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CASE STUDIES

:

Issues in the
Contemporary
World Document-Based
C a s e S t u dy 1
Civic Participation
The United Kingdom and South Africa

Investigation c a s e s t u dy 2
Developing Societies
Brazil and Mexico

c a s e s t u dy 3
Building Economic
Powerhouses
China and India

c a s e s t u dy 4
Women in Society
Ireland and Turkey

c a s e s t u dy 5
The Role of the
United Nations

Themes
Globalization is transforming the world’s
economic landscape.

Democracies are struggling to increase citizen
participation. Meanwhile, nations are trying
to define the role of the United Nations.

Issues of world peace and security
are debated in the United Nations Changes in political structures, economic
Security Council. systems, and belief systems are fundamen-
tally reshaping societies.

1019

CASE STUDIES:
Issues in the
Contemporary
World
The world today is a rapidly
changing place. New technol-
ogies are reshaping the way
economies operate and people interact. But
how people and nations react to change is
often rooted in the past. That’s why studying
the past can give you the tools you need to
understand the present. The following case
studies look at some key issues facing the
world today. Use what you have learned to
form opinions about these key issues.

Voters in Cape Town line up in
the early morning hours to vote
in a South Africa election

1020 CASE STUDIES: Contemporary issues

History's Impact video program
Watch the video to learn more about the role of
the United Nations.

Case Study 1  Civic Participation
What challenges do old and new democracies face in
promoting civic participation?

Case Study 2  Developing Societies
How are developing nations such as Brazil and Mexico trying
to meet the needs of their peoples?

Case Study 3  Building Economic Powerhouses
How are the giant emerging economies of India and China
affecting the world?

Case Study 4  Women in Society
How do political and social trends affect the roles of women?

Case Study 5  The Role of the United Nations
What should the role of the United Nations be in
international affairs?

1021

Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have a strong role in many countries. 1022 . but many do not see it as a reality in their countries. Some observers fear that this decline sug- gests a more general disinterest in civic participation. In recent years. When people feel they have little voice in their government or that their votes do not count. Civic participation involves more than voting. Contacting elected representatives. “Voice of the People. There is a range of political activities aimed at influencing government policies. Local charities and other volunteer organizations also provide crucial support for communities. tack- ling issues from hunger to election monitoring. factors such as fair elections. and building coalitions to have a louder voice on issues—these are just some of the ways people participate. and free speech help keep citizens engaged. a lively opposition. Citizens may respect the idea of rule by the people. of course. structures. staging pro- tests. and the use of public resources. laws. In addition. Participation in a democracy extends beyond politics as well.Case Study Document-Based Investigation 1 Civic Participation The United Kingdom and South Africa focusING on THE issue What challenges do old and new democracies face in promoting civic participation? Key Terms devolution In a 2005 survey. Yet only one-third said that their own countries were ruled by the will of the people. voter turnout has declined in many countries. South Africa began its great South African president Thabo experiment in rule by the people in 1994. Yet both countries of Manelodi during his successful are undergoing political changes that will affect the reelection campaign in 2004. with its Mbeki greets enthusiastic residents first-ever multiethnic elections.” about two-thirds of the respondents in 68 countries said they were generally satisfied with democracy. they may become discouraged about participat- ing in their democratic institutions. The United Kingdom has over a century of democratic tradition. future of their democracies. honest government.

” one university elections since the end of apartheid. In part. especially among poor and young voters. to local governments. it has been troubled by a declining level of voter turnout in elections. “Many In the first few years of independence. South Africa a society’s problems. informal institutions are healthier ones. election turnout among the voting- democratic institutions. South Africa’s young democracy has seen its initially high level of voter turnout drop rapidly. ExplorING THE issue Old and new democracies each have their own advantages and problems. one of South Africa’s poor- thirds of South Africans said their country was est cities yet one known for its vibrant politi- governed by the will of the people—the highest cal life. it has not fulfilled the hopes of some of nizations. political UK Conservative Party leader change has come slowly. Social scientists believe major areas of power remain in the hands of that societies that have a dense network of the central government. Albert Oupamoloto is a topped the charts for optimism. in South Africa has been the ruling African “The turnout freefall has triggered a national National Congress (ANC). much civic participation in South Africa. these efforts age population has begun to drop sharply. Membership in was hailed as a victory for democratic reform. In recent years. are a response to declining voter participa. Informal institutions strengthen a society. respect for long- established laws and democratic institutions.” Oupamoloto says. It was not until the David Cameron faces a group twentieth century that the country became of reporters at his party’s fully democratic. The ANC has seen debate about the public’s loss of interest in pol. the ANC has bution of power from the central government been troubled by corruption and inefficiency. government has sought to reform the country’s however. The main beneficiary of voter participation tion. Democracy in South Africa  In the 2005 They offer flexible. such as anti-crime orga- However. has soared. He describes the optimism that drives ranking of any country. and trade its proponents. its majorities rise in each of the three national itics and what to do about it. informal institutions. creative options for solving “Voice of the People” survey. Since then. South Africans’ commitment to civic place in the late 1990s. however. people think their lives are better because South Africans demonstrated their support for they are free citizens. Britain’s Labor Mandela to power. adult citizens. High voter turnout in conference in April 2006. resident of Soweto. But without an opposition has been devolution. “and I democracy by going to the polls in impressive agree with them. Devolution of authority Despite a lack of reliable institutions of gov- to the UK countries of Wales and Scotland took ernance. Over the centuries. and a healthy culture of civic volunteerism. Devolution is the redistri. Increasingly. 1994 brought President Nelson Since it was elected in 1997. extending voting rights to all numbers. South Africans are participating in civic life through informal organizations. party to challenge and monitor it. They are disappointed because unions. women’s organizations. Nearly two. It is struggling to create trustworthy institutions amid social and political unrest. The United Kingdom has a stable society. tinue to reward the party for its role in the anti- One of the Labor government’s key reforms apartheid struggle. devolution participation remains strong.” CIVIC PARTICIPATION 1023 . Democracy in the UK  The United King- dom’s parliamentary traditions stretch back at least 700 years. At the time. Voters con- study noted.

InvestigatING THE issue Democracy in the United Kingdom and in South Africa presents strong comparisons and contrasts. Examine the documents. possible causes for the decline and to inspire citizens to participate in the democratic process. Which country experi- enced the sharpest decline? Analyzing the Document  What political change does this series of maps show? What are some possible consequences of this change? 1024 case studies: contemporary issues . Both are trying to identify and the country held its first multiethnic vote. &MFDUJPOSFTVMUTCZQSPWJODF &-&$5*0/563/065 6/*5&%. and answer the questions that follow.BZBTQ 2004 Analyzing the Document  Describe the changes in voter turnout in the two countries during the time period shown here. The United Kingdom and South Africa—an old democ. This graph shows South African Elections. "GSJDBO/BUJPOBM$POHSFTT CB /BUJPOBM1BSUZ  7PUJOHBHF1PQVMBUJPO *OLBUIB'SFFEPN1BSUZ 1FSDFOUBHFPG               1994 :FBS 4PVSDFIUUQXXXFMFDUJPOEFNPODPVL &-&$5*0/563/065 4065)"'3*$"  7PUJOHBHF1PQVMBUJPO   1997 1FSDFOUBHFPG         :FBS 4PVSDFIUUQXXXDDDOQTOBWZNJMTJNBZQJPNCP. The documents that follow explore these issues by presenting differ- ent points of view and arguments. keeping in mind what BB you have read about these democracies.*/(%0. This series of maps shows the results of South African racy and a new one—both have experienced declines in national elections from 1994. 1994–2004 the election trends in the two countries. Compare and contrast the two countries’ turnout results. when apartheid ended voter turnout in recent years.

if any. including cess of the ANC? its purpose. Kingdom—the elimination of hereditary lordships pation in the United Kingdom and in South Africa? in Parliament’s House of Lords. . to learn about one such organization.hrw. What sort of informal organizations are there in turnout and the map showing election results. page paper describing the organization. relatively well-informed. democracy is stable.” and irritated that voting is not more like shopping. Constitutional reform . itself and performing well. the change have on democracy and representation cies have on citizen participation? in the United Kingdom? 2. “The real problem . institutionalizing tional or social bonds. tored. is well worth doing for its own sake. 3. but with changes in society itself. . As “[T]he fact that the major worries of political leaders [the report] observes.com AnalyzING THE issue Research Online SD7 Case Study 1. two contrasting groups have and analysts was about potential apathy. Write a one- ing voter turnout and the increased election suc. May 2004 tutions they rely on for their survival. your community? in the United States? Do research What possible connection is there between declin. Review the documents presented on this issue. CIVIC PARTICIPATION 1025 . signifies the politics are becoming appeal. 2006 Analyzing the Document  What two groups does the report describe? go. March 4. relatively young who expect The election process and results demonstrated that to make their own decisions. . institu. a sign of the institutionalization of democracy in South Africa. while at the buying what they want when they want it. This writer remains hopeful that the trend sig- nals a “normalizing” of politics in South Africa. find self-expression in politics are normalizing in South Africa. . boring Zimbabwe after 1980). What effect might What effect. Africa. increasingly routine. . A British magazine examined turnout has been a source of heated debate in South the report. lies not with the political system at all. But whether it will make much difference Analyzing the Document  Why does this writer think dropping voter turnout signals to people who are already profoundly detached from a “normalizing” of South African politics? What does she the habits and modes of representative democracy is believe needs to be monitored if democracy in South Africa another matter. and membership.In 2006 the British government released a study of Analyzing the factors underlying the decline in voter declining voter turnout. does the age of these democra. rather than emerged to whom conventional politics has little electoral violence. Review the graph showing South African voter 4.” Strategic Insights.” is to grow stronger? —The Economist. —Jessica Piombo. On one hand there are the relatively well-educated. goals. If the country can avoid the pitfalls of permanent party dominance and the slow On the other are the casualties of de-industrialisation erosion of democratic freedoms (as occurred in neigh- who suffer from persistent poverty and social exclu. . The former are cynical about political leaders democracy will be worth celebrating. Do library or online research to learn more about What similarities and what differences do they another democratic reform proposed in the United reveal about the challenges to democratic partici. . the second ten years of sion. while the latter feel bullied and let down by the insti. and see same time pointing to areas that need to be moni- themselves as individuals free of geographic. “Politics in a Stabilizing Democracy: South Africa’s 2004 Elections. For now.

the region’s two most populous countries. has proved more difficult to achieve. have fueled much of they possess in their large populations. economic. however. leaders in both countries are seeking dynamic solutions to produce long-term stability and make use of one of Maquiladora factories. a reliance on exporting cash crops has kept the region trapped in boom-and-bust cycles. For more than a century. however. Latin America has had its share of instability in all three categories. A strong economy creates jobs. political revolu- tions have stemmed in part from severe economic gaps between rich and poor. as poor and landless peoples move to urban areas seeking work. and consumer markets. In recent years. and social stability. a contented. maquiladora In order to become more prosperous. The three elements are interconnected. stable society promotes political order and helps democracy take root. Economic security. like the one their greatest assets: the enormous human resources shown above. Brazil emerged from a string of repressive military dictatorships in the 1960s and 1970s to form a modern democracy. Brazil and Mexico. Like many developing regions. Still. 1026 . Finally. Further upheaval has come from the efforts of indigenous peoples in Mexico and elsewhere to gain recogni- tion and equality.Case Study Document-Based Investigation 2 Developing Societies Brazil and Mexico focusING on THE issue How are developing nations such as Brazil and Mexico trying to meet the needs of their peoples? Key Terms megacity. large migrations have unsettled societies in recent decades. helping to build a middle class—the backbone of a stable society. Mexico’s growth but are vulnerable to swings in the world economy. Socially. wealth. Political stability is one factor that helps businesses take root and thrive. developing countries strive to create political. Globalization is pitting the two countries against new economic competitors such as India and China. Economically. It attracts much-needed foreign investment that strengthens the economy. have undergone remarkable politi- cal transformations. a drop in world prices for commodities can send developing economies into a tailspin. In 2000 Mexico set aside more than seven decades of one-party rule and held its first true two-party election.

Mexican of rain forests. however. Mexico is focusing on creating American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). City. The lack since the 1970s Brazil has turned to one of its of land continues to draw peasants from the most valuable resources: space. The streets are so dangerous 17. send much-needed dollars back home to Its location next to the United States has made support their families. has produced an inter. now the Mexican government encourages migra- exceeding a trillion dollars. family businesses. creates: violence. of the world’s most murderous cities. Brazil also has the refined here in São Paulo. political instability. The nation made considerable economic progress starting in the mid-1990s despite some severe downturns. Brazil and Mexico face many of the same challenges. The government pays large industrial assembly plants throughout parents to keep their children in school instead its border towns that produce finished goods of pulling them out to work in the fields and for export to the United States. It expanded its presence in global markets for agricultural. a priority in Mexico benefits from its maquiladoras. infant mor- tality dropped. and school enrollment increased. especially in the megacities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Mexico Seeks Solutions  Mexico has the Despite protests from some U. income in Latin America. illegal. Both are attempting to broaden their economic bases by expanding their sources of trade and foreign investment. São Paulo is one earned—just as they had two decades before.3 percent in 2004. because of the massive spinoff problems it limit rural overdevelopment. it possible to expand trade under the North Meanwhile. mining. region’s largest economy. But such averages Most of Brazil’s urban poor live on the fringes mask the huge gaps between rich and poor. Laws requiring better management of govern- ment finances have been praised. that climb the hillsides are so danger. Brazil opened countryside to the nation’s megacity. developing societies 1027 . second-largest economy in Latin America. The resulting destruction population lives. ExplorING THE issue Economically and socially.S. Mexico up its vast interior for resettlement and large. dry land mass is arable. and envi- ronmental destruction. In 2005 the richest 10 percent of Mexicans tytowns. Exports surged. inequity in society. Efforts to address rural poverty are lim- hopping among the city’s 240 heliports. In Rio the favelas. Migrants. wracked The government estimated extreme poverty at by gang violence. Both are also seeking new solu- tions to the chronic problem of poverty and In its drive to develop. of its two megacities. ited by the fact that only 15 percent of Mex- To ease the population pressure on the cities. legal and leum reserves and a thriving tourism industry. and manufactured goods. ico’s large. the economy grew. that many wealthy people travel by helicopter. government policies now focus on urban pov- national outcry and spurred calls for Brazil to erty. tion to the United States. It has large petro. Brazil has become a leader in the production of alter- Progress and Problems in Brazil  Latin nate fuels such as ethanol. America’s largest country. leaders. the the era of globalization. or shan. earned 25 times what the poorest 10 percent ous the police won’t go there. Not surprisingly. a more highly educated work force. where nearly one-fifth of the nation’s scale development. Yet Brazil also has some of the world’s most desperate poverty. Megacities are Mexicans enjoy the highest per-capita those with populations of 10 million or more.

that we can help each other. moment in its history. BasedNDPASS on this  Brazil has decided to make some investments in other    NJMMJPOTPGHBMMPOT &UIBOPM1SPEVDUJPO  countries. Latin 4PVSDF&BSUI1PMJDZ*OTUJUVUF6OJDB America is Brazil’s biggest market. dedicated to alternate fuel. . . Ethanol. But the vast acreage devoted to sugar cane “I think Latin America is going through an important production is causing worry among environmentalists.*-*"/&5)"/0-130%6$5*0/ with communications. . WNAFS?CSAA NDPASS    Brazil has taken a lead in forming regional trade agree. Today. according to Lula da Silva. does it make sense for       Brazil to invest money in other countries in the region? :FBS 4PVSDF6OJDB Analyzing the Document What is the trend in ethanol production? How does the trend correspond to trends in auto manufacturing? 1028 case studies: contemporary issues . interview. . as a way of broadening and stabilizing its econ. The documents that follow explore the issue of development in Brazil and Mexico. is the leading alternate fuel. . With the European Union we have $27bn and with the US #3". WNAFS?CSBA #3". Today. so that we can  give South America more infrastructure. We are showing that it is possible through partnership and  1FSDFOUBHFPG5PUBM with seriousness. we  "VUP1SPEVDUJPO can help ourselves to grow. Financial Times. .*-*"/"-5&3/"5&'6&-7&)*$-&4 $23bn. President Luiz Ignácio Lula da Silva explained the 34. Examine the documents. Brazil today has some $3bn of investments in other South American countries. . InvestigatING THE issue Over the years Brazil and Mexico have adopted a number of strategies to boost economic development—and to lessen its potential negative effects. with roads.  —Brazilian President Luiz Ignácio Lula da Silva. . physical inte- gration. with railways.  We believe that it is necessary to do much more. .  because only infrastructure is going to make more circulation possible. omy. This is an extremely important thing. Not just goods but people as  well. . [O]ur way forward is to con.000 gas stations in Brazil have at least one pump philosophy behind this course of action. . And we have had some results in the period       :FBS in which we have been in government. with energy. . July 2006   Analyzing the Document   Why. The program has drastically reduced Brazil’s need for oil and has cut down on auto pollution. We export almost $28bn to the rest of Latin America. solidate the process of integration. a type of alcohol produced from region. refined sugar cane. with infrastructure. who fear a loss of biodiversity. keeping in mind what you have just read about economic development efforts in the two countries. In 1979 Brazil launched a national program to develop ments in Latin America and trade ties outside the alternate fuels.

086 1. Review the documents presented on this issue. Mexico and Brazil have some of the world’s City/Metropolitan Population* Percentage Projected Popu- largest megacities. India (5) 16. or “people of the corn. Research Brazil’s policy of alternative fuel develop- unique to each country? ment.6% 40. What goals do Brazil and Mexico share in terms of Chiapas? Why or why not? economic development? What are some problems 4.0% 16.3% 14. Tokyo.099 10. go.803 6. changed. How has life there ing this policy? Explain your reasoning. By 2015 there will be 21.” as they call themselves. Since 1994 the indigenous people of Chiapas have waged a battle to end political and cultural repression by the government and bring decent living conditions to the extremely impoverished region. USA (3) 17. Japan (1) 34.5% Analyzing the Document  São Paulo.8% the table. Areas (rank) (2000) of Population lation Growth vide a snapshot of population growth in (2000) (2000–2015) some of the world’s megacities. developing societies 1029 . Brazil (14) 10.1% 5. Such demonstrations drew worldwide support to their cause.846 6.3% 14. Brazil (4) 17. Analyzing the Document  What does this photograph suggest about the cultural identity of the people of Chiapas? Megacities Source: World Almanac Book of Facts.About a third of the people in the Mexican state of Chiapas are descended from the Maya. Which city has a higher percent- age of its country’s population? Which city Rio de Janeiro. 3.450 27. The woman in this photograph participated in a protest by the Zapatista rebels of Chiapas that was held in Mexico City.com Research Online AnalyzING THE issue SD7 Case Study 1. Do online research to learn more about life in Do you think the government is justified in pursu- the Chiapas region of Mexico.066 18.hrw.4% is projected to grow the fastest? *All population figures in thousands. 2005 There were 14 megacities worldwide in 1995. Mexico (2) 18.3% 10.1% Mexico City. since the Zapatista rebel- What evidence do they present to suggest that lion in 1994? Why did the rebellion evoke sympa- development in Brazil and Mexico is a complex thy throughout Mexico and the world? Do you think challenge? economic development in Mexico would benefit 2. Compare the positive and negative effects. These statistics pro.7% Compare and contrast the statistics for the Mexican and Brazilian cities listed in Mumbai. or not changed.3% New York City.

joint ventures To many observers the question is not whether India and China will bump the United States from its position as the world’s largest economy. No one is quite sure how this scenario will play out either for India and China— potential competitors who also happen to share a disputed border—or for the Western China’s heavy industry manufacturers. China began limited economic reforms in the late 1970s and then threw open its doors to private enterprise 20 years later. The world’s two most populous nations have embarked on ambitious programs to move from failed planned or semi-planned economies to vibrant market economies. The vigorous moves of India and China onto the world stage are affecting economic planning. markets. China is still a one-party Communist dictatorship. in the 1990s. and Asian industrial giants of the twentieth like this tractor factory in the city of century. first century is truly a new era of global eco- petitive in world markets. India opened its economy later. and each faces challenges that could derail them.Case Study Document-Based Investigation 3 Building Economic Powerhouses China and India focusING on THE issue How are the giant emerging economies of India and China affecting the world? Key Terms offshoring. Their pathways to success have differed. have grown increasingly com. High-speed Internet connections opened up sudden opportunities for these countries to connect their large labor pools with potential employers and customers around the globe. nomic interdependence. but quickly seized the opportunities of the telecommunications revolution. The question is when. 1030 . determined to become the manufacturing capital of the world. and wages in other countries. and which country will get there first. The economic successes of India and China are no accident. Yet few experts dispute that the changes underway in these two countries are shaking up the world’s economies. privatization. One thing is for certain: the twenty- Luoyang. and India’s thriving democracy struggles to con- tain explosive religious conflict.

crops on the free market. South Korea. like this textile China has emphasized tradi. although not on the scale part of a business operation. Industrial growth tightly controlled all aspects of the nation’s and investment in the special economic zones economy. Factories. clothing and one-third of all mobile phones. It now supplies one-fifth of the world’s ket reforms have come slowly but steadily. Today’s “Asian tigers. China States in terms of production. China placed strict virtually no private enterprise. tional manufacturing industries. The lack of free. Another round of market reforms ancient agricultural society into the modern was launched in the 1990s. may not yet match Japan’s GDP. from tax preparation to com- city of Shenzen. years. Up until now. In joining the WTO. industrial. In the agricultural sector. Initially. economic tech support.” India and China. agricultural. to another country. Communist leaders tried to move the blossomed. Farm output Maoist Communism. ExplorING THE issue The rise of Asian economies began in the 1960s. Since 1980 China cautiously started down a new economic path. By 2005 China had become the second-largest economy in Chinese Capitalism Takes Hold  With the the world. and mar. building economic powerhouses 1031 . Economic growth surged. These countries developed efficient. While Japan and other “Asian to ease poverty. like computer that India later embraced. That allowed regional of competitive business and trade practices. These areas served as testing puter technical support. holding it to a market incentives produced low productivity rate of about 13 per 1. when Japan. plant in Hubei province. The government allowed omy. streamlined manufac- turing processes that flooded the global market with inexpensive export goods.” such as the business enterprise abroad. place for foreign investment and for offshoring. but it created controversy at tigers” were roaring. This helped and inefficiency. which involves moving a foreign investment. The government also began to encourage Unlike outsourcing.000 people. the offshor- liberalization was confined to the creation of ing involves moving an entire factory or other a few “special economic zones. curbs on its population growth. China’s living standards home and abroad. China’s government doubled during the 1980s.” At the same time. including trade. remained relatively low. officials to make free-market decisions on some The move made China an even more attractive issues. Centralized economic China agreed to follow its laws and standards planning was relaxed. grounds for China’s limited capitalism. have sprouted up in India has focused on new service China’s interior. but their rapid economic growth makes for a promising future. But massive industrialization efforts government called “a socialist market econ- eventually stalled. has doubled its share of world trade every five Since then. and the other so- called “Asian tigers” began to industrialize at a breathtaking rate. China’s Communist Economy  Under The results were impressive. industries provided via the Inter- net. creating what the age. the government In 2001 China entered the World Trade began to allow farmers to sell some of their Organization (WTO). although still far behind the United rise to power of Deng Xiaoping in 1978.

Looking to the future. For more than four ber of English speakers—the legacy of British decades. years has given India a large pool of highly nomic self-sufficiency. There are also a large num- and foreign investment. direct foreign invest- how fast to implement reforms. people. Corruption ment in India. At first they the rapid creation of vast wealth has further formed joint ventures—business partnerships highlighted the “two Indias”: one largely rural and co-ownership—with Indian companies. The easing of restrictions on business computer giant IBM announced that it would has produced a rise in economic crimes. It opened the door to lim. India’s economy was largely closed. private ownership of industries as opposed to traditional businesses. heavy government reg- ulation resulted in decades of inefficiency. and worrisome levels of pol. or began to move to a market economy. and poor. the most of whom still work on farms and in small. open up. In addition to a more open business independence from Great Britain in 1948. triple its investment in India over the follow- spread inequality. grinding ing India a world leader in providing high-tech poverty. and imports. The gov. Inspired by the philosophy of inde. lution. Already home to one-sixth of the world’s ited private investment in some industries. the other urban and prosperous. In 2006 the American progress. Nevertheless. 1032 case studies: contemporary issues . of doing business have helped the economy grow at an impressive rate of 7 percent a year India’s Closed Economy  Since it achieved since 1991. midable obstacles to economic success. China is clearly on a path Government efforts to revamp India’s ways from which it does not intend to turn back. particularly in telecommu- and slow government decision-making hamper nications. over. asset. High import tariffs and restrictions on direct for- India Opens Its Doors  In the 1990s a eign investment have remained. But were allowed to operate in India. more and more foreign companies most populous nation within the 50 years. two factors have contributed to mak- has struggled to overcome desperate. poor output. However. Gandhi. It strove for eco. with limits on imports skilled workers. China has struggled to decide how far and In the early 2000s. colonial rule. and quality goods. India climate. India sis on higher education over the last fifteen adopted a socialist economy. An empha- pendence leader Mohandas K. services to businesses worldwide. can be an economic government control. many The government embarked on large-scale observers believe India’s democratic govern- industrialization in order to meet its own needs ment will give it the flexibility it needs to meet and to limit dependence on foreign investment the challenges ahead. to $6 billion. Barriers to Success  India still faces for- regulation. The Internet allows Indian software engi- neers (right) to serve world customers. ernment allowed increasing privatization. wide. the country is expected to become the Over time. sparking democratic India embraced capitalism and a national debate on how far to liberalize. India’s huge population. the economy. ing three years. High-tech business parks (left) are sprouting up around Bangalore and other Indian cities. took hold.

and which part you want to buy from China.   ‘You have to internalize China to succeed. In his influential book The World Is Flat. What effect could attractive other developed and developing countries that have on the rest of the world? competing with it. via the Internet—for far lower wages than tax preparers get in the United States. The opening lenges and opportunities for the rest of the world. Ireland. India. You can. like Malaysia. its demand for Friedman argued that India and China are leveling. argues Ohmae. or energy is soaring.15*0/ o “Kenichi Ohmae. They all look at what is going on in China and the jobs moving there and say to themselves. while also boosting manufac-    of these economies poses both chal- turing to become a giant exporter. half a world away. the Japanese business consultant. Mexico. and subsidies. China is promoting a WNAFS?CSA RDPASS balance of high-technology “knowledge jobs” as well. ing need causes concern about the possible effect on alized countries are losing their advantages. does China pose a problem for developing countries like Mexico and Brazil? building economic powerhouses 1033 . The increas- flattening. north of Hong 0JM UIPVTEBOET   $POTVNQUJPO Kong. which part you would like to sell to China. as shown in this graph. developing countries risk falling farther behind.   /FU*NQPSUT ’China is a threat. to encourage offshoring to their shores.” —Thomas Friedman. on top of their cheap labor.” This has created a process of competitive flattening. $)*/"40*-$0/46. you break down your business :FBS and think about which part of the business you would 4PVSDF$POHSFTTJPOBM#VEHFU0GmDF "QSJM like to do in China. 2005 Analyzing the Document  Why. are preparing the tax returns of millions of Americans—overnight. the more between the two lines since about 1995.’ Instead of competing with China as an        enemy. The more attractive increase between 1980 and 2005? Explain the gap China makes itself as a base for offshoring. Western industri. Thailand. in which countries scramble to see who can give companies the best tax breaks. China is a customer. Analyzing the Document  Here we get to the real flattening aspect of China’s By roughly how much did China’s energy consumption opening to the world market.   estimates in his book The United States of China that   PGCBSSFMTQFSEBZ in the Zhu Jiang Delta area alone. “Holy catfish. we had better start offering these same incen- tives. Brazil. Thomas As China industrializes and modernizes. and China is an   1SPEVDUJPO opportunity. according to Friedman. there are fifty thousand Chinese electronics   component suppliers. InvestigatING THE issue Today.   not ignore it. and Vietnam. The World Is Flat. the economic playing field. and other global energy prices and supplies. have to make them- selves.’ Ohmae remarked to me one day in Tokyo. university graduates in cities like Bangalore. education incentives.

’ said Niranjana. . the United States ran up large budget and trade city’s growing technology industry. drive foreign cars and shop in the ritzy malls dotting the city. speak in Western-accented English. said Tejaswini Niranjana.500 rupees. It continues to do so this article. and local newspapers advertise apartments and villas costing over $1 mil- lion. Who are the characters in this cartoon? What are they The pace of urban change in Bangalore has indeed concerned about? How does the cartoonist depict China. ‘Everybody’s life has been transformed but not all are keeping pace with the swift changes. 2006 Analyzing the Document What kinds of changes does the writer identify? How are these changes having uneven effects on Bangalore’s people? 1034 case studies: contemporary issues . deficits. the writer describes some of the changes today. the director and why? of the Center for the Study of Culture and Society. “A City Whose Global Name Turns East. adding that there was simmering resentment among those who were not sharing in the wealth created by the new jobs. as a result of the ever. They live in high-rises or gated enclaves. that have affected Bangalore.” International Herald Tribune. For the majority. For decades. In the early years of the twenty-first century. Young. such homes remain distant Analyzing the Document  and extravagant dreams . India. been torrid. “One visible byproduct of the flood of technology jobs into Bangalore has been the rapid Westerniza- MORIN/The Miami Herald tion in the city. or $100. removed from the realities of everyday Bangalore. In and capitalism around the world.” —Saritha Rai. how. November 1. the United States has promoted free trade Economic change is transforming India and China. . comparatively well-paid technology workers dress in the latest American and European clothing. a research institute based in the city. Many government work- ers still take home about 4. a month. But the salaries of many of Bangalore’s citizens working in jobs outside of the high-growth sectors have not been keeping up. Home prices are shooting up.

Review the documents presented on this issue. The question is given 4PVSDF$*"8PSME'BDUCPPL more edge if you accept (which I don’t) the old Chi- nese adage. a relatively small segment of India’s labor force The writer is a former governor of Hong Kong and for- generates the largest share of its income.  "HSJDVMUVSF Now when we play the geopolitical game of who will  dominate the century to come. 2006 4FSWJDFT  Analyzing the Document  "HSJDVMUVSF According to Patten. “India now trains a million engineering graduates a */%*"4(%1#:4&$503  year (against 100. The World is Flat. 3.com Research Online AnalyzING THE issue SD7 Case Study 1. What do the documents suggest about the advan. . Read excerpts and reviews of Thomas Friedman’s What are some ways the economic rise of India and book.” Financial Times. What steps do you think the United States could possess in their effort to become the world’s biggest take to meet the challenge of global competition? economic power? Consider possibilities relating to education and business growth. trate that fact. What is Patten’s view of the issue? 4PVSDF$*"8PSME'BDUCPPL Analyzing the Document  What proportion of India’s labor force produces the largest share of its wealth. notes the high stakes in the India-China competition.hrw. as measured mer European Commissioner for External Relations. in what way is the competition more *OEVTUSZ  than an economic one? Rewrite the last sentence in your  own words. What does the title of his China are affecting the world? book mean? What effect does he think India and 2. I recognise the growing interest in whether we should—businessmen and politicians—place our bets on China’s authoritarian model of development or India’s democratic approach. . He in gross domestic product (GDP). Today.000 each in America and Europe) OBGT@DTB and stands third in technical and scientific capacity EQBTT —behind America and Japan but ahead of China. as measured in GDP? What do you think accounts for this fact? go. “Mystery Candidate.  *OEVTUSZ  . August 4. we add India to the 4FSWJDFT stand-off between America and China. These pie graphs illus. building economic powerhouses 1035 .” */%*"4-"#03'03$&#:4&$503  —Chris Patten. “No mountain can accommodate two tigers. China are having on the world economy? tages and disadvantages India and China each 4.

Yet as governments try to improve the lives of women. earned 10 percent of the income. Moreover. and participation in national parliaments. 1036 . information. Empower- ment for women can clash with traditional cultural and religious beliefs. Tansu Ciller (left) of Turkey and Mary McAleese The paths they have followed have (right) of Ireland have risen to the top ranks taken some surprising twists. Even some women wonder if too much is lost in the rush for change.Case Study Document-Based Investigation 4 Women in Society Ireland and Turkey focusING on THE issue How do historical and cultural trends affect the status of women? Key Terms secular Global studies of women in recent years have painted a bleak picture of the status of women around the world. employment in non-farm jobs. “Gender is one of the world’s strongest markers for disadvantage. and opportu- nities. a 1999 survey revealed that women did about 66 percent of the work. Ireland and Turkey are two nations that have faced and continue to face these challenges. of government in their respective countries in recent years. and owned 1 percent of the land. women held only about 16 percent of the seats in the world’s parlia- ments. Globalization has helped produce a gradual shift in attitudes in some societies. For example. Globalization emphasizes that countries need to value women as a human resource in order to become economically competitive. In addition. Studies show that countries that hold women back from participating in society consistently lag behind in development. A United Nations report noted in 2005. they often must struggle to balance competing demands. their expectations grow.” The world’s governments have pledged themselves to improve conditions for women. It calls for improvements in the areas of educational opportunities. The United Nations Millennium Development Goals set a timetable of 2015 for increasing standards for women. literacy. as globaliza- tion helps women throughout the world gain greater access to new role models.

Recently. secular governments of the 1990s. Modern Turkish women express Starting in the 1970s. religious tradition and. have played a role in shaping the roles of women in society. and gath. economic. Women’s rights were written While EU influence has grown. state land to the world. it has convinced Irish voters to has been more difficult to achieve. accordance with their religious beliefs. separated by law. into laws regarding property ownership. Despite success secular—seeing yourself as a Turkish citizen at the top of the political ranks. first and as a Muslim second. ExplorING THE issue Ireland is a predominantly Roman Catholic country. women in society 1037 . Commenta- 2004. some women seek ranks 77th out of 188 nations in terms of the to redefine women’s rights and feminism in proportion of women members of Parliament. Also. As a member of the EU. Women have uphold restrictions on abortion. however. the Church has continued to requirements and to promote women’s rights play a large role in politics. and men range from 10 percent to 40 percent. In a largely Roman Catholic country opposed to abortion and birth control. or nonreligious. a number of changes adopt Western dress and others began to reshape Irish society. and they have up among some Turkish women. a generational divide has opened Men earn more than women do. it has taken numerous Irish society was removed from the constitu. its leaders built a secular. political. from roughly 36 percent of turn away from secular politics. Ireland in Transition  As recently as the 1970s. In each. women. however. religious doctrine. being a “modern” women meant being high-paying management jobs. generally. Yet women in Ireland still face inequities. Some ering force in the 1990s. After a long struggle. however. Since then. in some cases. but it failed in trouble rising to managerial levels in the work- its efforts to keep divorce illegal. and Turkey is a predominantly Mus- lim country. The employment of women In 2002 Turkey took what many saw as a has risen steadily. estimates of inequities between women changes have combined to open up opportuni. an Irish woman who got married could be forced to quit her job. Among the pation of women in public office is low. when an Irish economic boom produced shift was partly a reaction to corruption in the a need for more workers.) was guaranteed. Ireland wear traditional headscarves. forerunner to the European Union (EU). helping to change attitudes in which government and religion are strictly on a number of social issues. Yet the reality of equal opportunity cessfully. That year. pay inequities range of married women to work outside the home from 8 to 25 percent. In 1972 a clause recognizing the Turkey is trying to join the European Union. “special position” of the Catholic Church in To further that effort. Although Turkish law mandates equal Social. the influ. EU membership has opened Ire. and cultural pay. but not always suc. To older gen- greater access both to living-wage jobs and to erations. themselves in different ways. In 1973. the majority of women stayed home and raised families. Ireland new generation. to diminish. ties for women. the right (In the United States. Diverging Trends in Turkey  When the formed to EU standards on the treatment of modern nation of Turkey was founded in 1923. overall partici. they the workforce in 1994 to about 47 percent in elected a party with Islamic ties. and suffrage. place. Much of that increase came during the tors were quick to point out. that the 1990s. steps to bring its laws closer in line with EU tion. So far. Ireland has gradually con. inher- ence of the Roman Catholic Church has begun itance. joined the European Economic Community.

keeping in mind what you have read about how women’s roles are changing in each country. Note that while both countries Mary Robertson. To achieve this. InvestigatING THE issue The changing role of women in societies around the world raises many questions. The documents that follow present data and opinions about how two countries— Ireland and Turkey—are addressing some of these questions. In this speech.3%. what combination of factors produced inequalities in Irish society? 1038 case studies: contemporary issues . We must look Women 99% Women 78. neither is a leader when en’s issues.8% Muslim more than review our legislation and re-state Catholic our economic structures.” Source: CIA. begin at the beginning and alter our way of *USA Ranking = 66 out of 188 thinking. Ranked 77 out Ranked 126 out organising and their interpretation of social world ranking* of 188 of 188 priorities.7% with fresh and unprejudiced eyes at the work of women.5 million resistances and failures of perception. International Parliamentary Union —Speech by Mary Robinson. their way of Women in Parliament. I believe. not simply from legislative and economic inequality but from profound Population 4. Ireland and Turkey Comparison. This chart compares key facts about the populations The election of Ireland’s first woman president.4% Roman 99. Then answer the questions that follow.1 million 70. and I Ireland Turkey believe they did. according to this data? How are they different? Analyzing the Document  According to Robinson. we must. 1992 Analyzing the Document  In what way are Ireland and Turkey fairly similar. We must also fun- damentally re-appraise our view of who and Adult Literacy Rate Men 99%. the views of women. 2005 “If the imbalances of the past came. thinking about roles for women in Irish society. Robertson called for new it comes to electing women to the national legislature. president of Ireland. focused more attention on wom- have had female heads of state. then it follows that to right that balance we must do Religion 88. Men 94. Examine the docu- ments. of Ireland and Turkey. what is valuable in our society.

Turkey. they go from home to outside.com AnalyzING THE issue Research Online SD7 Case Study 1.3 17.” do you think accounts for the differences in urban and rural —Nilufer Gole.3 8. women in society 1039 . education gender gap. has studied the attitudes of young Turkish women who are rebel- ling against secularism and wearing the head scarf. there is a kind of debate among Islamic women who Adult 78. a Turkish professor of sociology.8 . Do research to create a time line of major events in 2. In what ways is there a gap between the laws and the history of women’s rights in Ireland. . particularistic [individual] identities. pursue their Secondary 57. . June 2001 literacy rates? Analyzing the Document How are attitudes toward women’s participation in Turkish society changing? go. from private to public life. nevertheless we define the republic as a secular republic.2 74. . This table shows the the current tensions in Turkey over the role of women. Research the role of the president in Ireland. How has religious tradition played a role in shap.9 want to go even more public and Islamic men who literacy remind them that.7 neutral space where you are not allowed to bring your literacy. for instance.2 91 21.4 15. rural of the population is Muslim. This writer.3 tension within the [Islamic] movement and. . Provide specific examples. .5 94. .Like many countries. 3. now—go to public life. Do ing women’s roles in Ireland and in Turkey? What you think the function of that position made it eas- similarities and differences exist between the two ier for women to reach that post? Why or why not? countries on this issue? 4.1 school professional career. . school But what happens is that each time these Muslim girls—or women. So there is this debate now ongoing to what extent we are Analyzing the Document  going to enlarge democratic rights to include this kind of Where is the gender gap greatest? Where is it lowest? What new demands of difference. Adult 69. Frontline. and the realities of life for women in both countries? the United States from the 1900s to the present. . Each time there is a College 18. therefore. 2004 GIRLS BOYS GENDER GAP “What really distinguishes the contemporary Islamic movement [in Turkey] is this presence of women in these Primary 93 100 7.1 12. online interview.7 24. Education Rates in Turkey. Turkey is struggling to live up to The controversy over the Muslim head scarf symbolizes its promises of gender equality. first of all. they have to be wives and mothers—their sacred roles. ethnic.8 movements. And secularism meant this Adult 83.hrw. urban religious.4 96. so they are the motor of change. [A]lthough we are in a country where the majority literacy. PBS.

to develop friendly relations among nations. Since its founding in 1945—the outcome of efforts by the United States and its World War II allies—the United Nations has struggled to live up to those high ideals. With expansion have come problems: waste. peacekeeping It was an ambitious idea: Create an organization to settle disputes among nations and solve tough global problems.Case Study Document-Based Investigation 5 The Role of the United Nations focusING on THE issue What should the role of the United Nations be in international affairs? Key Terms charter.” Secu- rity. corruption. Critics remained skeptical about whether the UN could succeed in United Nations Secretary-General Kofi reforming itself. 1040 . debate over the very existence of the UN has raged for years. lays out four major goals. disaster relief. to cooperate in solving international problems and in promoting respect for human rights. As the organization has grown. and goals. human rights. Security Council. General Assembly. so has its mission. Secretariat. and refugee aid are among its top concerns today. and nuclear proliferation has challenged the UN in ways its founders never could have imagined. interests. the UN launched reforms aimed at dealing with these acknowledged problems. Starting around 2005. Since 1945 UN membership has grown from 51 to 191 nations. scandals. the modern-day rise of globalization. Failures to prevent or resolve wars and genocides in various parts of the world during the 1990s and beyond further damaged the UN’s image and credibility. It aims “to maintain international peace and security. the United States. The charter establishes the principle of equality among nations. the document that created the organi- zation. voices. terrorism. economic development. From the start. yet it assigns an unequal role to the world’s powerful nations in maintain- ing global security—often to the frustration of smaller countries. Even within the host country itself. healthcare. the UN’s mission was a delicate balancing act. The United Nations charter. Leaders vowed to retool the orga- nization to effectively meet twenty-first century needs. values. Annan addressing the General Assem- bly at the opening ceremonies of the sixtieth session of the UN in 2005. and to be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The United Nations consists of a diversity of shifting alliances. Indeed.

tive tasks of the UN. The head Criticism and Scandal  Critics of the UN of the UN. It can even order military action against the offenders. ger action against the dictatorship of Saddam military employees serve in the field. The role of the Security Council is to be the guardian of peace. If countries vio- late agreements. or sending multinational forces for its people. Security Council decisions. but they carry weight as a statement of world opinion. approximately program. such 2006 roughly 70 percent of the UN’s budget was as Japan and Germany. arranges cease-fires. and each nation gets one vote on matters before the assembly. The General Assembly includes all the mem- ber nations. the role of the united nations 1041 . In 2006. human rights monitoring. there have been discussions about expanding the Security UN peacekeeping forces around the globe. The UN Oil for Food program allowed The major field operation of the UN is Iraq to sell its oil to buy humanitarian supplies peacekeeping. the Council may impose sanc- tions. UN technology to countries such as Iran and North workers are now dispersed throughout the Korea. In Council to include other powerful nations. Each Nobel Peace Prize for its of the permanent members has veto power over peacekeeping operations. the United Kingdom. The votes are not binding. This arrangement guarantees that the interests of the powerful nations are protected. and brokers peace agreements. The court is held at The Hague. Civilian Hussein in Iraq prior to the U. France. cent 10 years earlier. cides in Rwanda and Bosnia in the 1990s.000 non. The others serve two-year terms.S. Of the 15 Security Council UN peacekeeping troops on members. It sends armies to trouble spots to keep the peace. the Security Council. ExplorING THE issue The UN consists of six main entities: the Gen- eral Assembly. In Russia. invasion of the field operations include humanitarian relief country in 2003. and the International Court of Justice. in 2004. More than half of the UN’s 30. in the Netherlands. election The worst blow to the UN’s image in recent monitoring. up from 50 per- The Secretariat carries out the administra. and the United 1998. the Sec- retariat. the UN’s mission has expanded.000 troops from member nations served in iting from the theft as well. and efforts to combat the drug times was the Oil-for-Food scandal that broke trade and other global criminal activity. dedicated to field operations. the Economic and Social Council. They say the UN is ineffective in combating terror- An Expanding Role  Since the end of the ism and in preventing the spread of nuclear Cold War. among warring countries or warring groups Saddam Hussein skimmed billions from the within a single country. while the rest of the operations are based at the UN’s global headquarters in New York City. from conducting studies to providing services around the globe. patrol in Sudan in 2006. is elected for fault it for reacting slowly to the ethnic geno- up to two five-year terms. the UN received the States. UN officials were implicated in prof- 80. Instead of using the oil money into countries to enforce ceasefires or truces to buy food and medicine for suffering Iraqis. the secretary-general. Some fault the UN for not taking stron- world. Recently. five are permanent—China. the Trusteeship Council. operations.

which achieved suc- cess in 1977.BSDI 1042 case studies: contemporary issues . Promote gender equality and empower women   4. The documents that follow explore these issues by presenting different points of view and arguments.           Analyzing the Document       During the decade shown here. Improve maternal health   6. mission. Combat HIV/AIDS. malaria and other diseases     7. Develop a global partnership for development RDPASS               Analyzing the Document  :FBS How would you characterize the type of goals listed here? 4PVSDF8PSME)FBMUI0SHBOJ[BUJPO Do you think the goals are realistic in the time frame estab- lished? Why or why not? Analyzing the Document  What is the trend in world cases of polio? What happened between 2000 and 2005? 6/#6%(&54 o    #VEHFUT JOCJMMJPOTPGEPMMBST &YUSBCVEHFUBSZ 1FBDFLFFQJOH The UN’s expenses have grown as its mission has  3FHVMBS     expanded. such as the drive to eliminate smallpox. in 2005 all 191 The World Health Organization. and challenges. InvestigatING THE issue Controversy continues to rage around the United Nations. the WTO coordinates disease-prevention efforts. ment Goals. The budget for peacekeeping alone in 2004. Currently. Ensure environmental sustainability   WNAFS?CSA 8. called the Millennium Develop. UN member countries pledged to achieve the following has spearheaded efforts to combat disease worldwide.   2005 was greater than the UN’s entire budget in 1996.          1997. by 2015. With funding from member states and private groups. The graph below shows the progress 1. the WTO is conducting a drive UN Millennium Development Goals to wipe out polio. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger of the effort. WNAFS?CSA RDPASS    Reflecting the scope of the UN’s mission. Examine the documents. list of ambitious goals. a branch of the UN. Reduce child mortality "OOVBMDBTFTPGQPMJP   5. Achieve universal primary education 803-%$"4&40'10-*0 o 3. keeping in mind what you have read about the organiza- tion’s history. 2. what portion of UN           expenses grew the most? What do you think accounts for       that dramatic increase? :FBS 4PVSDF6/'BDU4IFFU .

