressing
unbalanced snow loads for the first time in API 650.

650-608 Design Loads for Tank Roofs 1/28/08 1

6.02 -0.3 0.8 In each case. These were used in agenda item 650-472 to provide the wind pressure for doubly curved surfaces.10. A (windward edge) -1.Minimum Roof Live Load ASCE 7 section 4. Dome pressures are a function of the tank-height-to-diameter ratio.GCpi) p = 36.2 for aluminum domes). The largest ASCE 7 minimum roof live load value of 20 psf is conservatively prescribed by API 650 5.0 -1. including aluminum dome roofs.32 Pt.000 bbl 151.2.1 prescribes minimum roof live loads as a function of the tributary area of a structural member and the rise-to-span ratio of dome roofs. and roof profile.6 for steel domes and G.5 -0.4 -1.) This reduces the design load in regions where the ground snow load is small. a typical radius for API 650 tanks (see section 5.97 -0. ASCE 7 allows this value to be reduced to as little as 12 psf for structural components with large tributary areas in domes with large rise-to-span ratios.94) = 36. see G.6 -1. C (leeward edge) -0.4 (-0.0 -0. Therefore. using a dome radius equal to the tank diameter (D).85) – 0. distance from the windward edge.13: Dome Roof Wind Pressure Coefficients Cp for 3 Tank Sizes 30’ x 40’h 80’ x 48’h 150’ x 48’h 5.5 -0.4 (-0.6.97. For typical profiles permitted by API 650 (for steel domes. and matches that used for steel roofs in 650. Wind Loads This ballot would not change wind loads except that they would be applied to all roofs.4. This ballot proposes to allow lower minimum roof live loads where allowed by ASCE 7. A 30 psf roof uplift pressure was selected as a reasonable average for all roofs based on the above.9.8 Pt. so the design wind pressure is p = qh (GCp . The ASCE 7 dome wind pressure approach is briefly reviewed below.0 Pt. the horizontal effect of the wind counteracts overturning and can be conservatively neglected.6 0. producing a net horizontal force in a direction opposite to the wind direction.1 provisions. see 5. but no less than 15 psf.000 bbl 43. 650-608 Design Loads for Tank Roofs 1/28/08 2 . 48’ tall tank. the uplift on the windward side is about 3 times the uplift on the leeward side. since the ASCE 7 pressure is more accurate than the current API 650 G.1(e). The discussion below provides the rationale for the roof wind load currently in API 650. B (center) -1.72 average uplift (psf) 38.2. resulting in a dome-height-to-tank-diameter ratio of 0.97(0. ASCE 7 Figure 6-7 gives an approximate average Cp = -0.2) on an 80’ diameter.3 average coefficient -1. (AWWA D100 specifies 15 psf as a minimum. which currently have different wind loads based on outdated ASCE 7 arched roof wind loads.6 28.6 psf (uplift) A computation of ASCE 7-02 wind pressure on domes is shown for 3 tanks below.6.10.000 bbl h/D 1. ASCE 7-02 (Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures) provides wind pressures for dome roofs in Figure 6-7.2.1 and for aluminum domes.18) = 36. and this ballot proposes to apply these to aluminum domes.1 36.

when the area loaded is accounted for.5 o) = 135 o sector (135/360 = 3/8 of the roof’s area). 650-608 Design Loads for Tank Roofs 1/28/08 3 . In plan. and apply this over a 90o + 2(22.58 times the flat roof snow load.2. The ASCE 7- 02 unbalanced snow load on dome roofs varies from 0. (Arcs further from the roof center have more area).1(g) is solely a balanced (uniform) load. This ballot proposes for simplicity to use 1. The ASCE unbalanced distribution can be used to compute an average pressure in the loaded 90 o sector of 1.Snow Load The snow load currently given in API 650 5.5 times the flat roof snow load for the unbalanced load. this load is distributed over a 90o sector and tapers to zero over the 22.5 times the flat roof snow load pf at the roof’s crown to about 2 times the flat roof snow load at the 30o slope point (see the figure below). in addition to balanced snow loads. ASCE 7-02 provides. unbalanced snow loads (ASCE 7 Figure 7-3).5o sectors to either side of the 90o degree sector.

57o) has a slope less than 10o. for which the only unbalanced load ASCE 7 requires is a partial loading 650-608 Design Loads for Tank Roofs 1/28/08 4 . and the unbalanced load acts over a sufficiently large portion of the roof to cause general buckling and tension ring failure. If a cone roof is considered to be similar to a dome roof. then a cone roof with a slope of ¾ on 12 (3. ASCE 7 does not require unbalanced loads for dome roofs with a slope from the eave to the crown of 10 o or less.0 pf Cs /Ce 0. 2.5pf 30o slope Dome Elevation This ballot proposes that roof general buckling and tension ring checks for steel and aluminum domes be based on the unbalanced snow load since its intensity is greater than the balanced snow load.

8D < r < 1.c.375 in.3 psf = 37. since unbalanced loads will now be considered in their design. which weighs 15.4 psf 650-608 Design Loads for Tank Roofs 1/28/08 5 .2 lb/ft2 C.2D 4* and Umbrella Roofs Self-Supporting Appendix G 0. = 5. and t = r + C.4(external pressure) + dead load = 20 psf + 0.5 o < θ < 37o variable from about 3 to Roofs less than 2* Self-Supporting Dome 5. so they can have geometric imperfections that reduce their buckling strength.A.10. The table above shows that steel domes and self-supporting cone roofs have higher safety factors than the other roofs.3 lb/ft2 Current method: T = balanced snow + 0. > 3/16 in.5 and 5. Roof Design There are four types of fixed roofs addressed by API 650: Roof Type API 650 Reference Slope θ or Radius r Safety Factor on Buckling Supported Cone Roofs 5.2D 1.7D < r < 1.A.95 on member buckling *Safety factors for self-supporting cone and self-supporting dome roofs are given in Jawad and Farr.A. Fixed roofs will be more accurately designed as a result of this ballot by including unbalanced snow loads in their design.67 on column buckling greater Self-Supporting Cone 5. However. An example for a self-supporting steel dome is using 5.6. 200 45 230 45 where T = balanced load and U = unbalanced load Designers may use the balloted equations given in 5. This is partially due to the fact that API 650 places no tolerances on out-of- roundness for steel domes and self-supporting cones. Structural Analysis and Design of Process Equipment.65 on general buckling.5 9.2 psf) + 15.10.6 o (¾ on 12).4 3.10.5 as proposed in this ballot. it is reasonable to reduce the steel dome safety factor for unbalanced loads to 3.10.6 using the current 650 approach and this ballot’s approach is given below: Given: Balanced snow load = 20 psf Unbalanced snow load = 30 psf Tank diameter D = 80 ft Dome radius rr = tank diameter D External pressure = 1” w.4(5.6 or they may perform more precise analyses if they wish. = 0 Assume a thickness of 0. may be 1. Aluminum Dome Roofs 1.1 is modified as follows: rr T Current equation: t = + C.10.6 0. The US unit equation for steel dome thickness given in 5.. > 3/16 in.10. 200 45 rr T r U Ballot equations: Use the greater of t = + C.(the balanced load acting over only part of the roof).A.10.