But a lasting regional peace has remained out of reach. . funds.” —“How Corrupt Is the United Nations?” Claudia Rosett. . or how. . The founding purpose of the UN was to bring peace tunities for inefficiencies and corruption. UN peacekeepers have successfully monitored truces or agreements between Israel and its neighbors Syria and Egypt. UN responsibilities grow. . There is almost no way to hold the UN accountable In this piece from Commentary magazine. success has been more elusive. A UN monitoring force in Lebanon since 1978 has been powerless to stop repeated attacks against Israel or two full-scale invasions of Lebanon by Israel. over the years there have been seven separate UN peacekeeping missions triggered by the Arab-Israeli conflict. At times they where most of the UN’s own personnel do not know have called for the United States to withdraw from the who reports to whom.” and “other entities. UN. reflects the frustration that many felt during the Israel- Lebanon War of 2006. . In leading conservative journals in the United States. the United Nations had spon- sored 59 peacekeeping operations since its founding. the institution has added untold numbers of agencies. American conservatives have been particularly criti. inefficient. gross. . there is no procedure at the UN for impeaching or writer finds fault with the very structure of the UN. Indeed. “Since its founding.” to the point cal of the United Nations over the years. In the case of the Arab-Israeli conflict. Commentary magazine. . . do you believe that Rosett believes Saddam Hussein quickly grasped was that the UN the United Nations can ever be reformed? lends itself to money-laundering [illegally hiding the transfer of funds]. the UN is unwieldy. commissions. . programs. Like the Soviet Union of old. UN peace- keeping has had some notable successes. The lesson that From what you read. . Sixteen were ongoing. Analyzing the Document  How does the cartoonist characterize the UN’s response to Middle East conflict? the role of the united nations 1043 . The cartoonist. As firing the Secretary-General. a supporter of Israel. . . and incompetent. “ad-hoc bodies. . so do oppor. April 2006 As of late 2006. . . the fact. and prosperity to the globe. one of the for most of what goes on in this growing empire. As to the former. the UN in the age of terror has been in most ways useless and Analyzing the Document  in some ways positively dangerous. the writer argues. such as El Salvador and Mozambique in the early 1990s and East Timor in the early 2000s. and they have successfully worked to withhold US funding from the UN.

The fifty-three- The small reforms agreed upon to date may still prove member Economic and Social Council is essentially the spark for a real UN renaissance—if a whole lot of worthless. the UN may be reborn. a nonpartisan think tank that often takes positions perceived as liberal. . has only fitfully invested in the long-term. she believes the UN can be reformed. 2005 Iran—actively subvert [undermine] attempts to make Analyzing the Document Does the writer support the existence of the United Nations? What does she see as the key challenges to its success? Use passages from the excerpt to support your answers. well. mess of ingful change. 3. covering every conceivable issue. . unsound institutional base. Review the documents presented on this issue. has degenerated [fallen] into a . Like Claudia Rosett. “The UN at 60: Senescence or Renaissance?” The Brookings Institution. The UN’s fifteen-country where Congress goes into periodic fits of rage over Security Council. where all 191 nations theoretically have macy needed to build consensus [agreement] for mean- equal voice. … And the member states Step one [in reform] is to assign responsibility where it need to regain control of their own delegations in New belongs: overwhelmingly with the member countries. go. and abuse . she believes that the UN as currently organized is fundamentally flawed. expense of national ones.Ann Florini is an analyst for the Brookings Institution. . Pakistan. ridden staff. and has sometimes shot itself in the foot largely pointless debates on a mind-numbing agenda with bullying tactics like withholding of dues. . . Research viewpoints about the UN Human Rights Commission. “But all this [UN] activity depends on a fundamentally the UN function efficiently and effectively. Venezuela. What controversies have surrounded its membership? Why has the United States objected to some of its activities? 1044 case studies: contemporary issues . the realities of anti-Americanism.S. cial and human resources needed to make the UN work If all this is done. The U. 4. fraud. Review the descriptions of the authors of the its usefulness? Do you think it should be strength- passages excerpted here. . do you think the UN has outlived 2. A few hard-core opponents of reform—insiders point to Syria. The Gen. .hrw. . ened? Do you have another viewpoint? Write a grounds affect their point of view about the UN? letter to the editor explaining your position and offering reasons to support it. How might their back.com Research Online AnalyzING THE issue SD7 Case Study 1. York. quietly with pro- reform forces in New York. Still. given plenty of waste. . Egypt. and —Ann Florini. . .. lopsided power to the victors of World War II. Cuba. patient diplo- eral Assembly. . gives revelations of misdeeds such as the oil-for-food scandal. . extreme micro-management by member states. and an inadequate oversight system that allows [The United States] must engage effectively but. the only UN body with teeth. . who too often serve personal interests at the The member countries have never invested the finan. . The Secretariat suffers from a deadwood- people act quickly. Considering all the challenges involved in getting What do they tell you about the difficulties of UN members to agree on actions and respond carrying out the UN’s mission? quickly to crises. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R79 English and Spanish Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R2 Geography Handbook . . . . R48 Primary Source Library . . . . . . . . . . . R155 R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R54 Biographical Dictionary . . . R32 Economics Handbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R123 Credits and Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R93 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference Section Key Events in World History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R19 Atlas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

000 years ago humans large cities that were supported by irrigated farms had reached Southwest Asia. Significance  These first hominids are the most dis. exposed to the sun once again. Millions of years ago  First Hominids drier. the species to which all modern now Iraq. Sumerian society was centered on 200. Domestication is one of the signs of were roaming the African continent. labor early hominid ancestors. The Bering Land Bridge. Around 3100 BC. 4000 BC  Rise of Mesopotamian Cultures Humans The Sumerians. Sumerians made use of the first ago they had reached Europe. or New Stone million years ago. 4000–3500 BC  Invention of the Wheel sphere cooled. 3100 BC  Upper and Lower Egypt Unite 12. 200. a people who lived in the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in what is Homo sapiens.” or upright walking. They wedge-shaped script called cuneiform. Fossil records are need to migrate in search of animals and plants for gradually filling in a still murky picture of these food. c. Large sheets of ice formed and even- Evidence suggests that people in the Mesopotamian tually covered vast portions of the planet’s surface. developed what many consider the world’s humans belong.000–10. This allowed for permanent settlements. By 100. north to invade Lower Egypt.000 years in the countryside. sapiens spread and thrived. This happened around the same time in many made tools.000 BC. connected Asia and the Americas. It made many tasks. supplanting Significance  As the world’s first civilization. which lasted until about 12. which developed into the Significance  H. Significance  Agriculture freed humans from the tant ancestors of modern humans.hrw. It provides capsule descriptions of events or movements along with brief accounts of their significance. vehicles by as early as the fourth millennium BC. or the last Ice Age. soon became the sole hominid species. His efforts resulted Around 10. plants could be domesticated. an Upper Egyptian king. civilization. which had ier to accomplish. from trans- a more hospitable place. go.000–100. human-like primates. The concept spread rapidly to other civilizations. specialization and. Land that had around 3500 BC have been found at a site in what is been covered by ice for millennia gradually became now the Netherlands. the Sumerians stand at the beginning of recorded history. Earth became cal achievement. cultures of the Near East had invented wheeled This period.000 years ago  First Modern c.000 years ago. For thousands of years humans had survived by Menes. receded under the ocean. 14. isolating the Americas and their inhabitants. Age. By about 2–3 the transition to the Neolithic Era. far eas- cies developed. known system of writing. parts of the world.000 years ago  Invention of In ancient times the abundance of the Nile River val- ley gave rise to the two kingdoms of Upper and Low- Agriculture er Egypt. Significance  The wheel was a milestone technologi- Significance  As the ice sheets receded. is called the Pleistocene epoch. according to tradition. eventually. with Neanderthals among others. early hominids lived in groups. and by 35. needs directly. with the climate warmer and R  Key Events in world History .000 BC. and gathered food. Use this section to review the content in Human Legacy.com Research Online Keyword: SS World Almanac Key Events in World History The World Almanac Key Events in World History is a brief summary of important turning points in Key Events in World History world history. c. some humans discovered that animals and About 5–7 million years ago several species of “hom. New plant and animal spe- porting people and goods to making pottery.000 years ago  End of the Last Ice Age Approximately 2 million years ago Earth’s atmo. the first developed system of writing. The end of the Pleistocene was marked by a gradual Remains of an early wooden disk wheel dating to increase in Earth’s temperatures. or made to serve their inids. marched his army hunting wild animals and gathering wild plants. first lived in East Africa about first civilization.

Key Events in World History Significance  The story of civilization in one of the the period that would see Egypt rise to the peak of world’s most historically rich regions. Menes established Egypt’s first dynasty. In the process. Ruins from the cities of Harap- pa and Mohenjo Daro show that the Indus Valley c. reign. the Indian its power and glory. But Hammurabi is best known which the Vedas are written. declared himself pharaoh and drove the Hyksos from lization also developed a written language. dealt with matters ranging from trade and busi. Egypt. They ruled Egypt for more than a century. their pharaohs. 2700–2300 BC  Egyptian Pyramids Built made the kingdom wealthy. They introduced 3000–1500 BC  Indus Valley Civilization the horse-drawn chariot. The largest of the pyramids. extending the kingdom’s boundaries as far as Syria Significance  The unification of Egypt by Menes rep. around 1792 BC. Mili- tary conquests also expanded Egyptian trade and c. future Egyp- subcontinent. This was the beginning of the New Kingdom. origi- acteristic of ancient Egypt under the pharaohs. and ability to mobilize vast resources char. Significance  With nearly 80 pyramids still stand. Kingdom period would use to build strong armies oped along the Indus River. Fearful of invasion. By the end of his reign the Babylo- one of the great religious texts of Hinduism. Key Events in world History  R . the first Chinese dynasty for Significance  The Code of Hammurabi is the earliest which solid historical evidence exists. material in the Indus Valley region. was built during Significance  The New Kingdom period was the last this time.in unification of the civilizations along the Nile into the Hyksos were eventually able to establish their one Egypt. period. power. 1540–1075 BC  New Kingdom in Egypt civilization possessed strong governments and an Around 1540 BC an Egyptian named Ahmose economy based on agriculture. created the known collection of written laws. in the northwest of the and expand their territory. and modern Bengali for the code of written laws that survives from his and Hindi derive from the Indo-Aryan language. the pyramids of By around 1500 BC a new element became apparent Egypt serve as a testament to the strength. slow decline. great flourish of Egyptian power and culture before tian belief in an afterlife and in the godly stature of the empire’s long. the code represented an ley. With superior military technology. nating from the area near the Black Sea. in the Huang River val- rian and Semitic traditions. The pyramids are evidence of the Egyp. The earliest the east. 1700 BC  Hyksos Invasion of Egypt As the Middle Kingdom in Egypt weakened. which we can glimpse today through the Vedas.000 years. 1766–1100 BC  Shang Dynasty in China ness to crimes and personal injuries. 1500 BC  India’s Vedic Period Begins ing along the west bank of the Nile. The laws. The Indus Valley civi. 1235 BC). tian pharaohs succeeded in establishing control over ley culture. Combining Sume. 1750 BC  Code of Hammurabi and the indigenous population produced a rich cul- The Babylonian king Hammurabi rose to power ture. they over- took foreign lands and established an empire. in a military leader. nian Empire extended through much of the Tigris- Euphrates Valley—a testament to his prowess as Significance  The languages of classical Sanskrit. the Shang expanded their lands. entered the Indus Valley in search of pastureland for their livestock. began with this first Indus River val. such Chinese system of writing dates from the Shang as the horse-drawn chariot and the compound bow. Significance  The Shang bureaucracy became a ple known as the Hyksos migrated into Egypt from model for later Chinese dynasties. who left behind numerous monuments. c. which were written down for all to see. c. that lasted nearly 3. and Palestine. Indian subcontinent. tombs for their pharaohs during the Old Kingdom. the Great Pyramid of Khufu near Giza. Far-flung irrigation and flood-control systems advance beyond tribal codes. Significance  The Hyksos kings ushered in a new phase in ancient Egyptian history. c. and is considered to be Egypt’s first pharaoh. and maintaining peace and prosper- resents the beginning of a great ancient civilization ity throughout their lands. a peo. in the 2700s BC. The synthesis between these new peoples c. The most famous New Egyptians began constructing pyramids to serve as Kingdom pharaoh is Ramses II (died c. Many scholars believe wealth. which pharaohs of the New Around 3000 BC the Indus Valley civilization devel. that a nomadic people known as the Aryans. They are known for their outstanding bronzework. The Shang dynasty. spurred the Shang to develop a complex bureaucra- cy. Over time. first strong state in China. possible invasion routes.

with some A Chinese philosopher who lived from 551 to 479 BC modifications. 1200 BC  Olmec Civilization in Mexico 500-year period of Egyptian rule of Kush. His teachings were com- piled by his followers in the Analects. They built new worshipped a jaguar-like god. based their soci- ety. and 500 BC  Confucius in China Greece. was supported primarily by agriculture. and later the Jews. Kush- southern Gulf of Mexico coast developed into the ite kings launched military attacks against Egypt. coast by around 2800 BC. Elements of Olmec civilization can be seen in many later 509 BC  Founding of the Roman Republic Mesoamerican cultures. the Phoenicians mingled the cultures of Egypt. 500 BC  Persian Empire under Darius c. Following Settlements dating from around 1500 BC along the the decline of the New Kingdom in Egypt. The Olmec Significance  Kushite rulers of Egypt sought to Key Events in World History developed a calendar and a writing system. the Phoenicians developed a loose union of city-states supported by sea trade Significance  As the Republic expanded. and destroyed again in ers the way to achieve an enlightened state. Even though the Temple was For the remainder of his life the Buddha taught oth- destroyed in 586 BC. more than 3. during the Zhou dynasty. stretching As neighbors in the Nile River valley. reverence for ancestors. Siddhartha Gautama of India lived from around 563 justice. AD 70. it proved with the other Mediterranean cultures of Egypt and unable to reconcile rule of vast territories with the Greece. Judaism has had a major influence on Western soci. Their alphabet was adopted. In recent times Bud- into Christianity and became known as Judeo. By 1200 BC the Phoenicians were the lead. Significance  From the Buddha’s life and experience Significance  One of the earliest monotheistic faiths. Over the next 500 years the Republic greatly expanded in size and power and Having settled along the eastern Mediterranean evolved politically to include democratic elements. and hon- 960 BC  Solomon Builds the Temple est and just government. or Enlightened One. Its example—good. In the centuries following the Buddha’s death. The last of these c. and idealized—none- colonies throughout the Mediterranean. including theless inspired the efforts of later ages to found Carthage in North Africa. Christian ethics. of morality that stressed the importance of family. bad. respect for elders. republican governments. his ety and is one of the world’s major religions. King Solomon built the Temple to God in Jerusalem. by the Greeks and later the Romans. arose one of the world’s great religions. This marked stone statues date from this time. exerted a profound was kept. the Persian Egypt had a long history of relations. Confucius urged a system becoming the basis of our own. 1200 BC  Phoenicians Dominate Trade in was overthrown by nobles in 509 BC. Olmec civilization by around 1200 BC. the Jewish religion and people still thrive. temples and pyramids and made efforts to preserve Significance  The Olmec developed the first histori. traditions of self-governance conceived for a city- ing Mediterranean trading power. Belief in one God and a strong code of ethics are 500 BC  Buddhism Develops in India central beliefs of Judaism. Mesopotamia. and righteousness central to Judaism have to 483 BC. Olmec society the beginning of the Kushite dynasty in Egypt. Religion was the foundation upon which influence on China and other East Asian culture. According to tradition. Kush and from Asia Minor and Egypt to India. Remains of Around 716 BC a Kushite king named Piankhi rose ceremonial cities that included temples and large to power and declared himself pharaoh. They established state. and the Roman the Mediterranean Sea Republic  was born. Rome was founded in 753 BC and ruled by a succession of kings. Significance  As a trading people.000 years. Confucianism. including a Empire reached its peak under the emperor Darius. Egyptian writings. They restore Egyptian cultural traditions. he sustained the Jewish people and their religion for came to be called the Buddha. Buddhism. Revered for having found true wisdom. R  Key Events in world History . in which the Ark of Significance  The body of thought derived from Con- the Covenant containing the Ten Commandments fucius’s teachings. rebuilt. 700 BC  Kushite Dynasty Rules Egypt The largest empire to date at that time. dhism’s influence has spread to non-Asian cultures. The standards of fairness. cally known civilization in the Americas. The teachings gained wide acceptance in Asia. the Israelites. shaping Jewish ethical tradition was later carried forward the cultural life of the region. the center of Israelite worship.

Octavian.” Under Augustus the Roman Republic Following the Persian Wars. defeated the Persians in a great sea battle major wars between the two powers began when at Salamis and saved their homeland. Darius reorganized don. His efforts to extend Persian Asia Minor. In 31 BC cal stability in the Roman Empire known as the Pax the rivalry between Athens and Sparta erupted into Romana began with the reign of Augustus. 480–404 BC  Golden Age of Athens Rome as the most powerful force in the western Athens reached the peak of its cultural development Mediterranean. 27 BC  Augustus Becomes Rome’s Emperor Greek art. serving to own rule. to Sparta in 404 BC. however. In 202 BC ranean and a flowering of ancient Greek culture and the Romans.who ruled from 522 to 486 BC. his army at Zama. the Persian Empire remained the until his death in 323 BC. Significance  Darius’s reforms helped solidify the For his political and military successes he was called power of his dynasty. Athens transformed a became the Roman Empire. his grandnephew and Significance  The cultural legacy of Athens is one of chosen heir. with assistance from Persia. Significance  The Second Punic War established c. in rebelling against the Persian Empire. the Greek city-states declined and of repentance and love of God and neighbor. Syria. defeated Hannibal and artistic achievement. The Persians captured and burned Athens. a conflict began that became known as the Persian Wars. Today over 2 billion people are Christians. This forced Athens to surrender Around AD 30. lands of the Persian Empire east to the Indus River. into conflict with Carthage. Philip II of Mace. which lasted for 27 years. and philosophy. the Achaemenids. drama. mutual defense league into an empire. According to the Gos- shed moment in the struggle for power in ancient pels of the New Testament. Jesus was put to death by the Romans. Thanks to the reforms of Pericles. He ruled over his vast empire defeat in Greece. dominant power in the Near East for more than Significance  Alexander’s conquests spread Greek a century. In 218 BC the second of three number. years after he began teaching. culture thrived between c. Mesopotamia. When the Roman leader Julius Caesar was assas- phy flourished at this time. By 31 BC Octavian had quelled unrest in influence later art. Within 100 years Rome brought the during the time of the statesman Pericles (around rest of the Mediterranean region under its control. Rome’s expanding borders and increased influence Key Events in World History sought to punish Athens by launching invasions of in the western Mediterranean brought the Republic Greece. Ultimately Sparta. and forcing Hannibal to return to his city. 330 BC  Alexander the Great’s Conquests Significance  The story of Jesus and his teachings After inheriting a united Greece following the assas. are the basis for one of the world’s great religions. which means “the 431–404 BC  Peloponnesian War revered one. architecture. was able to cut off food c. began attracting followers. A few were eventually conquered by Philip II of Macedon. governments. Weakened. led by Scipio. or Greek-like. 460–429 BC) and after. the administration of the empire and recognized a By 331 BC Alexander and his armies had conquered diversity of religions. poetry. 500–479 BC  Persian Wars the time of Alexander’s death and the Roman con- When Athens aided Greek city-states in Asia Minor quest of Greece in 146 BC. struggled initially to consolidate his the great sources of Western civilization. Key Events in world History  R . Egypt. a powerful commercial but in the end the Greek forces. Significance  The Peloponnesian War was the water. culture from the Mediterranean Sea to India. a Jewish teacher and prophet. Athenian democracy was at its strongest. in the Roman province of Judea. the Carthaginian general Hannibal invaded Roman Significance  Victory in the Persian Wars led to an territory. the Roman territories and defeated both his rivals for power. This Hellenistic. and later his son Xerxes. sinated in 44 BC. sination in 336 BC of his father. though fewer in city in North Africa. In 27 BC the Roman Senate officially con- ferred on him the title Augustus. Significance  The roughly 200-year period of politi- its rival for dominance in the Greek world. near Carthage. he preached a message Greece. The 218–201 BC  Second Punic War Persian leader Darius. Despite Alexander the Great. and philoso. and all of the rule to Greece. Rome countered by invading North Africa expansion of Greek power in the eastern Mediter. AD 30  Jesus of Nazareth Preaches supplies to Athens. Alexander set out to conquer the known world. Jesus of Nazareth. war. met with defeat. earning ene- mies and starting it on a collision course with Sparta.

Paul also fractured the unity of the Roman world and marked Key Events in World History wrote many of the letters that are part of the New the beginning of a period in Europe when there were Testament. In about 529 250–900  Maya Classic Age the emperor Justinian had his scholars begin com- Early Maya villages on the Yucatán Peninsula of piling the laws of the Roman Empire. around 610 an Arab descendants in Mexico. Central to the code many as 40 Maya cities with 5. He was imprisoned. was able to grow and flourish. The Eastern Roman Empire. status and he was forced to contend with a series of Significance  The journey of Muhammad from Mec- rivals. preaching and helped establish Christian churches Significance  The fall of the Western Roman Empire throughout the eastern Mediterranean. carried on after the fall of the Western of the Roman empire. the last converted to Christianity and devoted his life to Roman emperor in the West. palaces. Fol. AD 47–62  Paul Spreads Christianity known as the Visigoths captured the city of Rome. In that year a Germanic com- beliefs. The pagan rulers of Mecca were not In 284 the Roman Empire was divided in two. once persecuted and quest of much of the Byzantine Empire. c. ity. judicial decisions. By 900. In 410 a Germanic people ples slowly converted to Islam. was the idea that established laws prevent people itants each. on the Ara- 312  Constantine Converts to Christianity bian Peninsula. newer ones were issued in Greek. Constantine met one such rival in battle in ca to Medina is known as the hegira. Significance  With legal status and support in known as caliphs. and plazas for public gatherings. Belize. to Justinian’s Code. he mander overthrew Romulus Augustulus. He triumphed and the following year issued the Edict of Milan declaring Christianity to be a legal 634–711  Spread of Islam religion within the empire. from being subject to the whims of their leaders. and the Persian Empire. from God. Roman Empire. By the North Africa. Muslims 312. Better known by his Greek name Paul. Age. The new end of the fourth century it was the official religion Muslim empire stretched as far east as India and of the Roman Empire. Significance  Through his journeys and writings.000 inhab. Later. who were called Muslims. called the Byzantine tian thought and the spread of Christianity in parts Empire. Justinian’s Code enhanced the tems of astronomy and mathematics to aid in their stability of the Byzantine Empire. the Christian religion. The result was Mesoamerica gave rise. receptive to his teachings and harassed Muham- lowing the death of his father in 306. Canals Significance  By establishing a clear reference for controlled the flow of water. The cities had stone pyramids. at first opposed the spread of Christian invaders through 476. Mayans developed sys. Saul. He began preaching a monotheistic faith to the people of his home city of Mecca. During the Maya Classic issued in Latin. as far west as the Atlantic Ocean. Significance  The Maya were one of the great ancient 622  Muhammad Leaves Mecca civilizations of the Western Hemisphere. which lasted from 250 to 900. Its leaders sought to preserve the power and glory of Rome in the east. In 711 Muslim forces conquered Spain. no strong central governments. Following Muhammad’s death. temples. 529–535  Justinian Preserves Roman Laws Paul played a key role in the development of Chris. Constantine mad and his followers. including suppressed. The collection of older laws was larger towns and cities. refused to recognize his where Islam gained a larger following. Before the battle he is said to have had a vision marked the year in which the hegira took place as that would later lead him to convert to Christian. the conquered peo- severely weakened state. leading to the development 476  Fall of the Western Roman Empire of Muslim civilization in southern Europe. eastern emperor. and likely executed. the Maya civilization rapidly declined. his successors.000 to 50. a Jewish religious official from Tarsus in The Western Empire continued to be plagued by Asia Minor. the first year of the Islamic calendar. It later influ- religious practices. In became emperor of the Western Roman Empire. by the Romans around 62. though increased trade. for uncertain reasons. led Arab armies in a rapid con- Rome. enced legal systems throughout Europe. In many of those R  Key Events in world History . however. there were as the language of the Byzantines. Nearly a century of invasions by peoples expanding Significance  As Arabic language and Muslim pat- their territory left the Western Roman Empire in a terns of life became prominent. The 622 Muhammad left Mecca for the town of Medina. Today their According to Islamic tradition. and Guatemala still merchant named Muhammad received a calling speak variants of the Maya language.

The West African trading states developed a rich Significance  Today Sunnis and Shias continue to be oral history. took control of competing family. Key Events in world History  R . its greatest ruler was Mansa Musa. with the Umayyads Significance  The Viking raids destabilized Europe surviving only in Spain. ences between Sunni and Shia groups. the By 750 the head of the Abbasid family had become history of Russia began. which lasted in various guises until 1806. From these invasions. Mali. the Ara. the main groups of Muslims. caliph over the Muslim empire. The Rus remained and the Shia. ing opinions among early Muslims regarding proper Significance  Links between West African and Arab theological and religious ideas solidified the differ. a succession of three powerful kingdoms had spread southward. customs and language. traders helped bring Islam into sub-Saharan Africa. along the gold-rich banks of the 900. Two related systems governed social relations in music. 661–680  Sunni-Shia Split Early in the 13th century Ghana was overtaken by Disputes over the succession as caliph eventually Mali’s empire. and Muslims. c. when Baghdad was overrun by Mongol invaders. when a Moroccan force defeated the empire. The Abbasids moved the for 200 years. Lebanon. The serfs farmed Charlemagne for help in fighting off opposition to the lord’s land in return for a plot of the lord’s land his papacy. Iraq. became known as the Holy Roman Empire. 1591. began a series of invasions of Europe. Differ. Song- a rightful leader. asked serfs. to a lord’s land. literature. owed each other service and protection. Where the Vikings settled. and Pakistan. Magyars. medieval Europe. who made a notable pilgrimage to Mecca. He conquered the Lombards. c. 1000  Toltecs Dominate Central Mexico A semi-nomadic people. By about 1000 they dominated the region and Niger River. with the support of a town in Eastern Europe. the Rus. those who accepted fiefs. The Vikings were Scandinavian warriors who. which progressively diminished. Lords and vassals. who considered only Ali the important commercial city of Timbuktu. Charlemagne obliged. and political structures his rule. Leo III. bian Peninsula. of building a new Rome. 850–1250  Manorial and Feudal Systems Significance  The Abbasid Caliphate ushered in a in Europe golden age for the Muslim Empire. and pope crowned him Emperor of the Romans. and scholarship thrived in the caliphate. he sought to carry out his vision lands.lands. In 747 a named Rurik and his clan. expanded their domain. beginning about 850. India. Saharan trade gave all three their power. economic. the Toltec settled in the c. other services. Many Viking raids were hit-and-run attacks. into the lands of the Maya. The mano- Saxons. in England and Normandy. 750–1258  Abbasid Caliphate but sometimes Vikings settled where they raided. The deaths of Ali (661) hai controlled the trade routes of West Africa until and his son Husayn (680) widened the rift. the lord’s protection. however. Control of trans- and provides a basis for shared cultural identity. Lords Charlemagne inherited the Frankish throne from enlisted trained warriors known as knights to defend his father in 768. the Abbasids. led to the division of Muslims into several groups. began as a means of mutual defense in the chaos of 800  Charlemagne Crowned Emperor invasions by Vikings. Shia Muslims. Shia Muslims live mainly in Iran. Significance  Charlemagne’s coronation by the pope Significance  The feudal and manorial systems pro- granted legitimacy to his conquests and solidified vided the social. did not. the Umayyads. The feudal system. In 1468 Sunni Muslims accepted the legitimacy of the first Mali gave way to Songhai after Sonni Ali captured four caliphs. or feudalism. and Songhai. began a rebellion against the Umayyads. as The first dynasty of caliphs. France. and Avars before finally being repelled by rial system was an economic arrangement that tied the Moors in Spain. 800–1591  West African Trading States region around present-day Mexico City around In West Africa. The Abbasids remained in power. Charlemagne’s realm was the basis of what for European society for about 400 years. with Sunni Muslims 850–1150  Viking Invasions Key Events in World History accounting for about 90 percent of Muslims. capital of the caliphate from Damascus to the new they melded with the local population. Islam remains the majority religion today arose: Ghana. contributing city of Baghdad. A Viking leader saw the initial expansion of the caliphate. In 799 a new pope. a portion of those his brother’s death. the next year the to farm for themselves. Ghana reached its peak under Tunka Manin in about 1067. or peasants. over. After gaining greater power upon their lands in return for a fief. until 1258. Art.

supply soldiers for a war to defend the Byzantine Significance  In time Magna Carta came to be seen Empire and to take Jerusalem and the area around as the foundation of constitutional government in it. with varied orders—the Coyote. In northern Europe. under Mongol control for nearly 200 years. The document established that everyone. began conquering territory in collapse of the Roman Empire. Duke William ritory in China. and the Eagle—and leadership and diverse purposes. known as the Holy Land. In China. between Europe and the East. In of goods from ships to overland routes. The Crusades end- incorporated military imagery into their art and ed in 1291. customs. antine territory in Asia Minor. who political change in Europe. Significance  By 1294 the Mongols controlled the Saxon rule in England. began to revive fol- the Middle East. They were the dominant power in the the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land. The England. Backed by a powerful force and also captured Tibet and parts of Southeast Asia. William introduced military largest land empire in history. Merchants in Italian city- and from there. Fierce warriors. he was victorious in the Battle of Meanwhile Batu. Significance  The Norman Conquest ended Anglo. today called Turkey. under the nominal authority of the states like Venice and Genoa controlled the transfer Abbasid caliph. region until the mid-1200s. First Crusade (1096–1099) succeeded in taking including monarchs. continued the con- another man to be their king and William launched quests. from the Muslims. Islamic schools (called the madrasa) throughout Significance  The revival of trade increased Europe- their domain. Shortly thereafter he was crowned He succeeded in bringing Kievan Russia and parts King William I of England. power in Mesoamerica in the early 1400s. Byzantines was one factor that led to the Crusades. Their defeat of the closer contact with the world. English A series of military expeditions from Europe to the nobles forced him in 1215 to consent to the provi- Holy Land between 1095 and 1291. of Norman knights. sought to protect the rights of Pope Urban II called on Europe’s feudal lords to all the king’s subjects. Kublai Khan finished conquering China. invaded Europe. and brought Europeans into Persian as a literary language. led claimed the English throne. Kublai Khan feudalism. they grew wealthy from trade. ated the Hanseatic League to regulate and profit became the last Seljuk stronghold. the Jaguar. another relative. an invasion of the island. At its peak the Hanseatic Significance  The Seljuks established a system of League had 100 member cities. When their power German cities along the Baltic and North Seas cre- receded elsewhere. the Crusades sions in the document known as Magna Carta. Over the next 200 years at R  Key Events in world History . 1200–1294  Mongol Invasions 1066  Norman Conquest of England The Mongol invasions began in the early 1200s. Antioch and Jerusalem. Hastings in 1066. The began when the hard-pressed Byzantine emperor original charter contained 63 clauses. a distant relative of Edward’s. a Muslim people Trade in Europe. when Genghis Khan and his army began taking ter- died in 1066 without leaving an heir. as nobles gained power Key Events in World History eventually established themselves as the dominant at the expense of kings. of Poland and Hungary into the Mongol Empire. The English selected by relatives of Genghis Khan. Kievan Russia remained Norman laws. France. and language occurred. Iraq. lowing the Crusades. In Persia their rule led to a revival of an wealth and power. From there they conquered Central of Normandy. the king of England. 1215  Magna Carta 1095–1291  Crusades Frustrated by the demands of King John II. which had declined following the from Central Asia. c. Asia and most of Persia. 1071  Seljuk Turks Conquer Asia Minor c. when Muslims captured the city of Acre. many of which turned to his fellow Christians in Western Europe were intended to ensure the feudal rights of nobles. Over time. from trade in their region. In 1055 they conquered Baghdad. In 1095 Other clauses. Asia Minor. was subject to the rule of law. 1200  Rise of European Trading Cities Around 1000 the Seljuk Turks. They also spurred enced the late Maya and the emergent Aztec. architecture. Significance  The Crusades led to increased trade Significance  The Toltec’s militaristic culture influ. for help in fending off the Muslim Seljuks. When Edward the Confessor. though. they ruled Iran. the Toltec established three military least ten expeditions were undertaken. and Syria. a blending of Anglo-Saxon and founded the Yuan dynasty. as a result 1071 the Seljuk Turks conquered most of the Byz. Other Mongol armies.

Later missions led Europeans its commercial and intellectual talent. 1361. in rebound until the 1500s. the Renaissance inspired advances in 1455  Gutenberg’s Printing Press the arts and sciences. The expulsion of On his 1486–1487 voyage Bartolomeu Dias rounded non-Christians. They conquered the ing power. Europe’s population did not completely Balkans and took Adrianople. Seeking new ways to trade with the civilizations Significance  United Spain became Europe’s domi- of the Far East. and ultimately. a term invented during the Renais. By 1475 printing presses were oper- Having begun as an isolated tribe near Cuzco. They used the Inquisition. rose to become a mighty empire. end of the Byzantine Empire. that stretched nearly 2. the complexity of their system ried in 1469 and joined their kingdoms in 1479 to of roads. and their building skills. form a united Spain. The outbreak of this epidemic in the mid-1300s decimated the popula. a new power. in ating in nations throughout Europe. what is now Peru. The Black knowledge of the world and made possible the Euro- Death probably traveled to Europe from China along pean colonization of Asia. Granada. and the Americas. laid onto a plate that was then rolled with ink and sance to mark its separation from the earlier time. Though the Chinese developed a printing process in Significance  The Renaissance profoundly changed the 100s.” the Renaissance was a period of Significance  The fall of Constantinople marked the cultural renewal starting first in Italy and spread. The Age 1494  Treaty of Tordesillas of Exploration continued through the 1600s with Voyages of exploration created conflict as Spain and Portugal staked competing claims over newly Key Events in world History  R . Based on the rediscovery of would build a vast empire embracing Egypt. to America. pressed over paper. cy common. opening of the interior of North America. 1453  Ottoman Turks Take Constantinople tions of both continents. printing in Europe exploded after Johannes how Europeans viewed themselves and their world. all Jews and Muslims (whom they called Moors) to become Christians or leave Spain and sponsored c. their sophisticated road the Iberian Peninsula. Toward the end of the 1200s. The 1492  Spanish Unification and Expansion Inca are known in history for the strength of their Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile mar- central government. the Inca. and By the mid-1400s the Inca presided over a territory introduced a new method of mass communication. however. Africa. robbed Spain of much of Africa’s southern tip. Key Events in World History Literally “rebirth. Ironically. a Byzantine city.1347–1351  Black Death the search for a Northwest Passage that led to the Increased trade between Europe and Asia had unin. The new technology 1400–1500  Inca Empire Flourishes spread quickly. arose in Asia Minor. Greek and Roman writings and new appreciation and much of North Africa that lasted until 1922. around the world. shown most dra. an matically at Machu Picchu. Columbus’s voyage led to 1400s began exploring possible sea routes to Asia. tory of the Byzantine Empire. which they renamed Istanbul and 1350–1600  Renaissance made the capital of their empire. with Ferdinand Magel- lan’s 1519–1522 voyage. Ottomans began to threaten the remaining terri- The shortage of labor gave peasants more bargain. In 1453 the Ottomans succeeded in capturing Constantinople. In the 1300s the the bonds that held the manorial system together. Gutenberg began printing cop- ies of the Bible around 1455. to Significance  The Inca Empire ruled 12 million peo. for secular culture and individual achievement. The Ottoman Turks ing to all of Europe. the last remaining Muslim kingdom on pean contact. Using metal block letters individually Middle Ages. the Otto- Significance  The Black Death severed some of man Turks. 1415–1650  Age of Exploration Christopher Columbus’s voyage across the Atlantic. investigative body of the Roman Catholic Church. spread the ideas of the Renaissance. Europeans at the beginning of the nant power for 100 years. One such consequence was the Significance  The Age of Exploration expanded ease with which diseases could spread. or humanism. a Spanish empire in the Americas. Gutenberg pioneered the use of movable type in the The movement’s onset represents the close of the mid-1400s. which occurred at the brink of Euro. In 1492 they conquered ple at its peak. Syria. through conquest of Significance  The printing press helped make litera- neighboring tribes. tended consequences. In that year they ordered system sped the Spaniards along on their conquest. sea and overland trade routes.000 miles along the Andes Mountains from present-day Ecuador to Chile. enforce religious conformity.

Over time. and established an empire of their as slaves. which is Significance  With its emphasis on a personal inter- why today Brazilians speak Portuguese. expanded the the empire began a slow decline. discovered lands. To In less than fifteen years. Key Events in World History cation line farther west. making it one of the clergyman. 1517  Luther’s Ninety-Five Theses Significance  At its height the Mughal Empire ruled In 1517 Martin Luther. In 1493 Pope Alexander VI sought critical of the Roman Catholic Church’s practice of to resolve the disputes by drawing an imaginary line selling letters of forgiveness. because of the agreement. Within two years Cortés succeeded in cap- from their homelands to the Americas was called turing and destroying the Aztec capital of Tenochti- the Middle Passage. empire. a 1526  Mughal Empires of India Shia Muslim clan that had lived in Persia for gen. Portu. Protestant movements quickly developed. In the Americas. Babur’s grandson Ottoman Turks. the Safavid Empire the north. Reformation. 1502–1722  Persia’s Safavid Dynasty developed in Central and much of South America. early as the 700s. tures. tation decimated native populations. most of the Indian subcontinent. a new culture. Spain overthrew the two meet these labor needs the colonial powers began most powerful empires in the Americas. By 1512 Ismail had succeeded in establish. but Ismail proclaimed Shi’ism the valley. greatest of the Mughal rulers. but England’s lim states. gal was able to establish a colony in Brazil. a combined Turk and Mongol army into India from who reigned from 1578 to 1629. however. 1500–1865  Atlantic Slave Trade that roiled Europe for the next century and a half. slav. Other the line. Babur defeated the Delhi sultanate and reached its peak. called indulgences. and European diseases that weak- Significance  The slave trade devastated the lives of ened the Indians contributed to Spanish victory. spark reform within the church. The following year. Conditions for Africans on the tlán. Superior weapons. however. However. sponsored inter-religious discussions. Muslim armies entered the Indus River valley as erations. Persian. contributed to the growth of individualism. conquer the Inca of South America. or statements. through the Atlantic Ocean. which moved the demar. mixing Spanish and native elements. Most Persians were tanate extended Muslim rule into the Ganges River Sunni Muslims. In 1530 Francisco Pizarro led an expedition to journey were brutal. while the pretation of scripture. In 1526 a Muslim chieftain named Babur led empire’s official religion. By the early 1700s the Mughals controlled ence to Shia Islam made Persia distinct among Mus. while Portugal was given rights to new claims in the Luther’s ideas had led to his expulsion from the east. Spain was given rights Luther’s intent in posting these statements was to to all non-Christian lands claimed west of the line. with successful wars against the established the Mughal Empire. Americas fueled Spain’s military and political ery contributed to economic development but left efforts in Europe for 100 years. and many died along the way. Luther went on to establish a religious movement Significance  Other European powers largely ignored that became known as the Lutheran Church. Disease and exploi- lingering social scars. The economies of the European colonies in the Americas were based on plantation agriculture and 1519–1533  Spanish Conquests in the the extraction of raw materials. By the early 1200s the Delhi sul- ing a Safavid dynasty in Persia. had won the Inca territories from present-day Ecua- some 10 million Africans had been transported to dor to Chile for Spain. then a 34-year-old Catholic as many as 100 million people. Under Abbas the Great. and Chinese styles. In 1519 Hernán Cortés landed in Mexico with system of triangular trade. Spain and Portugal agreed Roman Catholic Church and sparked the Protestant to the Treaty of Tordesillas. the Protestant Reformation rest of Latin America speaks Spanish. and Significance  Safavid culture represented a blending encouraged a blending of Hindu and Muslim cul- of Arab. As the 1500s began. The pas- sions it aroused. American allies. Native slavery in the Americas. In time the slave trade solidified into a own. the Aztec transporting Africans across the Atlantic to serve and the Inca. With the break from Rome official. a Muslim religious leader named Ismail rose to power over the Safavids. posted a list of 95 theses. The journey of Africans 600 men. R10  Key Events in world History . Safavid adher. increasing economic and military power was already undermining their rule. sparked religious wars c. Following Abbas’s death in 1629 Akbar. those who were enslaved and ravaged the countries Significance  Wealth from Spain’s empire in the from which they were taken. Such labor-­intensive Americas enterprises required large numbers of workers. By 1521. By 1533 Pizarro By the time the slave trade ended in the mid-1800s.

for supremacy and declared himself shogun. architecture. however. which During the 1600s the Stuart monarchs of England was at war with Spain. II. causing severe damage.. The power of the Holy Roman Philip assembled a fleet of 130 ships known as the Empire was greatly reduced. Significance  The Armada’s defeat spared England 1688  England’s Glorious Revolution from invasion. (1672–1725) and Catherine the Great (1729–1796). mainly on 1588  Defeat of the Spanish Armada German territory. Protestants rebelled. The efforts of Charles I triggered the English Civil War (1641–1649). Conflict between king and Parlia- rule absolutely. From the late 1400s. no sho- experiments to test theories. tific method. the Netherlands. of an absolute monarch was Louis XIV of France who once famously uttered. development of European nation-states. until the Stuarts were European monarchs began to assert their right to restored in 1660. When Ferdinand criticized by Protestants. without consulting nobles. Art. to the outside world. and began to shift the balance tried to assert absolute authority over Parliament. fearing destabilization that Christian mis- 1545–1563  Council of Trent sionaries might cause. 1540–1725  Scientific Revolution notable absolute monarchs included Peter the Great A movement in Europe during the 1500s and 1600s. “I am the state. estant Reformation with its own reforms. However. Reformation began under Pope Paul 1618–1648  Thirty Years’ War III. the shogun was the Other notable contributors included Galileo Galilei emperor’s military commander and the actual ruler (1564–1642). He Significance  The Scientific Revolution transformed introduced changes to the feudal system that tied Europeans’ view of the universe. which resulted in his execution. in the 1630s. tial Spheres. King of Bohemia and later Holy Roman Emperor. gences. of power in the Atlantic from Spain to England. the Scientific Revolution rejected medieval scholas. Catholics’ demand for reform. and France. forming the foundation for the attacked the Armada. about 200 years of relative calm. a Protestant. weakened the peasants to the land. The archetype literature flourished under the Mughals. Sweden. doms. The Catho- lic. including Denmark. Hoping to depose Queen Significance  The Thirty Years’ War devastated the Elizabeth I. In the Japanese feudal system. as the feudal structure broke down. than half the Armada returned home to Spain. as other European nations. A newly reinvigorat. Its territories were Spanish Armada. In August 1588 the English fleet granted sovereignty. wealth for eleven years. The Tensions between Roman Catholics and Protestants Council acted to correct some of the abuses most frequently erupted into warfare. and people. breaking down the feudal system. by establishing the scien. outlawed social mobility.e.world’s most powerful states. from the English throne. other church doctrines and traditions. aided its ally. common ment erupted anew in 1685 when James II became Key Events in world History  R11 . or their representative bodies. In 1603 Tokugawa Ieyasu won a struggle laws of motion and gravity. the Council reaffirmed attempted to impose Catholicism on his subjects. and Sir Isaac Newton Key Events in World History gun was able to assert authority over rival. who invented calculus and codified the factions. 1600–1800  Absolute Monarchs in Europe Oliver Cromwell ruled England as a Common- In the 1600s. started an ongoing expansion of human Significance  The Tokugawa shoguns brought Japan knowledge and technological innovation. In the ensuing years a series of devastating wars were fought. who developed the telescope and used of the country. mark. who convened the Council of Trent in 1545. centralized power in his hands. German territories. In 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus tralizing authority. in which he argued that the sun rather than the Earth was the center of the universe. The fighting came to end with the King Philip II of Spain saw himself as Roman signing of the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648. absolute monarchs hastened the (1473–1543) published On the Revolution of Celes. Less modern system of European nation-states. Catholicism’s defender. ticism in favor of direct observation of nature and Significance  By consolidating fiefs into larger king- a program of hypothesis tested by experiment (i.” Other c. involved ed church began to reassert its power. 1603–1868  Japan’s Tokugawa Shogunate ing the symbolic birth of the Scientific Revolution. and cen- the scientific method). Religion was used to further Significance  The Council of Trent largely satisfied territorial ambitions. At the same time. warring (1642–1727). they also closed the country The Roman Catholic Church responded to the Prot. and authority of religion. themselves in the fighting. who “westernized” Russia. and. or Counter-. such as the sale of indul.

Ratified began first in Great Britain. the revolutionary principles of liberty. as it convinced the French to known as the Age of Reason. but its status as colonial powers and the struggle between political institutions remained static. Enlightenment think. Virginia. Cities grew quick- added in 1791. the United handicraft production. James fled to exile in France. The United States of America was established as a democratic republic. the French and Indian War. Fearing a line of However. Significance  Enlightenment thinkers advocated reforms in government. It led to the defeat of the British army at Yorktown. this democracy was incomplete. with the power of each coun- Significance  The Industrial Revolution transformed tered by checks and balances. 1754–1763  Seven Years’ War and French and Indian War 1789  French Revolution Begins The rivalry between Great Britain and France for French society evolved through the 1700s. Though most English were Protes. The first official call for American 1700–1800  Age of Enlightenment independence came in 1775. It created a system of three branches of federal government. Between ed and destroyed the Bastille prison. 1776. At the meeting man states erupted into nine years of warfare. Initially the as the Glorious Revolution. the Enlightenment is also proved a turning point. Goods became Significance  The United States Constitution ush- cheaper for a swelling middle class. but Austria made gains elsewhere. proved fatal. Baron de Montesquieu. The Bill of Rights. and Significance  In Europe. France and Great Britain fought for con- Estate rebelled. The American Revolution began in April 1775 with Key Events in World History Significance  The bloodless transfer of power. shared power between the national and state gov- tion (railroads and steamboats). ly. The influence of these ideas Significance  The American Revolution was the first can be seen in the American and French revolutions successful struggle of a colony for independence and in the governments they produced. Britain’s decision ers. from its ruler. the Industrial Revolution States drafted a new Constitution in 1787. How- fered terrible exploitation. and slav- ery was still legal. tinental Army faced numerous setbacks and almost certain defeat. nalism. Most white males and all white females could not vote. equality. known in France as philosophes. no clear victor emerged fraternity. and became crowded and unhealthy. king of England. New technologies in 1788 and officially adopted in 1789. guaranteed key rights. ever. which expressed states of Saxony and Silesia. In called by King Louis XVI of the Estates General. ratified Parliament’s Americans’ undermanned and poorly equipped Con- power over the monarch. tant. James was Roman Catholic. but workers suf. nations like few events before it. which lasted from 1754 France’s parliament. 1750–1850  Industrial Revolution An era in Europe and the United States that saw 1789  United States Constitution Adopted a rapid expansion of industry and machine-driven Seeking to address some of the problems it faced production of goods at the expense of farming and under the Articles of Confederation. Indian War brought it control of France’s North der the throne and invited his daughter Mary and American territory. In Europe the two nations National Assembly. representatives of the Third to 1763. enter the war on the American side. By 1789 the Austria and Prussia for dominance over the Ger- situation proved unsustainable. ernments. her husband William to serve as joint rulers. region of Silesia. Parliament asked James to surren. A series of constitutions transformed from the Seven Years’ War. of the Declaration of Independence on July 4. known the battles of Lexington and Concord. included John to challenge the Americans in the South ultimately Locke. and William and Mary were 1775–1781  American Revolution crowned after signing the English Bill of Rights. leading to the adoption A period in European history in which belief in ratio. declaring themselves to be the trol of North America. An American military victory at Saratoga in 1777 and progress held sway. Great Britain’s victory in the French and Catholic kings. c. secularism. natural law and natural rights. the 1756 and 1763 a British-Prussian alliance fought a National Assembly adopted The Declaration of the French-Austrian alliance for control of the German Rights of Man and of the Citizen. and Voltaire. Prussia held onto the R12  Key Events in world History . In August. as workers relocated in search of factory jobs. ered in a new era of constitutional democracy. the United such as the steam engine and iron smelting led to States Constitution established a federal system of advances in textile manufacturing and transporta. in 1781. In July the citizens of Paris loot- were also involved in the Seven Years’ War.

Great Britain. In 1793 the King was execut. as well many liberals felt disillusioned. Its sion of the right to vote in Great Britain came later. though it was forced to Battle of Waterloo. tion and malnutrition. of which Ireland was a part at that time. Karl establish a balance of power. Berlin. ushered in a period of Marx’s Communist Manifesto.1 million are believed to have died of starva- to an end 300 years of colonial rule in the region. The period is named after Andrew been as much about national unification as demo- Jackson. From the atmosphere of liberty inspired by the American and French revolutions arose the Latin 1845–1849  Irish Potato Famine American independence movements. The failure of Napoleon’s By August of 1849 most of the old governments had invasion of Russia in 1812 assured his fall. launched a series of wars to gain control of Europe. One by one. the urban poor turned his ambitions at sea and supporting a shifting coali. and Vienna. 1. a unified Italian kingdom with its capital in Key Events in world History  R13 . 9 of them respectively—the revolutions of 1848 had nian Democracy. Mexico achieved independence from Spain in 1821. the period from 1828 to 1832 represent- the Americas ed a shift to more representative governments. a severe famine resulted. successes served as a beacon and its excesses as a in stages. Austria defeated nationalist upris- one last bid for power in 1815 but met defeat in the ings in Italy and Hungary. published in Febru- peace and political reaction. food source.France into a republic. a meeting of European Powers in 1815 to States to escape political repression at home. Napoleon reorganized the French state and of republican revolutions swept through Europe. to provide assistance to the Irish people. 1796–1815  Napoleonic Wars Out of the chaos of the French Revolution arose the 1848  Revolutions Sweep Europe dramatic personality of General Napoleon Bonapar. He made been restored. foretold a new round of more radical revolutions to come.5 million emigrated to the United States or Great Britain. checking In Paris. did little following a ten-year struggle. from Portugal in 1822. ary of 1848. Through warfare. In 1848 the monarchies restored by the Congress te. Tens of thousands of as the spread of democratic ideals. As with the February Revolution in France. grant Hungary autonomy and abolish serfdom. and a Reign of Terror against internal opponents Reform Bill of 1832. and by direct States from the elite to the common citizen. while another 1. In the German states and the Italian states—38 and cal participation and ushered in the era of Jackso. The first blow From 1845 to 1849 a fungus devastated Ireland’s came on the island of Santo Domingo. Napoleon used his popularity as a military leader of Vienna in 1815 began to unravel. Significance  The Napoleonic Wars hastened the Significance  Following the failure of the revolutions. where Tous. a series emperor. Brazil declared its independence could not afford them.4 million Irish before the fam- Significance  Latin American independence brought ine. potato crop. starting in 1867. House of Commons to provide more balanced repre- Significance  The French Revolution completely sentation for the country’s urban districts. Significance  While full democracy in Great Britain and the United States would have to wait until the 1791–1824  Independence Movements in 20th century. radical. Beginning to establish political authority in France in 1799. Moderates drew back from social revolution. Great Britain remained his implacable foe. governments fell and monarchs fled. Significance  Of the 8. With much of the Irish population liv- saint L’Ouverture led a revolt of African slaves ing in poverty and dependent on potatoes as a main Key Events in World History that eventually established an independent Haiti. caution for later revolutionary movements. years of agitation led to the passage of the ed. In Great vote. an uprising led symbolized the shift in political power in the United by Giuseppe Garibaldi in the south. tion of allies in Europe. whose election to the presidency in 1828 cratic change. In South America. Other food charismatic leaders Simón Bolívar and José de San products grown in Ireland were not affected by the Martín helped push the Spanish entirely off the fungus but were exported because the Irish people continent by 1824. 1828–1832  Growth of Democracy in the United States and Great Britain 1859–1871  German and Italian In the United States the elimination of property Unification ownership requirements for voting increased politi. Britain. growth of nationalism and of mass armies. which redistributed seats in the of the revolution began. The Congress of people from German lands emigrated to the United Vienna. Expan- transformed French government and society.

emperor in 1868. German unification won key early battles. the outbreak of World War I in the 20th century. Some of the and new markets. Significance  Imperialism drew Africa and Asia into tantly agreed to the Treaty of Kanagawa in 1854. common zeal all contributed to the rise of Western imperial- ownership of property—inspired the Chinese Com. shogun to step down and restore authority to the ers were able to extract valuable trade concessions. shelter. and affected the conduct of warfare. 1861–1865  American Civil War North Carolina. On December 17. ism. European pow. and Russia. Out of these wars the surrender of Confederate commander Robert E. was often exploit- Significance  The opening of the two ports allowed ative and dehumanizing. The United States also became involved dispatched Commodore Matthew Perry to Japan in the imperial age by acquiring territories in the with the intention of opening the country to foreign Pacific and the Caribbean. united Germany became the most powerful country Northern victory ensured the preservation of the in Europe. ed nearly all of Africa among themselves. two bicycle mechanics tionism was effectively ended. built the first successful powered airplane. Parts of Asia were similarly divided. The leaders of the Meiji Resto- which only made the Qing’s weakness more appar. Within two years Japan signed similar treaties with Great 1903  Wright Brothers Flight Britain. tually stepped in and helped put down the rebellion and the country industrialized. had grown weak and corrupt. and the United States. Western powers even. at Kitty Hawk. The Confederacy oil. Improved designs federacy. a world economic system whose hubs were Europe which opened two Japanese ports to American ves. R14  Key Events in world History . president in 1860 led to secession of the slavehold. The Qing dynasty never recovered control Heightened nationalism. Lee to Union commander Ulysses S. the Japanese reluc. a desire for raw materials of the country. caused terrible destruction. colonizer and colonized. managed to maintain their inde- In 1853 United States president Millard Fillmore pendence. Rome was established by 1870. The feudal the Qing dynasty might bring. began manufacturing airplanes. They encouraged the Meiji emperor duced social unrest. Fighting ended in April 1865. Led by military skill of its general. the Wright brothers made four suc- The election of Abraham Lincoln as United States cessful tests of their design. The Civil War began in April 1861 with the revolutionized transportation. and supplies. with Franco-Prussian War (1870–71). and the tide of the war. increased demand for Confederate attack on Fort Sumter. which began in Western powers. Western influence grew. though many countries. and a paternalistic missionary ideas of the Taiping rebels—for instance. making it the nation’s costliest war.000 Americans died in showed the power of nationalism in the late 1900s. The relationship between sels for obtaining fuel. 1903. Key Events in World History Significance  Italian and German unification Significance  More than 600. however. Fearing the loss of trade that the collapse of id transformation of Japanese society. ration wanted to make Japan powerful enough to ent. A the Civil War. triggering rivalries that ultimately led to United States and led to the end of slavery. the Netherlands. mattox Court House in Virginia. Japan’s isola. By the turn of the in 1864. from Dayton. A large increase in population and poverty pro. arose a united German Empire in 1871 with its cap. Significance  The Wright brothers and others soon ing southern states and the formation of the Con. Ohio. 20th century Japan had become a world power. rival the West. 1868  Meiji Restoration in Japan 1850–1864  Taiping Rebellion in China Believing the shogun had failed to stand up to the By the 1840s China’s Qing dynasty. the Austro-Prussian War (1866). Prussia fought the Danish War Vicksburg and Gettysburg in 1863 helped turn the (1863–64). In 1850 a Christian convert who to implement policies that would enrich the country believed himself the brother of Jesus of Nazareth and strengthen the military. trade between Japan and the United States. a group of samurai forced the 1644. and cost millions 1880–1920  Age of Imperialism of lives. thanks largely to the superior was accomplished largely through warfare. Fearing the use of force. Significance  The Taiping Rebellion lasted for 14 years. started a rebellion that soon gathered wide-spread Significance  The Meiji Restoration triggered a rap- support. system ended. 1854  End of Japanese Isolation including China. trade. Grant at Appo- ital in Berlin. Northern victories at Otto von Bismarck. Orville and Wilbur Wright. educational opportunities improved. By 1914 the major European powers had divid- munists in the 20th century.

1914–1918  World War I 1929–1939  Great Depression
Increasingly intense rivalries in Europe, along with A variety of factors, including reckless investments
heightened feelings of nationalism and a system of in stocks, an overreliance by consumers on credit,
military alliances, led to the start of World War I in and a radically uneven distribution of wealth, con-
1914. The primary opponents were the Central Pow- tributed to the collapse of the United States econo-
ers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey) and my in 1929. The U.S. downturn soon affected other
the Allied Powers (Great Britain, France, and Rus- countries, and protectionist trade policies made the
sia). New technologies such as machine guns and situation worse. Countries experienced crushing
four years of stalemated trench warfare made World unemployment and sharply reduced economic out-
War I the deadliest war—14 million killed—the put. World trade fell by more than two thirds. For
world had seen to that point. The U.S. entry into the its unprecedented duration and severity, the event
war in 1917 helped the Allies win. came to be called the Great Depression.
Significance  World War I led to the end of monar- Significance  In addition to its economic effects,
chies in Russia, Austria-Hungary, Germany, and the Great Depression caused political instability in
Turkey. The horrific number of casualties produced Europe. In Germany, it was one factor in the rise of

Key Events in World History
widespread disillusionment. The Treaty of Versailles Nazism and Adolf Hitler. In the United States, the
imposed harsh penalties on Germany, contributing New Deal of President Franklin Roosevelt helped
to the outbreak of World War II. the country avoid serious unrest.

1917  Russian Revolution 1933–1945  Holocaust
Defeats and high casualties in World War I led to Soon after gaining power in Germany in 1933, Adolf
revolution in Russia. In the February Revolution Hitler and his Nazi Party began using the power of
of 1917 Czar Nicholas II was forced from power. the government to persecute German Jews. German
An interim government was established, but it was conquests early in World War II brought nearly all
ineffectual. In the October Revolution of 1917 the of Europe’s 9 million Jews under Nazi control. In the
Bolsheviks, a Communist revolutionary group led by largest genocide in world history the Nazis attempt-
Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the interim government ed to exterminate the entire Jewish population of
and established power. In 1918 a civil war broke out, Europe. This became known as the Holocaust.
in which the Bolsheviks prevailed. Collectively the Significance  The Nazis murdered 6 million Jews in
two 1917 revolutions and the years of civil war that the Holocaust, decimating the Jewish population of
followed are known as the Russian Revolution. Europe. Nazis also killed about 5 million other peo-
Significance  The Russian Revolution led to the ple from groups they considered undesirable. After
establishment of the Soviet Union in 1922. The Sovi- the war, many Nazi leaders were convicted of war
ets eventually succeeded in creating a world power, crimes by an international court.
but at a steep cost for some Soviet citizens.
1939–1945  World War II
1914–1939  Women Win Voting Rights Aggressive, militaristic regimes in Italy, Germany,
As early as 1792, British writer Mary Wollstonecraft and Japan threatened the uneasy peace that fol-
called for women’s voting rights in A Vindication of lowed World War I. With the German invasion of
the Rights of Women. In the United States, the Sen- Poland on September 1, 1939, World War II began.
eca Falls Convention of 1848 issued a similar call The main participants in the war were the Axis Pow-
for United States women. However, the first coun- ers (Germany, Italy and Japan), and the Allied Pow-
try to grant women voting rights was New Zealand, ers (Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union).
then still a British colony, in 1893. Between 1914 After the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor on Decem-
and 1939, however, 28 nations, including the United ber 7, 1941, the United States entered the war on
States (1920), granted women voting rights. the Allied side. Initial Axis gains began to erode by
Significance  The extension of voting rights to 1943. The Allied invasion of France on D-Day (June
women placed many societies on a firmer demo- 6, 1944) and the simultaneous push from the Soviet
cratic footing. In 1952 the United Nations adopt- Union in the east led to victory in Europe in May
ed a resolution calling on all member states of 1945. The United States dropped atomic bombs
to grant women the right to vote on an equal on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in August 1945,
basis with men. Not every nation has complied. bringing an end to the Pacific war in September.
Significance  With the deaths of 40 to 50 million sol-
diers and civilians, World War II was by far the most

Key Events in world History  R15

destructive conflict in world history. The United Significance  The large number of newly indepen-
States and the Soviet Union emerged as the world’s dent countries changed the face of international
two superpowers, but competing political systems organizations like the UN. The legacy of colonial-
soon made enemies of the former allies. ism, however, often left the newly formed nations
economically dependent and politically ill-prepared
1939–1945  Manhattan Project for self-government. Violent ethnic disputes and dic-
The Manhattan Project was a top-secret U.S. gov- tatorships were the result.
Key Events in World History

ernment program to develop an atomic bomb during
World War II. It was motivated by the danger that 1947–1989  Cold War
Germany might be the first to develop atomic weap- Efforts by the Soviet Union to extend its influence
ons. Manhattan Project scientists worked in Los in Eastern Europe and elsewhere led U.S. president
Alamos, New Mexico. They successfully tested the Harry Truman to declare the spread of communism
first atomic bomb near Alamogordo, New Mexico, on a threat to democracy that the United States would
July 16, 1945. resist (the Truman Doctrine, 1947). He also endorsed
Significance  The creation of the atomic bomb began the Marshall Plan for rebuilding the economies of
the age of nuclear weapons. During the Cold War Europe. The ensuing Cold War was a decades-long
that followed World War II, the United States and rivalry of the United States and its democratic allies
the Soviet Union competed in a nuclear-arms race. against the Soviet Union and its Communist allies.
The Cold War led to the formation of new politi-
1945  United Nations Founded cal and military alliances. In April 1949, Western
nations formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organiza-
The failure of the League of Nations to prevent World
tion (NATO). The Soviet Union and its allies formed
War II led to calls for a new, stronger international
the Warsaw Pact in May 1955.
organization. All countries that had declared war
on the Axis Powers by March 1, 1945, were invited Significance  The Cold War shaped international
to the founding conference of the new organization, affairs for decades. The creation of NATO checked
which was held in San Francisco from April to June Soviet expansion in Europe. The main antago-
of 1945. Conference members drafted a charter nists avoided a direct confrontation elsewhere, but
declaring the new organization’s goals: to maintain numerous wars were fought in developing countries
international peace and security, promote cordial as a direct result of the Cold War rivalry.
relations among countries, and develop systems of
cooperation for solving a wide range of international 1948–Present  Arab-Israeli Conflicts
problems. The charter was ratified on October 24, Faced with mounting opposition and unrest in Pal-
1945, marking the official founding of the United estine, Great Britain gave up its mandate over the
Nations (UN). region in 1947. Later that year, the UN voted to
Significance  The development of Cold War tensions partition Palestine into separate Jewish and Arab
between the United States and Soviet Union meant states. In May 1948 Israel declared itself an inde-
that the UN never quite functioned as it was intend- pendent country. Arab states refused to recognize
ed to. Despite this, the organization has played, the new nation. In a series of wars, Israel prevailed
and continues to play, a major role in international over neighboring Arab countries and gained more
affairs. territory. Large numbers of Palestinian Arabs and
Jewish refugees from Arab countries were displaced
1947–1975  Asia and Africa Decolonized by the wars. Alternating periods of open warfare and
tense quiet have continued to the present day.
Following World War II, the economically strained
and war-weary European countries had little ability Significance  Despite peace treaties between Isra-
to resist independence movements in their colonies. el and two of its neighbors, Egypt and Jordan, as
A wave of decolonization began. British India was well as various peace proposals, the region remains
one of the first to be decolonized, with its partition unstable. The unsettled matter of Palestinian state-
into the independent countries of India and Paki- hood, the Israeli presence in the West Bank, Pales-
stan in 1947. Independence for other Asian nations tinian attacks, and hostility from many of Israel’s
soon followed. The French were slower to withdraw, neighbors contribute to the situation’s volatility.
fighting losing battles in Vietnam, Algeria, and else-
where. Decolonization also occurred throughout 1949  Communists Seize Control of China
Africa. By the mid-1960s, most of the continent had During World War II, Chinese Nationalists and Chi-
achieved independence. nese Communists ceased their civil war in order

R16  Key Events in world History

to combat Japanese aggression. With the defeat of and Cambodia, resulting in the deaths of at least 1
Japan in 1945, the civil war resumed. In 1949 the million more people. Vietnam remains a Communist
Communists under the leadership of Mao Zedong country, but in the late 1980s it began to introduce
finally succeeded in driving the Nationalists from free market elements into its economy.
power. Nationalist leaders and their supporters fled
to Taiwan. On the Chinese mainland Mao Zedong’s 1957  European Economic Community
Communists formed the People’s Republic of China Founded
on October 1, 1949.
In 1957 Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the
Significance  Nearly 1 million people died in the Netherlands, and West Germany established the
Communist takeover of China. Communist efforts European Economic Community (EEC). The six
to modernize China caused millions more deaths members sought economic growth through common
through famine and political persecution. Taiwan policies on tariffs and production quotas. The orga-
grew a vibrant economy but only slowly embraced nization has expanded in scope and ambition over
democracy. The emergence of another Communist the years. In 1993 it became the European Union
state further heightened Cold War tensions. (EU), a block of 25 nations with a common currency
and common citizenship rights.

Key Events in World History
1950–1953  Korean War Significance  The formation of the EEC signaled the
The conflict between the Democratic People’s Repub- beginning of a new era of cooperation among the
lic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea nations of Europe. As the predecessor to the EU of
(South Korea) began when North Korean forces today, the EEC was important to the formation of
invaded the South. A UN force, made up mostly modern Europe.
of U.S. troops, entered the war to block the North
Korean invasion. Chinese troops fought alongside 1978–Present  Capitalist Reforms in China
the North Koreans. The war ended with North and
Under leader Deng Xiao­ping, China began to move
South Korea divided along almost the same border
toward a market economy by implementing a reform
as before the war. At least 2.5 million people lost
plan called the Four Modernizations. The goal of
their lives in the war.
the plan was to improve agriculture, industry, sci-
Significance  The Korean War was the first “shoot- ence and technology, and national defense. Pursuit
ing war” in the Cold War between Communists and of these goals led Deng Xiaoping to seek closer ties
U.S. forces. The United States defended South Korea with the West, including the United States.
to show that it would protect nations from Commu-
Significance  China’s embrace of market reforms
nist attack. Following the war, South Korea built a
has powered an impressive economic rise, increas-
strong economy and a democratic political structure.
ing its stature on the world stage. A parallel move-
North Korea remains a Communist dictatorship
ment for political reform, however, was cut short by
whose people are impoverished.
a government crackdown (the Tiananmen Square
Massacre) in 1989.
1954–1975  Vietnam War
When French colonial rule ended in Vietnam in 1989–1991  Fall of Communism in Europe
1954, the country was divided into North and South
In the 1980s Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev
Vietnam. The North’s government was Communist,
attempted to reform the Soviet economy and politi-
while the South’s government allied with the West.
cal system (perestroika and glasnost). The move led
When South Vietnam’s president cancelled elections
to calls for greater freedom in the Soviet Union and
in 1956 that would have benefited Communists allied
Eastern Europe. Under pressure from their people,
with the North, a civil war began. South Vietnam
Communist governments in Eastern Europe began
sought and was granted assistance from the United
collapsing in 1989. Gorbachev refused to prop them
States. U.S. troops began arriving in 1961. By 1968,
up. The Berlin Wall, one of the most potent symbols
some 500,000 U.S. troops were on the ground. With
of Communist oppression, was dismantled in late
victory nowhere in sight and public opinion turning
1989. In 1991 the Soviet Union collapsed, as former
against the war, the United States began withdraw-
Soviet republics declared their independence.
ing troops. The last U.S. soldiers left in 1973. Viet-
nam unified as a Communist state in 1975. Significance  The fall of the Soviet Union marked
the end of the Cold War. Millions of people in East-
Significance  More than 3 million Vietnamese and
ern Europe and the former Soviet Union gained
58,000 Americans died in the Vietnam War, which
freedom from Communist dictatorships. The United
also spilled into the neighboring countries of Laos
States was left as the world’s only superpower.

Key Events in world History  R17

feed such a large population and the negative effects were killed before the violence ended. however. George W. The invasion toppled the government Significance  The end of apartheid removed the last but failed to capture bin Laden.000 people. terrorists hijacked four tional response to the Rwandan genocide led many American commercial passenger planes. With the support of ing national trading policies. Opponents of apartheid were treated harshly. or legalized racial segregation. spent 28 years in prison. 2001. Bush declared a “war on terror.S. The WTO’s mandate includes monitor. efforts to promote free trade and to States or its allies. vestige of white European rule in Africa. Critics. leader of the African National Con. Approximately 3. The worst case occurred in 1994. Between 500. 2001. Although many nations argued was replaced in 1995 by the World Trade Organiza. the erodes national sovereignty. with Iraq still under 1995  World Trade Organization Created UN sanctions for failing to comply with demands to Globalization—the process by which trade and cul. In October repealed most apartheid laws. A passengers attempted to take back the aircraft from series of laws culminating in the Bantu Homelands the terrorists. Two planes to criticize the UN and the major world powers. Over 130. Another 2 mil. 2001  Terrorist Attacks of 9/11 da and its neighbors. troops remained in Iraq. tion doubled to 6 billion—and it continues to grow. Iraq in 2003 and quickly toppled Saddam’s govern- Significance  Globalization is transforming the ment. the United States insisted that tion (WTO).C. D. Saddam insisted that Iraq had no regulate international trade resulted in the General such weapons but failed to cooperate fully with UN Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).” The Nelson Mandela. world. On September 11. A decade later. charge U. mostly Tutsis and moderate Hutus. ethnically based warfare has been common in billion. U. were killed in the attacks. de Klerk’s government and based at the time in Afghanistan.S.000 contributor to the process. W. Another plane was crashed 1994  Apartheid Ends in South Africa into the Pentagon.S. In 1994 Nelson Man. against going to war. the Iraqi threat be countered. As a from 1 to 2 billion. It took over 120 years to grow reflect the divisions of African ethnic groups. Bush accused Iraqi ture link the nations of the world—has been an leader Saddam Hussein of building weapons of mass increasingly prominent part of the post–World War destruction that could be used against the United II world. were crashed into the towers of the World Trade Center in New York City. forces invaded Afghanistan after its gov- dela became president after South Africa’s first mul. and enforcing the GATT’s provisions. became plane went down in a field in Pennsylvania after official South African government policy in 1948. apartheid into virtually every area of South African Significance  After the attacks. president life.000 and 1 increasing has raised concerns about our ability to million people. U. though.S. an Islamist terrorist group led by Osama bin Laden South African president F. which stripped black South from the United States but from numerous other Africans of voting rights. Qaeda figures. disarm. military coalition that ousted an Iraqi occupying force from Kuwait. but only 33 years to add another result. R18  Key Events in world History . extended the reach of countries as well. mediating trade dis. lion people fled the country as refugees. and the WTO is a powerful ed control over to an Iraqi government. 1994  Genocide in Rwanda 1999  World Population Exceeds 6 Billion One legacy of European colonial rule in Africa was World population has been growing at a startling the establishment of national borders that did not rate in modern times. U. U. forces invaded putes. The rela- tively nonviolent transition provided a hopeful sign 2003–Present  Iraq War that other long-standing disputes might one day be In 1991 the United States had led an international resolved peacefully.S. hijackers were identified as members of al Qaeda. making nations more interdependent and Significance  In June 2004. The lack of an effective interna. threat loomed of a prolonged Iraqi civil war. In 1947. In 40 years. from 1959 to 1999. near Washington. The GATT weapons inspectors. gress. the United States hand- standardizing cultures. as violence that the WTO provides inadequate protections for continued. world popula- postcolonial Africa. troops and Iraqi civilians.S. president George W. No weapons of mass destruction were found. Significance  Civil strife continues to plague Rwan. The fourth Apartheid. ernment refused to turn over bin Laden and other al tiracial election. By 2006. Insurgents carried out frequent attacks labor and the environment and that globalization against U. when long-simmering hostilities between Hutus and Significance  The rate at which world population is Key Events in World History Tutsis in Rwanda erupted. From 1990 to 1991. Great Britain and other allies. mostly Citizenship Act (1970). humans are having on the earth’s environment.

and boundaries. place—geographic locations—visible and visual. since populous or sparse. $. Fig- events happen in uring how far geography defines a region.JMPNFUFST 48&%&/ "5-"/5*$ "5-"/5*$ "[JNVUIBMFRVBMBSFB /PSUI "[JNVUIBMFRVBMBSFB /PSUI &450/*" QSPKFDUJPO 0$&"/ 4FB 0$&"/ 4FB FB  QSPKFDUJPO FB  6/*5&% %&/. their patterns can still be pretty the United States. Peter Stearns geography and map skills Handbook History is most A study of maps can also suggest the pos- obviously about sibilities for development that a society might time—about when have. particularly early in Maps are essential in the study of history. "6453*" )6/("3: )6/("3: '3"/$& '3"/$& *5"-: *5"-: 30. in this case as a result of World War I. is a key analytical chal- time. Europe. and it starts with maps. 1915 "MMJFE1PXFST Europe. or the diffusion of culture or diseases."3. #BM ."/: (&3. well as time. But his. -69 #&-(*6.FEJ . and for place as well as in how long in its history."/: 10-"/% &"4513644*" (&3.&: ¡& ¡& 4:3*" . like Mexico by whether. as you learn about the They can show change in political alignments. When you study more territories. history revolves around patterns of connection In the following pages.FEJ UFS SBOFBO UFS SBOFBO -&#"/0/ *3"2 ¡& 4FB 4FB 1"-&45*/& "3"#*" 53"/4+03%"/ "3"#*" GEOGRAPHY AND MAP SKILLS handbook R19 . and maps help both to illustrate refresher on some map and geography basics. "6453*"o 48*5. and explain these patterns. that much of tory makes no sense the character of a given society is determined by without place as its geography—whether it will be rich or poor. Is a region well supplied with easily navi- things happen and gable rivers? Its history will surely be different how change occurs from a region with fewer or less open rivers. in fact.JMFT ¡8 ¡8 '*/-"/%  .JMPNFUFST  /038":  /038": 48&%&/  . If you want to know if one society is new forms of technology and organization—or likely to be influenced by another.JMFT ¡ ¡  . Indeed. centralized or localized.*/(%0. determinism works. This is where maps come in."/*" 30. see if major regions have been relationships—where things are in relation to able to break through their geographic limits by other things. your study of world history: try to predict what They can be used to show specific events."3."/*" "- "- 4&3#*" #MBDL4FB :6(04-"7*" #MBDL4FB ( ( #6-("3*" #6-("3*" 356 356 41"*/ ."/: 8 8 #&-(*6. you will find a among regions."/&. -"57*" 6/*5&% %&/. Some geographers argue. Comparing maps of Europe at two different times can reveal how boundaries shift over time. Much of world well read from their maps. See how well your effort at geographic migration.&$) -69 ¡ ¡ 48*5. over time. region’s actual history. Maps make lenge for the historian. in fact. 1919 /FXOBUJPOT $FOUSBM1PXFST "MMJFEPDDVQJFE   [POFT ¡/ /FVUSBMOBUJPOT ¡/  . Using Maps to Understand History by Dr. Maps show spatial recent periods. They can trace routes of trade. take a risk. on a map. Review these concepts. They will help you under- stand maps—and understand history. #BM -*5)6"/*" 407*&56/*0/ / ¡ /&5) 3644*" / /&5) (&3.*/(%0.0/5&/&(30 41"*/ 10 10 ¡/ "-#"/*" ¡/ "-#"/*" (3&&$& 0550.1*3& (3&&$& 563. such as a society will be like from looking at its features battles or wars. D4 D4 UJ UJ ¡ . look at a map.

find places on the earth. The symbol for minutes is ´. The prime meridian is an imagi- Lines of Longitude nary line that runs through Greenwich.  There are 60 minutes in a degree. measure distance from the equator in degrees.  between the North and South Poles. Meridians west of the prime  ²% meridian to 180° are labeled with a W. and south of the equator. These imaginary lines pass through the Poles. to 90°N or 90°S. The symbol for degrees is °. 7È ²  %  % Prime Meridian R20 Geography and Map skills handbook . Lines of latitude are called parallels È ² . The North Pole intersection of these imaginary lines helps us . England.  È ². Degrees are further  divided into minutes.È The east-west lines in the grid are lines of ²  latitude. The equator is an  È imaginary line that circles the globe halfway ². . Parallels È  ². 3 The north-south lines are lines of 3 longitude. Those È È ²7 east of the prime meridian to 180° are labeled  with an E. Those south 3 of the equator are labeled with an S. Mapping the Earth Using Latitude and Longitude geography and map skills Handbook A globe is a scale model of the earth. It is called a grid. for locations 7  on the equator. North Pole Lines of latitude range from 0°. Parallels north % Q U A T O RÈ of the equator are labeled with an N. for locations at 7 %È the Poles. They measure distance east and west of the prime meridian. Lines of longitude are called meridians. because they are always parallel to each other. È These imaginary lines measure distance north  È ². It is useful for showing the entire earth or studying large areas of the earth’s surface. It represents 0° longitude.  ². Lines of Latitude A pattern of lines circles the globe in east-west and north-south directions. Lines of longitude range from 0° on ² ²7È  the prime meridian to 180° on a meridian in the ²%È mid-Pacific Ocean.

Northern Hemisphere
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GEOGRAPHY AND MAP SKILLS handbook R21

Mapmaking
Understanding Map Projections
geography and map skills Handbook

A map is a flat diagram of all or part of the earth’s surface. Mapmakers have created different
ways of showing our round planet on flat maps. These different ways are called map projections.
Because the earth is round, there is no way to show it accurately in a flat map. All flat maps are
distorted in some way. Mapmakers must choose the type of map projection that is best for their
purposes. Many map projections are one of three kinds: cylindrical, conic, or flat-plane.

Cylindrical Projections
Cylindrical projections are based on a cylinder
wrapped around the globe. The cylinder touches
the globe only at the equator. The meridians
are pulled apart and run parallel to each other
instead of meeting at the Poles. This causes
landmasses near the Poles to appear larger than
they really are. The map below is a Mercator
projection, one type of cylindrical projection.
Navigators use the Mercator projection because
Paper cylinder
it shows true direction and shape. However, it
distorts the size of land areas near the Poles.

Mercator projection

R22 Geography and Map skills handbook

Conic Projections
Conic projections are based on a cone placed over
the globe. A conic projection is most accurate
along the lines of latitude where it touches the

geography and map skills Handbook
globe. It retains almost true
shape and size. Conic pro-
jections are most useful
for showing areas that
have long east-west
dimensions, such as
the United States.

Paper cone

Conic projection

Flat-plane Projections
Flat-plane projections are based on a plane
touching the globe at one point, such as at the
North Pole or South Pole. A flat-plane projection
is useful for showing true direction for airplane
Flat-plane projection
pilots and ship navigators. It also shows true
area. However, it distorts the true shapes of
landmasses.

Flat plane

GEOGRAPHY AND MAP SKILLS handbook R23

" .0%&/" '*/"-o ¡ / -6$$" 10356(".0' 48&%&/"/%/038": #PVOEBSZPGUIF Napoleon’s Empire. B 7JFOOB &VSPQFBGUFSUIF$POHSFTTPG7JFOOB  4F D )38)48PSME)JTUPSZ MUJ 6/*5&%."3.FEJUFSSBOFBO 5804*$*-*&4 ¡8 4FB ¡& ¡ go.BESJE 1"1".hrw. scales. 2 Interactive 1 EuroPe after the Congress of Vienna.BESJE 3PNF '*/"-o &VSPQFBGUFSUIF$POHSFTTPG7JFOOB  -FHFOE -POEPO /&5)&3-"/%4 13644*" '*/"-o 4 1BSJT -&44&3 (&3. The map title is usually the first thing you should look at when studying a map. Location  What countries surrounded France after the Congress of Vienna? 2. directional indicators. Map Essentials How to Read a Map geography and map skills Handbook Maps are like messages sent out in code.1*3& "[JNVUIBMFRVBMBSFBQSPKFDUJPO '3"/$& &VSPQFBGUFSUIF$POHSFTTPG7JFOOB  5 *OTFU #MBDL4FB 1"3.*/(%0. #B -PDBUPS XOBGT@OBQNBQDB . because it tells you what the map is trying to show."/   .*/(%0. 1812 (FSNBO$POGFEFSBUJPO 3 )38)48PSME)JTUPSZ 3644*"/ /PSUI &.JMPNFUFST 48*5. almost all maps have titles. 1 Title A map’s title shows what the subject of the map is. 3PNF B 0'4"3%*/*" "5-"/5*$ 41"*/ 0$&"/ 4BSEJOJB . 0'5)& .&3-"/% &. 1815 . and legends.1*3& XOBGT@OBQNBQEB &. SJB $PSTJDB 45"5&4 UJD -JTCPO '3"/$& 4F . Of these elements. Mapmakers provide certain elements that help us translate these codes.JMFT 45"5&4 7JFOOB )38)48PSME)JTUPSZ "6453*"/ 0550. plus two more—a locator map and an interactive keyword."/   .*/(%0. The map below has all four of these elements. These elements help us understand the message they are presenting about a particular part of the world. Regions  Which regions were broken up into small states? R24 &VSPQFBG . 564$"/: "E .1*3& 4FB XOBGT@OBQNBQCB 1BSJT %&/.com GEOGRAPHY Interactive Map SKILLS Interpreting Maps Keyword: SHL NAP 6 ¡& ¡& 1.*/(%0.

as shown. Some legends show colors that rep. Most maps in this textbook indicate direc. “north” is not always at the top of a map. you may have to approximate the actual distance. If you go online to the Holt Interactive Map website and type in the map’s keyword. the movement of military forces and battles.2 Locator Map A locator map shows where in the world the area on the map is located. land )38)48PSME)JTUPSZ use. In this textbook. east. The loca- geography and map skills Handbook tor map also shows surrounding areas so the map reader can see how the information on the map relates to neighboring lands. Because distances on a scale are given in large intervals. Point -PDBUPS symbols are used to specify the location of things. population density. GEOGRAPHY AND MAP SKILLS handbook R25 . economic resources. )38)48PSME)JTUPSZ XOBGT@OBQNBQCB 3 Legend &VSPQFBGUFSUIF$POHSFTTPG7JFOOB  The legend.” which points toward the 8 & North Pole. 6 Interactive Keyword go. Some mapmakers use a “north arrow. The scale is often found in the legend. south. that do '*/"-o #PVOEBSZPGUIF not take up much space on the map. Scales may appear on maps in several different forms. Then compare the distance between the two dots with the map’s bar scale. explains what the symbols on the map represent. and climate. (FSNBO$POGFEFSBUJPO resent elevations. and west lie on the map. place a piece of paper so that the edge connects the two points. or key. 4 tion by using a compass rose. Mark the location of each point on the paper with a line or dot. A compass rose has arrows that point to all four principal directions. 5 Compass Rose / A directional indicator shows which way north. Scales give distances in miles and kilo- 0 150 300 Kilometers meters. The way a map is drawn and the location of directions on that map depend on the perspective of the mapmaker. The area shown on the main map is shown in red on the locator map. Legends can also show political divisions. To find the distance between two points on the map. the type of Azimuthal equal-area projection projection used to make the map is shown below the scale bar. Remember.com Some maps in this textbook are interactive. The maps in 0 150 300 Miles this textbook provide a bar scale. XOBGT@OBQNBQDB &VSPQFBGUFSUIF$POHSFTTPG7JFOOB -FHFOE '*/"-o 4 Scale Mapmakers use scales to represent the distances between points on a map. Other maps might have legends with symbols or colors that represent things such as roads. such as cities.hrw. you can learn more about the Keyword: SHL NAP places and events shown on the map.

Regions  Which Persian ruler added the most territory to the empire? R26 . Political maps show the major political features of a region. Working with Maps Using Different Kinds of Maps geography and map skills Handbook The Atlas in this textbook includes both physical and political maps. oceans. deserts.JMPNFUFST T +FSVTBMFN #BCZMPO S -%3/0/4!-)! 4VTB 5XPQPJOUFRVJEJTUBOUQSPKFDUJPO JWF . Physical maps show the major physical features in a region. islands. or how a place changed over time. This information might include which lands a country controlled. What does this map show? 1FSTJBVOEFS$ZSVT #$ $PORVFSFECZ$ZSVT  ¡/ The persian empire o#$ $PORVFSFECZ$BNCZTFT o#$ +BY $PORVFSFECZ%BSJVT ¡& BSUF  "SBM T o#$ 4FB BSZB 3J #MBDL4FB S% 3PZBM3PBE WFS  Z $B  4 0Y   VDB $B '2%%#% T VT VT 3 $BQJUBMDJUZ J TQJ . PG BUFB 5ZSF 4JEPO ¡& U *S V 3  BO   . Place  What geographic features marked the Persian Empire’s northern boundary? 2. and plains. These features include things like mountain ranges.FNQIJT 3 1BTBSHBEBF VT %'904 *OE . Historical maps. and other important cities. rivers.F #BDUSB )* ¡& EJU /JOFWFI FSS & VQ I BOF .U W T  " B FS "UIFOT 4BSEJT O4F NV % B 4 ) !3)! SZB . Often colors are used to indicate the different things on the map. capitals. Be sure to look at the map title and map legend first to see what the map is showing. show information about the past. 1F 1FSTFQPMJT /JM 7 "3"#*"/ STJ 0%23)! BO F 3 % ( 1&/*/46-" VMG JW F 3FE   S 3 5IFCFT 4F ¡& "SBCJBO4FB ¡/ B ¡ & GEOGRAPHY SKILLS Interpreting Maps 1. such as countries and their borders. Historical Map In this textbook most of the maps you will study are historical maps.9$)! . where a certain group of people lived.6 6 B  -). such as the one below.B &DCBUBOB BO4F HS SB 5JHSJT #ZCMPT T3 PT 1M   . what large cities were located in a region./2 /% .JMFT B UF   .

that someone or some. learn how geography has influenced history. 5JNCFS 5PSUPJTFTIFMM 3 *WPSZ . and where trade routes. you will travels of people.BTIHBS BO #VLIBSB BLBO ¡/ Euphrates R. B 5ZSF OE $IBOHBO -VPZBOH ) J 4FB 1&34*" 9JBO $)*/" &BTU R. If more than one route is shown. like the one above.) B 4F "OUJPDI  ris .": an $IJOB &(:15 %FTFSU ng "4 Ch es R. "MFYBOESJB )* a g Ji ng (Yangzi R. you will see where important events hap- thing followed.IPUBO VTI V. invasion routes. where empires rose and fell. A route map. Movement  What goods moved west from China over the Silk Roads? Route Map One special type of historical map is called a The maps in this textbook will help you study route map. 4FB 7 % */%*"/ 4065)&"45 3 0$&"/ "4*" ¡&RVBUPS ¡& ¡& ¡& ¡& 5SBEFDFOUFS $MPUI 5SBEFHPPET GEOGRAPHY SKILLS Interpreting Maps 4JML3PBESPVUFT 0UIFSUSBEFSPVUFT 1. Route maps can show things like pened. In studying these maps. several arrows of different colors may be used. " .FUBM Nile R. or path. ally shown with an arrow. maps.JMFT #FOHBM 0$&"/  3   .FUBM 4MBWFT 4MBWFT 5PSUPJTFTIFMM 1SFDJPVTTUPOFT ¡/ 5PSUPJTFTIFMM . and understand history. 4FB In $MPUI 4JML "'3*$" "3"#*" 4QJDFT $MPUI *WPSZ (VBOH[IPV $MPUI 4QJDFT $MPUI 4QJDFT *WPSZ .FEJUFSSBOFBO Ti 4BNBSLBOE  g %F (Yellow R. 5BLMJNTFSU Huang He 4F . The routes on the map are usu. Place  Why do you think the Silk Roads divided )BO$IJOB D"% to the west of China? (VQUB&NQJSF D"% 2.JMMFSDZMJOESJDBMQSPKFDUJPO $IJOB . By working with these shows the route. 5*#&5 :FMMPX R. What does this route map show? GEOGRAPHY AND MAP SKILLS handbook R27 . or the journeys and people moved.JMPNFUFST 4PVUI .The Silk RoadS &6301& geography and map skills Handbook  "4*" (0# * /  $ #MBDL4FB 4)" BTQ 3PNF  5* "/ %VOIVBOH J . ) s du 5IBS Ga . 1SFDJPVTTUPOFT "SBCJBO FE */%*" #BZPG FL B 4FB 1"$*'*$ 4F POH   .

& BOJOMBOECPEZ PGXBUFS '03&45 BOBSFBPGEFOTFMZ XPPEFEMBOE R28 Geography and Map skills handbook .)0-& BDJSDVMBSEFQSFTTJPO GPSNFEXIFOUIFSPPG 8&5-"/% PGBDBWFDPMMBQTFT BOBSFBPGMBOE DPWFSFECZ 3*7&3 TIBMMPXXBUFS BOBUVSBMnPXPG XBUFSUIBUSVOT UISPVHIUIFMBOE -".64 CPEZPGXBUFS *4-"/% BOBSSPXQJFDFPGMBOE UIBUJTTNBMMFS BOBSFBPGMBOE DPOOFDUJOHUXPMBSHFS UIBOBHVMG TVSSPVOEFEFOUJSFMZ MBOEBSFBT %&-5" CZXBUFS BOBSFBXIFSFB SJWFSEFQPTJUTTPJM 453"*5 JOUPUIFPDFBO BOBSSPXCPEZPG XBUFSDPOOFDUJOHUXP MBSHFSCPEJFTPGXBUFS 4*/. Geographic Dictionary 0$&"/ BMBSHFCPEZPGXBUFS geography and map skills $03"-3&&' BOPDFBOSJEHFNBEFVQPG TLFMFUBMSFNBJOTPGUJOZTFBBOJNBMT (6-' BMBSHFQBSUPG 1&/*/46-" UIFPDFBOUIBU BOBSFBPGMBOEUIBUTUJDLT FYUFOETJOUPMBOE PVUJOUPBMBLFPSPDFBO #": QBSUPGBMBSHF *45).

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Themes and Essential Elements of Geography geography and map skills Handbook by Dr. some geographers felt the 5 Themes were too broad. geographers have identified 5 key themes. It shows how areas that share common each of the 5 Themes connects to the 6 Essential characteristics. and the 6 Essential unique. classroom geography instruction. Human-Environment Interaction  People interact with their environment in many ways. through it. In 1984 a group of geographers identified Location  The theme of the 5 Themes of Geography. Teachers used the 5 Themes in classrooms. to the first three Standards. The last Essential Element and the last two Movement  This theme Standards cover The Uses of Geography. 5 Themes. These looks at how and why key parts of geography were not covered by the people and things move. Regions  Regions are Look at the chart to the right. They emphasize how geographical knowledge can be applied to the study of history and current events and also be used to plan for the future. 6 essential elements. These themes did a location describes where wonderful job of laying the groundwork for good something is. Salter To study the world. The 18 Geography Place  Place describes the Standards include more detailed information features that make a site about what geography is. and geographers taught workshops on how to apply the 5 themes in everyday life. the theme of Location is related to The World in Spatial Terms and. They created the 18 Geography Standards and the 6 Essential Elements. 5 Themes of Geography “How should we teach and learn about geography?” Professional geographers have worked hard over the years to answer this important question. R30 Geography and Map skills handbook . however. For example. Study the chart carefully to see how the other Themes. Elements. Elements and 18 Geography Standards. Christopher L. and Standards are related. Elements are like a bridge between the 5 Themes and 18 Standards. and 18 geography standards. By the early 1990s.