this equation is D 2 ( LL  DL) An = .2.2 psf) + 15.4 t= + C.3 psf = 47.25 kPa. This standard does not contain provisions for external pressures greater than 0. The US unit version should be 11D 2 An = 180  tan  sin( ) Ft  Written in dimensionless form. 8 Ft tan  BALLOT: Add unlined words 5. Aluminum Dome Tension Ring The aluminum dome tension ring area equation given in G.4 psf r T 80 47.A.4. 200 45 200 45 Ballot method: U = unbalanced snow + 0.4.4 t= r + C. including any corrosion allowance unless otherwise noted.2.3 psf = 37. which is used in this ballot.4(5.1.A.4 t= r + C. (b) Design External Pressure (Pe): Shall not be less than 0. making the applied load a variable.4 psf r T 80 37. This ballot corrects the dome seismic load to correspond with the new Appendix E seismic design requirements.2.4. 230 45 230 45 T = balanced snow + 0. Design requirements for vacuum 650-608 Design Loads for Tank Roofs 1/28/08 6 . rr T 80 37. the current method and the ballot method give the same result.4(5. = + 0 = 0. The allowable buckling pressure is required to be compared to the revised loads in G. = + 0 = 0.2.365 in.357 in.A.4(external pressure) + dead load = 30 psf + 0.1 Loads Loads are defined as follows: (a) Dead Load (DL): The weight of the tank or tank component.1 and G. = + 0 = 0. and using η sin(180 o/η) ≈ π.365 in.25 kPa (1 in. Aluminum Dome Seismic Load The aluminum dome seismic load (G.4(external pressure) + dead load = 20 psf + 0.2 psf) + 15.4.2.3) needs to be updated since Appendix E has changed.4 has a typo. of water). Aluminum Dome General Buckling The aluminum dome general buckling equation is made dimensionless in this ballot to be consistent with the metric guidelines passed by the committee. 200 45 200 45 For this example.

2) with liquid with the design specific gravity specified by the purchaser. (j) Wind (W): The design wind speed (V) shall be 190 km/hr (120 mph).5 times the balanced design snow load. The design wind pressure shall be 0. the 3 sec gust design wind speed determined from ASCE 7 Figure 6-1. Line 8).exceeding this value and design requirements to resist flotation and external fluid pressure shall be a matter of agreement between the Purchaser and the Manufacturer (see Appendix V).86 kPa [V/190]2.5 lbf/in2). (h) Stored Liquid (F): The load due to filling the tank to the design liquid level (see 5.1 Self-Supporting Cone Roofs For SI units.6. 3. 5.84 times the ground snow load. Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads on the roof are conservatively equal and opposite and therefore they are not included in the above pressures. the balanced design snow load shall be determined from the ground snow load in accordance with ASCE 7. The 3 sec gust wind speed used shall be reported to the purchaser.6.2 is approximately equal to 3 sec gust wind speed. (d) Hydrostatic Test (Ht ): The load due to filling the tank with water to the design liquid level.6 (see Data Sheet. 2) The unbalanced design snow load (Su) for cone roofs with a slope of 10o or less shall be equal to the balanced snow load. the unbalanced snow load shall be determined from the ground snow load in accordance with ASCE 7. 4.1. 1) The balanced design snow load (Sb) shall be 0.7. or the 3 sec gust design wind speed specified by the purchaser (this specified wind speed shall be for a 3 sec gust based on a 2% annual probability of being exceeded (50 yr mean recurrence interval)). Alternately. These design wind pressures are in accordance with ASCE 7 for wind exposure category C.0 kPa (20 lb/ft2) on the horizontal projected area of the roof. Unbalanced design snow load shall be applied over a 135o sector of the roof plan with no snow on the remaining 225 o sector.4. 2. The design uplift pressure on the roof (wind plus internal pressure) need not exceed 1.1 through E. 1. change: 650-608 Design Loads for Tank Roofs 1/28/08 7 . The unbalanced design snow load ( Su) for all other roofs shall be 1. (e) Minimum Roof Live Load (Lr): 1.4. (i) Test Pressure (Pt): As required by F.10. but shall not be less than 0. [(18 lbf/ft2)(V/120)2] on vertical projected areas of cylindrical surfaces and 1. pressures may be determined in accordance with ASCE 7 (exposure category and importance factor provided by purchaser) or a national standard for the specific conditions for the tank being designed. The minimum roof live load may alternatively be determined in accordance with ASCE 7.72 kPa (15 psf). Fastest mile wind speed times 1. where V is the 3 sec gust wind speed. [(30 lbf/ft2) (V/120)2] uplift (2) on horizontal projected areas of conical or doubly curved surfaces. As an alternative. (c) Design Internal Pressure (Pi): Shall not exceed 18 kPa (2. The minimum roof live load shall be reported to the purchaser. The balanced and unbalanced design snow loads shall be reported to the purchaser.5. (g) Snow (S): The ground snow load shall be determined from ASCE 7 Figure 7-1 or Table 7-1 unless the ground snow load that equals or exceeds the value based on a 2% annual probability of being exceeded (50 yr mean recurrence interval) is specified by the purchaser. (f) Seismic (E): Seismic loads determined in accordance with sections E. Alternately.6 times the design pressure P determined in F.44 kPa(V/190)2.3.4 or F.