The Uses of 18. The physical processes that shape Earth’s surface 8. 18 Geography Standards 6 Essential Elements 1. How to use mental maps to organize information 3. places. The World in Spatial Terms 4. The patterns and networks of economic inter- dependence on Earth 2. The distribution and meaning of resources 17. The distribution of ecosystems on Earth 9. and environments I. The patterns of human settlement 1 IV. and migration of human populations III. Places and Regions 7. How human actions modify the physical environment V. How to analyze the spatial organization of people. The complexity of Earth’s cultural mosaics 1 11. distribution. The characteristics. How people create regions to interpret Earth 6. Environment 15. The forces of cooperation and conflict 14. The physical and human characteristics of places 5. How to apply geography to interpret the past VI. How culture and experience influence people’s perceptions of places and regions II. Physical Systems 0. How physical systems affect human and Society systems 16. How to use maps and other tools geography and map skills Handbook 2. Human Systems 13. How to apply geography to interpret the Geography present and plan for the future GEOGRAPHY AND MAP SKILLS handbook R31 .

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Jr. (1835–1836) William Walton Kitchin (1909–1913) Thomas Burke (1781–1782) Edward Bishop Dudley (1836–1841) Locke Craig (1913–1917) NORTH CAROLINA STATE FACTS Alexander Martin (1782–1785) John Motley Morehead (1841–1845) Thomas Walter Bickett (1917–1921) Richard Caswell (1784–1787) William Alexander Graham (1845–1849) Cameron Morrison (1921–1925) Samuel Johnston (1787–1789) Charles Manly (1849–1850) Angus Wilton McLean (1925–1929) Alexander Martin (1789–1792) David Settle Reid (1851–1854) Oliver Max Gardner (1929–1933) Richard Dobbs Spaight. (1977–1985) Gabriel Holmes (1821–1824) Daniel Gould Fowle (1889–1891) James Grubbs Martin (1985–1993) Hutchins Gordon Burton (1824–1827) Thomas Michael Holt (1891–1893) James Baxter Hunt. (1792–1795) Warren Winslow (1854–1855) John Christoph Blucher Ehringhaus Samuel Ashe (1795–1798) Thomas Bragg (1855–1859) (1933–1937) William Richardson Davie (1798–1799) John Willis Ellis (1859–1861) Clyde Roark Hoey (1937–1941) Benjamin Williams (1799–1802) Henry Toole Clark (1861–1862) Joseph Melville Broughton (1941–1945) James Turner (1802–1805) Zebulon Baird Vance (1862–1865) Robert Gregg Cherry (1945–1949) Nathaniel Alexander (1805–1807) William Woods Holden (1865) William Kerr Scott (1949–1953) Benjamin Williams (1807–1808) Jonathan Worth (1865–1868) William Bradley Umstead (1953–1954) David Stone (1808–1810) William Woods Holden (1868–1870) Luther Hartwell Hodges (1954–1961) Benjamin Smith (1810–1811) Tod Robinson Caldwell (1870–1874) Terry Sanford (1961–1965) William Hawkins (1811–1814) Curtis Hooks Brogden (1874–1877) Dan Killian Moore (1965–1969) William Miller (1814–1817) Zebulon Baird Vance (1877–1879) Robert Walter Scott (1969–1973) John Branch (1817–1820) Thomas Jordan Jarvis (1879–1885) James Eubert Holshouser. Jr. (1993–2001) James Iredell. court in the state W Chairs the Council of State fifths vote in both houses W Consists of fifteen judges who Lieutenant Governor rule in rotating panels of three State Senate W Elected by voters to a four-year Supreme Court of North term W 50 members Carolina W Holds various responsibilities. W Elected to two-year terms W Highest appellate court in the including replacing the governor W No term limits state should he or she leave office State House of W Determines statewide principles of Cabinet Representatives law in deciding specific lawsuits W Consists of officials appointed by W 120 members W Consists of seven justices governor W Elected to two-year terms W Justices elected by voters to W Offers advice to governor on eight-year terms W No term limits specific areas of knowledge W No term limits SF3 NORTH CAROLINA STATE FACTS . (1973–1977) Jesse Franklin (1820–1821) Alfred Moore Scales (1885–1889) James Baxter Hunt. Jr. Easley (2001–Present) John Owen (1828–1830) Daniel Lindsay Russell (1897–1901) Montford Stokes (1830–1832) Charles Brantley Aycock (1901–1905) North Carolina Government Executive Branch Legislative Branch Judicial Branch Carries out the laws and policies of Makes state laws Decides conflicts and questions state government about the law Bicameral System Governor Trial Courts W General Assembly has two W Elected by voters to a four-year houses—Senate and House of W Hear civil and criminal cases term Representatives Appellate Courts W Limited to two terms W Both houses take part in W Appoints cabinet and some presenting and passing laws W North Carolina Court of Appeals judges W General Assembly can override is only intermediate appellate the governor’s veto with a three. (1827–1828) Elias Carr (1893–1897) Michael F. Governors of the State of North Carolina Richard Caswell (1776–1780) David Lowry Swain (1832–1835) Robert Broadnax Glenn (1905–1909) Abner Nash (1780–1781) Richard Dobbs Spaight. Jr. Jr. Sr.

Tar Heel State The cardinal is the North Carolina Motto Esse Quam Videri (To be rather than to seem) state bird. Song “The Old North State” Highest Elevation Mt.683.684 feet above sea level Lowest Elevation Sea level Total area 53.242 (as of 2005) National rank in population 11 Length (North to South) 190 miles Width (East to West) 505 miles The coast of North Carolina NORTH CAROLINA STATE FACTS SF4 . Mitchell.819 square miles National rank in total area 28 Total Coastline 301 miles Largest city Charlotte Largest lake Mattamuskeet Number of counties 100 Population 8. North Carolina Facts State tree Pine NORTH CAROLINA STATE FACTS State bird Cardinal State reptile Eastern box turtle State mammal Gray squirrel State fish Channel bass State shell Scotch bonnet State flower Dogwood State vegetable Sweet potato Capital Raleigh Year of Statehood 1789 (12th state) Nickname The Old North State. 6.

free enterprise  a system in which businesses operate with little government involvement. such as what goods and countries of Cuba and North Korea are examples of services to produce. The most common economic systems in the world today are market economies and mixed communism  a political system in which the government economies. economic custom around traditional gatherers roles often passed family and social units Aborigines of Australia from generation to such as a tribe generation Command determined by determined by determined by Old Kingdom Egypt government officials government officials government officials Middle Ages in Europe Zhou Dynasty in China Market determined by determined by determined by United States individuals individuals individuals Canada Australia R48 economics handbook . Economics Handbook What Is Economics? We can think of economics as a study of the choices people make Economics Handbook to satisfy their needs or their wants. Economics is also one of the major forces in world history. how to produce them. but it touches almost every part of your life. a weakened economy is often a leading factor. and for whom command economies to produce them. When a civilization decays. the in theory. Glossary of Economic Terms Here are some of the terms we use to talk about economics: agricultural—are “owned” by the people. Market economies generally perform better owns all property and runs a command economy in terms of worker productivity and consumer choice. and competition. Which pair of shoes do you buy—the ones on sale or the ones you really like? Economics may sound dull. the to help them make choices. free trade. or Economic What to How to For Whom to Examples Systems Produce Produce Produce Traditional determined by determined by usually centered Prehistoric hunter- tradition. also known as “centrally planned”. how. such as in a capitalism  See market economy. Learning a little about economics can help in your study of world history. Societies with healthy economies tend to perform better than those with weaker economies. country with a market economy command economy  an economic system in which the market economy  an economic system based on central government makes all economic decisions. the means of production—industrial and government has little to say about what. but since the ECONOMIC SYSTEMS government makes all economic decisions. private ownership. it is the Countries have developed different economic systems true owner.

and countries obtain the items developing countries  nations with less productive they need and want through economic activities such economies and a lower quality of life. etc. and Earth. mixed economy  an economy that is a combination of see supply and demand command. often have less as producing. rather than the government consumer  a person who buys goods or services for personal use producer  a person or group that makes goods or provides services to satisfy consumers’ wants and needs consumer good  a finished product sold to consumers for personal or home use productivity  the amount of goods or services that a worker or workers can produce within a given corporation  a business in which a group of owners amount of time share in the profits and losses. in overall Economics Handbook wants by people. PS3FDFTTJPO stocks. growth. the traditional economy  an economy in which production is most severe depression in modern history occurred based on customs and tradition. that economists 5SPVHIPS use to predict a new phase of the business cycle %FQSFTTJPO money  any item. often have high per capita GDPs THE ECONOMY AND MONEY and high levels of industrialization and technology People. see business failure or loss for the possibility of financial gain cycle foreign exchange rate  the rate at which one nation’s business  any commercial enterprise or establishment currency can get exchanged for another’s business cycle  the periodic fluctuation in economic goods  objects or materials that humans can purchase to activity. such as GDP and new housing construction starts. selling. peak. and is known as the Great Depression use barter to trade developed countries  nations with strong economies and a high quality of life. risking followed by rapid economic contraction. these currency  paper or coins that a country uses for its money decisions are made by individual buyers and sellers in supply the marketplace. there are four phases: expansion. economic development  the level of a country’s economic activity. &YQBOTJPO /PHSPXUI leading indicators  a set of economic factors. or contraction. and production or gross domestic product (GDP). businesses. that is 5JNF used in payment for goods or services private property  property that is owned by individuals and businesses. and quality of life balance of payments  the accounting record of what a economy  the structure of economic life in a country. as a legal entity separate from its owners. affected nearly every country on often grow their own food. market. private devaluation  a reduction in the value of a nation’s ownership is allowed currency scarcity  a condition of limited resources and unlimited depression  a severe drop. and traditional economies. per capita GDP is the average value of goods and services produced per person in a country in a 5)&#64*/&44$:$-& given year industrialization  the process of using machinery for all (SPTT%PNFTUJD1SPEVDU (%1  1FBL major forms of production 1SPTQFSJUZ inflation  an increase in overall prices &YQBOTJPO investment  the purchase of something with the $POUSBDUJPO expectation that it will gain in value. examples include Germany and the demand  the amount of goods and services that United States consumers are willing and able to buy at a given time. make their own goods. usually reflected in levels of employment. industrialization and technology Countries differ in the amount of economic activity that POIBOEB they have and in the strength of their economies. satisfy their wants and needs prices. and in which people between 1929–1939. trough goods and services produced in a country in a given year. usually coins or paper currency. and buying goods or services. who are liable for the services over their costs corporation’s debts and losses only to the extent of profit motive  the desire to make profits their ownership investment in that corporation purchasing power  the amount of income that people have available to spend on goods and services economics handbook R49 . the nation owes to and is owed by foreign countries and total of all economic activity in a given country international organizations entrepreneur  someone who undertakes and develops boom and bust  a period of rapid economic growth a new business or develops a new product. for whom goods and services are produced. a fundamental concept in economics business activity over a long period of time. usually property. a corporation provides profit  the gain or excess made by selling goods or some protection to its owners. gross domestic product (GDP)  total market value of all contraction.

a condition that often leads to lower services  any activities that are performed for a fee prices or improved products specie  coined money e-commerce  the electronic trading of goods and services. goods. recession  a period in which economic activity drops comparative advantage  the ability of a company or a moderate amount. linked the Roman Empire and China. fair trade  trade between a company in a developed or exchange of shares or stocks in corporations. also  called the market place  market clearing price  the price of a good or service at 1SJDF which supply equals demand  mercantilism  an economic theory that defined a  nation’s power in terms of specie. purchase. for example. also nation and producers in less-developed nations that known as a “stock exchange."/% which they rely on one another for resources. one worker washes the balance of payments  the difference between the value of wheels of the car.  or services %FNBOE 4VQQMZ  market  the free exchange of goods and services. production in order to produce a product more quickly or company and cheaply. when demand exceeds supply. imports  goods or services that a country brings in or purchases from another country interdependence  a relationship between countries in 4611-:"/%%&. services. technically defined as two country to produce something at a lower cost than consecutive quarters of negative growth in GDP other companies or countries scarcity  a condition of limited resources and unlimited competition  rivalry between businesses selling similar wants by people. see also tariff commodity  a product that is the same no matter who trade deficit  a condition in international trade in which produces it the value of a nation’s imports from another country exceeds the value of its exports to that country R50 economics handbook . a fundamental concept in economics goods or services. and services. goods. and a country’s exports and imports another washes the body balance of trade  the difference between the value of a tariff  a tax charged by a government on imported goods. FDPOIBOEB standard of living  how well people are living. for instance. trade barriers  financial or legal limitations to trade. outsourcing  the practice of using workers from outside Beginning in the Age of Exploration. prices rise. trade without barriers supply and demand  a theory describing how prices vary globalization  the process of rapid economic integration according to the supply of an item available and the among countries. that is sacrificed when choosing to consume or goods. determined such as over the Internet Economics Handbook by the amount of goods and services they can afford exports  goods or services that a country sells and sends stock  a share of ownership in a corporation to other countries stock market  an organized market for the sale. Networks of trade in the ancient produce another good or service world. characterized by the free flow of demand for that item: when supply exceeds demand. country’s exports and imports usually designed to make the imported goods more barter  the exchange of one good or service for another expensive relative to domestic goods black market  the illegal buying and selling of goods. capital. or nation’s industries against foreign competition company to produce a certain good or service more specialization  a focus on only one or two aspects of efficiently and cheaply than any other nation. growing global of a company trade led to the development of a global economy. often at high prices prevention of free trade. protectionism  the use of trade barriers to protect a absolute advantage  the ability of a nation. used to direct most &RVJMJCSJVNQSJDF  European economies from 1500 to 1800  multinational corporation  a business that is based in one         nation but operates divisions or subsidiaries in other 2VBOUJUZPGHPPEPSTFSWJDF nations one-crop economy  an economy that is dominated by the production of a single product INTERNATIONAL TRADE opportunity cost  the value of the next-best alternative Countries trade with each other to obtain resources. another cleans the interior.” the origins of stock aims to make sure that producers receive fair prices exchanges date to the Middle Ages for their goods supply  the amount of goods and services that are free trade  trade among nations that is not affected by available at a given time. see supply and demand financial or legal barriers. and labor prices drop. region. region.

and shelter Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)  an purchasing power  the amount of income that people organization that coordinates the petroleum policies have available to spend on goods and services of major oil producing countries savings  money or income that is not used to purchase United Nations (UN)  an organization of countries that goods or services promotes peace and security around the globe stock  a share of ownership in a corporation World Bank  a UN agency that provides loans to tax  a required payment to a local. in particular wealth Individuals make personal choices in how they manage that can be used to finance the production of goods or and use their money to satisfy their needs and desires. meaning expectation that over time it will increase in value that most products could be sold across borders and produce a profit without any sort of tariffs or trade barriers loan  money given on the condition that it will be paid Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development back. and the United investment  the purchase of something of value with the States became one large free-trade zone. clothing. or national countries for development and recovery government. Mexico. income taxes. such as water.trade-offs  the goods or services sacrificed in order to want  a desire for goods and services. Economics Handbook PERSONAL ECONOMICS capital  generally refers to wealth. services Individuals have the choice to spend. especially concerning its record of meeting financial obligations trade agreements debt  an amount of money that is owed Countries have formed many organizations to promote economic cooperation. and trees financial obligations credit rating  an evaluation of a person’s or a company’s International ORGANIZATIONS and financial condition and reliability. such as food. soil. different kinds of taxes include sales World Trade Organization (WTO)  an international taxes. usually expressed as the amount of money exceeds the value of its imports from that country a consumer is willing to pay for that good or service underground economy  illegal economic activities and RESOURCES unreported legal economic activities People and businesses need resources—such as land. include political and economic cooperation in Europe banks or credit unions International Monetary Fund (IMF)  a UN agency that income  a gain of money that comes typically from labor promotes cooperation in international trade and or capital that works to maintain stability in the exchange of countries’ currencies interest  the money that a borrower pays to a lender in return for a loan North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)  a 1993 agreement in which Canada. and trade. or invest their human capital  sometimes used to refer to human skills money. often with interest (OECD)  an organization of countries that promotes need  an economic good or service that is basic to democracy and market economies survival. such as coal or petroleum and services over time raw material  a natural resource used to make a product credit bureau  a company that collects and reports to or good its clients information about a person’s financial renewable resource  a resource that Earth replaces condition and past record in meeting his or her naturally. save. These disposable income  money that remains after all taxes organizations are important in today’s global economy. and education that affect the production of goods and asset  anything of value that is owned by an individual services in a company or country budget  a plan listing the expenses and income of an labor force  all people who are legally old enough to work individual or organization and are either working or looking for work bankruptcy  a legal process in which an individual or natural resource  any material in nature that people use business whose debts exceed the value of their assets and value is forgiven those debts in excess of their assets nonrenewable resource  a resource that cannot be credit  a system that allows consumers to pay for goods replaced naturally. and money—to produce goods and services. state. have been paid financial institutions  businesses that keep and invest European Union (EU)  an organization that promotes people’s money and loan money to people. growth. labor. not necessarily consume or produce another good or service accompanied by the power to satisfy them trade surplus  a condition in international trade in which value  the worth of a good or service for the purposes of the value of a nation’s exports to a particular country exchange. and property taxes organization dealing with trade between nations wage  the payment a worker receives for his or her labor economics handbook R51 .

Economic Handbook Review
Reviewing Vocabulary and Terms
On a separate sheet of paper, fill in the blanks in the following sentences:

Economic Systems Personal Economics
1. A. Businesses are able to operate with little gov- 4. A. A ________ is a required payment to a
Economics Handbook

ernment involvement in a ________ system. local, state, or national government that
B. In a ________, a central government makes is used to support public services such
all economic decisions. as education, road construction, and
C. ________ is a political system in which the government aid.
government owns all property and runs a B. The money we do not spend on goods or
command economy. services is our ________.
D. Economies that combine parts of C. You can use ________ to pay for goods and
command, market, or traditional services over time.
economies are called ________. D. The payment that a worker receives for
E. ________ is another name for a market his or her labor is called a ________.
economy, which is based on private E. The amount of income that people have
ownership, free trade, and competition. available to spend on goods and services is
known as their ________.
The Economy and Money
2. A. ________ are objects or materials that people Resources
can buy to satisfy their needs and wants. 5. A. Diamonds and gold are examples of
B. A ________ is any activity that is ________, which are any materials in
performed for a fee. nature that people use and value.
C. A person who buys goods or services is a B. The ________ consists of all people who are
________, and a person or group that makes legally able to work and are working or
goods or provides services is a ________. looking for work.
D. The amount of goods and services that C. Wealth that can be used to finance the
consumers are willing and able to buy at production of goods and services is called
any given time is known as ________. ________.
E. The total value of all the goods and D. Oil is an example of a ________, which is a
services produced in the United States in resource that cannot be replaced naturally.
one year is its ________. E. Water and trees are examples of ________,
resources that Earth replaces naturally.
International Trade
3. A. If we have an unlimited demand for a Organizations
natural resource, such as oil, and there is 6. A. Many European countries have joined
only so much oil in the ground, we have a the ________ to help promote political and
condition called ________. economic cooperation across Europe.
B. The practice of using workers from outside B. The ________ consists of many agencies
of a company is called ________. that promote peace and security around
C. The process of rapid economic integration the world.
among countries is called ________. C. The ________ is a UN agency that provides
D. If a country is able to produce a good loans to countries to help them develop
or service at a lower cost than other their economies.
countries, it is said to have a ________. D. The ________ is a UN agency that
E. Trade among nations that is not limited helps protect the stability of countries’
by legal or economic barriers is called currencies.
________. E. Many democratic countries promote
market economies through the ________.

R52 economics handbook

Activities
1. With a partner, compare prices in two there do not use the same currency as
grocery stores. Create a chart showing you do. To sell your product, you will
the price of five items in the two stores. need to be able to exchange one type of
Also, figure the average price of the currency for another. Search the Internet
items in each store. How do you think or look in a newspaper to find a list of

Economics Handbook
the fact that the stores are near each currency exchange rates. For example, if
other affects prices? How might prices your product sells for 1,000 dollars, what
be different if one store went out of should the cost be in euros? In South
business? How might the prices be African rand? In Japanese yen?
different or similar if the United States
4. With three or four partners, create a
had a command economy?
skit that illustrates one of the following
2. With a group, choose four countries from basic economic concepts: scarcity and
the last unit of your textbook to research. limited resources, supply and demand,
Use your library or the Internet to find or opportunity costs and trade-offs. For
out what kind of economic system each example, a skit might illustrate supply
country currently has—traditional, and demand by showing how the high
command, or market. Do library or demand for the best seats at a concert
Internet research to find the per capita increases the prices for those seats.
GDP, life expectancy rate, literacy Perform your skit for the class.
rate, and the number of TVs per 1,000
5. You can increase your purchasing power
people for each country. Organize this
by saving money. One effective way to
information in a five-column table. Study
do this is to deposit savings in a bank
the information to see if you can find any
account that earns you interest. Suppose
patterns. Do countries with higher per
you want to save $3,000 for a new
capita GDPs have higher life expectancy
computer. You decide to put $300 each
rates, for example?
month in a savings account that earns
3. Work with a partner to identify some of three percent interest compounded each
the many types of currency used in either month. If the interest is compounded,
Latin America, Africa, Europe, or Asia. that means you earn interest on the
Then imagine that you are the owners of money you deposit plus on the interest
a business in the United States. You have itself. Copy the chart below. Then
created a new product that you want to complete it to show the value of savings
sell in the region you selected, but people at the end of six months.

Month Monthly Deposit Compounded Value of Savings
Interest Earned
(at 3%)

1 $300 $9 $309.00

2 $300 $18.27 $627.27

3 $300

4 $300

5 $300

6 $300

economics handbook R53

Excerpt from

The Dao De Jing
by Laozi
Primary Source Library

About the Reading  The Dao De Jing was written about 2,500 years ago. It
forms the basis of Daoism, an ancient Chinese belief system that influenced many
Asian cultures. Daoism holds that all things in nature are part of a unified whole.
Light balances dark, hot balances cold, yin balances yang, to produce a harmony.
The word “Dao” is usually translated as “the path” or “the way.” The Daoist way   The Chinese character for Dao
counsels retreat from the everyday world. By accepting and living in harmony with
the laws of nature, a person can find peace.

Chapter Two Chapter Fifteen
All under heaven see beauty as beauty only The ancient followers of the Dao were subtle,
because they also see ugliness. mysterious, and penetrating.
All announce that good is good only because They were too deep to be fathomed.
they also denounce what is bad. All we can do is describe their appearance.
Therefore, something and nothing give birth to Hesitant, as if crossing a winter stream.
one another Watchful, as if aware of neighbors on all sides.
Difficult and easy complete one another. Respectful, like a visiting guest.
Long and short fashion one another. Yielding, like ice beginning to melt.
High and low arise from one another. Simple, like an uncarved block.
Notes and tones harmonize with one another. Open, like a valley.
Front and back follow one another. Obscure, like muddy water.
Thus, the True Person acts without striving Who else can be still and let the muddy water
and teaches without words. slowly become clear?
Deny nothing to the ten thousand things. Who else can remain at rest and slowly come
Nourish them without claiming authority, to life?
Benefit them without demanding gratitude, Those who hold fast to the Dao do not try to
Do the work, then move on. fill themselves to the brim.
And, the fruits of your labor will last forever. Because they do not try to be full they can be
worn out and yet ever new.

fathomed  understood
obscure  unclear, hidden from view

Skills
FOCUS Reading Like a Historian
1. Identify  In your own words, state the main idea of Chapter Two.
2. Elaborate  Daoism arose at a time of political instability in China.
How would the ideas expressed in Daoism be appealing in a time of
unrest?

R54 primary source LIBRARY

I think that any man. As used here. either in life or . O my friends and judges. for eternity go our ways—I to die. or. as men say. Analyze  What does Socrates mean when he says that “in that the true judges who are said to world they do not put a man to death for this“? 3.. . as in this world. and then were if what is said is true. . but a sleep like the sleep of leader of the great Trojan expedition. 1. as men say. and were to compare with this the that world than in this. and we shall see give judgment there. What him who is undisturbed even by the sight of infinite delight would there be in conversing dreams. better God only knows. and finds 2. “The Apology” is Plato’s version of Socrates’ defense at his trial. certainly not. For besides being happier in dreams. I say that to die is gain. and we is like this. He was sentenced to death. . . and there. Socrates was known for his relentless pursuit of truth and his questioning of authority. evil can happen to a good man. other days and nights of his life. death will be an unspeakable gain. 347 BC) was a  student of Socrates. that pilgrimage will that there is great reason to hope that death be worth making. Nay. can be greater Skills FOCUS R eading L ike a H istorian than this? If indeed when the pilgrim arrives in the world below. A bust of Plato  Let us reflect in another way. tends to be wise. Above all. But if death is the journey to another place. so also in and migration of the soul from this world that. be able to continue my search into true and sciousness. will not find many such days or nights. .Excerpt from The Apology from the Dialogues of Plato Primary Source LIBRARY About the Reading  The Greek philosopher Plato (c. Does he he is delivered from the professors believe in an afterlife? of justice in this world. and is not. . . O judges. in a time of unrest following Athens’ defeat in the Peloponnesian War. and you to live. they will be immortal. Elaborate  Why might Athenians turn against their tradition of free speech in a time of uncertainty? Primary source LIBRARY R55 . Socrates was brought to trial on charges of corrupting the minds of his young students. . there is a change false knowledge. after death. and who pre- to another. I shall is a state of nothingness and utter uncon. . be of good cheer passed in the course of his life better and more about death. with them and asking them questions! For in For if a person were to select the night in that world they do not put a man to death for which his sleep was undisturbed even by this. . In 399 BC. when compared with the others. O judges. . Describe  Describe how Socrates feels about death. . all the dead are. I shall find out who is wise. What would not a Now if you suppose that there is no man give. Which is is then only a single night. . for one of two things: either death me die again and again. 429–c. Now if death The hour of departure has arrived. “apology” means a formal defense of one’s beliefs or actions. to tell us how many days and nights he had Wherefore. to be able to examine the consciousness. let is a good. . . . what good. if this be true. and know this of a truth—that no pleasantly than this one.

or not often. . that a man should not men. . according to the common opinion of only a very low one. Identify  According to Aristotle. . . Evaluate  Aristotle asserts that “the majority must be supreme. it is said. that no property 2. should be brief. or of as many as pos- and be ruled in turn. they say. should be How are they related? made by lot. . FOCUS R eading L ike a H istorian or to all but those which require 1. that all should to live as a man likes is the mark of a slave. qualification should be required for offices. few. or. Aristotle describes the characteristics of a democracy. utes to the freedom based upon equality. R56 primary source LIBRARY . and are more of them. This. . or in they affirm to be the great end of every democ. in judgment. One principle of liberty is for all to rule the tenure of all offices. and should not be the only by none. what are two principles of liberty? experience and skill. . Skills that the appointment to all offices. that the equality. or that judges selected out of all ever the majority approve must be the end and should judge. can only be enjoyed in such a state. then. This. and each in his turn over all. the case of few except military offices: that racy. and so it contrib. is the privilege truest form are based upon the recognized of a freeman. . ing to their numbers. in all matters. if possible. Excerpt from Politics by Aristotle Primary Source Library About the Reading  One of the most influential ancient Greek philosophers. that all men should sit the majority must be supreme. . A bust of Aristotle  The basis of a democratic state is liberty. Every citizen. since. and that what. if this is impossible. . or in most and in the just. poor should have no more share in the govern- whence has arisen the claim of men to be ruled ment than the rich. Aristotle (384–322 BC) wrote about many subjects. but democracy and demos in their live as he likes. and the will of the majority the magistrates over none or only over a very is supreme. not principle of democratic justice. and therefore in a democracy the poor assembly should be supreme over all causes. this hold the same office twice. and poetry. count equally. whence it follows that sible. or which. Another is that a man should racies.” Do you agree or disagree? Explain your answer. .000 years. it is still discussed by political scholars. for equality implies that the This is the second characteristic of democracy. which all democrats affirm to be the principle These are the points common to all democ- of their state. on the other hand. . but that all should rule equally accord- rule and be ruled in turns. govern- ment. because there or at any rate over the most important. to rulers. [T]he characteristics of democracy are magistrates  government officials as follows: the election of officers by all out of demos  democratic populace or citizenry all. is one note of liberty. Aristotle’s Politics is one of the most important works of  political philosophy. have more power than the rich. including biology. must have the greatest and most important . In this excerpt. After more than 2. physics. and that all should rule over each.

decree rewards and punishments. he led a Roman army that conquered Gaul. Draw Conclusions  Why might Julius Caesar want to give an account of his military triumphs in Gaul on the eve of his own war with Pompey? Primary source LIBRARY R57 . Over But of these two orders.  In this excerpt. Those who have been that system generally proceed thither [Britain] thus interdicted are esteemed in the number for the purpose of studying it. or priests. they submit to their decrees and determinations. Describe  Are Druids religious leaders or political leaders? Explain your answer. in the lives of the Gauls. . has not devised in Britain. are many equal. it. which is reckoned the central if murder has been committed. Belgium. the other that of the knights. if there be any region of the whole of Gaul. who dispute about an inheritance. of the Carnutes.Excerpt from The Gallic Wars by Julius Caesar Primary Source LIBRARY About the Reading  Soldier and statesman. he succeeds. who possesses Druids. lest resort  turn to.  He published an account of his campaign in The Gallic Wars (50 BC). and now those who from the sacrifices. Hither all. . if there all matters of religion. This institution is supposed to have been either in a private or public capacity. one is that of the all these Druids one presides. public and in a consecrated [holy] place in the territories private. they interdict him over from it into Gaul. and they [the Druids] are in great even contend for the presidency with arms. For they determine [judge] These assemble at a fixed period of the year respecting almost all controversies. if any individual among the rest is pre- public and the private sacrifices. and parts of Switzerland. conduct the death. sometimes they instruction. This among them is the desire to gain a more accurate knowledge of most heavy punishment. . forbid. make use of they receive some evil from their contact. Upon his mer are engaged in things sacred. and if any crime has been perpetrated. supreme authority among them. and avoid their society and conversation. What does this say about the Gauls? 2. From 58 to  50 BC. these same persons decide it. nor is any dignity bestowed on them. if any one. A statue of Julius Caesar  Throughout all Gaul there are two orders of is justice administered to them when seeking those men who are of any rank and dignity. and boundaries. The for. nor interdict  prohibit. assemble from every part. honor among them. the election is made by the ber of the young men resort for the purpose of suffrages [votes] of the Druids. To these a large num. a land that included modern-day France. but. Caesar describes the role of the Druids. ban Skills FOCUS Reading Like a Historian 1. Julius Caesar helped transform ancient Rome from a republic to an empire. and to have been brought submitted to their decision. if any about have disputes. and interpret eminent in dignity. of the impious and the criminal: all shun them.

Beowulf Could not hurt him. Grendel tries to flee. but their points And broke. for that sin- His miserable hole at the bottom of the marsh. And yet his time had come. It tells of Beowulf. a warrior from Sweden who sails to Denmark to rid King Hrothgar’s people from the monster Grendel. Viking carving. Beowulf has seized Grendel’s arm. That blunted every mortal man’s blade. his death near. Their courage His hands. his days Higlac’s brave follower  meaning Beowulf. trying to open Snapped. Draw Conclusions  In what way is the poem’s blending of Christian belief with ancient mythology characteristic of the Middle Ages? R58 primary source LIBRARY . muscle and bone split A path for his evil soul. down Beowulf’s uncle and feudal lord To hell he would go. iron But wounded as he was could flee to his den. tormentor of their days—what it Leaped out. his claws Swords raised and ready. Was great but all wasted: they could hack at But his power had gone. the sharpest and hardest Had been granted new glory. to wait for the end Had bewitched all men’s weapons. He twisted in pain. c. Higlac is Were over. Recall  According to this excerpt. But he cannot break Beowulf’s powerful grip. knowing the fiend was no use meant To anyone in Denmark. why can Beowulf’s men not harm Grendel? 2. Grendel escaped. swept groaning and helpless To the waiting hands of still worse fiends. laid spells Of all his days. Excerpt from Beowulf by Anonymous (translated by Burton Raffel) Primary Source Library About the Reading  The epic poem Beowulf is the first great work of English literature. Shrieking with pain and defeat. Beowulf and Grendel are fighting. The battle was over. Much of the story is based on early Celtic and Scandinavian folk legends. stained demon Only to die. 1100s  That mighty protector of men Now he discovered—once the afflictor Meant to hold the monster till its life Of men. All of Beowulf’s To feud with Almighty God: Grendel Band had jumped from their beds. Skills FOCUS Reading Like a Historian 1. ancestral Saw that his strength was deserting him. determined Bound fast. In this excerpt. Grendel And the bleeding sinews deep in his shoulder From every side. Higlac’s brave follower tearing at To protect their prince if they could. The monster’s hatred rose higher. Could not scratch at his skin.

. .” without credible witnesses brought Church shall be free.Excerpt from Magna Carta About the Reading  Magna Carta. or sheriffs. and she may remain in the house of her husband for forty bailiff  official employed by an English sheriff to make arrests and executions days after his death. [45] We will appoint as justices. [8] No widow shall be com- pelled to marry. except by the lawful judgment of his heirs. Identify Main Ideas  What are the main ideas in the first consent. or Great Charter. Presenting Magna Carta to King John  [1] In the first place we have granted to God. within which time her disseised  deprived of legal possession of property dower shall be assigned to her. peers or by the law of the land. . paragraph? out the consent of the lord 2. entire. The nobles forced the king to sign the agreement in 1215. to no one will band. [38] No bailiff for the future shall. all the underwritten destroyed. and shall have her rights for this purposes. if she holds carried out. for oned or disseised or exiled or in any way us and our heirs forever. [7] A widow. put anyone to for us and our heirs forever that the English his “law. or with. follow certain basic legal procedures. Make Judgments  What does Magna Carta tell you about the relationship between kings and nobles under the feudal system? Primary source LIBRARY R59 . upon and by this our present charter confirmed his own unsupported complaint. Analyze  Paragraphs 38–40 and 45 discuss how justice should be of whom she holds. and her liberties inviolate. shall forthwith and without difficulty we refuse or delay right or justice. It required the king to give up certain rights. What do they suggest about justice under King John? of another. 3. have her marriage portion and inheritance. constables. The “we” and “us” in Magna Carta refer to the king. nor will we go upon him nor send liberties. or bailiffs only such as know the law for her marriage portion. if she holds of us. to be had and held by them and their upon him. Skills provided always that she gives FOCUS Reading Like a Historian security not to marry without our 1. or for the inheritance of the realm and mean to observe it well. after the death of her hus. We have [39] No freemen shall be taken or impris- also granted to all freemen of our kingdom. Magna Carta is one of the earliest documents limiting the powers of a ruler and listing the rights of the ruled. so long as she prefers to live without a husband. nor shall she give anything for her dower. which her husband and she held on the day of the death of that husband. of us and our heirs forever. is an Primary Source LIBRARY agreement between King John of England and a group of English nobles. and accept that his power was subject to law. [40] To no one will we sell.

a systematic description of Roman Catholic theology. Wherefore human laws do repress  to check. “is put into old bot- in all other matters the directing of anything tles.e.e. Aquinas frequently cites the Bible. . already virtuous. that they should abstain belongs either to the whole people. In this excerpt. ers. keep from doing abstain. the majority of whom are not viceregent  assistant to a regent or ruler perfect in virtue. Human law is framed for a number of human beings. Skills FOCUS Reading Like a Historian 1. . from which the virtuous abstain  refrain. would And therefore the making of a law belongs break out into yet greater evils: thus it is either to the whole people or to a public per. “the bottles break.” belongs. grave which it is possible for the majority to abstain. . he discusses who may make laws. . or prevent not forbid all vices. written . . The purpose of human law is to lead make laws? men to virtue. into imperfect men. . Otherwise these imperfect ones. Thomas Aquinas. without the prohibition of which human society could not be maintained: thus human law prohibits murder. from a 1442 book  Whether the reason of any man is competent to . or to some. . but only the more grievous vices. the purpose of laws. sonage who has care of the whole people: since precepts of a perfect life. Whether it belongs to the human law to repress all vices? . being unable to bear such precepts. who can make laws? 2. of imperfect men the burdens of those who are Now to order anything to the common good. . viz. from all evil. and the limits of laws. the Summa Theologica. . Many Catholics consider Aquinas to be the church’s greatest theologian. theft and such like. Make Inferences  What is the purpose of human law? Does Aquinas believe that governments should exercise unlimited pow- ers when it comes to making laws? R60 primary source LIBRARY . put down. 9:17) that if “new wine. but gradually. Identify  According to Aquinas. . Mt. (Mt. .” i. properly speaking. regards first Wherefore it does not lay upon the multitude and foremost the order to the common good. Aquinas’s method is to pose questions and then answer them. one who is the viceregent of the whole people.” i. A law. not suddenly. 9:17  A passage from the Gospel of Matthew in the and chiefly those that are to the hurt of oth- Christian Bible. from grievous  serious.1225–1274) was a Roman Catholic philosopher and theologian. Excerpt from Summa Theologica by Thomas Aquinas Primary Source Library About the Reading  Thomas Aquinas ( c. The excerpt below is from Aquinas’s most famous work. to the end concerns him to whom the end and the wine runneth out. .

Baghdad have I seen all this 2. judge. the largest of which is called the of black marble. which has the appearance bazaars. Battutah dictated the stories of his journeys to a scholar named Ibn Juzay al-Kalbi. On this side there are no spring between Kufa and Basra. only and possessing two or three baths. 1325–1345.000 miles. but it is now for the most has eleven cathedral mosques. China. The hospi- the latter are all in ruins. excellently constructed. A scholar. Each establishment has a large number of private bathrooms. Sri Lanka. covering some 75. both men and women. This excerpt describes Battutah’s visit to Baghdad in 1327. 1396  Thence we travelled to Baghdad. from which fruit trees. East Africa. the Abode of elaborate arrangement. . when it was ruled by the Mongols. Here there are two towns approach it in this respect. madrasa (Arabic)  school.Excerpt from Travels in Asia and Africa. where there are orchards and the spring like clay and is shovelled up and gardens. It gathers at the sides of western side. each like a city in itself very many other mosques and madrasas. The town earliest to be built. tal [maristan] is a vast ruined edifice. brought to Baghdad. This record of his travels was published as his book Travels in Asia and Africa. and North Africa. of which The baths at Baghdad are numerous and only vestiges remain. . together with still thirteen quarters. on which the people promenade The western part of Baghdad was the night and day. most of them being The eastern part has an abundance of painted with pitch. He visited Turkey. Battutah traveled throughout the Muslim world for nearly 30 years. bridges . every one Abode  home of which has also a wash-basin in the corner. Iran. Interpret  Why do you think Battutah found the baths in Baghdad with. though some other Peace and Capital of Islam. This pitch is brought from a Tuesday bazaar. eight on the part in ruins. one to wear round his waist when he goes in. Southeast Asia. 1325–1345 Primary Source LIBRARY by Ibn Battutah About the Reading  Ibn Battutah (1304–1369?) was one of the greatest travelers of all time. pitch  sticky. another to wear Skills round his waist when he comes FOCUS R eading L ike a H istorian out. In spite of that there remain in it right bank and three on the left. and the third to dry himself 1. often associated with a mosque with two taps supplying hot and cold water. oil-based substance used for waterproofing Every bather is given three tow- els. India. but all the fruit is brought from the it flows continually. Draw Conclusions  What did it say about Muslim civilization at the time that someone like Ibn Battutah could travel so widely in many different lands ? Primary source LIBRARY R61 . and explorer. Baghdad garden. In no town other than worth highlighting in his account? Explain your answer.

followed very shortly. since there deserted. . reinforced these son to person. . air as the source of the plague the Jews were suddenly and violently charged with infecting wells and water and corrupting the air. Many country villages and many Some said that this pestilence was caused houses in good towns remained empty and by infection of the air and waters. but on the contrary great abundance. unforeseen. His Chronicle covers 1340 to 1368. . granted unbelievers. earth. it is said. Skills FOCUS R eading L ike a H istorian sands were burned everywhere. There were other whole household. Describe  What does Venette think about some of the explana- if fatuous. after Vespers and their wives was remarkable. a big and hurled their children first into the fire that very bright star appeared above Paris. De Venette’s eyewitness account of the plague and other events pro- vides valuable information about social. . But in truth. very soon fell into ruins. It is said that many bad Christians which. could the Alps reached Avignon. The plague lasted in France for the though it was not so bad there as with us. . came to Italy. from town to town. indiscriminately. in fact. . It even crossed over to Germany. Paris several houses were thus ruined. from house to house. 1348. such poisonings. the will of God and the to France. Excerpt from The Chronicle by Jean de Venette Primary Source Library About the Reading  Jean de Venette (c. For mothers when the sun was beginning to set. Even in supplies. In Germany and other parts of constancy  faithfulness the world where Jews lived. constancy of the men tions for the causes of the plague? 2. . . took place in some localities. The unshaken. causes. and then crossing that they actually were perpetrated. Perhaps the poisonings. possible that it was a after them to burn with their husbands and presage of the amazing pestilence to come. religious. began among the wells. . were found who in like manner put poison into This plague. children. through Gascony and Spain. toward they might not be baptized and then leaped in the west. Analyze  What do the words “fatuous” and “constancy” used to describe those Jews who chose death rather than abandon their religious faith indicate about the author’s point of view? R62 primary source LIBRARY . including some splen- was at this time no famine nor lack of food did dwellings. for example. The presage  sign whole world rose up against them cruelly on fatuous  silly and pointless this account. 1307–c. they humors  bodily fluids whose balance was thought to be essential to well-being were massacred and slaughtered by Christians. greater part of the years 1348 and 1349 and then ceased. Many houses. little corrupt humors and evil inherent in air and by little. where it attacked not have caused so great a plague nor have several cardinals and took from them their infected so many people. 1370) was a Roman Catholic monk in Paris. from village to vil. 1. causes. . . 1349  In the month of August. if they actually lage. and many thou. the years when the Black Death appeared in Europe. and political life of the fourteenth century. It is . though As a result of this theory of infected water and fewer here than elsewhere. Burying plague victims in France. and finally from per. Then it spread.

to be an Abbot able. Many a load of dung one time or other As well in Christian as in heathen places. from the Prologue to the poem. Pilgrims leaving Canterbury. which was a pity. No need just now to speak of that. one of the finest sort He was an honest worker. no man more. Truth. I undertake. . For Canterbury. . . . A Monk there was. . for Chaucer. cleric  clergyman. He must have carted through the morning And ever honored for his noble graces. all at the church door. . Some nine and twenty in a company The thread upon his overcoat was bare. Chaucer (1343–1400) was able to include the entire range of English medieval society in his story. . Upon his head a Flemish beaver hat And on his feet daintily buckled boots. good and true. and they were pilgrims all Was with us. Identify  Who are some of the people on the pilgrimage? 2. somewhat deaf. . at The Tabard. Analyze  How does Chaucer’s cast of characters represent the changes that were taking place during the High Middle Ages? Primary source LIBRARY R63 . a most distinguished She bettered those of Ypres and of Ghent. high on his horse he sat. what’s more Who from the day on which he first began She’d had five husbands. . A worthy woman all her life. Oxford University trained clergymen There was a Merchant with a forking beard And motley dress. . Apart from other company in youth. This estimable Merchant so had set Skills FOCUS R eading L ike a H istorian His wits to work. . a sober stare. . . a non-Christian He did not rate that text at a plucked hen motley  multi-colored Which says that hunters are not holy men. The excerpt. . . most devout at heart. forsooth. . man. In making cloth she showed so great a bent There was a Knight. heathen  pagan. That towards Canterbury meant to ride.Excerpt from The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer Primary Source LIBRARY About the Reading  The Canterbury Tales are a collection of stories that give us a picture of life in the Middle Ages. generousness. The Tabard is a lodging place Many a dainty horse he had in stable. . . And he was not too fat. . At night there came into that hostelry But had a hollow look. By placing travelers together on a pilgrimage. honor. as I lay One who had taken logic long ago Ready to go on pilgrimage and start Was there. And ridden into battle. his horse was thinner than a rake. 1. Of sundry folk happening then to fall A worthy woman from beside Bath city In fellowship. A manly man. He had done nobly in his sovereign’s war There was a Plowman with him there. . introduces a handful of Chaucer’s large cast of characters. Who rode the country. early 1500s  It happened in that season that one day An Oxford Cleric. . or religious journey. and courtesy. still a student though. dew. none knew he was in debt. In Southwark. hunting was his sport. To ride abroad had followed chivalry. hostelry  inn.

to open not the anything. to recant any trine of the papists. and clearly Lordships. . if I be better instructed. . I can do no other. . . . them [Luther’s books] by the writings of the “The second kind consists in those writ. God help me. . . . Through the tone of upbraiding . 1521  “Your Imperial Majesty and Your Lordships: I But it is not in my power to recant them. ” laid waste Christendom by doing harm to the Thereupon the Orator of the Empire. On this I blasphemy . 2. ready. “The third kind consists of those books Amen. have been Luther then replied: . the only effect will be to of Scripture. He was given an opportunity to renounce his writings. who have exerted themselves recant  withdraw and renounce in defense of the Roman tyranny upbraiding  disapproval and to the overthrow of that piety Skills FOCUS R eading L ike a H istorian which I have taught. by unbelievable tyranny. victed [convinced] of error by the testimony If then I recant these. . plicity and so agreeably with the Gospels that “And so. to defeat worth reading by a Christian . . . harmless. . “Unless I am con- devoured . I cannot and will not recant add strength to such tyranny. through the mercy of God. . ask you to observe that my books are not all of because that recantation would give that tyr- the same kind. . . . . His speech the following day became a ringing defense of individual conscience. . for to act against our conscience is windows but the main doors to such neither safe for us. as against those who by error. . Martin Luther. . . asked for a plain reply Pope’s laws and through man-made teachings . Explain  Why would Luther’s position have posed a threat to the authority both of the pope and of the emperor? R64 primary source LIBRARY . and I shall be the first in casting my their wicked doctrines and precedents have writings in the fire . Was he prepared to recant. in a souls and the bodies of men . his books? Why does he say that he cannot recant the second kind? gious vows and my profession . . . take my stand. people more violently than ever . Prophets or by the Gospels. . . c. . and Your Illustrious to admit them useful. . Luther asked for a day to consider his response. . or no? the consciences of the faithful . I ask my adversaries themselves are compelled Your Imperial Majesty. I confess that I have been more harsh 1. or anyone of any degree. . . . Identify  What are the three categories into which Luther places against them than befits my reli. Excerpt from Refusal at the Diet of Worms by Martin Luther Primary Source Library About the Reading  After being excommunicated by Pope Leo X. for I shall be most ings leveled against the papacy and the doc. nor open to us.” which I have written against private individuals. Martin Luther (1483–1546) was summoned by Emperor Charles V to appear before the Diet of Worms in 1521. anny and blasphemy an occasion to lord it over “There are some in which I have dealt those whom I defend and to rage against God’s with piety in faith and morals with such sim.