and 3/16 in.5 mm. D T Minimum thickness = > 5 mm 4. and > 5 mm 2.A. exclusive of corrosion allowance where D = nominal diameter of the tank shell (m) T = greater of load combinations (e)(1)and (e)(2) of Appendix R (kPa) θ = angle of cone elements to the horizontal (deg) to: D T D U Minimum thickness = greatest of .4 2.1 Self-Supporting Dome and Umbrella Roofs For SI units. and 5 mm 4. change: D T Minimum thickness = > 3/16 in.8 sin  2.5 mm. 400 sin  45 Maximum thickness = ½ in.5 sin  2.8 sin  2.2 5.6. exclusive of corrosion allowance where D = nominal diameter of the tank shell (m) T = greater of load combinations (e)(1)and (e)(2) of Appendix R (kPa) 650-608 Design Loads for Tank Roofs 1/28/08 8 . . 400 sin  45 460 sin  45 where D = nominal diameter of the tank shell (ft) T = greater of Appendix R load combinations (e)(1)and (e)(2) with balanced snow load Sb (lbf/ft2) U = greater of Appendix R load combinations (e)(1)and (e)(2) with unbalanced snow load Su (lbf/ft2) θ = angle of cone elements to the horizontal 5..10.2 Maximum thickness = 12. .2 where D = nominal diameter of the tank (m) T = greater of Appendix R load combinations (e)(1)and (e)(2) with balanced snow load Sb (kPa) U = greater of Appendix R load combinations (e)(1)and (e)(2) with unbalanced snow load Su (kPa) θ = angle of cone elements to the horizontal For US units. change: r T Minimum thickness = r + C. exclusive of corrosion allowance where D = nominal diameter of the tank (ft) T = greater of load combinations (e)(1)and (e)(2) of Appendix R (lbf/ft 2) θ = angle of cone elements to the horizontal (deg) to: D T D U Minimum thickness = greatest of .2 Maximum thickness = 12.

r + C.A.2 where D = nominal diameter of the tank shell (m) T = greater of Appendix R load combinations (e)(1)and (e)(2) with balanced snow load Sb (kPa) U = greater of Appendix R load combinations (e)(1)and (e)(2) with unbalanced snow load Su (kPa) r = roof radius (m) For US units.4 2..4Pi (d) Wind and External Pressure: DL + W + 0... + C.7 2.r = roof radius (m) to: rr T rr U Minimum thickness = greatest of + C. including the absence of any load other than DL in the combinations: (a) Fluid and Internal Pressure: DL + F + Pi (b) Hydrostatic Test: DL + (Ht + Pt) (c) Wind and Internal Pressure: DL + W + 0. > 3/16 in.4Pe 2) DL + Pe + 0. change: rr T Minimum thickness = + C.. 3/16 in.A. exclusive of corrosion allowance where D = nominal diameter of the tank shell (ft) T = greater of load combinations (e)(1)and (e)(2) of Appendix R (lbf/ft 2) r = roof radius (ft) to: rr T r U Minimum thickness = greatest of + C. loads are combined in the following manner.A. Design rules account for these load combinations.1Sb + 0.4Pi 650-608 Design Loads for Tank Roofs 1/28/08 9 . 200 45 230 45 where D = nominal diameter of the tank shell (ft) T = greater of Appendix R load combinations (e)(1)and (e)(2) with balanced snow load Sb (lbf/ft2) U = greater of Appendix R load combinations (e)(1)and (e)(2) with unbalanced snow load Su (lbf/ft2) r = roof radius (ft) APPENDIX R – LOAD COMBINATIONS R.A.4(Lr or Su or Sb) (f) Seismic: DL + F + E + 0. and 5 mm 2.4Pe (e) Gravity Loads: 1) DL + (Lr or Su or Sb) + 0.A..1 For the purposes of this standard.2 2. 200 45 Maximum thickness = ½ in.

65 G.4.1  10 6 E I x Ag Ix = moment of inertia of the frame members for Wa = bending in a plane normal to the dome surface LR 2 ( SF ) A = cross sectional area of the frame members R = spherical radius of the dome where L = average length of the frame members Wa = allowable total downward load in kPa SF = safety factor =1.4.4 Tension Ring The net tension ring area (exclusive of bolt holes and top flange protrusions) (exclusive of bolt holes and top flange protrusions) shall be determined per the following formula: shall not be less than: 650-608 Design Loads for Tank Roofs 1/28/08 10 .65.4.4.) SF = safety factor = 1. Appendix G Current (10th edition. R. and (f). General buckling of the dome roof shall 1. (e)(1).65 Ix = moment of inertia of frame members against bending in a plane normal to the dome surface in Alternately. the purchaser should consider specifying a higher factor on design pressure in (c).65 In US units: 2258  10 6 E I x Ag Wa = LR 2 ( SF ) where Wa = allowable total downward load (lbf/ft2) Ix = moment of inertia of frame members against bending in a plane normal to the dome surface (in4) Ag = cross sectional area of beam (in2) R = spherical radius of the dome in (in.65 applied to the buckling equation or the maximum pressure given in R.1.1.4. 4th addendum) Replace with: G.1. Ag = cross sectional area of beam in cm2 R = spherical radius of the dome in cm SF = safety factor = 1.1(e) where method.2 If the ratio of operating pressure to design pressure exceeds 0.6 E I x A be considered either by using non-linear finite pa = LR 2 ( SF ) element analysis or by the following equation: E = modulus of elasticity of the dome frame In SI units: members 108. pa shall be determined by a non-linear cm4 finite element analysis with a safety factor of 1.4 The minimum net tension ring area G.3 General buckling The allowable roof must be considered with a minimum factor of general buckling pressure pa shall equal or exceed safety of 1. (d).3 Local and general buckling of the dome G.1.

1 Unbalanced Load G. the G.2. dome with only the dead load on the other half.2 DESIGN LOADS Dome roofs shall be designed for the loads in 3.2) θ = ½ the central angle of the dome or roof slope at D = nominal tank diameter (ft) the tank shell η = number of dome supports Ft = tension ring allowable stress θ = ½ the central angle of the dome or roof slope at the tank shell Note: this formula does not include bending Ft = allowable stress of the tension ring (lbf/in2) stresses due to loads from the panel attached to the beam.1 Unbalanced Load The design shall consider one-half of the uniform The design shall consider one-half of the uniform downward load required applied to one-half of the downward load required applied to one-half of the dome with only the dead load on the other half. (b). and (f).1. (b).3. These stresses must also be considered in the tension ring design.5 Leeward quarter = -0. G.2 Wind Load G. The following pressure coefficients shall lbf/ft2)). as per G. and for the load combinations (a). a) the loads in 5.4.9 Center half = -0.4.48 kPa (31 which imposes a velocity pressure of 1. the above formula shall be multiplied by W/1.1.4.2 Wind Load G. and G. greater than 1.2 DESIGN LOADS G.5 For domes designed for 3 sec gust wind speeds For domes designed for 3 sec gust wind speeds 650-608 Design Loads for Tank Roofs 1/28/08 11 . (e). The following pressure coefficients shall be used: be used: Windward quarter = -0.3. Note: this formula does not include factors for bending stresses due to loads from the panel attached to the beam.4.2. and (f) of Appendix Y.34 (or 28).2. G. b) the load combinations in Appendix R.9 Windward quarter = -0.1 For dome structural design.4. (e). the minimum wind load shall be the load resulting minimum wind load shall be the load resulting from a design wind speed of 190 km/h (120 mph) from a design wind speed of 190 km/h (120 mph) which imposes a velocity pressure of 1.4.2.In US units: D2 p An = 8 Ft tan  11D 2 An = 180 where  tan ( ) Ft  An = net area of tension ring D = nominal tank diameter where p = maximum pressure given in R. These stresses must also be considered in In cases where the total dead load plus live load is the tension ring design per G.1.2.2.4. G.7 Leeward quarter = -0.2.7 Center half = -0. (c).4.3.2.2.1 For dome structural design.1(a).2.2. Dome roofs shall be designed for: G.4.48 kPa (31 lbf/ft2)). (c).4.34 kPa (28 lbf/ft2).1.1(e) An = net area of tension beam (in. where W = the total dead load plus live load for the dome.