Analyze  In your opinion. their wings which. he gave spurs to 1. and. “those with the long arms. and with the spoils from this encounter the big wings began turning. Describe  Use examples from this excerpt to show how Cervantes portrays Don Quixote as both noble and foolish. which were extremely popular in Cervantes’s time. and what appear to be arms are over the plain. His masterpiece Don Quixote (1606. and it is a great service to his heart to his lady Dulcinea. “What giants?” said Sancho Panza.” Saying this. better than we could have wished. some of giving a thrust at the wing. cause the millstone to go. master. we shall begin to enrich ourselves. go off to one side and say your prayers while I am engaging Skills FOCUS R eading L ike a H istorian them in fierce. but shouted at the top of his lungs. being well cov- face of the earth. unequal combat. I shall deprive them of their At that moment a little wind came up and lives. “Fortune is guiding our affairs really were. is Don Quixote a crazy person who refus- es to see things as they really are. Nor even when he laid eyes upon them than he turned to his was close upon them did he perceive what they squire and said.” replied his fell upon the first mill that stood in his way. he bore down upon them at a full gallop and “Those that you see there.” at such a speed that his lance was broken into “But look. which was whirling which are as much as two leagues in length. those are not giants bits and both horse and horseman went rolling but windmills.Excerpt from Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes Primary Source LIBRARY About the Reading  Miguel de Cervantes (1547–1616) lived during the peak and decline of Spain’s Golden Age. friend Sancho Panza.” said Don Quixote. without pay- 2.” squire  a young nobleman who attends a knight “It is plain to be seen. for this is He thereupon commended himself with all righteous warfare. and no sooner had Don Quixote was riding forth to attack. your Grace.” ered with his shield and with his lance at rest. when whirled in the breeze. If you are afraid. his steed Rocinante. It reflects the disillu- sionment that began to affect Spanish society as the country declined   in power. for you see “Do not seek to flee. beseeching her God to remove so accursed a breed from the to succor him in this peril. millstone  large stone used for grinding “that you have had little experience in this succor  help matter of adventures. cowards and vile creatures there before you. 1615) is a parody of medieval stories of knights and chivalry. very much battered indeed. for it is but a single knight with thirty or more lawless giants with whom I whom you have to deal!” mean to do battle. some that you are. Don Quixote and the windmill  At this point they caught sight of thirty or ing any heed to Sancho’s warning that these forty windmills which were standing on the were truly windmills and not giants that he plain there. or is he more like a person who refuses to compromise his ideals so he can achieve a greater good? Primary source LIBRARY R65 .

or but of a part. then it is the to believe that the government is of one kind assembly of all. which signifies want of govern- certain men distinguished from the rest. At the time England was ruled by Parlia- ment. Hobbes discusses the  possible forms of sovereign governments. but of in the difference of the sovereign. when they like it. or not every one. as tyranny and 2. There be other names of 1. while in exile in France. and another when they mis- resentative is one man. describe Hobbes’s three basic forms government in the histories and of commonwealth. Draw a Conclusion  What does Hobbes mean when he says that oligarchy. and they that are displeased with either in one man. In Leviathan. and yet I think no man believes that manifest there can be but three kinds of Com. Hobbes argues that in their natural state people are selfish and constantly at war. then is the Common. when an assembly manifest  clear. What do they have in common? books of policy. want  lack. or more. but they are not the “sovereign power” is “indivisible”? Does that leave any room for compromise in the struggle between king and Parliament? R66 primary source LIBRARY . or in an assembly of more aristocracy call it oligarchy: so also. When the rep. plain. For the representative must needs ernment: nor by the same reason ought they be one man. commonwealth  an independent state or community or popular Commonwealth. the same forms misliked [misnamed]. but call it anarchy. or all. and if more. Excerpt from Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes Primary Source Library About the Reading  Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) wrote Leviathan in 1651. or the per. then it is called an aristocracy. absence Other kind of Commonwealth there can be none: for either one. like it or are oppressed by the governors. The only way society can be established is if people surrender some rights to an authority that offers safety. Cover page of Leviathan  The difference of Commonwealths consisteth names of other forms of government. For they son representative of all and every one of the that are discontented under monarchy call it multitude. apparent of a part only. must have the sovereign power (which I have shown to be Skills FOCUS R eading L ike a H istorian indivisible) entire. In this excerpt. then it is a democracy. wealth a monarchy. it is ment. and into that assembly either every find themselves grieved under a democracy man hath right to enter. Describe  In your own words. And because the sovereignty is tyranny. when an assembly of all that will come together. they which than one. making it unsafe for Royalists like Hobbes. or more. want of government is any new kind of gov- monwealth.

power in their hands. or in the same body of magistrates. He drew on the classical past of ancient Greece and Rome and the contemporary government of Great Britain for some of his ideas. 1. They may this liberty. under those republics! The same body of The political liberty of the subject is a magistrates are possessed. Were it istrate enacts temporary or perpetual laws. and provides the nobles or of the people to exercise those against invasions. in respect judging be not separated from the legislative to things dependent on the law of nations. How do his ideas and Montesquieu’s differ? Primary source LIBRARY R67 . two ideas that strongly influenced the United States Constitution. every private citizen When the legislative and executive powers may be ruined by their particular decisions. of the whole power they have given each person has of his safety. the prince or mag. and as they have likewise the judiciary of another.Excerpt from The Spirit of Laws by Charles de Secondat. already enacted. the judge might and amends or abrogates those that have been behave with all the violence of an oppressor. for the By virtue of the first. By the second. there can be no liberty. the executive. based on individual whim lest the same monarch or senate should enact tyrannical laws. he makes There would be an end of every thing were peace or war. Analyze  Why does Montesquieu say it is a bad idea to combine legislative and executive powers in one person? 2. to Skills FOCUS R eading L ike a H istorian execute them in a tyrannical manner. it is requisite the government be plunder the state by their general determina- so constituted as one man need not be afraid tions. abrogates  abolishes because apprehensions may arise. would be exposed to arbitrary control. if the power of power: the legislative. and that of arise between individuals. contains his theories of separation of governing powers and checks and balances. there is no liberty. Baron de Montesquieu (1689–1755). the life and liberty of the subject on the civil law. Were it joined with the the executive. Baron de Montesquieu Primary Source LIBRARY About the Reading  Charles de Secondat. Make Judgments  Review the excerpt from Hobbes on R66. and and executive powers. and the other simply What a situation must the poor subject be the executive power of the state. or determines the disputes that executing the public resolutions. arising from the opinion the laws. call the judiciary power. or the same body. the same man. sends or receives embassies. The latter we shall judging the crimes or differences of individuals. joined to the executive power. in. in regard to things that depend legislative. By the third. whether of establishes the public security. The Spirit of Laws (1748). His best-known work. judge would then be the legislator. In order to have themselves in quality of legislators. arbitrary  unrestrained. he punishes three powers that of enacting laws. Baron de Montesquieu  In every government there are three sorts of Again. as executors of tranquility of mind. was a French jurist and influential political thinker dur- ing the Enlightenment. are united in the same person. that of criminals.

” however. unalienable  cannot be taken away. and to institute becomes necessary for one people to dissolve new Government. given away. or transferred We hold these truths to be self-evident. that among these FOCUS R eading L ike a H istorian are Life. the separate and equal station their Safety and Happiness. It has become a lasting statement of America’s founding ideals. it is the Right of the When in the Course of human events it People to alter or to abolish it. they left untouched. as to them shall seem most likely to effect of the earth. events had advanced far enough that the Continental Congress voted for indepen- dence . to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them. Interpret  How are Jefferson’s words consistent with the Enlightenment’s ideas of John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau? 3. Support a Position  Is it the right of the people to alter or abolish a government if they wish to? Give reasons that support your position. 1776 instituted among Men. The job of writing a formal declaration of that independence fell to Thomas Jefferson. July 4. Congress revised about one-fifth of his draft. deriving their just pow- The unanimous Declaration of the thir. Only 33 years old at the time. a decent respect to the opin- ions of mankind requires that they should impel  force declare the causes which impel them to endowed  provided. laying its foundation on such the political bands which have connected them principles and organizing its powers in such with another and to assume among the powers form. — That to secure of this excerpt? these rights. Jefferson was respected by his colleagues for his writing ability. whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends. given the separation. Still. By the summer of 1776. Excerpt from The Declaration of Independence Primary Source Library by Thomas Jefferson About the Reading  In April 1775. The passage that begins “We hold these Thomas Jefferson  truths to be self-evident. that all men are created equal. Skills able Rights. ers from the consent of the governed. Liberty and the pursuit 1. Governments are 2. American colonists fought English soldiers at Lexington and Concord. — That teen united States of America. In Congress. that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalien. R68 primary source LIBRARY . Identify Main Ideas  What is the main idea in the first paragraph of Happiness.

or for lodging. and never talk 1. how does man in civilized society differ to them of our own necessities but from “almost every other race of animals”? of their advantages. lodging. fellow men offices which we stand in need of. With the money which one man favour. or for food. while his whole life is scarce a beggar does not depend upon it entirely. Even great multitudes. Smith describes how a person’s self-interest guides him or her to buy and sell things in order to have the “necessaries of life. But though this principle ultimately rity. sistence. . barter.Excerpt from The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith Primary Source LIBRARY About the Reading  Adam Smith (1723–1790) was a Scottish  philosopher and economist. or purchase? 3. is the meaning of every such offer. or good offices  goods and services the baker. Skills FOCUS R eading L ike a H istorian selves. if any. . The old cloaths advantage to do for him what he requires of [clothes] which another bestows upon him he them. not to their humanity but to their self-love. The charity of well-disposed people. Give me that better. The greater part of his occasional and it is in vain for him to expect it from their wants are supplied in the same manner as benevolence only. Analyze  Why is it necessary for a person to obtain goods by treaty. but from their regard to their own interest. Smith’s arguments exerted a tremendous force in shaping an era of free trade in the 1800s. is entirely independent. that we expect our din- ner. cloaths. and you shall have this which with which he can buy either food. by barter. But man has almost can provide him with them as he has occasion constant occasion for the help of his brethren. and it is in this manner that we obtain from one another the far greater part of those good brethren  literally brothers. the brewer. Whoever offers to another a bargain of exchanges for other old cloaths which suit him any kind. and prevail if he can interest their self-love in his by purchase. here. when it is grown up to matu. and show them that it is for their own gives him he purchases food. indeed. Nobody but a 2. In this excerpt. sufficient to gain the friendship of a few per. Predict  Based on this excerpt. In his best-known work. In almost every other race of animals supplies him with the whole fund of his sub- each individual. which I want. it neither does nor other living creature. Smith asserted the value of free trade and few.” Adam Smith  In civilized society he [man] stands at all times beggar chuses [chooses] to depend chiefly upon in need of the cooperation and assistance of the benevolence of his fellow-citizens. governmental regulations or restraints on trade. for them. It is not from benevolence  kindness the benevolence of the butcher. proposes to do this. by treaty. or for money. why do you think that Smith was an advocate of liberal free trade among nations? Primary source LIBRARY R69 . He will be more likely to those of other people. as he has occasion. Recall  According to Smith. The Wealth of Nations (1776). and in its natural provides him with all the necessaries of life state has occasion for the assistance of no which he has occasion for. sons. or you want. We address our.

with its stir- ring slogan of “liberty. Excerpt from the Introduction to A Vindication of the Rights of Woman Primary Source Library by Mary Wollstonecraft About the Reading  In 1789 the French Revolution erupted and. male pursues. . or to written on this subject by men. In the government ery I deplore. gathered from the books obtain a durable interest in their hearts. it is observable that the are rendered weak and wretched by a variety female. a few words. because I am a woman. in general. that the specious  showy but false. who. . that the neglected education of my sex. . picky so bubbled by this specious homage. 3. violently to agitate the contested question has been very partial. . and it does not appear to be sus- their minds are not in a healthy state. . and women. equality. intoxicated ought to have arrived at maturity. and the flaunting leaves. One cause by the adoration which men. in 1792 Wollstonecraft wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. . partial  biased and the understanding of the sex has been fastidious  overly fussy. are only anxious to inspire love. lacking genuineness civilized women of the present abrogated  abolished. fade. do not seek to system of education. men endeavor to pleased a fastidious eye. 2. I would not either nature has made a great difference lead my readers to suppose. have been more anxious to make them alluring mistresses than rational wives. after having this natural pre-eminence. . . Mary Wollstonecraft  I have sighed when obliged to confess. Explain  In your own words. a profound respecting the equality and inferiority of the conviction. or that civilization . my opinion. in fellow creatures is the grand source of the mis. pay them. and by their abilities 1. I have . It is a strong and passionate criticism of the social and economic institutions that lead to inequality for women. . merely to render us alluring the stalk. and that women in particular. repealed century. . disregarded on sink us still lower. evidently prove. that law of nature. long before the season when they objects for a moment. when Skills FOCUS R eading L ike a H istorian they ought to cherish a nobler ambition. R70 primary source LIBRARY . but . . that I mean between man and man. The of concurring causes. Inspired by the ideas of the revolution in France. The conduct and man. . . in fact. . strength and usefulness are sacrificed to is a noble prerogative! But not content with beauty. of the physical world. creatures. . Elaborate  How did Wollstonecraft’s ideas differ from those of other Enlightenment thinkers? Explain. become the friends of the fellow creatures who ering females rather as women than human find amusement in their society. fraternity. under the influ- of this barren blooming I attribute to a false ence of their senses. This like the flowers that are planted in too rich a physical superiority cannot be denied—and it soil. is inferior to the male. consid. the female yields—this is the ners of women. explain how Wollstonecraft responds to the issue of the equality of the sexes. Identify Main Ideas  What is the main idea of this excerpt? and virtues exact respect.” shook European society. I shall stop a moment to deliver. that Yet. for. with a few exceptions. pended or abrogated in favor of woman.

Communism views humans as histori- cal beings whose lives and work are determined by the material conditions of the society in which they live. a word. Marx and Engels wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) as an explanation of the doctrines and theories of communism. itself as a class. now open fight. with the revolution by the working class is to raise its classes and class antagonisms. . When. . guild-master and journeyman. the history of class struggles. properly so called. the public proletariat  workers or working-class people power will lose its political char. by degree. If the proletariat during 1. by the force of circumstances. ment of each is the condition for the free development of all. throw of all existing social conditions. now hidden. abolished its own supremacy as a class. sweeps away by force the old conditions of pro- stant opposition to one another. in the course of development. along with these uninterrupted. . if. They openly declare that their of production in the hands of the state. . lord and serf. stood in con. a conditions. Karl Marx  The history of all hitherto existing society is its contest with the bourgeoisie is compelled. carried on an duction.. then it will. The proletariat will use its political supremacy to wrest. and all produc. Communism also envisions a society in which there is no private property and in which workers will not be exploited and forced to live in poverty and misery. . They have a world to win.e. and. and will thereby have the common ruin of the contending classes. we shall the proletariat to the position of ruling class to have an association in which the free develop- win the battle of democracy. is merely the organized Skills FOCUS R eading L ike a H istorian power of one class for oppressing another. capitalists acter. . bourgeoisie   the wealthy middle class. class distinctions have disappeared. Proletarians of all countries. patrician and plebian. all capital from The Communists disdain to conceal their the bourgeoisie. how and why will a communist revo- lution take place? Is his prediction realistic? Primary source LIBRARY R71 . unite! tion has been concentrated in the hands of a vast association of the whole nation. Let the and to increase the total productive forces as ruling classes tremble at a communist revolu- rapidly as possible. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. or in of classes generally. Recall  How have all previous “class struggles” ended? 2. . in it makes itself the ruling class. as such. tion. of ends can be attained only by the forcible over- the proletariat organized as the ruling class. . i. to organize Freeman and slave. oppressor and oppressed. Political power. to centralize all instruments views and aims. by means of a revolution. Analyze  According to Marx. either in a revolu. a new philosophy of history and the nature of human beings—communism—appeared. have swept away the conditions fight that each time ended. .Excerpt from The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels Primary Source LIBRARY About the Reading  In the 1840s. for the existence of class antagonisms and tionary reconstitution of society at large. We have seen above that the first step in In place of the old bourgeois society.

out of the place is dangerous. For every one German plane there come Then the heat sinks heavily into our shell- at least five English and American. His novel All Quiet on the Western Front (1929) describes the routine horrors of war that soldiers faced in the trenches that spread across Western Europe. for as soldiers we are has got the bone. Anyway. grey The wound begins to bleed fast. I don’t know of a stretcher- ing. We never get dry. soaked. wretched German soldier come five of on one of those late summer days. It there. I bind up loaf there are fifty tins of canned beef over his wound. oily mass in which lie yel. mess will go on yet! Now you are saved—” Behind us lay rainy weeks—grey sky. We two are alone. the confusion of grey and yellow the hail of splinters whips forth Skills the child-like cries of the wounded. and they are Our hands are earth. All the same I urge him to let us go on. We do not speak much. “Who knows how long this superior forces. so I take him up on so that the mud does not pour in so fast. I sweat into which the dead. every. and survivors and my face is swollen with the strain of carry- slowly sink down. For one German army ing food. hares. thing is fluid and dissolved. in the line. Trench in World War I  There are so many airmen here. wounded. We do not know whether single individuals. the rain not be left by himself while I try to find a at once soaks through our overcoat and cloth- stretcher. We are not beaten. moist and oppressive and hungry. Kat can- fluid earth. For one holes like a jelly fish. while bring- the enemy. for The storm lashes us. battlefield? 2. Kat falls. Those who will wear high boots tie sand bags round the tops Kat is not very heavy. why do you think the narrator tells him “Now you are saved”? R72 primary source LIBRARY . FOCUS Reading Like a Historian and in the night shattered life 1. ing. we are simply “At last—just at the last—” crushed and driven back by overwhelming I comfort him. the uniforms caked. grey dying. our bodies clay and so sure of themselves that they give chase to our eyes pools of rain. and Kat groans desperately: better and more experienced. his shin seems to be smashed. Excerpt from All Quiet on the Western Front Primary Source Library by Erich Maria Remarque About the Reading  Erich Maria Remarque (1898–1970) was born in Germany and served in the German army during World War I. Describe  How does the narrator describe the conditions on the groans painfully into silence. fresh and fit. I have opened the low pools with red spiral streams of blood and collar of my tunic and breathe heavily. He suffers acutely on the dripping. just as though they were we still live. If we got out. Infer  After Kat is wounded. the earth one Twice we rest. with him.—and we remain wet all the time we are bearer’s post in the neighborhood. The my back and start off to the dressing station rifles are caked. way.

we will calmly endure all and purpose was ill-conceived. as there is yet life in these our bones. will never obey them. . . This other method is satyagraha. Explain  How did Gandhi use nonviolent resistance in the struggle for Indian independence? Primary source LIBRARY R73 . and will not so much as touch you. . happy through victory in war. Award us for it what No country has ever become. we cannot permit it. or will ever punishment you like. Shower what sufferings victory. perchance. not we will do so laughing. You are 2. you are not the sovereign smashed in the process. . Identify Main Ideas  What are the two ways to counter injustice is possible without two entities to which Gandhi refers? (the rulers and the ruled). it comes more and to keep us suppressed in a wrongful manner more to be realised that the seeds of war and without taking us into confidence. insistence on truth another’s head. he may merely scaffold  raised wooden platform used for public executions have his own head broken. All strong people in either. . But so long But through the other method of combat. We will gladly die both belligerents. what comes to it is defeat.Excerpt from On Nonviolent Resistance by Mohandas K. the laws that concern us. Whatever you do in other It falls into luxurious ways of living. If you make laws But after a short while. so. The following excerpt is from a 1916 speech made to Gandhi’s Hindu supporters at Kochrab Ashram in India. It was   collected with other of Gandhi’s writings and published in 1922. and the other side is wholly spared. it brings disaster to not hurt a hair of your body. Everywhere wars trol us with justice and love. Though Gandhi was often arrested and imprisoned for his actions. When perpetrates injustice and to get your own head we are not subjects. Pride makes a victorious nation bad-tempered. FOCUS R eading L ike a H istorian fering all the pain. only so long One way is to smash the head of the man who as we consider ourselves your subjects. you will have to ask our opinion about a time. these have not been destroyed but have become a laws will merely adorn the statute-books. he urged his followers to adhere to the principles of nonviolence. Mohandas K. our sovereign. So long as it is your endeavour to con- the world adopt this course. Then for matters. we will put up with it. In fact. . it may be conceded. Gandhi Primary Source LIBRARY About the Reading  Mohandas K. A Send us to prison and we will live there as in nation does not rise that way. satyagraha  power of truth without force or violence to One who resorts to it does not have to break change political and other circumstances. And if. either our act or our you like upon us. we will ing injustice. Gandhi (1869–1948) was the leader of India’s fight for independence from British rule. We thousand times more nourished and mighty. But if you wish to strike at us from behind. our Government. it only falls a paradise. Ask us to mount the scaffold and further. He has Skills to be prepared to die himself suf. of our mistakes. we alone suffer the consequences never comply with your arbitrary laws. we will let you do are fought and millions of people are killed. [N]o State 1. peace prevails. Gandhi  There are two ways of countering injustice. become.

and shades of gray. a female port your answer. On Monday. Guernica by Pablo Picasso Primary Source Library About the Artist  Pablo Picasso (1881–1973) was one of the most famous artists of the twentieth century. carrying a lamp. painting? Picasso restricted his palette of colors to 2.000 pounds of bombs burning building. a dead soldier. a town of about 5. Picasso spent much of his career in Paris.000 people with no right of the horse). Describe  How does Picasso show the bombing of Guernica in his portray the world in a nonrealistic fashion. painting. Spain.5 feet high by 25. new styles. Evaluate  Would you say that Picasso’s painting is as effective a a dead child in her arms. white. A bull stands over a woman grieving over 3. wounded by a in 1937? Why or why not? Refer to images in the painting to sup- spear or lance. . The Nazis. which uses interlocking geometric shapes to 1. but it is not my idea was to test a new military tactic—carpet-bombing to give this meaning. He set painting in the Cubist style and in such stark colors? Select one part the scene inside a room open at the left. . I make the painting for the civilians to kill them and break their morale. of the painting and interpret its meaning. I paint the objects for what they are. restlessly pioneering bold. About the Painting  Mondays were market days figure floating into the room (above and to the in Guernica. Picasso were allies of the Spanish Nationalists. Born in Barcelona. and another military significance. Interpret  Why do you think Picasso chose to create such a large black.5 Skills FOCUS R eading L ike a H istorian feet wide. “If you give a meaning to certain things in my ted that the purpose of this unprecedented attack paintings it may be very true. Other images in statement about the horror and destruction of war today as it was the painting include a horse. who and the individual images in it vary widely. .” Guernica is a large oil-on-canvas painting measuring 11. Interpretations of the painting on the town. later admit. R74 primary source LIBRARY . 1937. he sided with the Republican government. April 27th. which commissioned a painting to commemorate the bombing of the small town of Guernica by  Fascist forces in 1937. said. but during the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939). Picasso mostly avoided politics. female figure (at the far right) falling through a Nazi bombers dumped 100. reducing it to rubble. It is done in Cubist style. then the art capital of the world.

Elie Wiesel  Never Shall I Forget Never shall I forget that night. Never shall I forget those flames that consumed my faith for ever.Never Shall I Forget by Elie Wiesel Primary Source LIBRARY About the Reading  Elie Wiesel (1928– ) was fifteen years old when he and all the other Jews in his Romanian village were shipped to Nazi concen- tration camps in Poland and Germany during World War II. In 1955 Wiesel wrote a nine-hundred-page memoir. Never shall I forget the small faces of the children whose bodies I saw transformed into smoke under a silent sky. which was later condensed and repub- lished under the title Night. transformed into smoke”? 3. that turned my life into one long night seven times sealed. . the first night in camp. Never shall I forget those moments that murdered my God and my soul and turned my dreams to ashes. Never. The following excerpt originally appeared as a prose passage in Night. Never shall I forget those things. Elaborate  How did Wiesel’s time in the concentration camp affect him? Primary source LIBRARY R75 . Interpret  What does Wiesel mean by “bodies . even were I condemned to live as long as God Himself. Skills FOCUS Reading Like a Historian 1. Never shall I forget that smoke. Describe  What is the effect on the reader of Wiesel’s repeated use of the word “never”? 2. Never shall I forget the nocturnal silence that deprived me for all eternity of the desire to live. .

parable declarations at different times in other This Declaration is based upon the countries. The excerpt below is taken from her speech to the General Assembly. . It is a Declaration of basic principles In a recent speech in Canada. We have much to do to fully to a higher standard of life and to a greater achieve and to assure the rights set forth in enjoyment of freedom. . . . We and in the life of mankind. No man is by nature simply to the proclamation of the Declaration of the the servant of the state. This must be taken as testimony of our in which to develop his full stature and common aspiration first voiced in the Charter through common effort to raise the level of of the United Nations to lift men everywhere human dignity. 1948.] . and the adoption of com. . Explain  How were the events of World War II important in spur- ring the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights? R76 primary source LIBRARY . Man’s become the international Magna Carta of all status makes each individual an end men everywhere[. Man’s desire for peace this Declaration. Recall  To what other documents does Roosevelt compare this Declaration? 2. . tally a moral being. This Universal are equal in sharing the moral freedom Declaration of Human Rights may well that distinguishes us as free men. spiritual fact that man must have freedom . . That the light we have We stand today at the threshold of a great is imperfect does not matter so long as event both in the life of the United Nations we are always trying to improve it. Gladstone of human rights and freedoms . . an event comparable in himself. The realization that the flagrant viola- tion of human rights by Nazi and Skills Fascist countries sowed the seeds FOCUS R eading L ike a H istorian of the last world war has 1. lies behind this Declaration. . marks of our civilization. or of another man Rights of Man by the French people in 1789. . A UN commission drafted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. to serve as Murray said: a common standard of achievement for all The central fact is that man is fundamen- peoples of all nations. In giving our approval to the Declaration supplied the impetus for the work which today it is of primary importance that we keep brings us to the moment of achievement here clearly in mind the basic character of the docu. Excerpt from Address to the United Nations Primary Source Library by Eleanor Roosevelt About the Reading  As the world learned of the atrocities committed by Nazi Ger- many. . the ideal and fact of freedom—and not the adoption of the Bill of Rights by the people technology—are the true distinguishing of the United States. . . Former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt (1884–1962) represented the United States when the Eleanor Roosevelt UN General Assembly adopted the document on December 10. today. members of the United Nations saw the need to clarify fundamental human rights. . ment .

in negotiations with the govern- ment of President F. We enter into a covenant that we reality that will reinforce humanity’s belief shall build the society in which all South Afri- in justice. The moment to bridge the chasms that divide us has come. In that election. .Excerpt from Inaugural Address by Nelson Mandela Primary Source LIBRARY About the Reading  After years of imprisonment for opposing white rule in South Africa. Identify  What does Mandela want South Africans to do—for political emancipation. of their inalienable right to human dignity—a To my compatriots. for national reconciliation. . . continuing bondage of poverty. The two leaders agreed to a timetable   for the end of apartheid and a date for South Africa’s first democratic   elections. never and never again shall it be outlawed and isolated by the peoples of the that this beautiful land will again experience world. share with this common homeland explains We must therefore act together as a united the depth of the pain we all carried in our people. . implant hope in the breasts of the millions of cans must produce an actual South African our people. Nelson Mandela  Today. . the oppression of one by another and suffer The time for the healing of the wounds the indignity of being the skunk of the world. the African National Congress. I have no hesitation rainbow nation at peace with itself and the in saying that each one of us is as intimately world. Skills The time to build is upon us. at last. We know it well that none of us acting That spiritual and physical oneness we all alone can achieve success. . We have triumphed in the effort to Our daily deeds as ordinary South Afri. achieved our 1. attached to the soil of this beautiful country as We understand it still that there is no are the famous jacaranda trees of Pretoria and easy road to freedom. . both black and white. has come. Let freedom reign. and ourselves to liberate all our people from the by our celebrations in other parts of our coun. de Klerk. Explain  What goals does Mandela set out for South Africa’s future?  Primary source LIBRARY R77 . Never. strengthen its confidence in the cans. in a terrible conflict. Nelson Mandela (1918– ) was freed in 1990. . . deprivation. all of us do. by our presence here. . confer glory and hope to suffering. gender and other discrimination. held in 1994. . We pledge themselves and for the people of the world? 2. FOCUS Reading Like a Historian We have. . . W. . . the mimosa trees of the bushveld . newborn liberty . for the birth of a new world. will be able to walk nobility of the human soul and sustain all our tall. for nation hearts as we saw our country tear itself apart building. He led his party. try and the world. assured hopes for a glorious life for all . . and as we saw it spurned. . Mandela was elected president. . . without any fear in their hearts.

. . who alone of all beings continue to sacrifice their wellbeing. To live the saying that she accepts the Nobel Prize for full life. at least the distance needed to Firstly. and Because circumstances do not permit my I quote. . the Nobel Prize for Peace. “. we should remember that her quest is basically spiritual. a pro-democracy activist in Myanmar (Burma). Aung San Suu Kyi  I stand before you here today to accept on spiritual aims” of the struggle.” Although my mother is often described as a political dissident who strives by peaceful Buddhahood  in Buddhism. dom and their lives in pursuit of a democratic Each man has in him the potential to realize Burma. Analyze  For Suu Kyi. . and how will success in that struggle be realized? R78 primary source LIBRARY . and the will to follow that path if express. greatest value on man.” and 1. transcend the flaws of his nature. also ask you struggle of a people to live whole. . “one must have the courage Peace not in her own name but in the name of to bear the responsibility of the needs of oth- all the people of Burma. . the urge mother to be here in person. Excerpt from Nobel Peace Prize Acceptance Speech Primary Source Library by Aung San Suu Kyi About the Reading  Aung San Suu Kyi (1945– ). women and children who. I will do my best to achieve it. Identify  To whom would Aung San Suu Kyi say that the Nobel she has written of the “essential Peace Prize belongs? 2. . . Aung San Suu Kyi. The realization behalf of my mother. . this of this depends solely on human responsibil- greatest of prizes. “the concept of perfection. Buddhism . It is part of the unceasing human together to build a nation founded on human- endeavor to prove that the spirit of man can ity in the spirit of peace. At the root of that responsibility lies.” And she links this firmly to her faith this prize belongs not to her but to all those when she writes.” she says. . in thanking you. Her son delivered her acceptance speech. meaningful to pray that the oppressors and the oppressed lives as free and equal members of the world should throw down their weapons and join community. the truth through his own will and endeavor and to help others to realize it. even as I speak. “The quest for democracy in Burma is the mother would. as she was under house arrest. . In 1991 she was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. As she has Skills FOCUS R eading L ike a H istorian said. places the men. what is the nature of the struggle for demo- cratic change. ity. their free. . the intelligence to find a path to convey the sentiments I believe she would towards it. She would say that ers. has repeatedly been arrested by Myanmar’s military dictatorship. not to the end.” Finally she I know that if she were free today my says. can achieve the supreme state of Buddhahood. I know that she would begin by rise above individual limitation . “The quintessential revolu- tion is that of the spirit. a peaceful and gentle state means for democratic change.

(p. 636) peninsula north of the Godavari River. 232 BC. 241) Alexander I (1777–1825) Czar of Russia from 1801 to Ashoka (died c. who Atatürk. he is considered one of the the sun and correctly explained the causes of eclipses. AD 406–453) King of the Huns from 434 to 453. 262) ics. 232 BC) Mauryan emperor from c. He was killed by the Spanish and Alexander Nevsky (c. He also promoted the spread of ments in Russia and Europe. 416) ‘Abbas (1571–1629) Shah of the Safavid Empire in Persia from 1588 to 1629. he held a deep devotion to and a dent of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992. 505) Aryabhata (476–c. she strug- great trust in the will of God. he defeated Danish invaders and united Anglo- Saxon England under his control. (p. 235) Alexander II (1818–1881) Czar of Russia from 1855 to Atahualpa (c. 360) of modern Turkey. in 1769 of conquest put in place under regent Bairim Khan. 363) BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY R79 . 927) Abu Bakr (c. he was known for his work in geometry. 155) Aguinaldo. (p. (p. 764) necessary inquiry. he was taken 1851. 143) Akbar the Great (1542–1605) Mughal emperor of India. his military victories against the Anawrahta (died 1077) First king of Pagan from 1044 Ottomans and skilled administration brought about a to 1077. after the defeat of the Napoleon’s army in 1812. the first time in history. he sought to transform Turkey into a modern. (p. (p. the originator of the Jewish line of descent. one of the greatest rulers of ancient India. he was the author of The Divine Comedy. 615) Buddhism. phys- fighting force that he led into Iraq and Syria. 273– 1825. he brought nearly all of India under one authority for supporting the suppression of all revolutionary move. of laws and promoted learning. enlarging his empire to include nearly all of the Indian thinner. 550) Gupta mathematician and Alexander the Great (356–323 BC) King of Macedon and astronomer. secular state with separation between Alfred the Great (849–899) King of Wessex from 871 to religion (Islam) and government. he united a territory that included much of golden age in Safavid history. (p. (p. (p. Kemal (1881–1938) Turkish leader and founder controlled much of Russia at the time. Biographical Dictionary Alighieri. he argued that the earth revolves around conqueror of much of Asia. Dante (1264–1321) Italian poet and humanist. 573–634) First Muslim caliph. (p. Richard (1732–1792) English inventor. he was vassal of the Mongols. 299) Augustine of Hippo (354–430) Early Christian church father and philosopher. thread. and rebuild the nation’s economy. which spun stronger. He compiled a code Attila (c. he taught that logic was the tool for any Filipino independence from the United States. 478) defeated the Swedes and the Teutonic knights. devastating the Balkan countries and northern Greece when prom- Ali. he unified the Archimedes (287–212 BC) Greek mathematician and restive Bedouin tribes of central Arabia into a strong inventor. 46) gled to restore political stability. 1220–1263) Russian hero. (p. 362) he invaded parts of the Roman Empire. 503) modern day Myanmar (Burma). according to the Qu’ran. Emilio (1869–1964) Self-proclaimed president Aristotle (384–322 BC) Greek philosopher and student of the new Philippine Republic in 1899. he patented the spinning frame. his writings helped shape Christian doctrine for centuries. 191) rule and established a new empire in Songhai. (p. he organized an uprising against Malian forestall his invasion of Italy. 1502–1533) Last Inca king. (p. Sunni (died 1492) First great leader of Africa’s Song- ised tribute was not paid. his work later became the basis for medieval scholasticism. (p. (p. the Aquino. he fought for of Plato. he his empire was taken over. (p. (p. 151) (p. 730) accept Christianity and surrender his empire to Span- ish conquistadors. 331) Abraham According to the Bible. he freed the Russian serfs and passed other prisoner by Pizarro and his army after refusing to liberal reforms in Russia. 809) 899. (p. (p. greatest generals of all time. he built thousands of Buddhist temples. As grand duke of Kiev. he became one of the most powerful leaders in Europe. return to democracy. c. and mechanics. he ruled from 1556 until 1605 and continued the policy Arkwright. Corazon (1933–) Philippine politician and presi- ancestor of the Arabs. Plague and famine helped hai Empire. as a close com- panion and successor to Muhammad. one of the BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY greatest literary classics. (p. (p. (p. a devout Buddhist.

956) Beethoven. (p. 505–565) Byzantine general under opposed his enlarged powers. 505) life to search for truth and enlightenment. 951) Castiglione. 763) (p. (p. 115) Confucian scholar of the Han lished the Buddhist religion based on the Four Noble period. and sonatas. during the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920). the greatest military leaders in history. established new coinages. architect. John (1509–1564) French Protestant theologian of Italy for Justinian. wrote symphonies. Otto von (1815–1898) German statesman. 440) R80 BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY . (p. Lessons for Women. His main political goal was for Prussia to gain power tion. Augustus Castiglione. 457) Babur (1483–1530) Founder of the Mughal empire of Buddha (c. 348) of the Reformation. (p. Julius (100–47 BC) Roman general and one of considered the greatest composer. 676) most of Gaul and was named dictator for life in Rome. he seized power in a coup d’état in 1799. in which she argues that Buonarroti. steel the development and patent of the telephone. 699) (Burma). (p. often Caesar. he conquered quartets. he led forces against Vitoriano Huerta head of the Mapai Labor Party from 1930 to 1965. 452) Bell. 173) Justinian I. one of the most impor- ist network responsible for the attacks of September tant books of the Renaissance. which was associated with the doctrine of predestination. and to promote democracy in the country of Myanmar Bolivia. over Austria. (p. Panama. Andrew (1835–1919) American industrialist and devices to aid people with hearing impairments led to humanitarian. 174) Bolívar. David (1886–1973) Israeli statesman. also India. However. Ludwig van (1770–1827) German composer who spanned the Classical and Romantic periods. 664) industry in the late 1800s and early 1900s. (p. writer. He estab- Ban Zhao (AD 45–c. Venustiano (1859–1920) Mexican revolutionist founded the Histadrut labor organization and was and politician. she wrote a classic Confucian text on the role of Truths and the Eightfold Path. Bismarck. and he painted the ceiling of the Begin. 719) BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY (p. he estab. his interest in electrical and mechanical Carnegie. he expanded Mughal power to its greatest French armies in conquering much of Europe. Michelangelo (1475–1564) Italian Renaissance women should show humility and obedience toward sculptor. (p. he led expeditions to overthrow the Vandal kingdom in North Africa and occupied parts Calvin. (p. Napoleon (1769–1821) general. 563–483 BC) Founder of Buddhism. (p. 919) Bonaparte. he lished the Second Triumvirate with Mark Antony and became the leading force behind German unification. Osama (1957–) Founder of al Qaeda. he took steps to implement the reforms ordered by the Council of Trent. (p. Simón (1783–1830) South American revolution- Aung San Suu Kyi (1945–) Burmese political leader. S. 229) Pieta and the David. He was later murdered by a group of senators who Belisarius (c. (p. France. and other attacks. Peru. he wrote The Courtier. 443) minister. (p. (p. (p. Defeated at the gious views helped undermine Mughal rule. 647) Ben-Gurion. Emperor of Aurangzeb (1618–1707) Mughal emperor of India (1658. she ary who led independence wars in the present nations won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991 for her efforts of Venezuela. his efforts to impose his strict reli. and encouraged trade. Baldassare (1479–1529) Italian diplomat and bin Laden. he founded Calvinism. 609) Borromeo. 104) women. (p. he signed a peace treaty with Anwar Sadat that ended thirty years of conflict between Israel and Egypt. he gave up princely lished an empire there. in which he delineates 11. Colombia. he sculpted the their husbands and families. 2001. painter. 899) the rules and correct behaviors for a courtier to adopt in order to win favor from a ruler. he led 1707). he was exiled on the island of Elba. plac- extant. (p. the terror. known as Siddhartha Gautama. He created the imperial system of administra. he Carranza. he led the expansion of the U. ing his relatives in positions of power. and poet. (p. he invaded Afghanistan and India and estab. 507) Battle of Waterloo. (p. Lepidus. (p. Alexander Graham (1847–1922) American inventor and educator. Ecuador. Baldassare Augustus (63 BC–AD 14) First emperor of Rome. Menachem (1913–1992) Israeli politician and prime Sistine Chapel. Charles (1538–1584) Archbishop of Milan from 1560 to 1584.

sail- (p. Hugo (1954–) Venezuelan political leader and by reforming the army and the government. Churchill. (p. his conflict with Parliament and Christian missionaries. he reorganized and strengthened the Persian Empire Chávez. Christopher (1451–1506) Italian explorer. (p. (p. Miguel de (1547–1616) Spanish novelist. Sister Juana Ines de la (1651–1695) Mexican nun and Charlemagne (c. (p. They developed a written alphabet for the Charles II (1630–1685) King of England. 416) Darius I (550–486 BC) King of Persia from 522 to 486 BC. ” (p. he defeated the Aztec Empire. he wrote The Canterbury Tales. to convert to Christianity. Slavonic language that became known as the Cyrillic land from 1660 to 1685 and eldest son of King Charles alphabet. 52) president. 362) matist. premier of the kingdom of Sardinia. he defeated the Median army Charles V (1500–1558) King of Spain (as Charles I). 969) Cleisthenes (died c. their use of the Slavonic started the English Civil War. who reached the Americas in 1492 while Chamorro. (p. dictatorship. and plays. (p. or sun-centered. 715) 400s. Camillo di (1810–1861) Italian statesman and Clovis (c. and he duced a number of reforms that extended Peter the reorganized Athenian tribes on a geographical rather Great’s policy of “westernization. Marie (1867–1934) and Pierre (1859–1906) Euro- Italy in one Frankish empire. his victories convinced him Cervantes. 23 stories of pilgrims assembled at the Tabard Inn in Southwark. His regime in 1642 he led Parliament’s forces in deposing King was a time of prosperity and cultural flourishing Charles I. 233) 1519 to 1521. Cortés. Winston (1874–1965) British prime minister. and Ire. He extended the territory of the empire. she wrote poetry. 358) I. 51) opposition to the Protestant Reformation embroiled Spain in a series of wars throughout his reign. (p. 1340–1400) English poet. Oliver (1599–1658) Lord Protector of England. she intro. 569) northern India and ruled over parts of Pakistan. he helped overthrow the Cuban government in 1959 he opposed the policy of appeasement and led Great and seized control of the country. 477) during his reign the Gupta Empire reached its peak. (p. he conquered much of the universe. Hernán (1485–1547) Spanish conquistador. theory of Mauryan Empire in India. he pro- his country away from democracy and toward a posed the theory of evolution through natural selection. ” He increased the size 1762 to 1796. 135) Cavour. exercising total con. 373) and polonium in 1898. 667) BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY R81 . (p. (p. (p. architect of the he established the kingdom of the Franks in the late Italian unification movement in the late 1800s. (p. and Cyril (c. (p. 536) Chaucer. Scotland. 237) Cruz. Cromwell. 473) Central American nation. of the council that governed Athens to 500.Castro. prose. ing Mexico for Spain. (p. (p. from (p. 298 BC) Founder of the proposed the heliocentric. she was the first woman to govern a (p. 321–c. 549) of the Persian Empire. 979) Copernicus. 667) Charles I (1600–1649) King of England. according to legend. (p. Germany and northern Curie. and poet. Columbus. conquer- Chandra Gupta II (300s–400s) Emperor of the Gupta. 836) trol of the government and economy. (p. Britain through World War II. 570 BC) Ancient Greek ruler often BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY Catherine the Great (1729–1796) Czarina of Russia from called the “father of democracy. he became ruler of England in 1653. (p. he set out to eliminate poverty in his country. 1990 to 1997. Geoffrey (c. 537) ing for Spain. Holy and united the Persians and Medians under his rule. 555) than familial basis. he wrote Don Quixote de la Mancha. 466–511) King of the Franks from 481 to 511. 825–884) Brothers Ireland from 1625 to 1649. Fidel Darwin. (p. he Chandragupta Maurya (c. he was asked by Parliament to rule England after Cyrus the Great (died 529 BC) King of Persia and founder the death of Oliver Cromwell. 827–869) and Methodius (c. 537) 814. they discovered radium Roman people in 800. He was beheaded in language helped convert many Moravians to Chris- 1649. Charles (1809–1882) English scientist. Roman Emperor (as Charles V) from 1519 to 1558. Charles Castro. Fidel (1926–) Communist political leader of Cuba. he united much of France. Scotland. dra. his (p. but his methods of doing so tended to turn Darwin. 742–814) King of the Franks from 768 to poet. 547) for much of India. ruling with absolute power. Nicolaus (1473–1543) Polish astronomer. (p. crowned Emperor of the pean chemists and physicists. 982) which came to be known as Darwinism. 547) tianity. (p. Violeta (1929–) President of Nicaragua from searching for a western sea route from Europe to Asia.

math. chiefly government leader. tricity. including the light bulb. he freed. To his regret. he discontent with the Roman Catholic Church. 447) of oils in his painting. (p. Henry Deng Xiaoping (1904–1997) Chinese revolutionary and El Greco (c. 660) many scientific theories and was awarded the Nobel Ford. (1890–1969) General. Jan van (c. such as the use the everyday with the religious. he led a Drake. 1020) Norwegian explorer. ist. 275 BC) Greek geometer. 489) Victorian era. after a struggle for power follow. his paint- techniques of realism and perspective with elements ings focused on landscapes and domestic life and fused unique to the northern Renaissance. Europe during the Middle Ages. Michael (1791–1867) English scientist. Oliver Twist. 1541–1614) Greek painter in Spain. (p. he destroyed the Kush capital of Meroë and took over the kingdom of Kush around AD 320. René (1596–1650) French philosopher. 447) Ezana (c. (p. (p. (p. (p. sought foreign investment but ruled harshly. he wrote on the need for a pure and simple Chris- among many other works. president and dictator of Mexico for 30 years. (p. he calculated the circumference of the Disraeli. 923) England. he Prize for physics in 1921. he York City. (p. he established a power plant that supplied electricity to parts of New Faraday. 676) tian life. His invention eventually led to today’s electrical cist. 537) far-reaching market reforms in the Chinese economy. she reasserted became one of the underpinnings of the scientific Protestant supremacy in England. he developed the theory of relativity among his generators. Deng Xiaoping Ford. 276–c. 660) invented the dynamo—a machine that generated elec- Einstein. 289) Edison. (p. (p. as Supreme Allied automobile (Model T). 380) the west coast. 1390–1441) Flemish painter. He ended up heading west to return Euclid (died c. 846) R82 BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY . or Catholic. he oversaw the passage of key reforms. Erasmus. A Christ. as globe using careful observations and simple geometry. she was one of the most powerful women in Descartes. 1122–1204) Queen of France and BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY (p. Olaudah (c. and scientist. (p. he was an enslaved African who was eventually cian. Deng took power in 1981. (p. 1750–1797) African American aboli- Díaz. tionist. a skillful politician and diplomat. 1540–1596) English admiral. (p. 155) including an extension of male suffrage. became a leader of the abolitionist movement. (p. geometry. he led the Allied invasions of North Africa and of France (D-Day). AD 300s) Aksumite ruler. he combined Italian Renaissance Eyck. 194 BC) Greek astronomer and halves. 688) Eriksson. (p. (p. 569) Equiano.000 patents. Dwight D. His circumnavigate the globe. his works express the spirit of the ing Mao’s death. and A Tale of Two Cities. he group of Vikings to North America and settled on the rounded the tip of South America and explored eastern shore of modern-day Canada. Desiderius (1466–1536) Dutch priest and human- mas Carol. thus becoming the second man to cal books on geometric forms and mathematics. (p. Sir Francis (c. 388) ematician. Albrecht (1471–1528) German painter. 189) geographer. Albert (1879–1955) American theoretical physi. Reformation. (p. Benjamin (1804–1881) British statesman. thirty-fourth assembly line and popularized the affordable president of the United States. 445) divided the Roman Empire into eastern and western Erastosthenes (c. his writings fanned the flames of Diocletian (245–313) Roman emperor from 284 to 305. 454) method. 474) work formed the basis for later European studies in Dürer. Leif (died c. Porfirio (1830–1915) Mexican general and politi. engraver. 668) revolutionized factory production through use of the Eisenhower. his belief that all things Elizabeth I (1533–1603) Queen of England from 1558 to should be doubted until they could be proved by reason 1603. 662) Commander in Europe during World War II. Eleanor of Aquitaine (c. Thomas (1847–1931) American inventor of over 1. 762) and wrote The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Dickens. (p. prime minister. Charles (1812–1870) English author during the Olaudah Equiano. he made Counter. Henry (1863–1947) American business leader. (p. he created practi- to England. religious in nature. he wrote Great Expectations. 155) and theoretician. (p. (p.