8.2. G.2. loads.2.4. each designed to support two concentrated loads 1100 N distributed over two separate 0.2 See 3. G.2.2.11 for tank overturning stability. where Ai.2 Concentrated Load The roof shall be two concentrated loads 1100 N (250 lbf).0.3 The loads specified in G.2. Av.4. I. with an Importance Factor of 1.2.2. (1 ft2) areas of any panel. each distributed over two separate 0.1 and G.2 shall not be considered to act simultaneously or in combination with any other simultaneously or in combination with any other loads.1 Roof panels shall be of one-piece G.0.2.8.2.4.4.4. G.4.3 Application The loads specified in G.11 for tank overturning stability.48 kPa (31 lbf/ft 2) is based on ASCE 7-98. of a panel. V = wind speed (3 sec gust) in km/h (mph).4.6 ZIWr a) a horizontal seismic force Fh = AiWr where b) a vertical seismic force Fv = ±AvWr F = horizontal seismic force. Appendix L 650-608 Design Loads for Tank Roofs 1/28/08 12 .4.2 Panel Loads G.4. the wind load shall be multiplied by the following: be multiplied by the following: In SI units: (V/190)2 In SI units: (V/190)2 In US Customary units: (V/120)2 In US Customary units: (V/120)2 Where Where V = wind speed (3 sec gust) in km/h (mph).4. G.1 m2 any panel.4 Panel Loads G.2.3 Seismic Load G.2.2.1 and G.2.2.4) and shall be designed to support a uniform per G. The roof shall be designed to support a load of 3 kPa (60 lbf/ft2) over the full area of the uniform load of 3 kPa (60 lbf/ft2) over the full area panel without sustaining permanent distortion.4.2 shall not be applied G. Category II. Exposure C.4. Category II. with an Importance Factor of 1.4.2.other than 190 km/h (120 mph).2.2.4. and Wr are as defined in Appendix E.4).4.2. Note: The velocity pressure of 1.2. The force shall be uniformly applied over the Forces shall be uniformly applied over the surface surface of the roof.2 See 3.4. Horizontal and vertical forces need not be applied simultaneously.48 kPa (31 lbf/ft 2) Note: The velocity pressure of 1. G.4. the roof shall be designed for a horizontal seismic force shall be designed for determined as follows: F = 0.1 m2 (1 ft2) areas of (250 lbf).1 Uniform Load Roof panels shall be aluminum sheet (except for skylights as allowed by one piece aluminum sheet (except for skylights as G. of the roof.4.1 Seismic Load If the tank is designed for seismic loads. the wind load shall other than 190 km/h (120 mph). G.4.2. Z. Exposure C.2 The roof shall be designed to support G.2. is based on ASCE 7-98.4.4. and Wr are as defined in Appendix E.2. the roof If the tank is designed for seismic loads.

Change “11. Snow Load* to Minimum Roof Live Load _______ psf Balanced Snow Load _________ psf Unbalanced Snow Load _______ psf 650-608 Design Loads for Tank Roofs 1/28/08 13 . Thickness * _______ In.