780) Kingdom of Italy. 570) written laws. scientist. (p. 716) Franz Joseph I (1830–1916) Emperor of Austria-Hungary Genghis Khan (c. full-sized zealous in propagating Christianity. Frederick Wilhelm promised a constitution and that killed the brothers. potamia into the Babylonian Empire. Gregory excommuni- forgotten impressions underlie all abnormal mental cated Henry. and physicist. he became the first European to sail around Africa and reach India by sea. 590 to 604. 180) Galilei. during his long reign he took small forged the Mongol tribes into a fighting force that con- steps to address the democratic and nationalist aspira. 445) Galen (129–c. 317) tions of his people. 394) states. His first printed publication was a 1. (p. he discovered the law of motion of was a brilliant military leader who brought all of Meso- falling objects and invented the first working telescope. 457) Gandhi. 557) statesmen. daughter dent of Mexico. he from 1848 to 1916. he was the first democratically elected and mother of Indian prime ministers. 540–604) Roman Catholic pope from Fulton. 472) BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY R83 . he tician. (p. his Freud. Benjamin (1706–1790) American statesman. 911) BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY leader and preacher. Giuseppe (1807–1882) Italian military and Franz Ferdinand (1863–1914) Heir to the throne of Austria. Frederick made Prussia a major brother Gaius Sempronius Gracchus (153–121). 1020–1085) Roman Catholic pope. 172) other reforms. 199) Greek physician. Mikhail (1931–) Russian politician. Vicente (1942–) Mexican political leader and presi. (p. (p. he unified the southern states of Hungary whose assassination by a Serb nationalist Italy and joined them to the north to form the united started World War I. he invented movable type. he restored monastic discipline and was tor. population for protest through the methods of nonvio- first U. (p. Prussia’s main rival for dominance among Gracchi Tiberius Sempornius Gracchus (163–133) and his the German states. in France. (p. 37) Gama. Gandhi. he worked to win back the district of Savoy. (p. (p. Vicente Hammurabi Fox. 969) Gutenberg. 892) Austria. which he later disavowed. from Calvinism. (p. and member of the committee to lent resistance and civil disobedience. her term was marred by Francis of Sales (1567–1622) French Roman Catholic sectarian violence involving India’s Sikh minority. nationalist leader. 1162–1227) Mongol warrior and ruler. through victories in a series of wars with collapse in 1991. including parts of China. the Clermont. He is known for his discoveries put him into conflict with the Roman his uniform code of 282 laws. she was India’s opposition candidate in Mexico’s history. he wrote several vol- umes that summarized all the medical knowledge of his day. 1397–1468) German inventor and printer. 637) Cuban revolution. he built the first commercially successful. inventor. 724) Gorbachev. Mohandas (1869–1948) Leader of India’s struggle Franklin. 670) Gregory the Great (c. (p. Hammurabi (ruled c. in 1497-1499. he for independence from Great Britain. 719) Gregory VII (c. 1469-1524) Portuguese navigator. (p. he was the Frederick the Great (1712–1786) King of Prussia from last president of the Soviet Union before the country’s 1740 to 1786. 981) first female prime minister. (p. they tried to help ex-soldiers in Rome by Frederick Wilhelm IV (1795–1861) King of Prussia from redistributing public land to small farmers. postmaster. (p. 363) steamboat. (p. (p. the earliest known set of Catholic Church. (p. (p. Sigmund (1856–1939) Austrian psychiatrist and assertion of church power to appoint bishops led him founder of psychoanalysis. he was an aide to Fidel Castro during the people. The Roman 1840 to 1861. which led to the development Guevara. 1792–1750 BC) King of Babylonia. when revolution broke out in Prussia in elite reacted violently to these actions and led mobs 1848. Vasco da (c. Robert (1765–1815) American engineer and inven. (p. Indira (1917–1984) Indian politician. 582) Garibaldi. publisher.282-page Bible. he organized the was a philosopher. (p. (p. Che (1928–1967) Argentinean revolutionary of commercial steamboat ferry services for goods and leader. Galileo (1564–1642) Italian astronomer. who relented. Johannes (c. Roman European power in the late 1700s. he treated hysteria using into conflict with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV. who hypnosis and believed that complexes of repressed and claimed the powers for himself. (p. quered much of Asia.Fox. S. 809) draft the Declaration of Independence. writer. (p. mathema.

He concentrated all power in his own Protestant worship. (p. she wrote dozens of poems and music to accom. Ho Chi Minh (1890–1969) Vietnamese nationalist and rev- and during her reign. 390) 1547. his best- known writings explore the relationship between Hidalgo. Miguel (1753–1811) Mexican priest and revo- reason and faith. under his rule. focused on temple-building olutionary leader. (p. noted as a medical scholar. 898) patron of exploration. England’s break with the Roman Catho. Korea. he made the first public call for Mexican independence. 453) (1980–1990) and Kuwait (1991). which revealed the unfair pany them. (p. 541) Hudson. 862) Catholicism during the Catholic Reformation. (p. Adolf (1889–1945) Totalitarian dictator of Ger- 786 to 809). He espoused notions of racial superiority and flowering. this order of Roman into unconditional surrender following the atomic. Theodor (1860–1904) Hungarian Zionist leader. he Homer (800s–700s BC) Greek poet. his defeat of Richard III Hudson River in present-day New York. 415) treatment of women in the home. which outlined plans Ibn Rushd (1126–1198) Spanish-Arab philosopher. In 1810 he rang a bell in his hometown Ibn Sina (980–1037) Persian philosopher and physician. Henrik (1828–1906) Norwegian poet and dramatist. he established a brutal dictatorship. 272) Herzl. he in England’s history. and its embrace of Protestantism. she took the throne in place of her stepson. (p. the Wars of the Roses and the beginning of a new era elected by Frankish nobles to succeed King Louis V. 474) and his assumption of the throne marked the end of Hugh Capet (c. (p.-led forces. in order to restore peace to France. 510) (p. he wrote A Doll’s House. (p. 694) known as Averroes. 425 BC) Greek historian. (p. 938–996) King of France from 987 to 996. his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict Hussein. (p. he wrote the epic was excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII over bishop poems the Iliad and the Odyssey. which describes major Ibn Khaldun (1211–1282) Muslim writer. 456) R84 BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY . (p. he led Japan during World War II and was forced founder of the Jesuits (1534). 68) of Vietnam (North Vietnam) from 1945 to 1969. to 2003. 272) lutionary. his invasion of European countries led to World reached its height and Islamic culture experienced a War II. 272) Hildegard of Bingen (1098–1179) Medieval nun and Ibsen. 915) Henry IV (1050–1106) King of Germany from 1056 to 1106 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1056 to 1106. 696) contributed to many other fields of study. hands. (p. which traced the history of the Muslim world. 766–809) Fifth Abbasid caliph (ruled Hitler. which permitted and Manchuria. 145) Muqaddimah. Harun al-Rashid Ignatius of Loyola Harun al-Rashid (c. he was the first for the Dutch East India Company and discovered the king from the house of Tudor. He was removed from Henry the Navigator (1394–1460) Prince of Portugal and power in 2003 by U. which tell stories set appointments. (p. 826) BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY Hatshepsut (died 1468 BC) Queen of ancient Egypt. he from Spain. and led Iraq into wars with Iran established the Church of England in 1532. (p. he wanted to bring communism to South Vietnam. 144) and was readmitted to the church. which ruled France for Henry VIII (1491–1547) King of England from 1509 to 300 years. (p. calling the peasants to fight for their independence also known as Avicenna. (p. Saddam (1937–2006) President of Iraq from 1979 with the pope. (p. He was captured and executed. (p. 394) Hongwu (1328–1398) First emperor of the Ming dynasty Henry IV (1553–1610) King of France from 1589 to 1610. he made no voyages himself but spent his life directing voyages of discovery along the African coast. 484–c. influenced by Aristotle. his most famous work is The Histories. (p. he issued the Edict of Nantes (1598). 676) Hirohito (1901–1989) Emperor of Japan from 1926 to Ignatius of Loyola (1491–1556) Spanish churchman and 1989. he sailed Henry VII (1457–1509) King of England. the Abbasid dynasty many. he acknowledged the pope’s authority during and after the Trojan War. Henry (died 1611) English navigator. sup- lic Church. in 1896 he wrote The Jewish State. Thutmose III. he drove the Mongols out of China. (p. 422) founded the Capetian dynasty. Henry pressed all dissent. 266) was responsible for the mass murder of millions of Jews and others in the Holocaust. Catholic priests proved an effective force for reviving bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. also for an independent Jewish country. (p. (p. 471) Herodotus (c. (p. author. in China. S. (p. he wrote the events of the Persian Wars. president of the Democratic Republic projects and trade.

(p. chairman of the committee Roosevelt’s New Deal policies. (p. Continental Congresses. Jomo (c. his reign was one of relative inter- Las Casas. which stated that gov- Jefferson. with the state he succeeded Sun Yixian as leader of the Nationalist controlling much of the economy. he founded Christianity and taught the country for the next ten years. Donald (1943–) American anthropologist. (p. 958) about kindness and love of God. he is known for building large stone Christian subjects. Kangxi (1654–1722) Chinese emperor of the Qing dynasty (p. 928) he believed that Indian Muslims needed a separate nation and called for a partition in 1940. (p. (p. he ruled and prophet. He instituted a campaign of terror a great work on how rulers seize and maintain power. (p. 318) Kalidasa (c. 421) Klerk. 290) from 1661 to 1722. Jinnah. He killed his son. (p. (p. he established a govern- Jiang Jieshi (1887–1975) Chinese general and politician. 1180–c. which he named Lucy. grandson of Genghis Khan. AD 600s) Indian dramatist and poet. Ayatollah Ruhollah (c. third ernments could prevent economic downturns by deficit president of the United States. (p. (p. and ordered Hagia continued his grandfather’s wars of conquest in China. 348) He moved the Mongol capital to China and expanded his empire beyond China. 944) Justinian I (483–565) Byzantine emperor from 527 to 565. he was a member of two spending. 1412–1431) French soldier and national of civil rights for African Americans in the 1950s and heroine. F. he sought to protect Native Americans a patron of the arts. the Declara- tion’s main author and one of its signers. Bartolomé de Ivan IV (1530–1584) Grand duke of Russia and the first Kautilya (c. Bartolomé de (1474–1566) Spanish missionary nal peace.Ivan IV Las Casas. 938) Keynes. the rest of Kim Il Sung (1912–1994) North Korean political leader the world. also known as and advisor to Chandragupta. Martin Luther Jr. He was assassinated in 1968. 1893–1978) African political leader and first president of Kenya from 1964 to 1978. Sophia built. 6) Mandela from prison. ued to deteriorate. he Roman laws with Justinian’s Code. he led a revolution to over- Jesus of Nazareth (AD 1–30) First-century Jewish teacher throw the Shah of Iran’s government in 1979. Kublai Khan (1215–1294) Mongol emperor and founder he reunited the parts of the Roman Empire. His teachings spread through the Roman Empire and. many of which are still standing today. 234) heir to the throne. ment party based on the Soviet model. often called the “Indian Shakespeare. (p. 240) churches. (p. 512) from Spanish mistreatment by replacing them as laborers with imported African slaves. he was a celebrated and charismatic advocate Joan of Arc (c.” his poems and plays Lalibela (c. (p. he process of ending apartheid in South Africa by lifting discovered a partial Australopithecine skeleton in the ban on antiapartheid parties and releasing Nelson Ethiopia. de (1936–) South African statesman and presi- dent of South Africa from 1989 to 1994. (p. simplified of the Yüan Dynasty. (p. 300 BC) Indian philosopher and politician Russian ruler to assume to title of czar. his revolutionary economic theory. leaving no (p. 889) Hundred Years’ War and was burned at the stake for heresy. against disfavored boyars. 910) King. Ivan the Terrible. he wrote Arthashastra. (p. (p. He constructed many public works and was and historian. 184) and chief of state of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea from 1948 to 1994. W. John Maynard (1883–1946) British economist. Thomas (1743–1826) American statesman. and romantic to 1250. (1929–1968) American civil rights leader. 815) to draft the Declaration of Independence. 1900–1989) Iranian politi- cal and religious leader. provided the basis for some of Franklin D. 1250) Ethiopian ruler from about 1200 were written on historical. (p. she rallied the French troops during the 1960s. 928) China in the 1920s. 808) Kim Jong Il (1941–) Dictatorial leader of North Korea. Muhammad Ali (1876–1948) Indian politician and under his rule the North Korean economy has contin- founder of Pakistan. 553) BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY Kenyatta. he began the Johanson. as leader of the Muslim League. 582) Khomeini. (p. mythological. financing heavy Party in China and led attacks against Communists in industry and the military. eventually. 479) BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY R85 . he was a leader of the African nationalist movement.

he State. (p. 692) BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY there. 542) would always exist was used to justify low wages and Louis XVI (1754–1793) King of France from 1774 to 1792. Louis (1903–1972) British archaeologist and Louis Philippe (1773–1850) King of France from 1830 to anthropologist of East Africa. Abraham (1809–1865) Sixteenth president of the and he refused to kowtow to the emperor. he was do not protect their rights. 575) a delegate to the Constitutional Convention and the Louis XIII (1601–1643) King of France from 1610 to 1643. He painted the Mona Lisa. fourth president of the United States. Nelson (1918–) Former guerrilla fighter. John (1632–1704) English philosopher and founder advised rulers to separate morals from politics. she made great discoveries 1852 to 1870. Southern states and the Civil War. 944) R86 BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY . states- lution. 647) his unpopular policies helped trigger the French Revo- Mandela. 443) Leopold II (1835–1909) King of Belgium from 1865 to 1909. he ruled during a time of Lenin. he developed political and insisted that a ruler do whatever is necessary to suc- economic theories during the Enlightenment. He later commanded UN forces at the Liu Bang (c. Martin (1483–1546) German monk whose protests against the Catholic Church in 1517 (the Ninety-Five Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) Italian painter. sculptor. He of British empiricism. 848) policies of the Qin and appointed Confucian scholars Machiavelli. (p. he came to power after the July Revolution and Africa was the best place to search for human origins he was known as the “citizen king” for showing an and made many important archaeological discoveries interest in the working class and having much in com- mon with the middle class. A nephew of Napoleon I. he rose to power in Russia following the Russian Revolution in 1917. (p. (p. hold great sway during his reign. he was man. Lincoln successfully he commanded U. James (1751–1836) American statesman. he financed an expedition to the Congo and assumed the title of sovereign of the Congo Free Macartney. (p. Magellan. musician. (p. Nelson Leakey. which Locke. sociologist. He was assassinated in 1865. Ferdinand (c. 6) 1848. Niccolò (1469–1527) Italian political phi- as his advisors. 541) his ships were the first to circumnavigate the globe. 224) losopher and statesman. He is known as a relatively weak ruler. laws restricting charity to the poor. 584) his chief minister. Louis Mandela. 594) black president of South Africa. along Louis Napoleon (1808–1873) Emperor of France from with her husband. 1480–1521) Portuguese navigator. he built the palace at Malthus. (p. Leakey. Deposed by the National Convention. 703) the war ended. 450) ests and talents spanned numerous disciplines. (p. (p. (p. (p. until he was removed by dynasty in China. he was convinced that 1848. Louis. 7) Leakey.” (p. Lord George (1737–1806) British diplomat. he staged a coup d’état and took absolute power. troops in the southwest Pacific preserved the Union and issued the Emancipation during World War II and administered Japan after Proclamation. (p. known as the Sun King. (p. (p. 474) 1715. (p. he did away with the Legalist President Truman. he let Cardinal Richelieu. Vladimir (1870–1924) Russian revolutionary and economic prosperity in France. He exploited them as workers. Thomas (1766–1834) English economist and Versailles as a means to consolidate absolute power. 440) people have a right to rebel against governments that Madison. engineer. Louis XIV (1638–1715) King of France from 1643 to though he died on the journey. his inter- known as the Reformation. (p. His armies treated the Congolese brutally and visited China in 1793 to discuss expanding trade. his theory that population growth would a series of wars at the end of his long reign drained exceed the growth of food production and that poverty France’s wealth. 758) was sent away after his goods were found to be inferior Lincoln. Theses) led to calls for reform and to the movement architect. the “father of the Constitution. 730) Luther. after winning the presidential election in of early hominids in East Africa. (p. S. Two Treatises on Government in which he declared that (p. He wrote ceed and that the ends would justify the means. 513) United States. Mary (1913–1996) British archaeologist. (p. he helped end apartheid and became the first executed by guillotine. 250–195 BC) First emperor of the Han beginning of the Korean War. he wrote The Prince. and scientist. his election led to the secession of the MacArthur. (p. Douglas (1880–1964) American general. 692) founder of Bolshevism.

Guglielmo (1874–1937) Italian physicist. he sup- ported some of the most talented Renaissance artists. he wrote the Communist Mani- festo in 1848. 760) millions from his country’s treasury. 617) King Louis XVI. He imposed he gained Ethiopian independence from Italy in 1896. Prince Klemens von (1773–1859) Austrian tory of Austria. Meiji. Along society. 442) Egypt and back to Canaan in the Exodus. which describes an ideal means of production and govern themselves. (p. (p. he was killed in battle but became a symbol of Montesquieu. according to the Bible. Samuel (1791–1872) American artist and inven- nation. 64) She was one of the most beloved monarchs in the his. was found guilty of treason and guillotined. he wrote Utopia. she was the communication across the English Channel between prime minister of Israel during the Yom Kippur War France and England. who remained poor. soon became an authoritarian dictator. (p. She made himself dictator and. He was known for his patronage and liberal mind. 157–86 BC) Roman general and politi. Gaius (c. Baron de (1689–1755) French jurist and Cuba’s fight for freedom. she took have founded the city of Memphis. Giuseppe (1805–1872) Italian patriot. he led the Hebrew people out of (p. but Menelik II (1844–1913) Emperor of Ethiopia after 1889. (p. (p. and stole (p. 663) Medici. he led a successful revolution and established a to 1912.Mansa Musa Moses Mansa Musa (died 1332) Leader of Mali who held power Mehmed II (1432–1481) Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1307 to 1332. 945) cian. 298) capital of Constantinople. he restored imperial rule to Japan and. pushed for many reforms in Marconi. the capital of uni- the throne after the War of the Austrian Succession. it was during this journey that he received the Ten Commandments from God. 649) Morelos. (p. into the army and began to accept anyone who wished he was the emperor of the Aztecs when Cortés and to join the Roman army. he applied scientists’ discoveries of electricity and magnetism to develop the telegraph. he Japan. He was taken pris- forces that became devoted to their generals. Sir Thomas (1478–1535) English statesman and He advocated for a state in which the workers own the author. (p. More. 927) Menes (fl. (p. He made armies into private his army conquered the empire. arrested his political opponents. (p. and a strong military leader who conquered the Byzantine promoted Islam. Metternich. Karl (1818–1883) German social philosopher and of government. 808) the help of samurais. he was Songhai. he is credited Maria Theresa (1717–1780) Austrian archduchess. 576) workers would become impoverished and miserable. 594) amassed great wealth for himself at the expense of Marius. 714) tor. he explored democratic theories Marx. into three branches and greatly influenced the United he declared that as capitalism grew. supported the arts. he Revolution and disliked by many French citizens. martial law. she was queen during the French Mobutu Sese Seko (1930–1997) President of Zaire. (p. (p. 556) statesman and diplomat. with Communist government in China in 1949. (p. 750) experimented with wireless telegraphy and established Meir. he States. Emperor (1852–1912) Emperor of Japan from 1867 nists. he became the leader of the revolutionary movement in Mexico Mazzini. explaining their philosophy. (p. 477) fighter. his people. queen with uniting Upper and Lower Egypt and is said to of Bohemia and Hungary from 1740 to 1780. José (1853–1895) Cuban writer and independence (p. 664) and sought assistance and supplies from the United Marcos. 3100 BC) First pharaoh of Egypt. (p. he was the Austrian repre- Marie-Antoinette (1755–1793) Queen of France. he conquered the Kingdom of from 1444 to 1446 and again from 1451 to 1481. According to the Bible. fied Egypt. 46) BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY R87 . (p. José María (1765–1815) Creole priest. Martí. he eliminated property restrictions for acceptance Moctezuma II (1466–1520) Aztec ruler from 1502 to 1520. He expanded trade. 446) with Friedrich Engels. Ferdinand (1917–1989) Philippine politician. 698) the nationalist group called Young Italy to fight for the unification of the separate Italian states into one Morse. Moses (1500s–1400s BC) Hebrew prophet and lawgiver. he formed after Miguel Hidalgo’s death. 501) BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY Mao Zedong (1893–1976) Leader of the Chinese Commu. 956) was elected president of the Philippines in 1965. (p. more and more States Constitution. (p. 763) political philosopher. 172) oner and killed during battle with the Spanish army. He proposed a government divided chief theorist of modern socialism and communism. Lorenzo de (1449–1492) Florentine ruler. (p. Golda (1898–1978) Israeli politician. wife of sentative at the Congress of Vienna. (p. (p. over the course of his rule. (p.

his experi- ments with bacteria disproved the theory of spontane- Nebuchadnezzar II (c. and philosopher. His teachings form the basis of Islam. Nkrumah. He conducted a famous Newton. (p. he helped lead a military coup that forced King in 1903. 688) and undertook an ambitious land reform program to gain support for his regime among the poor. 1026) Japanese courtier and Holy Roman Emperor (962–973). Iran’s oil industry was controlled by foreign interests. which ended the Magyar raids in the of Japanese literature widely considered to be the mid-900s. he researched the physiology of defeated Napoleon’s navy in Egypt and again at the the heart. 258) Omar Khayyam (c. 570) Pedro I (1798–1834) First emperor of Brazil (1822–1831). the digestive system. Juan (1895–1974) President of Argentina from 1946 country as a base for drug smuggling. 495–429 BC) Athenian statesman. he defeated the and writer. (p. Gamal Abdel (1918–1970) Egyptian army officer. (p. His alliance with Hitler brought Italy empire through the use of military force and political into World War II. she wrote The Tale of Genji. (p. AD 10–67) Apostle to the Gentiles. he rose to power following a military coup d’état and was a supporter of the rights of the people. with ruled as Italy’s dictator for more than 20 years begin. 669) as well as laws on the physics of objects. Louis (1822–1895) French chemist. he rebuilt Babylon into He also developed vaccines for anthrax and rabies. (p. (p. he worked Nehru. growth of the city-state’s power. he discovered the law of gravity reflex. he brutally crushed his enemies and used the Perón. 1131) Persian poet. 823) alliances. the brain. (p. leader and statesman. He was overthrown in a revolution led by the Ayatollah Khomeini. he encour- first president in 1957. author of BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY to 1598. 609) the higher nervous system. (p. 978–c. Askia (died 1538) King of Songhai from 1493 ematician. Emmeline (1858–1928) British woman suffrag- political leader. he pushed for Ghanaian inde. Mohammad Reza (1919–1980) Shah of Iran from 1941 to 1979. she founded the Women’s Social and Political Union Egypt. 390) world’s first novel. (p. Babylon from 605 to 562 BC. (p. Manuel (1938–) Panamanian general and dicta. Pankhurst. (p. a collection of poems about a man who Muslim learning in the West African kingdom during celebrates the simple pleasures in life. Topa Inca. He banned existing political parties strikes and was arrested often for her actions. he was to spread Jesus’ teachings and wrote letters that the first prime minister of an independent India at the explained key ideas of Christianity. 700) pendence from Great Britain and was elected Ghana’s Pericles (c. 977) to 1955 and again from 1973 to 1974. a masterpiece Magyar army. he over- threw the elected government of Pakistan in 1999 and became president. where Pedro’s father was king. 274) his rule. Lady Shikibu (c. (p. 570–632) Prophet of Islam whom Muslims recognize as Allah’s messenger to all humankind. and first president of the republic of ist. the help of his son. Pervez (1943–) Pakistani general. Juan Muhammad (c. Admiral Horatio (1758–1805) British admiral. Ivan (1849–1936) Russian physiologist and experi- Nelson. 213) Pahlavi. (p. during his reign. 974) R88 BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY . 139) tor. astronomer. (p. (p. 326) Musharraf. math- Muhammad. (p. 630–562 BC) Chaldean king of ous generation and led to the germ theory of infection. 185) end of British colonial rule. (p. he mental psychologist. she led hunger Faruq to abdicate. 938) aged the spread of democracy in Athens and the Noriega. 913) Mussolini. (p. Isaac (1642–1727) English mathematician and experiment with dogs demonstrating conditioned natural philosopher. (p. 668) (p. 43) Paul (c. 1048–c. In support of women’s suffrage. (p. he extended the Incan ning in 1922. he Pachacuti (died 1471) Inca leader from 1438 to 1471. Kwame (1909–1972) Ghanaian nationalist he declared Brazil’s independence from Portugal. and Battle of Trafalgar (1805). 300) Otto the Great (912–973) King of Germany (936–973) Murasaki. Muhammad Perón. a beautiful city noted for its famed Hanging Gardens. 910) Pavlov. 953) Nasser. (p. he was known for encouraging a revival of The Rubaiyat. 952) Pasteur. (p. Jawaharlal (1889–1964) Indian statesman. Benito (1883–1945) Italian Fascist leader.

Dur. 575) vate merchants. conquering all of Egypt and Rasputin. Augusto (1915–) President and dictator of Chile czarist Russia deteriorated because of him. 367–c. 478) Ming court. (p. he assas. 512) BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY R89 . not with pri. women in society. (p. He was defeated by England and the Raphael (1483–1520) Italian Renaissance painter. from (554–1598). (p. the Commu- minister of King Louis XIII. he planned and carried out a coup of Salvador Allende’s government in Chile. his most famous being The School of Athens. He eventually Pol Pot (1925–1998) Cambodian political leader. He was an absolute monarch who brought the ways of Western Europe to Russia and made various reforms. (p. 976) Rhodes. he fought in the Holy Land against by philosopher-kings. (p. 446) Ricci. (p. 443) Piankhi (c. (p. 602) gary. science.Peter the Great Rousseau. 757) ity and education for women. From 1530 to many Chinese customs. (p. (p. he was one of the foremost advocates Pisan. (p. 5 million people dead. Peru. to China in 1583. 791) from 1973 to 1990. he valued the social contract and limited foreign contacts and ordered traders to conduct addressed the nature of man in his work On the Origin business with the Chinese government. (p. he transformed Russia into a modern state. of expanding the British Empire and was a strong her work The City of Women discusses the role of believer in the superiority of the “Anglo-Saxon” race. He political philosopher. he traveled Pizarro. (p. and technology. he was known for his intense throughout the Mongol empire and in India. founder of Lima. He learned the language and adopted conqueror of Peru. She championed the causes of equal- (p. (p. of Inequality. he wanted to strengthen nists’ brutal efforts to restructure Cambodian society the monarchy and fought against Huguenot resistance left 1. (p. Ramses the Great (died c. 406) Khmer Rouge guerillas in establishing a Communist Richelieu. Jean-Jacques (1712–1778) Swiss-French ing his reign. 536) painted frescos. 553) he led an army against Hittite invaders of Egypt. 845) nearly 300 years. which started World War I. (p. (p. (p. Erwin (1891–1944) German general during World Ptolemy (c. radical and led the National Convention during its sinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. 1237 BC) Pharaoh of Egypt. 511) Socrates. he commanded the Afrika Korps and was nick- generals. (p.Hun. 541) Polo. Jean-Jacques Peter the Great (1672–1725) Czar of Russia from 1682 to 1725. 1476–1541) Spanish conquistador. he Robespierre. Matteo (1552–1610) Italian missionary. Marco (1254–1324) Venetian traveler in China. In The Republic he describes an ideal society run from 1189 to 1199. He introduced China to European learning Plato (c. Cardinal (1585–1642) French minister and chief government in Cambodia. 427–347 BC) Greek philosopher. he led the ceased fighting and returned to England. he led the Kushites north into Egypt. He was viewed as corrupt. 751–716 BC) King of ancient Kush. China expanded to its greatest size. 320) dedication to the Revolution. Grigory (1872–1916) A self-proclaimed Russian making himself pharaoh. he started a school in Athens called the Acad- Richard the Lion-Hearted (1157–1199) King of England emy. and Portugal (1580–1598). Once in power. 143) Saladin during the Third Crusade. 1430) French poet and author. He became increasingly Princip. He BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY ruled Egypt with extravagance and built more temples Philip II (1527–1598) King of Spain (1556–1598). he Netherlands. he was the grandson of Kangxi. he led (p. 83) holy man and prominent figure at the court of Czar Nicholas II. which gained him entry to the 1533. Christine de (1364–c. 69) Roman Catholic efforts to recover parts of Europe from Protestantism. most bloodthirsty time. 282 BC) One of Alexander the Great’s War II. Naples and monuments than any other Egyptian pharaoh. (p. 919) to the Catholic monarchy. (p. 781) Rommel. Maximilien (1758–1794) Leading figure of worked for Kublai Khan and was sent on missions the French Revolution. he founded a dynasty that ruled Egypt for named the Desert Fox for his leadership. He led the United States during the major crises of the Great Depression and World War II. Francisco (c. (p. 180) Roosevelt. he was elected presi- dent four times. and support for Pinochet. a student of in mathematics. Cecil (1853–1902) British imperialist and busi- ness magnate. Gavrilo (1894–1918) Serbian nationalist. he conquered the Inca Empire. Rousseau. 814) Qianlong (1711–1799) Emperor of the Qing dynasty from 1735 to 1796. Franklin Delano (1882–1945) Thirty-second president of the United States.

(p. he became the leading advocate of laissez faire economics and is considered by some to be the “father of modern eco- Sadat. in which he attempts to by many today. he reorga. The man. whose poli- 1628 to 1658. (p. he led troops in Argentina. he expanded the empire and took poet. he became consul in 88 BC. Rumi Sundiata Rumi (c. mia. 647) (p. politician. (p. 956) Socrates (469–399 BC) Greek philosopher of Athens. he became shores of the Persian Gulf. Lucius Cornelius (138–78 BC) Roman general and Shaka (died 1828) Founder of the Zulu Empire. He founded the Shotoku. (p. he is considered the founder of Mesopotamia and he seized power in Indonesia from Sukarno in a coup conquered many cities along the middle Euphrates to d’état. nomics. and dictator. (p. led a civil war nized the army and introduced new fighting tactics. (p. 1207–1273) Persian poet. 750) 622. ” He wrote the first true text on economics. (p. 145–90 BC) Chinese historian. Chile. he is considered one of the greatest dramatists on a large economic and political role in the affairs of of all time and wrote such works as Romeo and Juliet. Anwar (1918–1981) Egyptian soldier and states. he intro- lutionary. president. (p. 297) R90 BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY . sometimes and founded a Sufi order whose members use music called the “father of Chinese history. 758) Suleyman I (1495–1566) Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Shakespeare. (p. 143) San Martín. (p. and Peru duced the first civil democracy in Greece and created and gained independence for these nations. 699) the Boule. subdued neighboring peoples. Wealth of Nations. 224) dynasty with a ruling nationalist party. José de (1778–1850) South American revo. 762) ence in Eastern Europe after the war. 918) Indus Valley. Antonio López de (1794–1876) Mexican Stalin. Mughal power reached its cies resulted in the deaths of hundreds. 507) Sulla. 918) and architecture. the coast of the Oman islands. He established trade routes with the led to his ouster. 560 BC) Athenian statesman. A strong anti-communist. (p. 824) Sargon I (died c. he believed that China should be a built institutions that helped China remain unified for democracy but that it first needed to replace the Qing almost 2. William (1564–1616) English dramatist and from 1520 to 1566. and A Midsummer Night’s Dream. he lutionary leader. He against Marius and his followers. Joseph (1879–1953) Totalitarian dictator of the general.000 years. (p. 135) Santa Anna. his teaching style was based on asking questions. 446) Sun Yixian (1866–1925) Chinese statesman and revo- Shi Huangdi (259–210 BC) First Qin ruler of China. or Shiji. 232) BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY Smith. Saladin (1138–1193) Muslim sultan and hero. (p. 2300 BC) King of Akkad in Mesopota. 172) that encompassed most of southern Africa. Suharto (1921–) President of Indonesia from 1967 to 1998. emerged victorious. 36) Indonesia’s first president after he led an independence Shah Jahan (1592–1666) Mughal emperor of India from movement there. consolidating an empire and became dictator. He was He stopped an army of crusaders under Richard the arrested and condemned to death for challenging Lion-Hearted of England. 324) West Africa. 274) provide a complete history of China from the Yellow Emperor to the reign of Wudi. 630–c. he increase the power of the emperor. (p. he fought in the Texas Soviet Union. he used the Chinese model of government to Sundiata (died 1255) Founder and ruler of Mali. (p. he led the Soviet Union through World Revolution and seized the Alamo but was defeated and War II and created a powerful Soviet sphere of influ- captured by Sam Houston at San Jacinto. Solon (c. 405) authority. wanted people to question their own beliefs. (p.” he wrote the and dancing in their rituals. in 1776. he was a Sufi mystic Sima Qian (c. 501) Hamlet. (p. His authoritarian and corrupt rule eventually northern Syria. he cam. he launched the Yom Kippur War against Israel. He paigned to drive the Christians from the Holy Land. (p. (p. under his rule. He weakened the organized an army and defeated the other kingdoms of power of the clan to oppose the emperor. Adam (1723–1790) Scottish economist. His poems are still read Historical Records. Europe and the Mediterranean. and the Sukarno (1901–1970) Indonesian politician. Prince (573–622) Regent of Japan from 593 until Revolutionary Alliance in 1905. he was deposed height and his age was the golden period of Muslim art in a coup led by Suharto. (p. (p.

(p. he took control of Japan during World War II. Harry S (1884–1972) Thirty-third president of the United States. Victoria. (p. through the end of World War II and the beginning of man and diplomat. (p. (p. 965–1015) Grand prince of Kiev. 333) two brothers and their ten sons executed. she raised an army Taizong (599–649) Second emperor of the Tang dynasty that drove the Chinese out of Vietnam for a short from 626 to 649. Her fervor seed drill. establishing the Tokugawa shogunate. 792) longer involved with the universe after creating it. He estab- Trung Trac (died 43 AD) Vietnamese nationalist and hero. Charles Maurice de (1754–1838) French states. (p. she reformed the Carmelite order. 634) for the Catholic Church proved inspiring for many people during the Reformation period. 688) and Peace portrayed war as confusing and horrible. he became president upon the death of Franklin D. (p. he wrote The History of the Peloponnesian War. he the Central Powers to end Russian involvement in was a supporter of Deism. He Ireland from 1837 to 1901 and empress of India from was later tried and executed for war crimes. (p. 333) one of the principal saints of the Roman Catholic Tull. He also advocated a tolerant approach to religion. (p.Talleyrand. (p. 1744–1803) Haitian patriot and and Huerta. 861) BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY Congress of Vienna. Victor Emmanuel (1820–1878) King of Sardinia-Piedmont thus assuming complete control of the government and from 1849 to 1861 and king of Italy from 1861 to 1878. 1042–1099) Roman Catholic pope from 1088 empire. (p. she raised an army exams. (p. He was pursued by the United States but martyr. he argued that rational thought could be used to support Roman Catholic belief. 310) that drove the Chinese out of Vietnam for a short Teresa of Avila (1515–1582) Spanish Carmelite nun and period. (p. (p. 841) 1876 to 1901. he invented the Church. (p. he called on Christians to launch the First Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274) Italian philosopher and Crusade. 417) Thucydides (c. 358) Trotsky. Leon (1879–1940) Russian Communist revolu- tionary. (p. he was appointed shogun by the emperor. Leo (1828–1910) Russian novelist. his novel War involved in running the government. he was one of the negotiators at the the Cold War. 716) Tojo. 696) verted to Orthodox Christianity in the 980s and made it the state religion. 460–400 BC) Greek historian of Athens. he negotiated the peace between Russia and Voltaire (1694–1778) French philosopher and author. 458) Theodora (died 548) Byzantine empress. he con- killed in 1803. (p. the idea that God was no World War I. he secured his throne by having his period. (p. 537) Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542–1616) Japanese warrior and dictator. lished schools to train candidates to take civil service along with her sister Trung Nhi. Diego (1465–1524) Spanish painter. Queen (1819–1901) Queen of Great Britain and eral. Hideki (1884–1948) Japanese nationalist and gen. 348) to 1099. 145) in a realistic style but also worked in impressionism towards the end of his career. Jethro (1674–1741) British inventor. 519) he was the first king of a united Italy. Napoleon felt threatened by his growing popularity and had him captured and Vladimir I (c. 676) Villa. He represented France on behalf Trung Nhi (died 43 AD) Vietnamese nationalist and hero. (p. she had the longest reign in all of British history and she allowed Parliament to become more Tolstoy. He is regarded as the first critical historian and is often Velázquez. he took control of Hispaniola for the French evaded General Pershing. he led revolts against Carranza Toussaint L’Ouverture (c. of Louis XVIII. (p. he painted ranked as the greatest historian of antiquity. she was mar- ried to Justinian and exerted a great influence over him and over the political and religious events of the Urban II (c. Francisco “Pancho” (1878–1923) Mexican bandit and revolutionary leader. (p. (p. Charles Maurice de Voltaire Truman. Roosevelt. 617) along with her sister Trung Trac. (p. He led the United States Talleyrand. 576) BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY R91 . 762) and was a hero of the people. 404) theologian.

medicine. (p. he ordered the reconstruction of Beijing and made it the new capital of China. 551 BC) Religious teacher and Wu Zhao (625–705) Empress of China from 690 to 705. 1027–1087) King of England from 1060 to 1087. 231) Wright. he was sent on a journey through China to form Wordsworth. 762) after World War I as a part of his Fourteen Points. 628–c. (p. Duke of (1769–1852) British soldier and 1019 to 1054. (p. His poet. and explorer ican pioneers of aviation. diplomat. (p. 510) Revolution. 53) sentative to the Continental Congress. James (1736–1819) Scottish inventor. (p. they went from experiments during China’s Ming dynasty. 521) and emperor of Germany from 1871 to 1888. and Yonglo (1360–1424) Third emperor of the Ming dynasty together they unified Germany. rulers of Great Britain literature. he founded a religion known she was the only woman to hold the title of emperor as Zoroastrianism based on the idea that people have and was very powerful. he led the Han dynasty during its peak and substantially increased Chinese territory. BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY during the Revolutionary War and served as a repre. (p. (p. 637) Yaroslav the Wise (978–1054) Grand duke of Kiev from Wellington. his Chinese fleet visited with kites and gliders to piloting the first successful more than 30 countries. (p. (p. Orville (1871–1948) and Wilbur (1867–1912) Amer. fast. (p. (p. he led the British troops against Napoleon in Russia and began a codification of the law. his works include The Evening Walk. Woodrow (1856–1924) Twenty-eighth president of he led the revolt against Porfirio Díaz in the south of the United States. George Zoroaster Washington. his dynasty became one of the longest con- Wilhelm I (1797–1888) King of Prussia from 1861 to 1888 tinuous dynasties in history. Emiliano (1879–1919) Mexican revolutionary. philosophy. and numerous other who replaced King James II as a result of the Glorious topics. (p. (p. Zhang Qian (died 113 BC) Chinese official under Emperor (p. 310) Yi Song-gye (1335–1408) Founder of the Korean Choson dynasty. 616) Yeltsin. 310) free will and can act as they choose. Washington. George (1732–1799) First president of the Xerxes (c. 1433) Admiral. Queen Mary II (1662–1694). 519–465 BC) King of Persia. 53) Wudi (141–87 BC) Fifth emperor of the Han dynasty in China. 895) He also began the construction of the Grand Canal. leader of the country. (p. 663) Zoroaster (c. He also commis- William and Mary King William III (1650–1702) and sioned an encyclopedia that covered history. Zheng He (1371–c. he promoted Christianity and civilization statesman. he chose Otto von Bismarck as Prussia’s prime minister. 719) in China. (p. Boris (1931–) Russian politician and president of Wendi (541–604) Emperor of China. (p. Wilson. his armies invaded United States. The Prelude. and better able to power machinery. 510) gas-powered airplane flight. 550) William the Conqueror (c. he developed crucial innovations to make the steam engine efficient. (p. (p. astronomy. prophet of ancient Persia. he founded the Sui Russia in the 1990s. he was a powerful French noble who conquered England and brought feudalism to England. 583) Watt. 226) R92 BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY . 388) Zapata. 357) at the Battle of Waterloo. 676) lishment of the Silk Road. he proposed the League of Nations Mexico during the Mexican Revolution. he was the first popularly elected dynasty and worked to build a centralized government. 795) Wudi. (p. (p. he commanded the Continental Army Greece but were eventually defeated by the Greeks. and The Excursion. Descriptive travels led to a vast increase in trade and the estab- Sketches. William (1770–1850) English Romantic an alliance with the Xiongu tribe to the west.

364) diáspora africana  resultado del comercio de escla- vos. 944) acrópolis  área elevada y defendida por muros que rodea a una polis (pág. (p. 232) Abbasid  dynasty that overthrew the Umayyad dynasty acupuntura  práctica médica china que consiste en to rule the Muslim caliphate from 750 to 1258. leaf ee ee-vuhn. 535) Congreso Nacional Africano  organización política de acropolis  a walled. butter uh kuhp. 535) South Africa. o¯ over. buy. orchid aw awl. tahp textbook have been respelled to help you pronounce them. brit-ish tive are explained in the following ¯ı site. founded in 1912. food yü few yoo fyoo zh vision zh vizh-uhn *A syllable printed in small capital letters receives heavier emphasis than the other syllable(s) in a word. ten letter combinations used in the e¯ even. o˙ all. buht-uhr ü rule. 129) english and spanish glossary R93 . 150 years the Abbasids maintained the unity of the 232) caliphate and Islamic culture and civilization flour- ished. ten e let. 200) brindó gran prosperidad y crecimiento cultural a la African Diaspora  the dispersal of people of African cultura islámica (pág. cuando muchos africanos y sus descendientes abolition  abolishment of slavery (p. 265) descent throughout the Americas and Western abbot  the elected head of a monastery (p. acupuncture  Chinese medical practice that involves inserting needles into the skin in order to relieve pain (p. oh-hy-oh phonetic respelling and pronunci- ation guide. it developed into the monarca absoluto  gobernante con poder y autoridad main opposition force to apartheid (p. The guide is adapted iris eye eye-ris from Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate k card k kahrd Dictionary. 129) se oponía al apartheid (pág. rainbow oh oh-vuhr. Eleventh Edition. food oo rool. awr-kid o˙i foil. fundada en 1912. The e let. top ah kahrt. woohd Dictionary. rayn-boh Merriam-Webster’s Biographical u˙ book. koyn a˙u out ow owt cup. high area containing fortifications Sudáfrica. for insertar agujas en la piel para aliviar el dolor (pág. leef respelling throughout the narra- i it. 703) (pág. English and Spanish Glossary english AND spanish glossary mark as in respelling example Phonetic Respelling and a alphabet a *al-fuh-bet Pronunciation Guide a¯ Asia ay ay-zhuh Many of the key terms in this ä cart. 491) absolute monarch  a ruler that has unlimited power and African National Congress  political organization in authority over his or her people (p. 200) derrocaron a la familia Umayyad y establecieron un adobe  ladrillos secados al sol que los indios Pueblo régimen que contribuyó a fortalecer el imperio. tip. and Merriam-Webster’s Geographical Dictionary. 265) adobe  sun-dried brick used by the Pueblo Indians for Abasida  gobernantes del Imperio musulmán que building (p. comenzó como una agru- and temples and located in the center of a polis pación pacífica que luchaba por los derechos civiles y (p. coin oy foyl. Ohio y syt. lo cual usaban para construir (pág. tip. wood ooh boohk. 491) abad  autoridad elegida de un monasterio (pág. British i it. 364) Europe due to the slave trade (p. by. 703) fueron llevados a la Américas y a Europa Occidental abolición  eliminación de la esclavitud (pág. 944) ilimitados sobre su pueblo (pág.

contra una multitud de manifestantes pacíficos que ancient Romans built impressive aqueducts (p. 11) carrera armamentística  competencia entre naciones para tener ventaja en cuanto a la cantidad de armas (pág. 694. 822) ahimsa  in Jainism. a Soviet-sponsored english AND spanish glossary tro y mercado en las primeras ciudades estado griegas international organization aimed at spreading com- (pág. 412) campaign of protest led by Gandhi (p. advantage in weapons (p. 826) damentalista islámico (pág. 883) raleza tienen espíritu (pág. 185) troops fired on a large crowd of peaceful. and Russia during World War I (p. usually in a Angkor Wat  templo construido por los gobernantes war (p. 102) Alemania y Japón para establecer su oposición al ahimsa  en el jainismo. they were the se unió tras el bombardeo de Pearl Harbor en 1941 first Christian missionaries (p. Francia y Rusia intransigentes para evitar una guerra (pág. 941) Allies  the alliance of Britain. 102) da por la Unión Soviética que se dedicaba a difundir el comunismo (pág. 809) agua a las ciudades de la antigua Roma (pág. 332) armistice  an agreement to cease fighting. 668) archon  a chief of state of ancient Athens (p. Estados Unidos Apostles  the 12 chosen disciples of Jesus. 323) anestesia  droga que inhibe el dolor durante una cirugía (pág. joined by the United States after the to avoid war (p. 129) munism (p. unarmed apprentice  a person who learns a skill under a master of Indian protestors. 809) aprendiz  persona que aprende una destreza con un masacre de Amritsar  (1919) suceso ocurrido en la maestro del oficio (pág. 781) sociedad (pág. 941) Potencias Aliadas  alianza que formaron Gran apartheid  política oficial del gobierno sudafricano que Bretaña. 332) armisticio  acuerdo para cesar una lucha. 11) arms race  competition between nations to gain an animismo  creencia de que todas las cosas en la natu. of legalized racial segregation throughout the society France. pacifismo y respeto por todos Comintern. 136) arconte  jefe de gobierno en Atenas (pág. France. 899) antisemitismo  creencias en contra de los judíos (pág. 412) India en el cual los soldados británicos dispararon aqueducts  manmade channels used to transport water. general- mente en una guerra (pág. 129) Germany and Japan in which they established their ágora  área abierta que servía como lugar de encuen. 797) animism  the belief that all things in nature have spirits (p. murieron aproximadamente 400 acueductos  canales hechos por el hombre para llevar personas (pág. 836) durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. 208) anular  declarar inválido según las leyes de la Iglesia alianza  acuerdo formal entre dos o más naciones. grupo fun. 797) Khmer de Camboya (pág. killing some 400 people. (pp. 180) no llevaban armas. 694. Islamist terrorist organization responsible for the September 11 attacks (p. agora/ágora arms race/carrera armamentística agora  an open area that served as a meeting place and Anti-Comintern Pact  (1936) agreement signed between market in early Greek city-states (p. fueron Amritsar Massacre  (1919) an event in which British los primeros misioneros cristianos (pág. 826) alliance  a formal agreement between two or more nations entered into to advance common interests or annulled  declared invalid based on church laws (p. Francia y Rusia durante la Primera Guerra consiste en la segregación racial legalizada en toda la Mundial (pág. una organización internacional promovi- los seres vivos (pág. 838) pacificación  ceder a las demandas de potencias Aliados  alianza de Gran Bretaña. and Russia in appeasement  giving in to aggressive demands in order World War II. nonviolence and respect for all living Pacto Anti-Comintern  (1936) acuerdo firmado entre things (p. 838) apóstles  los 12 discípulos elegidos por Jesús. 883) R94 english and spanish glossary . it led to a the trade (p. 185) (pág. 136) Angkor Wat  Hindu temple complex built by the Khmer rulers of Cambodia in the 1100s (p. 208) apartheid  the South African government’s official policy Allied Powers  the alliance formed between Britain. 836) Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor in 1941 (p. 668) archipiélago  gran grupo o cadena de islas (pág. (pág. 453) promover causas o intereses comunes (pág. 899) anti-Semitism  hostility or prejudice towards Jews al Qaeda  literalmente significa “la base”. 822) al Qaeda  “the base”. 453) causes (p. opposition to the Comintern. 323) (p. 180) anesthetic  a drug that inhibits pain during surgery archipelago  a large group or chain of islands (p. 781) (p.

846) batalla de El Alamein  (1942) batalla clave de la Segunda Guerra Mundial donde los británicos obtu- vieron una victoria aplastante sobre los alemanes en Egipto (pág. Hong Kong. como piezas de cerámica o canastas (pág. securing the Suez Canal (p. such as Pacto de Bagdad  alianza dirigida por Estados Unidos pottery or baskets. Italy. 929) una nación importa y lo que exporta a lo largo de un tigres asiáticos  países de Asia que siguen un modelo período de tiempo (pág. una pieza de cerámica o un arma (pág. balance comercial  la diferencia en valor entre lo que driven economies in the late 1900s (p. 952) artisans  skilled craftspeople who make goods. and tools. 484) de desarrollo económico similar al japonés (pág. nos capturados por los japoneses en Filipinas durante lute power (p. which built strong export. one augures  sacerdotes de la antigua Roma que se of any of the African peoples who speak that language especia. pottery. 21) contra el comunismo en Medio Oriente (pág. 837) entre Alemania y Gran Bretaña que se libraron en Gran Bretaña durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial (pág. 840) Potencias del Eje  alianza de Alemania. 21) balance of trade  the difference in value between what a nation imports and exports over a period of time Asian Tigers  term referring to South Korea. 798) stations where workers perform specific tasks (p.artifacts/artefactos Battle of El Alamein/batalla de El Alamein artifacts  objects that people in the past made or used. la victoria prusiana provocó la exclusión de marcha de la muerte de Bataan  (1942) marcha forzada Austria de Alemania (pág. el área que rodea augurs  priests in ancient Rome who specialized in inter. 287) naturales enviados por los dioses (pág. by hand (p. 272) area around Constantinople (Istanbul) (p. english AND spanish glossary como una herramienta. 484) Taiwan. Prussian victory africanos que hablan estas lenguas (pág. 645) Balkan Wars  (1912–1913) two wars that cost the Otto- astrolabe  an instrument for determining the positions man Empire all of its European territories except the and movements of heavenly bodies (p. 848) autocracia  forma de gobierno en la que el gobernante Battle of Britain  (1940) three month air battle between tiene poder absoluto (pág. 929) Balfour Declaration  (1917) a statement issued by the assembly line  a mass-production process in which a British foreign secretary in favor of establishing a product is moved forward through many work Jewish homeland in Palestine (p. and Singapore. 179) Bantu  a family of closely related African languages. a causa de ellas. 729) Germany and Great Britain fought over Great Britain Axis Powers  the alliance of Germany. (p. a Constantinopla (Estambul) quedó como el único ter- pretation of the natural phenomena sent by the gods ritorio otomano en Europa (pág. 720) de los prisioneros de guerra estadounidenses y filipi- autocracy  a government in which the ruler holds abso. 6) artefactos  objetos hecho por los primeros humanos. (p. 6) Baghdad Pact  during the Cold War. Britain’s victory forestalled a World War II (p. 729) la Segunda Guerra Mundial (pág. 727) astrolabio  instrumento usado para determinar la Guerras de los Balcanes  (1912–1913) dos guerras que posición y el movimiento de los cuerpos celestes se libraron por el último de los territorios europeos del (pág. 840) Battle of El Alamein  (1942) World War II battle in which Britain won a decisive victory over Germany in Egypt. 72) Imperio otomano. 720) and Filipino prisoners of war captured by the Japa- Guerra austro-prusiana  (1866) guerra entre Prusia y nese in the Philippines in World War II (p. Italia y Japón batalla de Inglaterra  (1940) serie de batallas aéreas durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial (pág. 837) German invasion (p. 287) dissolved the German Confederation and led to the Bataan Death March  (1942) a forced march of American exclusion of Austria from German affairs (p.S. and Japan in during World War II. a U. such as coins. 952) artesanos  trabajadores que hacen productos a mano. 179) Bantú  familia de lenguas africanas estrechamente Austro-Prussian War  (1866) war fought between Prussia relacionadas.-led alliance against communism in the Middle East (p. miembro de cualquiera de los pueblos and Austria lasting seven weeks. 645) Declaración de Balfour  declaración escrita por el línea de montaje  proceso de producción en masa en el Ministro de Asuntos Exteriores británico a un líder que un producto pasa por varias etapas en las que los sionista de Palestina (pág. 848) Austria. 846) english and spanish glossary R95 . 727) (p. 798) trabajadores hacen tareas específicas (pág.lizaban en la interpretación de los fenómenos (p.

000 Japanese defenders. to overthrow the Cuban el mercado de valores de Estados Unidos colapsó socialist government of Fidel Castro (p. (p.000 American lives (p. 364) Guerra Mundial entre las fuerzas japonesas y el ejér. Estados Unidos y Gran Bretaña durante el bloqueo ra Mundial librada en el Pacífico. 257) batalla de Guadalcanal  (1942-1943) batalla de la Benedictine Rule  a collection of rules or guidelines Segunda Guerra Mundial que se libró en el Pacífico for monks and monasteries. 885) (pág. 364) Battle of Iwo Jima  (1945) World War II battle between regla benedictina  serie de 73 capítulos que detallaban Japanese forces and invading U. y lograron echar a los alemanes obispo  funcionario de alto rango de la Iglesia católica de la ciudad (pág. 860) States and Britain shipped supplies by air to West Battle of Midway  (1942) World War II naval battle fought Berlin during the Soviet blockade of all routes to the in the Pacific. 880) and knew the date and location of the attack. Bessemer process  a process developed in the 1850s that cia la muerte de los casi 100. 813) Bay of Pigs invasion  (1961) the failed attempt of Cuban martes negro  29 de octubre de 1929. setting puente aéreo de Berlín  (1948–1949) programa de the stage for a major American victory (p. 850) (p. apoyados por Estados Unidos. Battle of Guadalcanal/batalla de Guadalcanal Black Tuesday/martes negro Battle of Guadalcanal  (1942-1943) World War II battle bedouins  small groups of nomadic people in Arabia in the Pacific. Black Death  a terrible outbreak of bubonic plague that dreds of thousands of casualties (p. a city on the Volga River. 661) invading German forces and Soviet defenders for biotechnology  the use of biological research in industry control of Stalingrad. 1008) side sustained hundreds of thousands of casualties. 849) envío de suministros a Berlín occidental por parte de batalla de Midway  (1942) batalla de la Segunda Guer. 880) cuándo atacarían los japoneses. Berlin airlift  (1948–1949) a program in which the United cito invasor estadounidense (pág. 187) nas de miles de vidas. los estadounidenses soviético de todas las vías de acceso a la ciudad descifraron el código japonés y averiguaron dónde y (pág. each (p. 860) cómo debían organizarse los monjes y los monasterios batalla de Iwo Jima  (1945) batalla de la Segunda (pág. led to faster. 422) batalla de Verdún  (1916) la batalla más larga de la Peste Negra  terrible plaga de peste bubónica que Primera Guerra Mundial. troops (p. the Americans broke the Japanese code city (p. 422) muy debilitados tras perder decenas de miles de vidas Black Tuesday  October 29. it represented the first Allied counter. en la que group of churches in a particular region or city los soviéticos defendieron la ciudad. mar y aire. Allied victory forced beduinos  pequeños grupos de pueblos nómadas de english AND spanish glossary Japanese forces to abandon the island (p. día en que exiles backed by the U. named for Benedict of por tierra. 850) Arabia (pág. 187) Battle of Verdun  (1916) the longest battle of World War I. 848) batalla de Stalingrado  (1942) una de las batallas más bishop  a high-ranking church official who oversees a sangrientas de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. the day that the United (pág. 861) ron reglas para la colonización europea de África batalla de Okinawa  (1945) victoria de los Aliados en la (pág. 758) Segunda Guerra Mundial que tuvo como consecuen. with both sides suffering hun. 813) invasión de la Bahía de Cochinos  (1961) intento frus- trado de los exiliados cubanos. it ended in stalemate. 1929.S. widely used in Europe in the Middle Ages fuerzas japonesas a abandonar la isla (pág. beginning in 1347 (p. 849) sentatives from European nations agreed upon rules Battle of Okinawa  (1945) World War II victory for the for the European colonization of Africa (p. 1008) (p. 861) década de 1850 que permitió producir acero de forma Battle of Stalingrad  (1942) World War II battle between más rápida y económica (pág. biotecnología  usa de la investigación biológica en la Germany’s defeat marked a turning point in the war industría (pág. 661) los estadounidenses perdieron 12. 758) Allied troops that resulted in the deaths of almost all Conferencia de Berlín  (1884–1885) encuentro en of the 100. ambos bandos quedaron comenzó en 1347 y arrasó Europa (pág. 257) attack against Japanese forces. 848) que supervisa un grupo de iglesias de una región o ciudad en particular (pág. the battle claimed el que representantes de países europeos acorda- 12. 885) R96 english and spanish glossary . lo que les permitió Berlin Conference  (1884–1885) a meeting at which repre- obtener una victoria importante (pág. la victoria aliada obligó a las Nursia.S. a costa de dece. (p. de derrocar al gobierno socialista de Fidel Castro (pág. 786) swept through Europe.000 defensores japoneses.000 soldados en la proceso de Bessemer  proceso desarrollado en la batalla (pág. cheaper steel production (p. 786) States stock market crashed (p.

263) burguesía  la clase media urbana. la lealtad y el honor (pág. and World War II (p. 517) dial (pág. cuando el ejército disparó contra unos manifestantes cuando Constantino I reconstruyó Bizancio y la trans- frente al Palacio de Invierno (pág. 956) British East India Company  a joint-stock company Acuerdos de Camp David  (1978) acuerdos de paz granted a royal charter by Elizabeth I in 1600 for the entre el presidente egipcio Anwar Sadat y el primer purpose of controlling trade in India (p. 749) by U. 104) la India (pág.C. title given to the sionals. 263) Boxer Rebellion  (1900) a siege of a foreign settlement in caliphate  area ruled by a caliph (p. 17) sails to help it sail against the wind (p. mercaderes. forceful style of fighting used by Germans in nese samurai warriors.. 104) castes  social classes in the ancient Indian class system. Soviet Communists (p. 471) the Eightfold Path (p. 66) english and spanish glossary R97 . 487) when people began to make items out of bronze (p. 263) Beijing by Chinese nationalists who were angry at califato  área gobernada por un califa (pág. 552) Begin (p. stressing bravery. managed by officials (p. the name of the capital city before it was changed to ing the Russian Revolution of 1905 (p. are privately owned (p. 790) bolcheviques  seguidores de Marx cuyo objetivo era apropiarse del poder estatal y establecer una dicta- dura del proletariado. 66) burocracia  departamentos y agencias dirigidos por funcionarios no electos cuyo propósito es dirigir el gobierno (pág. merchants.C. profe. 552) Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem boyars  ricos terratenientes ruso (pág. the day that czarist the Eastern Roman Empire. profes. budismo  religión fundada por Siddhartha Gautama see also varnas (p. 487) Edad de Piedra en el que las personas comenzaron a caravel  a sailing vessel that uses square and triangular fabricar objetos de bronce (pág. caligrafía  arte de escribir a mano con destreza to extranjero en Beijing por parte de nacionalistas (pág. 17) capitalismo  sistema económico donde la mayoría de Edad de Bronce  (circa 3000 a. 790) bourgeoisie  the urban middle class. 263) foreign involvement in China (p. 838) honor (p. código de conducta de relámpago”.) perído posterior a la las empresas son de propiedad privada (pág. califa  “sucesor del Profeta”. 956) controlar el comercio en la India (pág. 595) political and religious leader of Muslims (p. 732) Constantinople (p. título dado al líder sionales y fabricantes (pág. 97) bureaucracy  a highly structured organization. 3000 BC) the period after the Stone Age. ignit. 838) Byzantine Empire  (395–1453) name historians give to Bloody Sunday  January 22. 1905. 273) chinos que estaban en desacuerdo con la intervención Camp David Accords  (1978) a peace agreement mediated extranjera en China (pág. 517) english AND spanish glossary blitzkrieg  palabra alemana que significa “guerra bushido  “vía del guerrero”. 742) ministro israelí Menachem Begin en los que el presi- British East India Company  sociedad por acciones a dente Estados Unidos Carter actuó como mediador la que Isabel I otorgó un cédula real en 1600 para (pág. comunistas soviéticos (pág. 732) formó en su capital (pág. valentía. loyalty. 471) Buddhism  the religion founded by Siddhartha Gautama. 749) calligraphy  the art of fine handwriting (p. estilo de combate rápido y contundente los guerreros samuráis japoneses que destacaba la que usaron los alemanes en la Segunda Guerra Mun. President Carter between Egyptian President boyars  wealthy Russian landowners (p. and manufacturers (p.blitzkrieg/blitzkrieg castes/castas blitzkrieg  a German word meaning “lightning war”. 347) Bolsheviks  Marxists whose goal was to seize state power and establish a dictatorship of the proletariat. caliph  “successor to the Prophet”. 97) que enseña las Cuatro Nobles Verdades y a seguir el castas  sistema de clases de la sociedad tradicional de sendero óctuple (pág. 347) Domingo sangriento  22 de enero de 1905 acontec. often governmental. Imperio bizantino  (395–1453) parte oriental del imiento inspirador de la Revolución rusa de 1905. 742) capitalism  economic system in which most businesses Bronze Age  (c. it refers to Byzantium.S. que data del año 330 d. a Bushido  “way of the warrior.” code of behavior of Japa- fast. 273) rebelión de los boxers  (1900) asedio a un asentamien. anterior Imperio romano. carabela  barco de velas triangulares y cuadradas que which teaches the Four Noble Truths and following permiten navegar con el viento en contra (pág. 595) político y religioso de los musulmanes (pág. troops fired on protestors at the Winter Palace.

64) advanced cities. 64) arts and architecture (p. 363) Guerra Fría  época de mucha tensión y rivalidad cristiandad  la sociedad cristiana. 483) circunnavegar  dar una vuelta completa alrededor de commonwealth  a republican government based on the algo (pág. 95) ernment owns the means of production and controls ciudadela  fortaleza (pág. Asia. 350) Hungary. 19) Central Powers  the alliance between Germany. Christianity  a religion based on the teaching of Jesus of and Africa beginning with the voyages of Columbus Nazareth (p. and the Ottoman Empire during World clero  líderes de la iglesia (pág. 183) animales y enfermedades entre las Américas. a government. Europa. 855) de leyes escrito (pág. 483) cristianismo  religión basada en las enseñanzas de intercambio colombino  intercambio de plantas. such as the codex  books made by Mayans out of the inner bark of one that created the United Nations (p. in some cases. that developed in between the United States and the Soviet Union in the Middle Ages in which people were linked by com. 226) Confucio (551–479 B. Austria. Cold War  an era of high tension and bitter rivalry concentrated in Western Europe. organized society that has rents or waterfalls (p. religion. 213) ciudades desarrolladas. 350) War I (p. clases sociales datos demográficos (pág. the decades following World War II (p. circumnavigate  to proceed completely around (p. cataracts/rápidos Confucianism/confucianismo cataracts  rocky stretches in a river marked by rapid cur. 183) (p. and (pág.) que hace hincapié en compor- tarse bien con el prójimo y en respetar y honrar a la propia familia (pág. unió a la mayoría de los europeos occiden. 363) diseases between the Americas and Europe. 182) dos con fines militares o políticos para confinar. como Naciones Unidas (pág. 178) communism  economic and political system in which gov- citadel  a fortress (p. formada en el implacable entre Estados Unidos y la Unión Soviética siglo V. one’s family (p. 213) y arte y arquitectura (pág. 182) Confucianism  a belief system based on the teachings of civil service  a centralized administrative system that Chinese philosopher Confucius (551–479 BC) that runs the day-to-day business of government (p. en algunos casos. terrorize. 1040) interna de higueras silvestres (pág. animals. tras el fin de la Segunda Guerra Mundial (pág.C. record keep- rápidos  parte rocosa del curso de un río donde la cor. 34) planificación económica (pág. una religión. un gobierno. 1008) charter  a founding document or agreement. 474) Asia y África (pág. 474) common good of all the people (p. civilización  sociedad compleja y organizada que tiene graphic data (p. 879) tales a través de una religión y costumbres comunes Columbian Exchange  the transfer of plants. 95) economic planning (p. intim- derecho civil  forma de derecho basada en un código idar y. 19) census  a population count that includes other demo. códices  libros hechos por los mayas con la corteza ciones. and. matar a civiles (pág. 1008) rio austrohúngaro y el Imperio otomano durante la clonación  proceso de hacer una copia genéticamente Primera Guerra Mundial (pág. copy of an animal’s cell (p. 226) stressed treating one another humanely and honoring administración pública  sistema administrativo cen. 206) Christendom  term historians use to denote the society. 112) tralizado que se encarga de los asuntos cotidianos del confucianismo  filosofía basada en las enseñanzas de gobierno (pág. civilization  a complex. 206) carta de constitución  documento que crea organiza. 855) civil law  a form of law based on a written code of laws campos de concentración  lugares de detención crea- (p. 34) or political purposes to confine. especialización laboral. 781) cloning  the process of making a genetically identical Potencias Centrales  alianza entre Alemania. clergy  church leaders (p. 548) circus  the site of chariot races in ancient Rome (p. 649) ciudad estado  unidad política que incluye un pueblo o una ciudad y las tierras vecinas que están bajo su concentration camps  detention sites created for military control (pág. Jesús de Nazaret (pág. reg- censo  recuento de la población que incluye otros istros escritos. 112) R98 english and spanish glossary . 649) comunismo  sistema político y económico en que el city-state  a political unit that includes a town or a city gobierno posee los medios de producción y controla la and the surrounding land controlled by it (p. 1040) wild fig trees (p. ing and writing. 879) mon customs and the Christian religion (p. 548) Roma (pág. 781) idéntica de la célula de un animal (pág. social classes. 178) commonwealth  gobierno democrático basado en el circo  pista de carreras de cuadrigas de la antigua bien común de todos los ciudadanos (pág. el Impe. and english AND spanish glossary riente es rápida y abundan las cascadas (pág. kill civilians (p. job specialization.

890) english and spanish glossary R99 . 456) english AND spanish glossary conquistador  soldados y exploradores español que Contrarreforma  serie de reformas que emprendió la encabezó expediciones militares en América y capturó Iglesia católica como respuesta a la difusión de las territorios en nombre de España (pág. 46) Continental System  the system of commercial block. en posesión de los musulmanes counterculture  a rebellion of teens and young adults (pág. 456) from their Muslim rulers (p. Britain and France allied with the carried on at home by family members using their Ottomans to check Russian expansion (p. financed by criollos  nativos de las Américas descendientes de the United States (p. 635) en Palestina (pág. 410. controlled by cottage industry  a usually small-scale industry the Ottomans. 604) monarquía constitucional  monarquía limitada por counts  title of nobility. corte  reunión de nobles (pág. causada por disputas religiosas a pequeña escala y con sus propias herramientas entre los cristianos católicos y los cristianos ortodoxos (pág. 166) established by a revolution (p. 813) ca (pág. credit  an arrangement by which a purchaser borrows ades of Britain and continental Europe set in place money from a bank or other lender and agrees to pay by Napoleon with the intent of destroying Britain’s it back over time (pp. generalmente y Rusia por el otro. 726) Council of Trent  a meeting of church leaders in the Crusades  (1096–1204) a series of wars carried out by 1500s whose purpose was to clearly define Catholic European Christians to gain control of the Holy Land doctrines for the Catholic Reformation (p. 166) condes  funcionarios elegidos por Carlomagno que cónsules  autoridades ejecutivas elegidas para gober. (p. 880) pacto  acuerdo vinculante (pág. 890) contracultura  rebelión de adolescentes y adultos jóvenes contra la cultura masiva estadounidense en la década de 1960 (pág. 109) nismo. 477) iglesias protestantes (pág. se proporcionó ayuda económica y militar a los covenant  a binding agreement (p. 604) constitutional monarchy  a monarchy limited by certain contrarrevolución  revolución contra un gobierno esta- laws (p. 609) contención  política estadounidense adoptada en la court  a gathering of nobles around a monarch (p. 109) década de 1940 para detener la difusión del comu. 635) Guerra de Crimea  (1853–1856) guerra entre Gran industria casera  industria que los miembros de Bretaña. ostensibly over access for Eastern Orthodox Christians to the Holy Land. 610) creoles  people of Spanish or Portuguese descent born in Contras  rebels seeking to overthrow Nicaragua’s the Americas (p. chosen ciertas leyes (pág. 404) against mainstream American culture in the 1960s (p. 610) crédito  acuerdo por el cual un comprador pide dinero Sistema Continental  sistema de bloqueos comerciales a un banco o a otro prestamista para hacer una a Gran Bretaña y Europa continental impuestos por compra y se compromete a devolverlo en determinado Napoleón para intentar destruir la economía británi. 696) Sandinista government in the 1980s. 46) países que se oponían a los soviéticos (pág. 456) de Medio Oriente. Francia y los turcos otomanos por un lado una familia desarrollan en el hogar. 404) Concilio de Trento  encuentro de los líderes de la Igle. 609) economic and military aid to countries opposing the golpe de estado  derrocamiento súbito de un gobierno Soviets (p. the sudden overthrow of a 1940s to stop the spread of communism by providing government by force (p. 456) constitution  a political structure (p. 550) blecido por una revolución (pág. 410. 375) ment in ancient Rome (p. 166) (pág. 166) counterrevolution  a revolution against a government constitución  una estructura política (pág.conquistador/conquistador Crusades/Cruzadas conquistador  a Spanish soldier and explorer who led Counter-Reformation  the Catholic Church’s series of military expeditions in the Americas and captured reforms in response to the spread of Protestantism in land for Spain (p. 726) own equipment (p. 477) the mid-1500s to the early 1600s (p. 880) por la fuerza (pág. administraban las distintas partes de su imperio nar en la antigua Roma (pág. Cruzadas  (1096–1204) serie de guerras santas sia en el siglo XVI con el fin de definir claramente las encabezadas por los católicos para recuperar partes doctrinas católicas para la Reforma católica (pág. tiempo (pág. 972) españoles o portugueses (pág. 972) Empire and Russia. 696) contras  rebeldes que intentaban derrocar el gobierno sandinista de Nicaragua. 550) officials who ruled parts of the empire in his name consuls  the chief executives elected to run the govern. 375) containment  the United States policy adopted in the coup d’état  “stroke of state”. financiados por Estados Crimean War  (1853–1856) war between the Ottoman Unidos (pág. 813) economy (p. in Charlemagne’s empire.

995) deforestación  tala de árboles (pág. 6) deported  forced to leave a country (p. Guerra Mundial (pág. igualdad y ety to another (p. 112) in Palestine during the 2. a través de un cambio en el clima alphabet and used for writing Slavic languages o el uso destructivo de la tierra (pág. 167) R100 english and spanish glossary . or prevent. 855) bres de un grupo (pág. 23. diáspora  dispersión de los judíos desde su tierra natal ferir con el desarrollo natural de los acontecimientos en Palestina durante los 2. deportado  obligado a dejar un país (pág. 995) fraternidad (pág. an attack (p.600 años que siguieron a (pág. 112) la destrucción del Templo de Jerusalén. 100) dharma  en el hinduismo. 1023) vast amounts of land and commanded a private army devolución  redistribución del poder del gobierno cen- of samurai (p. 135) culture  a group’s knowledge. valores. 946) (pág. 859) dictator  a political leader holding unlimited power Día D  6 de junio de 1944. 887) deterrence  the development of or maintenance of mili- tary power to deter.600 years that followed the taoísmo  sistema de ideas y creencias basadas en las destruction of the Solomon’s Temple in Jerusalem in enseñanzas del pensador chino Laozi. president Nixon in the late alfabeto cirílico  alfabeto derivado del alfabeto griego 1960s and early 1970s to lower Cold War tensions y usado en las lenguas eslavas (pág. 552) de 1970 para reducir la tensión de la Guerra Fría (pág. título que llevaba el gobernante del ruso finales de la década de 1960 y comienzos de la década (pág. and fraternity english AND spanish glossary crisis de los misiles en Cuba  (1962) confrontación (p. values. honest life and not inter. the religious and moral duties of privado de samuráis (pág. 1023) daimyo  señor guerrero del Japón feudal que controla- ba grandes extensiones de tierra y lideraba un ejército dharma  in Hinduism. deforestation  the clearing of forests (p. 23. 1006) Cultural Revolution  the violent attempt at social change delta  a triangular region formed at the mouth of a river in China launched by Mao Zedong in 1966 (p. creencias y costum. (p. 598) difusión cultural  transmisión cultural de una socie. equality. who believed that people should live a simple. Diaspora  the dispersal of the Jews from their homeland fere with the course of natural events (p. 135) (p. ideado por Mao Tsé-Tung en 1966 de un río por depósitos de cieno (pág. (pág. básicos de la Revolución francesa: libertad. 855) cultura  conocimientos. 100) teachings of Chinese thinker Laozi. beliefs. Cuban Missile Crisis/crisis de los misiles en Cuba dictator/dictador Cuban Missile Crisis  (1962) confrontation between the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen  a United States and the Soviet Union over Soviet document that laid out the basic principles of the missiles in Cuba (p. 1944. and customs democracia  gobierno del pueblo (pág. 358) détente  efforts taken by U. 48) se debe vivir una vida sencilla y honesta sin inter. 35) desert through a change in climate or destructive cuneiforme  tipo de escritura que usaban los sumerios land use (p. 6) desertification  the transformation of habitable land to cuneiform  Sumerian writing (p. 946) (p.C. 922) by deposits of silt (p. 64) (pág. 1006) dad a otra (pág. en el año 586 b. un ataque (pág. o impedir. 48) D-Day  June 6. 519) an individual (p. quien lo ocupa. 598) entre Estados Unidos y la Unión Soviética acerca de Declaración de los Derechos del Hombre y del los misiles soviéticos en Cuba (pág. 519) tral a los gobiernos locales (pág. 883) devolution  the redistribution of power from the central daimyo  a warrior lord in feudal Japan who controlled government to local governments (p. 883) disuasión  desarrollo o mantenimiento de un poder militar para disuadir. 887) czar  “caesar”. title taken by the ruler of Russia (p. quien creía que 586 BC by the Chaldeans (p. 885) French Revolution—liberty. 885) Ciudadano  documento que estableció los principios cultural diffusion  the spreading of culture from one soci. 922) democracy  a government run by the people (p. 859) tiene poder ilimitado (pág. las obligaciones religiosas y Daoism  a system of ideas and beliefs based on the morales de un individuo (pág. 167) sión de los Aliados a Normandía durante la Segunda dictador  cargo político en el cual. 64) Revolución cultural  intento violento de cambiar la delta  región triangular formada en la desembocadura sociedad china.S. 552) détente  intento que hizo el presidente Nixon a zar  “césar”. el primer día de la inva. 358) (p. the first day of the Allied invasion of Normandy in World War II (p. 35) desertificación  transformación de una región habit- Cyrillic alphabet  an alphabet derived from the Greek able en un desierto.

19) Enrique IV. 13) Cuatro Nobles Verdades que Buda enseñaba como domesticación  adaptar animales y cultivos para el sendero hacia el nirvana o la iluminación (pág. social o económica teoría del dominó  creencia de que el comunismo se superior (pág. social. 388) francesas (pág. 388) nirvana or enlightenment (p. to create large farms. esto permitía aplicar métodos opposing forces. 19) of worship in selected French cities (p. 541) división del trabajo  cuando ciertas personas hacen Edicto de Nantes  (1598) declaración del rey francés una tarea o trabajo específicos (pág. 541) Domesday Book  registro escrito de las propiedades de Eightfold Path  the Middle Way and part of the Four los terratenientes ingleses hecho por orden de Guill. 535) Edict of Nantes  (1598) a declaration of French king Hen- ry IV in which he promised that Protestants could live division of labor  when certain people do a specific task peacefully in France and were free to establish houses or type of work (p. formed after the was given a certain amount of land and a number of Revolution of 1905 (p. teaching the Native Americans Christianity (p.direct democracy/democracia directa encomienda/encomienda direct democracy  the type of governing system where all dynasty  a family of rulers whose right to rule is people vote directly on an issue (p. 916) President Abraham Lincoln freeing the enslaved Dreyfus affair  a political scandal that divided France in people in areas rebelling against the Union (p. 535) derecho divino  creencia de que la autoridad de un gobernante viene directamente de Dios (pág. 53) agrícolas más rentables y aumentó el suministro de dualismo  creencia de que el mundo está controlado alimentos (pág. 13) elite  a group of persons. 184) divine right  the belief that a ruler’s authority comes directly from God (p. 204) difundiría a otros países durante de la Guerra Fría Emancipation Proclamation  (1862) an order issued by (pág. 704) judío Alfred Dreyfus fue condenado erróneamente por enclosure movement  a process in Europe from 1700s to traición (pág. Noble Truths that the Buddha taught as the means to ermo el Conquistador entre 1085 y 1086 (pág. 35) (pág. good and evil (p. 111) cristianas (pág. two sepa. 477) ciclo dinástico  el ascenso y la caída de las dinastías chinas (pág. 724) terratenientes cercaban pequeños campos para dualism  the belief that the world is controlled by two crear grandes granjas. equal states ruled by one monarch (p. allowing for more efficient farm- rate. involving the wrongful conviction of Jewish Proclamación de Emancipación  (1862) decreto emitido army officer Alfred Dreyfus for treason (p. 53) encomienda  Spanish colonial system in which a colonist Duma  the Russian legislative assembly. 916) gozan de una posición intelectual. 111) english and spanish glossary R101 . 136) disciples  followers of Jesus (p. donde prometía que los protestantes Domesday Book  the written record of English land­ podrían vivir en paz en Francia y eran libres de owners and their property made by order of William establecer sus lugares de culto en ciertas ciudades the Conqueror in 1085–1086 (p. 635) por dos fuerzas opuestas: el bien y el mal (pág. 704) the 1890s. 35) democracia directa  sistema de gobierno donde todos dinastía  familia de gobernantes cuyo derecho a english AND spanish glossary los ciudadanos votan directamente sobre una cuestión gobenar es herditario (pág. 136) hereditary (p. or economic fall of one non-communist country to communism status (p. 694) por el presidente Abraham Lincoln para liberar a caso Dreyfus  escándalo político que dividió a Francia los esclavos en las áreas que se rebelaban contra la en la década de 1890 y que se inició cuando el militar Unión (pág. or a member of such a group. 635) monarquía dual  sistema de gobierno donde un mismo movimiento de cercamiento  proceso por el cual los rey gobierna a dos estados (pág. 724) ing methods and increased the food supply (p. 732) Native Americans to work the land in exchange for Duma  asamblea rusa formada después de la Revolu. 184) discípulos  seguidores de Jesús (pág. 204) would cause neighboring non-communist countries élite  grupo de personas o miembros de ese grupo que also to fall to communists (p. 104) domestication  taming animals and adapting crops for sendero óctuple  el Camino Medio y parte de las human use (p. 104) uso humano (pág. domino theory  the belief during the Cold War that the enjoying superior intellectual. 732) encomienda  sistema por el cual un colono recibía una porción de tierra y un grupo de indígenas norteam- dynastic cycle  the rise and fall of the Chinese dynasties ericanos lo cultivaban a cambio de recibir enseñanzas (p. 694) the mid-1800s where landowners fenced small fields Dual Monarchy  Austria-Hungary (1867–1918). 477) ción de 1905 que aprobaba todas las leyes (pág.

such as land. 636) R102 english and spanish glossary . el ization. 998) tered on the area between the Tigris and Euphrates ethnic cleansing  the elimination of an ethnic group from rivers (p. primer estado  en la Francia prerrevolucionaria. 383) dades que comenzó en Europa en el siglo XVII. labor. 998) Fertile Crescent  a region of rich farmland that curves epidemia  algo que afecta a muchas personas y se from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf cen- propaga o extiende rápidamente (pág. enlightened despots/déspotas ilustrados First Estate/primer estado enlightened despots  the absolute monarchs in 18th. military disciples (p. fidelidad  lealtad que un vasallo le debe a su señor bién llamada Edad de la Razón (pág. 635) factory  a place where goods are manufactured in mass quantity (p. 647) divide entre un gobierno central o federal. 997) of the Enlightenment (p. 636) fábrica  lugar de producción masiva de bienes (pág. 187) militar y otros servicios (pág. 229) extraterritorialidad  derecho de un ciudadano a ser piedad filial  amor y respeto por los propios padres y juzgado por una corte de su país natal y no del país antepasados (pág. sistema federal  sistema de gobierno donde el poder se ista (pág. 594) factores de producción  recursos básicos para la industrialización. 383) Eucaristía  ceremonia especial del cristianismo que sistema feudal  sistema político y social basado en conmemora la última cena de Jesús y sus discípulos la cesión de tierras a cambio de lealtad. 855) Solución Final  plan del Partido Nazi para asesinar a toda la población judía de Europa y la Unión Soviética (pág. 584) der un negocio dentro del sistema económico capital. 229) donde vive (pág. 897) (pág. and individual states (p. 997) century Europe who ruled according to the principles hambruna  escasez extrema de alimentos (pág. 578) english AND spanish glossary fascism  a totalitarian system of government that focuses déspotas ilustrados  los monarcas absolutos europeos on the good of the state rather than on the good of the del siglo XVIII. 187) assistance. 635) clero (pág. 33) Eucharist  a ceremony of some Christian denomina. la mano de obra y el capital (pág. 897) Media Luna de las tierras fértiles  región de ricas limpieza éthnica  eliminación de un grupo éthnico de tierras de cultivo en Medio Oriente. 747) Final Solution  the Nazi Party’s plan to murder the entire Jewish population of Europe and the Soviet Union (p. que gobernaban según los principios individual citizens (p. 574) feudal (pág. 33) society through killing or forced migration (p. government empresario  persona que corre un riesgo para empren. (p. 383) entrepreneur  a risk taker who starts a new business federal system  a system of government in which power within the economic system of capitalism (p. 647) is divided between a central. also called the Age of dadanos individuales (pág. ya sea asesinando o expulsando del desde el mediterráneo hasta los ríos Tigris y Éufrates área a los miembros de dicho grupo (pág. 823) Reason (p. 574) fealty  the loyalty owed by a vassal to his feudal lord Ilustración  época de optimismo y nuevas posibili. and capital (p. que se extiende una sociedad. 584) spreads rapidly and affects many people (p. protección (pág. 383) Exodus  the escape of the Hebrews from Egypt (p. and other services (p. 747) ancestors (p. 578) fascismo  sistema totalitario de gobierno que se centra Enlightenment  a time of optimism and possibility from en el bien del estado y no en el bienestar de los ciu- the late 1600s to the late 1700s. 383) the courts of their native country rather than in the filial piety  a love and respect for one’s parents and courts of the country that they are living in (p. 46) feudo  cesión de tierras por parte de un señor a un extraterritoriality  the right of citizens to be tried in vasallo (pág. or a federal. 855) First Estate  in pre-Revolution France. 823) de la Ilustración (pág. 383) Éxodo  huida de los hebreos de Egipto (pág. y estados epidemic  an outbreak of a contagious disease that individuales (pág. feudal system  a political and social system based on tions that commemorates Jesus’ last supper with his the granting of land in exchange for loyalty. famine  an extreme shortage of food (p. como la tierra. 46) fief  a grant of land from a lord to a vassal (p. 594) factors of production  the basic resources for industrial. the clergy (p. tam.

993) ghetto  an area where minority groups live (p. 259) Gallipoli Campaign  (1915) failed attempt by the Allies in cinco pilares del Islam  prácticas y obligaciones World War I to take control of the Dardanelles (p. such as trade. que la ingeniería genética  cambio de la estructura genética anulación de los deseos puede aliviar el sufrimiento. 855) Middle Ages. 720) Tierra es el centro del universo y el Sol y las estrellas free trade  the exchange of goods among nations without giran a su alrededor (pág. todavía tiene un Four Noble Truths  in Buddhism. 1008) sufrimiento. including buildings. 414) China’s Cultural Revolution in the 1960s and 1970s. first prominent in the Europe of the late determinado origen étnico (pág. 892) english and spanish glossary R103 . and that the way all the member nations (p. rezar cinco plegarias diarias. 104) genocide  the killing of an entire people (p. 289) the essence of the Buddha’s teaching: that life is suf- fering. 500) libre comercio  intercambio de bienes entre naciones gazis  guerreros de la fe islámica (pág. teoría geocéntrica  teoría científica que afirma que la cia y la fundación de Alemania (pág. 104) por todas las naciones miembro (pág. responsible for many of the excesses of walls (p. the performance of five daily prayers. 568) barriers such as tariffs. 787) flying buttress  an arched stone support on the outside of Gang of Four  powerful group of radicals. 165) Church (p. 1041) to relieve suffering is to follow the Eightfold Path Asamblea General  de Naciones Unidas. pautas genetic engineering  changing the genetic makeup of a esenciales de las enseñanzas de Buda: que la vida es plant or animal to create a new type (p. refers to a new era of media free- frailes  monjes que predicaban para los pobres en las dom in the Soviet Union under Mikhail Gorbachev ciudades europeas en desarrollo (pág. the guidelines that are uso litúrgico en la Iglesia copta de Etiopía (pág. 1041) Cuatro Nobles Verdades  en el budismo. que quería continuar la Revolución cul- tural en China (pág. 797) activities. que los deseos causan sufrimiento. which allows builders to construct higher Madame Mao. or taxes (p. 165) Ge’ez  an ancient Afro-Asiatic language. 500) sin barreras como aranceles o impuestos (pág. the requirement to fast. 788) Fourteen Points  President Woodrow Wilson’s plan for genocidio  asesinato de todo un pueblo (pág. that the annihila. it is still used foro  lugar de asamblea en una antigua ciudad today as a liturgical language in the Ethiopian Coptic romana (pág. que incluyen la pro. la Primera Guerra Mundial de tomar el control de los nas. ayunar y peregrinar a la Meca. General Assembly  a United Nations body consisting of tion of desires can relieve suffering. 1008) (pág. unlike monks. 315) France and Prussia that ended in the defeat of France geocentric theory  scientific theory that has the earth and the unification of Germany (p. 568) Francia y Prusia que terminó con la derrota de Fran. 892) glasnost  “apertura”: se refiere a una nueva era de libertad de los medios de comunicación en la Unión Soviética bajo el gobierno de Mikhail Gorbachev (pág. 855) friars  members of certain Roman Catholic religious gueto  área donde vive un grupo de personas de un orders. 787) comunes a todos los musulmanes. está formada (p. or Hajj (p. and the journey to Mecca. which include the profession of faith. de una planta o un animal para crear un nuevo tipo que para lograr esto se debe seguir el sendero óctuple (pág. 414) señora Mao. that desires cause suffering. 993) ghazis  warriors for the Islamic faith (p. 923) sirve de apoyo para el exterior de un edificio. terminó en un fracaso (pág. 720) as the center of the universe with the sun and stars Guerra franco-prusiana  (1870–1871) guerra entre revolving around it (p. o hajj (pág. 420) in the 1980s (p. campaña de Gallipoli  (1915) intento de los Aliados en fesión de la fe. 797) paban en actividades comerciales y tenían poder Franco-Prussian War  (1870–1871) a war fought between político (pág. lo que Banda de los Cuatro  grupo comunista radical de la permite construir muros más altos (pág.Five Pillars of Islam/cinco pilares del Islam glasnost/glasnost Five Pillars of Islam  behaviors and obligations that are common to all Muslims. who have political power Catorce Puntos  plan del presidente Woodrow Wilson (p. the giv- english AND spanish glossary ing of alms. arbotante  estructura de piedra en forma de arco que they lost power after Mao’s death in 1976 (p. 259) Dardanelos. 788) organizing post–World War I Europe and for avoiding gentry  wealthy landowners involved in commercial future wars (p. 420) glasnost  “openness”. friars preached in towns (p. 923) forum  the assembly place of an ancient Roman city (p. 289) ge’ez  antigua lengua afroasiática. dar limos. 315) para organizar Europa después de la Primera Guerra pequeña nobleza  terratenientes ricos que partici- Mundial y evitar futuras guerras (pág.

1008) culturas de Persia. the gulag  campo de trabajos forzados de la Unión Sovié- Dutch ruler William of Orange. 414) Hanseatic League  an organization of north-German gótica  estilo de arquitectura religiosa caracterizado cities and towns that organized and controlled trade por chapiteles altos y arbotantes que se desarrolló en throughout northern Europe from the 1200s through el siglo XII (pág. 921) Hellenistic  the blending of Greek cultures with those of green revolution  a significant increase in agricultural Persia. 1007) el mismo oficio o comercio en la Edad Media (pág. state slaves (p. 258) el desempleo (pág. 409) Great Depression  (1929–1930s) a severe worldwide Liga hanseática  organización del norte de Alemania depression that followed the collapse of the United que se encargaba de organizar y controlar el comercio States stock market. prices and wages fell. used espe- which leaders of Britain’s Parliament invited Mary. 521) tresses (p. 130) ductividad agrícola debido a la introducción de ilotas  en la antigua Grecia. 206) glifos  dibujo simbólico grabado en una superficie haiku  a Japanese poem that consists of 17 syllables set (pág. 206) in three lines (p. y a su marido. 411) calentamiento global  aumento de la temperatura gremios  asociaciones de personas que trabajaban en english AND spanish glossary promedio de la atmósfera terrestre (pág. 409) Gran Depresión  (1929–década de 1930) grave crisis hegira  Mohammad’s journey from Mecca to Medina económica mundial que siguió al colapso del mercado (p. 130) de pesticidas y la mejora de las técnicas de adminis- tración (pág. esclavos del estado variedades de cereales de alto rendimiento. 419) griots  professional West African storytellers (p. a sustituir al rey Jacobo II (pág. 550) glyphs  a symbolic picture carved onto a surface (p. and her husband. 414) the 1400s (p. Egypt. as the center of the universe with the earth rotating Year Plan for China. and Central Asia following the con- productivity resulting from the introduction of high. 813) XIV y XV (pág. 921) teoría heliocéntrica  teoría científica que afirma que Gran Salto Adelante  (1958) segundo plan de cinco el Sol es el centro del universo y la Tierra gira a su años para China de Mao Tsé-Tung. quests of Alexander the Great (p. 992) for beheading people (p. 153) revolución verde  aumento significativo de la pro- helots  in ancient Greece. 602) globalización  hacer global o universal el alcance o la guillotina  aparato usado durante la Revolución fran- aplicación de algo (pág. alrededor (pág. destinado especialmente para los prisioneros II (p. 569) (p. 153) yield varieties of grains. 1007) craft or trade during the Middle Ages (p. 550) políticos (pág. to replace King James tica. 1008) heresy  an opinion that goes against the teachings of a church (p. 521) Gothic  a style of church architecture developed during haiku  poema japonés que consiste en 17 sílabas dis- the 1100s characterized by tall spires and flying but. 286) herejía  opinión que va en contra de las enseñanzas de griots  contadores de cuentos profesional de África una iglesia (pág. 569) erar el progreso (pág. global warming/calentamiento global heresy/herejía global warming  an increase in the average temperature guilds  associations of people who worked at the same of the earth’s atmosphere (p. 602) Glorious Revolution  (1688) a nonviolent revolution in Gulag  a Soviet forced labor camp or prison. los precios y los salarios hégira  viaje de Mohamed de la Meca a Medina bajaron. 258) de valores de Estados Unidos. 813) heliocentric theory  scientific theory that has the sun Great Leap Forward  (1958) Mao Zedong’s second Five. and helenístico  mezcla de las culturas griegas con las improved management techniques (p. cuyo fin era acel. la actividad comercial disminuyó y aumentó (pág. activity slowed. el uso (pág. business de todo el norte de Europa durante los siglos XIII. hija del rey Jacobo II. and unemployment rose (p. el gober- nante holandés Guillermo de Orange. 992) cesa para decapitar a las personas (pág. 286) R104 english and spanish glossary . 825) Revolución gloriosa  (1688) revolución pacífica en que los líderes del Parlamento británico invitaron a María. 419) occidental (pág. puestas en tres versos (pág. cially for political dissidents (p. 411) globalization  the process in which trade and culture link guillotine  a device used during the French Revolution together countries around the world (p. its goal was to speed progress around the sun (p. 825) daughter of King James II. the use of pesticides. Egipto y Asia Central (pág.

y en el potencial humano y sus nes  política económica que consiste en reemplazar logros (pág. import-substitution led industrialization  an economic tial and achievements (p. 10) hindúes creen en la reencarnación y se esfuerzan por cazadores y recolectores  personas que cazan ani- liberarse del ciclo de renacimiento (pág. and on human poten.hieroglyphics/jeroglíficos import-substitution led industrialization/ industrialización de sustitución de importaciones hieroglyphics  a form of ancient writing in which picture Hundred Days  (1815) period that marks the time symbols represent sounds (p. 968) english and spanish glossary R105 . Christians. 404) tiempo (pág. 420) that everything in the world is a power of Brahman. 132) icono  pintura o grabado de Jesús. 241) France and England for control of the French throne Hinduism  the largest religion in India. dibujos o diseños (pág. 856) hydrogen bomb  a nuclear weapon that gets its power Holocausto  asesinato de millones de judíos y otras from the fusing together of hydrogen atoms (p. and grows rapidly in a short period of time (p. 541) illumination  the process of decorating a written manu- hugonote  protestante francés (pág. 404) hiperinflación  nivel de inflación extremadamente Tierra Santa  la región donde Jesús fue crucificado y alto que aumenta con rapidez en un corto período de enterrado (pág. ilustración  proceso de decorar un manuscrito con sance that focused on the study of worldly subjects. 130) icon  a painting or carving of Jesus. the Virgin Mary. 883) Holy Land  region that included Jerusalem and the area hyperinflation  an extremely high level of inflation that around it. 975) hominid  an early humanlike creature that is believed to be the ancestor of humans (p. 856) cia a la fusión de átomos de hidrógeno (pág. 241) y la restauración del rey Luis XVIII (28 de junio) números indoarábigos  sistema numérico que usamos (pág. 616) hoy en día. 975) Muslims (p. 78) restoration of King Louis XVIII (June 28) (p. 350) Huguenot  a French Protestant (p. or a saint (p. 99) males y recolectan plantas silvestres para satisfacer Holocaust  the killing of millions of Jews and others by sus necesidades (pág. de quien se cree que descienden los humanos (pág. 78) between Napoleon’s return to Paris from Elba (March english AND spanish glossary jeroglíficos  forma de escritura antigua en la que los 20). 99) hunter-gatherers  people who hunt animals and gather hinduismo  la religión más importante de la India. la Virgen María o hibris  orgullo desmesurado (pág. 130) hoplitas  soldados de infantería de la antigua Grecia (pág. his final defeat at Waterloo (June 18). 132) un santo (pág. Hindus believe (p. and the sonidos se representan con dibujos (pág. 616) Hindu-Arabic numerals  the number system that we Cien Días  (1815) período que marca la época entre el use today. 10) the Nazis during World War II (p. considered holy by Jews. 968) que se centró en el estudio de temas terrenales como industrialización de sustitución de importacio- la poesía y la filosofía. they also believe in Francia e Inglaterra por el control del trono francés reincarnation and strive to break free from the cycle (pág. created by Indian scholars and brought to regreso de Napoleón a París desde Elba (20 de marzo) Europe by Arabs (p. 6) homínido  criatura primitiva parecida a los humanos. 350) hubris  great pride (p. 541) script with pictures or designs (p. 414) such as poetry and philosophy. 6) hoplites  foot soldiers in ancient Greece (p. 414) humanism  an intellectual movement during the Renais. 420) of rebirth (p. 439) ciertos bienes importados por bienes producidos en el país (pág. 883) personas por los nazis durante la Segunda Guerra bomba de hidrógeno  arma nuclear que debe su poten- Mundial (pág. 439) policy of replacing certain imported goods with a humanismo  movimiento intelectual del Renacimiento country’s own manufactured goods (p. los wild plants to provide for their needs (p. Guerra de los Cien Años  (1337–1453) guerra entre the single great universal being. fue creado por estudiosos de la India y Hundred Years’ War  (1337–1453) war fought between traído a Europa por los árabes (pág.

the term Inquisition  institution of the Roman Catholic Church means “achieving peace through surrender to God” that sought to eliminate heresy by seeking out and (p. 956) rio británico (pág. vivid that can be substituted for each other in manufactur- color. it later became one of the main de computadoras individuales de todo el mundo forces calling for Indian independence (p. 992) nación por los daños causados a dicha nación Internet  an electronic system that allows the linking of (pág. 450) república islámica dirigida por Khomeini (pág. 202) inflation  increased prices for goods and services com. 958) indulgences  pardons issued by the pope of the Roman Revolución iraní  (1978–1979) revolución contra el sha Catholic Church that could reduce a soul’s time in de Irán dirigida por el ayatolá Ruhollah Khomeini. bienes o servicios (pág. 898) Congreso Nacional de la India  importante partido intifada  a violent uprising by Palestinians against the político de la India. (pág. especially active in Spain in the Islam  religión enseñada por Mahoma. 956) tinent around 1700 BC (p. comenzó que separaba a los países comunistas del bloque a mediados del siglo XVIII (pág. formada para gobernarse a sí mismos inflación  aumento del precio de los bienes y servi. purgatory. migraron desde el sur de Rusia hasta el subconti. 879) began in the mid-1700s (p. 618) cuando dependen mutuamente para poder obtener indemnización  compensación que se paga a una recursos. 992) indemnity  compensation that is paid to a nation for the interdependencia  relación entre países que se produce damage inflicted upon it in a war (p. 879) tion of goods (p. Liga de Iroqueses  alianza de indígenas estadoun- bined with the reduced value of money (p. 645) comenzó en Francia en la década de 1860 en la que interdependence  a relationship between countries in los artistos usaban juegos con la luz. el término later 1400s and 1500s (p. and seeming motion to capture an impression of ing (p. el movimiento y which they rely on one another for resources. (p. 450) to describe an imaginary line dividing Communist Industrial Revolution  a period of rapid growth in the use countries in the Soviet bloc from countries in Western of machines in manufacturing and production that Europe during the Cold War (p. 958) indulgencias  perdones comprados a la Iglesia católica iron curtain  term coined by Winston Churchill in 1946 con el fin de evitar un castigo por un pecado (pág. 420) R106 english and spanish glossary . fue particularmente activa en España en el siglo XV (pág. 898) founded in 1885 to press for greater rights for Indians Internet  sistema electrónico que conecta a millones under British rule. 202) cios combinado con la reducción del valor del dinero Islam  a monotheistic religion whose prophet is Muham- (pág. 635) Iroquois League  an alliance of five (later. 258) que intentaba eliminar la herejía persiguiendo y castigando a los herejes. 645) english AND spanish glossary a scene (p. 744) (pág. fundado en 1885 con el fin de Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip in organizar a los ciudadanos en la lucha contra el Impe. 40) Iranian Revolution  (1978–1979) a revolution against the indoeuropeos  grupo de pueblos seminómadas que shah of Iran led by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. which led to corruption (p. 633) soviético de los países de Europa occidental durante industrialization  developing industries for the produc. six) Native industrialización  desarrollo de las industrias que American tribes formed in the 1500s for defense and producen bienes (pág. or el uso de colores vivos (pág. (pág. 618) millions of individual computers around the world Indian National Congress  a major political party in India. la Guerra Fría (pág. de Gaza a finales de la década de 1980 (pág. 189) mad and whose holy book is the Qur’an. 744) intifada  levantamiento violento de los palestinos Indo-Europeans  a group of semi-nomadic people who contra la ocupación israelí de Cisjordania y la franja migrated from southern Russia to the Indian subcon. the late 1980s (p. 635) self-governance (p. from the 1100s to the 1500s. goods. indulgences cuyo resultado fue que Íran se transformó en una could be purchased. 676) services (p.C. 420) significa literalmente “entregarse” o “someterse” Inquisición  institución de la Iglesia católica romana (pág. which resulted in Iran becoming an Islamic republic nente indio hacia el año 1700 a. 258) punishing heretics. 676) piezas intercambiables  partes idénticas que se impresionismo  novedoso estilo de pintura que pueden reemplazar entre sí (pág. 189) idenses. 40) with Khomeini as its leader (p. impressionism/impresionismo Islam/Islam impressionism  a new style of painting that began in interchangeable parts  identical machine-made parts France in the 1860s in which artists used light. 633) cortina de hierro  término creado por Winston revolución industrial  período de rápido crecimiento Churchill en 1946 para describir una línea imaginaria del uso de las máquinas para la producción.

tracing its origins to Abraham. pilotos jesuitas  miembros de la orden católica de la Compa. 487) (pág. 972) junta  grupo de líderes que gobiernan juntos (pág. (pág. 260) buenas y malas de una persona y la forma en que jihad  “lucha por la fe”. 972) Jainism  a religion of India. performances can last all day cuyos miembros prometen decir sólo la verdad y no (p. founded about the same time as Buddhism (c. and having States at the beginning of World War II (p. 1032) usadas por los hombres para celebrar ceremonias journeyman  a skilled worker who was paid wages by the religiosas o consejos (pág. founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534 (p. 456) kamikazes  en la Segunda Guerra Mundial. 45) y los conflictos bélicos de otras naciones. 500) their aircraft with bombs and crashed them into Jesuits  members of a Catholic religious order. 102) kabuki  forma de teatro japonés que podía durar todo Janissaries  highly trained soldiers in the elite guard of un día y en la cual los actores cantaban. que se estrellaban con su avión cargado de explosivos ñía de Jesús. nobles que eran miembros de la caballería fuertemente armada de un señor (pág. 842) its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in english AND spanish glossary aislacionismo  permanecer al margen de los asuntos the Hebrew Scriptures and the Talmud (p. lucha para obedecer la volun. Khmer Rouge  comunistas entrenados por el Vietcong nas que realizan una inversión conjunta y comparten que se hicieron con el poder en Camboya en 1975 las ganancias y las pérdidas (pág. 317) people who jointly make an investment and share in Khmer Rouge  Communists trained by the Vietcong who the profits and losses (p. 850) of Jesus. 99) term embraces notions of defending the Muslim com. karma  en el hinduismo. the individual’s fate in the afterlife (p. believers renounce worldly things. 102) 1600s. 200) empresa conjunta  asociación comercial y copropiedad kivas  cámaras subterráneas de los indios Pueblo. the totality of a person’s good and jihad  “struggle for the faith”. featuring a highly stylized blend of singing and jainismo  religión que promueve la no violencia y dancing. 456) karma  in Hinduism. postura que judaísmo  religión monoteísta de los israelitas. 919) joint ventures  business partnerships and co-ownership kivas  underground chambers in a Pueblo village. 500) interactuaban con el público (pág. la totalidad de las acciones munity and holy war (p. 45) junta  a group of leaders who rule jointly (p. the position initially held by the United Israelites. 521) Jenízaros  soldados sumamente entrenados de la kamikazes  in World War II. 383) english and spanish glossary R107 . 99) tad divina en la fe musulmana (pág. 1032) the men for religious ceremonies or councils (p. and practice nonviolence kabuki  a form of Japanese theater dating from the (p. 487) came to power in Cambodia in 1975 (p. 842) espirituales y éticos se encuentran en las Escrituras Hebreas y el Talmud (pág. 260) khan  a Mongol chief or ruler (p. 412) caballeros  en la Europa medieval. afectarán su destino en la otra vida (pág. 500 BC) and in reaction to some Hindu practices. as the latter. 412) knights  in medieval Europe. the Society enemy ships (p. can be thought of as an bad deeds and the way in which they affect that individual or communal struggle. 200) master of a guild (p. 919) sociedad por acciones  empresas formada por perso. 383) del jefe de un gremio (pág.isolationism/aislacionismo knights/caballeros isolationism  staying out of the affairs and wars of other Judaism  a monotheistic religion originating with the nations. 521) robar (pág. used by (p. fundada por Ignacio de Loyola en 1534 contra un barco enemigo (pág. sus principios Guerra Mundial (pág. Japanese pilots who loaded guardia de élite del Imperio otomano (pág. cuyos mantenía  Estados Unidos al comienzo de la Segunda orígenes se remontan a Abraham. embrace self-discipline. 850) (pág. bailaban e the Ottoman Empire (p. 317) joint-stock companies  businesses formed by groups of khan  jefe o gobernante mongol (pág. nobles who were members oficial  trabajador especializado que recibía su salario of a lord’s heavily armored cavalry (p.

atacaron a los judíos. 145) poesía lírica  tipo de poesía que debe su nombre a la lira. 968) en la región china de Manchuria. murieron casi lyric poetry  a type of poetry that gained its name from 100 judíos (pág. 821) loess  fine yellowish soil blown from the desert regions Mandate of Heaven  the Chinese belief that royal author- (p. 808) that occurred on the nights of November 9 and 10 Louisiana Purchase  (1803) the purchase of land between in which Hitler’s Nazis encouraged Germans to riot the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains that against Jews. Koryo dynasty/dinastía Koryo Mandate of Heaven/Mandato del Cielo Koryo dynasty  (835–1392) Korean dynasty founded by Long March  (1934) the 6.000 millas hecho por english AND spanish glossary por el caudillo Wang Kon (pág. fue establecido Legalism  a Chinese political philosophy that holds that como estado títere en 1932 después de que los japone- the most effective government is that which rules the ses invadieran Manchuria en 1931 (pág. 144) R108 english and spanish glossary . 202) (p. que obligaban al respetara interferencia del gobierno (pág. 797) Manchukuo  Japanese puppet state (1932-1945) formed Liga de las Naciones  cuerpo internacional de naciones in Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia (p. 702) nazis de Hitler. 182) Magyars  a Hungarian ethnic group (p. suceso Compra de Luisiana  (1803) compra de tierra entre el que tuvo lugar en las noches del 9 y 10 de noviembre. 797) churia y el este de Mongolia Interior.000-mile journey made by Com- the warlord Wang Kon (p. 808) dinastía Koryo  (835–1392) dinastía coreana fundada Larga Marcha  (1934) viaje de 6. instrumento que acompañaba la poesía cantada (pág. 827) nearly doubled the size of the United States (p. common in Latin America incidente de Manchuria  (1931) plan de los japoneses in the late 1900s. an instrument that played while the poetry was sung (p. 389) Latin  the language of ancient Rome (p. 202) formed after World War I to prevent future wars maíz  grano (pág. 182) magiares  grupo étnico de Hungría (pág. nearly 100 Jews died (p. 968) (pág. 109) del rey es el efecto de la aprobación divina (pág. 644) sindicato  organización que representa los intereses de los trabajadores (pág. 111) loess  tierra fina y amarillenta de algunas regiones Mandato del Cielo  creencia china de que la autoridad desérticas (pág. 644) laissez-faire  a business system where companies are Magna Carta  (1215) a charter agreed to by King John allowed to conduct business without interference by of England that granted nobles certain rights and the government (p. that the Roman Catholic Church para incriminar a los chinos en la explosión de una should be active in the struggle for economic and bomba en un ferrocarril controlado por los japoneses political equality (p. lo que cristiana debe participar activamente en la lucha por produjo una importante crisis diplomática en Japón la igualdad política y económica (pág. río Mississippi y las montañas Rocallosas que casi en el que ciudadanos alemanes. 724) League of Nations  an international body of nations maize  corn (p. an event nacionalistas (pág. 111) logic  the process of making inferences (p. 827) the lyre. alentados por los duplicó el tamaño de Estados Unidos (pág. 822) formado después de la Primera Guerra Mundial para Manchukuo  antiguo estado del este de Asia en Man- evitar futuras guerras (pág. 326) los comunistas chinos para escapar de las tropas Kristallnacht  (1938) “night of broken glass”. 646) restricted the king’s powers (p. 109) ity is the result of divine approval (p. Japanese military forces conquered conjunto de leyes severas (pág. 224) Manchuria and set up a puppet government (p. 646) ciertos derechos (pág. 822) people by a harsh set of laws (p. 145) labor union  an organization representing workers’ inter- ests (p. 821) Liberation Theology  the belief. 224) Manchurian Incident  (1931) using an explosion on a legalismo  filosofía política china que sostiene que el Japanese-controlled Southern Manchurian railroad gobierno más eficaz es el que gobierna mediante un as an excuse. 326) munist Chinese to escape Nationalist troops (p. el gobierno japonés teología de la liberación  creencia de que la iglesia se negó a apoyar la acción con sus tropas. 144) lógica  proceso de hacer inferencias (pág. 702) Kristallnacht  (1938) “noche de cristales rotos”. 389) laissez-faire  sistema comercial donde las empresas Carta Magna  (1215) carta de libertades aceptadas por pueden llevar a cabo actividades comerciales sin el rey Juan de Inglaterra. 724) latín  la lengua de Roma (pág.

the extremes of either comfort or discomfort in the phy of the Bolsheviks. 186) América del Norte y las Antillas (pág. 33) ubicada en las ciudades fronterizas de México en la que se fabrican productos elaborados para exportar a Messiah  in Judaism. 645) moksha  en el hinduismo. 484) (p. 384) mente asociado a su riqueza (pág. it advises people to live in moderation. 184) Marshall Plan  (1947) plan for the economic reconstruc- tion of Europe after World War II (p. America and the West Indies (p. como objetivo final la creación de una sociedad sin from where a crier calls Muslims to worship (p. 274) clases (pág. 1027) from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans (p. 384) mercantilismo  sistema económico usado desde el sistema de feudos  sistema económico de la Edad siglo XVI hasta el siglo XVIII aproximadamente. 798) or more (p. 363) english and spanish glossary R109 . 1027) Mesías  en el judaísmo. 274) numbers of identical items (p. 363) kikuyu con el fin de expulsar de Kenia por medios monacato  separación voluntaria de la sociedad para violentes a los agricultores blancos (pág. 792) extremos de la comodidad o la incomodidad en la marxismo-leninismo  filosofía política y económica de búsqueda del nirvana (pág. 100) Mau Mau  a violent movement in Kenya during the 1960s. se concentraba en el levantamiento contra los burgueses. prevalent Mau Mau  movimiento emprendido por los agricultores in the Middle Ages (p. led by Kikuyu farmers. 186) Middle Way  basic Buddhist teachings of the Eightfold Path. 15) Atlántico hasta el Pacífico (pág. usually white settlers (p. 362) powers to rule after World War I (p. 939) dedicar la vida a Dios (pág. en el suroeste de Asia (pág. 879) Middle Passage  the name for voyages that brought Plan Marshall  (1947) plan para la reconstrucción enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North económica de Europa tras la Segunda Guerra Mun. que Media cuya base eran grandes propiedades llamadas afirmaba que el poder de una nación estaba directa- feudos (pág. 798) medieval  período de la historia de Europa occidental english AND spanish glossary mandatos  después de la Primera Guerra Mundial.mandates/mandatos monasticism/monacato mandates  territories once part of the Ottoman Empire medieval  the time period in western European history that the League of Nations gave to other European known as the Middle Ages (p. 792) minaretes  torres adosadas al exterior de una mezqui- ta desde la cual un voceador convoca a los musul- mass production  the system of manufacturing large manes a decir sus plegarias (pág. 33) goods for export to the United States (p. 15) estadounidenses a mediados del siglo XIX de que megalitos  grandes piedras usadas en tumbas o para Estados Unidos debía expandirse desde el océano fines religiosos (pág. 362) territorios del Imperio otomano que serían goberna. megacity  an urban area with a population of 10 million dos por potencias europeas (pág. 484) maquiladora  a large industrial assembly plant located Mesopotamia  the area that lies between the Tigris and in the border towns of Mexico that produces finished Euphrates rivers in Southwest Asia (p. 100) (pág. search for nirvana (p. 489) dial (pág. 939) in monasteries. moksha  in Hinduism. expounded by Vladimir Lenin. to rid the country of monasticism  voluntary separation from society. los conocido como la Edad Media (pág. to dedicate one’s life to God. un salvador enviado por Dios (pág. 879) Paso Central  viaje en el que los esclavos africanos atravesaban el océano Atlántico hasta llegar a martyrs  people put to death for their beliefs (p. 105) which looked to an uprising of the proletariat that Camino Medio  enseñanzas básicas del sendero would abolish private property and enforce social óctuple. a savior sent by God (p. 703) megaliths  huge stones used for burial or religious pur- destino manifiesto  creencia compartida por muchos poses (p. avoiding Marxism-Leninism  the political and economic philoso. 105) los bolcheviques. refutaba el capitalismo y tenía minarets  towers attached to the outside of a mosque. 645) producción en masa  sistema de fabricación que con. 1027) manifest destiny  a belief shared by many Americans in megalópolis  ciudad con una población de 10 o más the mid-1800s that the United States should expand millones de habitantes (pág. 184) Estados Unidos (pág. the escape from the cycle of siste en producir gran cantidad de artículos idénticos rebirth (p. 1027) Mesopotamia  área ubicada entre los ríos Tigris y maquiladora  gran planta de montaje industrial Éufrates. aconseja vivir con moderación y evitar los equality (p. 489) mártires  personas ejecutadas por sus creencias (pág. el hecho de liberarse del ciclo de renacimiento (pág. 703) mercantilism  an economic system used from about the manorial system  an economic system in the Middle Ages 1500s to the 1700s that held that a nation’s power that was built around large estates called manors was directly related to its wealth (p.

260) (p. 826) los (pág. mosaicos  imagens creadas con pequeños trozos de alianza militar defensiva de doce naciones occiden- azulejos de colores colocados uno al lado del otro y tales formada en 1949 (pág. 822) hostility by the United States (p. monotheism/monoteísmo neutral/neutral monotheism  the belief in one god (p. a defensive military alliance of twelve Western nations formed in mosaics  images created with tiny bits of colored tile fit. 702) masacre de Nanjing  (1937) asesinato de nada menos Doctrina Monroe  (1823) declaración del presidente que 300 mil hombres. periodo posterior al Paleolítico que se destaca por el uso de herramientas Muslim League  political group founded in 1906 to protect (pág. 781) R110 english and spanish glossary . 314) Partido Nazi  Partido Nacional Socialista de los Tra- Mughal Empire  a Muslim empire in India (1526–1761) bajadores Alemanes. 94) NATO  North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 349) OTAN  Organización del Tratado del Atlántico Norte. fascist political etched (p. 822) la colonización del continente americano y se advertía que todo intento de colonización por parte de cualqui. 947) que operan en varios países diferentes y venden sus movimiento de la negritud  movimiento literario fun- productos en todo el mundo (pág. 314) party of Adolf Hitler governed on totalitarian lines tipo móvil  bloque de metal donde se grababan símbo. the time period after ante sustancias químicas después de la muerte the Paleolithic Era. marked by the use of tools (p. 258) paso de la recolección de alimentos a su producción musulmanes  seguidores del Islam (pág. 379) mezquita  edificio de oración de los musulmanes navegación  acto de guiar embaraciones de un lugar a (pág. 745) revolución neolítica  período de la historia del hombre marcado por la introducción de la agricultura y el Muslims  followers of Islam (p. nationalism  sense of pride and devotion to one’s nation er país extranjero sería considerado un acto hostil (p. 260) otro (pág. 992) rejected European models and promoted pride in corporaciones multinacionales  grandes empresas African cultural identity (p. President James Monroe’s statement forbidding further colonization in the Nanjing Massacre  (1937) the murder of as many as Americas and declaring that any attempt by a foreign 300. 379) movable type  metal blocks on which symbols were Nazi Party  National Socialist Party. 505) industria (pág. it later became one of the main forces calling for India independence and a Neolithic Revolution  a period in human history marked separate nation for Indian Muslims (p. and children by Japa- country to colonize would be considered an act of nese troops (p. women. 745) by the introduction of agriculture and a shift from Liga musulmana  grupo político de musulmanes de la food gathering to food production (p. 880) pegados con cemento (pág. mujeres y niños chinos por Estados Unidos James Monroe en la que se prohibía parte de las tropas japonesas (pág. 613) (pág. 94) monzóns  vientos estacional de la India (pág. 1949 (p. partido político fascista liderado founded by Babur (p. 349) navigation  the guidance of ships from place to place mosque  a building for Muslim prayer (p.000 Chinese men. 947) chemicals after death (p. 75) Neolítico  Nueva Edad de Piedra. 880) ted together and cemented into place (p. que no apoya a ningún bando (pág. 826) multinational corporations  large companies that operate negritude movement  African and Afro-Caribbean liter- in several different countries and sell their products ary movement founded in Paris in the 1930s that around the world (p. 702) nacionalismo  sentido de orgullo y lealtad por la pro- pia nación (pág. not aiding either side (p. and advocating German racial superiority (p. 13) India que buscaban proteger sus derechos (pág. 13) the rights of Indian Muslims.S. 13) neutral  in a war. 13) (pág. 613) monsoons  seasonal winds in India (p. 258) (pág. 49) english AND spanish glossary Monroe Doctrine  (1823) U. 49) monoteísmo  creencia en un solo dios (pág. 75) momificación  proceso de preservar el cuerpo medi. Neolithic Era  the New Stone Age. 505) por Adolf Hitler que se basaba en el totalitarismo. 992) dado por un grupo de estudiantes africanos y afro- caribeños que vivían en París en la década de 1930 mummification  the process of preserving the body with (pág. la Imperio mughal  imperio musulmán en la India superioridad racial y el control gubernamental de la (1526–1761) fundado por Babur (pág. 781) neutral  en una guerra.

que se forma para brindar servicios o promover cierta política pública (pág. 105) obeliscos  pilares altos y delgados cuya parte superior nirvana  en el budismo. 793) NGO  a non-governmental organization. 10) political party controls the government and elections nómadas  personas que se trasladan de un lugar a are rarely competitive (p. 878) order to restore the Soviet economy (p. Roosevelt’s plan of Nuremberg Laws  Nazi laws that eliminated citizenship economic relief. the release from the world and the (p. many were executed for war crimes allow limited capitalism. 793) juicios de Nuremberg  (1945-1949) juicios en los que Nueva Política Económica  Respuesta de Lenin a un tribunal militar de los Aliados juzgó a varias dece- los campesinos y trabajadores que sufrían después nas de autoridades militares y nazis de alto rango. 815) military tribunal tried several dozen top Nazi and New Economic Policy  Lenin’s plan. 945) otro en busca de comida y agua (pág. 73) logro de la iluminación en una paz espiritual y per. formed to provide services or to push for a certain public policy (p. especially among farmers. 593) fue el primero en hacer herramientas agrícolas de Viejo Orden  sistema político y social que funcionaba hierro (pág. 73) achievement of peace and enlightenment (p. ciudadanía y muchos derechos civiles y de propiedad evelt destinado a proporcionar ayuda económica. 287) Old Order  the political and social system in place in nok  pueblo que vivió en lo que hoy en día es Nigeria.New Deal/Nuevo Trato Orthodox Church/iglesia ortodoxo New Deal  U. to military officials. 997) obelisks  tall. la liberación del mundo y el tiene forma de pirámide (pág. 827) recuperar y reformar económicamente al país después Nuremberg trials  (1945-1949) trials in which an Allied de la Gran Depresión (pág. en lugar de las tradiciones occi- dentales (pág. in (p. o grupo no afiliado a ningún gobierno. 980) usados para predecir el futuro (pág. 886) (OPEP)  organización que coordina las políticas sobre naciones no alineadas  naciones que se niegan a aliar. offshoring  the movement of an entire factory or other fecta (pág. 10) sistema de partido único  sistema político donde un nonaggression pact  an agreement between nations to único partido controla el gobierno y las elecciones no not attack one another (p. 945) pacto de no agresión  acuerdo entre naciones de no Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)  an atacarse entre sí (pág. 955) North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)  a free oracle bones  inscribed animal bones used to predict the trade agreement that eliminated tariffs on trade future (p. President Franklin D. autorizó un poco de capital. Estados Unidos y Canadá (pág. 815) Leyes de Nuremberg  leyes de los nazis que negaban la english AND spanish glossary Nuevo Trato  plan del presidente Franklin D. 110) Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte Orthodox Church  the church that followed the Eastern (NAFTA. 886) (pág. thin pillars with pyramid-shaped tops nirvana  in Buddhism. or a group not affiliated with any government. the Nok lived in what is today fábrica o negocio al completo (pág. y a a los judíos (pág. 878) (pág. muchos fueron ejecutados por crímenes de guerra ismo para que estas personas pudieran recuperarse (pág. the United States. 1031) Nok  one of the earliest African peoples to make iron externalización  acto de trasladar al extranjero una tools (500 BC–AD 200). and Canada huesos oráculos  huesos de animales con inscripciones (p. and reforms for the country and many civil and property rights for Jews (p. 351) english and spanish glossary R111 . 997) ONG  organización no gubernamental. 827) during the Great Depression (p. France before the Revolution (p.S. 110) between Mexico. de la Revolución Rusa. 105) business enterprise abroad (p. 838) suelen ser competitivas (pág. por sus siglas en inglés)  acuerdo de libre traditions of Christianity as opposed to the Western comercio que eliminó las barreras comerciales entre traditions (p. recovery. Roos. started in 1921. 955) either side in the Cold War between the United States Organización de Países Exportadores de Petróleo and the Soviet Union (p. el petróleo de las empresas pais más importantes se con uno de los bandos en un conflicto (pág. 593) nomads  people who move from place to place in search of one-party system  political system in which a single food and water (p. 838) organization that coordinates petroleum policies of nonaligned nations  nations who refused to ally with major producing countries (p. 1031) Nigeria (p. 287) en Francia antes de la Revolución (pág. 980) iglesia ortodoxo  iglesia que siguió las tradiciones cristianas orientales. 351) México.

Rome who controlled the government and society jadores externos para reducir los costos o aumentar la (p. 945) tráfico de influencias  dar puestos bien pagados en el gabinete gubernamental a los seguidores leales de un pagoda  a multistory Buddhist tower used as a temple or funcionario del gobierno (pág. 175) promoting Arab unity (p. 910) pasteurization  the process of heating liquids to kill bacteria and prevent fermentation (p. 46) patriarca  “padre” ancestral del judaísmo (pág. 696) partición  división (pág. 78) countries or warring groups within a single country papiro  material semejante al papel que fabricaban (p. Pax Romana  período de paz en Roma que duró desde madamente 8. 953) Peace of Augsburg  (1555) an agreement between states panarabismo  la unidad de los pueblos de ascendencia in the Holy Roman Empire that gave each German árabe (pág. peacekeeping  sending multinational forces into coun- tians from the stem of the reedy papyrus plant. a desde mediados del siglo XIII hasta mediados del prehistoric period that lasted from about 2. 536) papyrus  a paper-like material made by ancient Egyp. 313) Pax Mongolia  período de paz en Mongolia que duró Paleolithic Era  also known as the Old Stone Age. at the which they depended for most of their food (p. 945) a shrine (p.5 million siglo XIV (pág. 992) patricians  a class of powerful landowners in ancient tercerización  práctica de las empresas de usar traba. 374) Paz de Augsburgo  (1555) acuerdo por el cual la Estados Pontificios  región del centro de Italia contro.500 a. que gobernó el paterfamilias  the family father (p. 992) patricios  terratenientes romanos poderosos. 313) Pax Mongolia  a period of peace in Mongolia lasting from pagoda  torre budista de varios pisos que se usa como the mid-1200s until the mid-1300s (p. 9) Pax Romana  a period of peace in Roman Empire last- Paleolítico  también conocido como la Antigua Edad ing from the beginning of Augustus’s reign until the de Piedra. 9) el comienzo del gobierno de Augusto hasta la muerte Pan-Arabism  political movement in the 1950s and 1960s de Marco Aurelio  (27 BC–AD 180) (pág. 696) peninsulares  europeos que nacieron en la península partition  division (p. named for Osman I. el noreste paterfamilias  el padre de la familia (pág.C. miem- bros de la clase alta adinerada que controlaban el gobierno y la sociedad (pág. 536) pope from 756–1870 (p. del cual obtenían la mayor parte de su ali- southeast Europe (p. 910) ibérica.5 millones de años hasta aproxi. 179) vasto sultanato turco del suroeste de Asia. 500) patriarch  an ancestral “father” of Judaism (p. 389) Parlamento  el cuerpo que gobierna Inglaterra peninsulares  colonists in Latin American who were born (pág. 668) pasteurización  proceso de calentar los líquidos para matar las bacterias y evitar la fermentación (pág. the founder. 668) R112 english and spanish glossary . es decir. in Spain or Portugal (p. the Ottomans ruled a vast area that pastoralistas  campesinos nómadas que mantenían english AND spanish glossary encompassed southwest Asia. 318) years ago to about 8. 46) outsourcing  the practice of using workers from outside a company to cut costs or increase production (p. and ganado. religión de cada estado alemán sería decidida por su lada por el papa (pág. 15) Empire’s height. que crece en el delta del Nilo cionales a otros países para que se respete un cese (pág. 374) gobernante (pág. 318) templo o santuario (pág. (pág. 953) prince the right to decide whether his state would be Papal States  territories in central Italy controlled by the Catholic or Protestant (p.500 BC (p. 175) aproximadamente 2. 15) otomanos  descendientes de Osmán I. 165) producción (pág. northeast Africa. Ottomans/otomanos peninsulares/peninsulares Ottomans  ruling dynasty of the Ottoman Empire pastoralists  nomads who kept herds of livestock on (1293–1922). 78) del fuego o una tregua entre países en guerra o entre grupos en guerra dentro de un mismo país (pág. 389) on the Iberian Peninsula. período prehistórico que duró desde hace death of Marcus Aurelius  (27 BC–AD 180) (p. 1041) Parliament  the governing body of England (p. en España o Portugal (pág. 165) patronage  the practice of rewarding political loyalty with well-paying government positions (p. which tries to enforce ceasefires or truces among warring grows in the Nile River delta (p. 500) mento (pág. 179) de África y el sureste de Europa hasta su disolución tras la Primera Guerra Mundial (pág. 1041) los egipcios con los tallos de una planta parecida a la mantenimiento de la paz  envío de fuerzas interna- caña llamada papiro.

898) called “china” (p. 488) privatization  the process of converting businesses or plantacións  establecimientos agrícolas grande. 66) líderes Aliados hacia el final de la Segunda Guerra philosophes  philosophers of the Enlightenment (p. 863) pharaoh  ruler of ancient Egypt (p. sports. 200) polis  a city-state of ancient Greece (p. 547) popes  title given to the heads of the Roman Catholic Church (p. 1032) plebeians  farmers or workers. industries from public to private ownership (p. 187) english and spanish glossary R113 . 393) God decided who would gain salvation (p. 200) polytheism  the belief in many gods (p. 863) philosophes  filósofos de la Ilustración (pág. 452) piedad  nivel de devoción de una persona a su religión predestinación  creencia de que al comienzo de los (pág. 66) Conferencia de Potsdam  (1945) encuentro de los faraón  gobernador de Egipto antigua (pág. restructuring of the corrupt popular culture  cultural traits such as food. 785) plebiscite  the procedure used to submit the constitution of a new government to the people for a yes-or-no vote Protestant Reformation  a religious movement in the (p. 995) english AND spanish glossary perestroika  “reestructuración”. porcelana  tipo de cerámica que se hace al exponer diers standing shoulder to shoulder carrying pikes or arcilla pura a temperaturas muy altas.-led populista  defensor de los derechos y el poder del forces liberated Kuwait from Iraq (p. los new churches (p. 995) se realizó bajo la presidencia de Mikhail Gorbachev populist  a supporter of the rights of the common people (pág. 785) gran parte de la población antigua romana (pág. porcelain  a type of ceramic made by firing a pure clay zas lideradas por Estados Unidos liberaron Kuwait de at very high temperatures and then glazing it. 136) arla (pág. 394) puritanos  protestantes inglés que quería “purificar” la Iglesia de Inglaterra a través de reformas (pág. 610) Reforma protestante  revolución religiosa del siglo XVI que dividió la iglesia de Europa occidental y llevó pogroms  the organized persecutions and massacres al establecimiento de una serie de iglesias nuevas of  Jews in Russia in the 1880s (p. 576) Mundial (pág. 730) (pág. and government bureaucracy in the Soviet Union begun music. 449) pogroms  persecucións organizadas y masacres de los judíos en Rusia en la década de 1880 (pág. 165) propaganda  información difundida con la intención de influir en la opinión pública (pág. 313) falange  formación militar compuesta por soldados Potsdam Conference  (1945) a meeting of Allied leaders in parados hombro contra hombro y portando picas o the German city of Potsdam to address issues about lanzas pesadas (pág. 313) phalanx  a military formation composed of rows of sol. 449) ciudadanos votan a favor o en contra (pág. 576) predestination  the belief that at the beginning of time piety  devotion to one’s religion (p.perestroika/perestroika Puritans/puritanos perestroika  “restructuring”. en de obtener una ganancia (pág. 974) Guerra del Golfo  (1990-1991) guerra en que las fuer. la reestructuración cultura popular  rasgos culturales que son bien conoci- de la burocracia corrupta del gobierno soviético que dos y aceptados (pág. 165) created by governments in order to influence public plebeyos  agricultores o trabajadores que formaban opinion (p. 892) as opposed to the privileged elite (p. 892) (p. 136) the post-World War II Europe (p. 452) plantations  large farms that usually specialized in the growing of one type of crop for a profit (p. 129) por encima del nivel del suelo (pág. 394) England through reforms (p. 129) pueblo  estructura de varias habitaciones construida polis  ciudad estado de la antigua Grecia (pág. often Irak (pág. 34) Puritans  English Protestants of the late 1500s and most politeísmo  creencia en muchos dioses (pág. 547) pontificado  mandato del papa (pág. 34) of the 1600s who wanted to “purify” the Church of pontificate  papal term in office (p. 1032) almente especializado en un tipo de cultivo con el fin privatización  el control privado de las industrias. who made up a large part propaganda  information such as posters and pamphlets of the population in ancient Rome (p. 488) contraposición al control del gobierno (pág. 974) Persian Gulf War  (1990–1991) war in which U. y luego vidri- heavy spears (p. gener. 610) 1500s that split the Christian church in western plebiscito  procedimiento para someter a votación la Europe and led to the establishment of a number of aprobación de una nueva constitución o gobierno. 730) pueblo  an aboveground structure with many rooms (p. 393) tiempos Dios decidió quién alcanzaría la salvación (pág. 187) papas  títulos que asumen los jefes de la Iglesia católica romana (pág.S. that are common within a group of people by Mikhail Gorbachev (p. 898) pueblo (pág.

quipu/quipu Restoration/Restauración

Reconquista  the effort of Christian leaders to drive the
Muslims out of Spain, occurring between the 1100s
and 1492 (p. 391)
english AND spanish glossary

Reconquista  campaña de los líderes cristianos para
quipu  in Incan society, a cord that contained knotted expulsar a los musulmanes de España entre el siglo
strings of various lengths, weaves, colors, and design, XII y 1492 (pág. 391)
which functioned as a system of record keeping
(p. 213) Red Guards  a group of young men in China who carried
quipu  en la sociedad inca, un sistema de cordeles con out the work of the Cultural Revolution; they roamed
nudos de distinta longitud, forma de entrelazarse, the cities and villages, identifying possible opposition
color y diseño que servía para llevar registros escritos to Mao Zedong’s leadership (p. 922)
(pág. 213) Guardias Rojos  grupo de jóvenes que llevaron a cabo
el trabajo de la Revolución cultural; recorrían las
Qur’an  the sacred text of Islam (p. 259) ciudades y los pueblos en busca de posibles opositores
Corán  texto sagrado del Islam (pág. 259) al liderazgo de Mao Tsé-Tung (pág. 922)
Red Shirts  army of volunteer troops led by Giuseppe
Garibaldi; in 1860 they attacked the island of Sicily
and won it for the Italians (p. 716)
Camisas Rojas  ejército de tropas voluntarias dirigidas
por Guiseppe Garibaldi; en 1860 atacaron la isla de
Sicilia y la conquistaron para los italianos (pág. 716)
radical  a person with extreme views (p. 599)
refugees  people who leave their country to escape
radical  persona con opiniones extremas (pág. 599)
danger or persecution (p. 998)
radioactivity  a process in which certain elements con- refugiados  personas que dejan su país para escapar
stantly break down and release energy (p. 667) de un peligro o una persecución (pág. 998)
radioactividad  proceso por el cual los átomos de Reign of Terror  a period during the French Revolution in
ciertos elementos se desintegran constantemente y which the Robespierre-led government executed thou-
liberan energía (pág. 667) sands of political figures and ordinary citizens (p. 604)
Raj  the British rule of India from 1757 until 1947 Reino del Terror  período de la Revolución francesa
(p. 743) en que el gobierno dirigido por Robespierre ejecutó
Raj  gobierno británico en la India desde 1757 hasta a miles de figuras políticas y ciudadanos comunes
1947 (pág. 743) (pág. 604)
rajas  leaders of ancient cities in India (p. 96) reincarnation  in Hinduism, the belief that after one dies,
rajás  líderes de las antiguas ciudades de la India the soul is reborn into a different form (p. 99)
(pág. 96) reencarnación  en el hinduismo, la creencia de que
después de la muerte el alma renace bajo una forma
reactionary  an extremist who not only opposes change
diferente (pág. 99)
but also wants to undo certain changes (p. 618)
reaccionario  extremista que no solamente se opone Renaissance  “rebirth”; following the Middle Ages, a
al cambio, sino que también quiere revertir algunos movement that centered on the revival of interest in
cambios (pág. 618) the classical learning of Greece and Rome (p. 439)
Renacimiento  movimiento posterior a la Edad Media
realism  a mid-1800s movement in art and literature that
que se centró en revivir el interés por el legado clásico
rejected romanticism and sought to depict the details
de Grecia y Roma (pág. 439)
of everyday life, no matter how unpleasant (p. 676)
realismo  movimiento artístico y literario de media- republic  a political system in which the citizens of a
dos del siglo XIX que rechazaba el romanticismo y region elect representatives to run the government
prefería representar el mundo tal cual es (pág. 676) (p. 165)
república  sistema político en el que los ciudadanos
realpolitik  “the politics of reality”; the belief in practical de una región eligen representantes para dirigir el
goals instead of theory in political philosophy (p. 719) gobierno (pág. 165)
realpolitik  “la política de la realidad”; la creencia en
los objetivos prácticos en lugar de en la teoría de la Restoration  the period of the reign of Charles II in Eng-
filosofía política (pág. 719) land when the monarchy was restored after the col-
lapse of Oliver Cromwell’s government; there was also
reason  clear and ordered thinking (p. 144) a rebirth of English culture during this time (p. 549)
razón  pensamiento claro y ordenado (pág. 144) Restauración  período de la historia de Inglaterra
durante el reinado de Carlos II en el que se restauró
la monarquía tras la caída del gobierno de Oliver
Cromwell; durante este período, también hubo un
renacimiento de la cultura inglesa (pág. 549)

R114 english and spanish glossary

romanticism/romanticismo sansculottes/sansculottes

romanticism  an artistic and literary movement at the
beginning of the 1800s which rejected the rationalism
of the Enlightenment in favor of emotion, intuition,

english AND spanish glossary
and imagination (p. 676)
romanticismo  movimiento intelectual de comienzos sagas  long stories, written in the early 1200s, about
del siglo XIX que se concentró en el sentimiento y la great Icelandic heroes and events (p. 380)
imaginación, y se ocupó del tema del romance de la sagas  largas historias islandesas acerca de grandes
vida en contraposición a la razón (pág. 676) héroes y sucesos (pág. 380)

Roosevelt Corollary  (1904) a policy proposed by U.S. Sahel  a semiarid strip of land across the center of Africa
president Theodore Roosevelt as an addition, or corol- that divides the Sahara from wetter areas (p. 284)
lary, to the Monroe Doctrine; it pledged to use U.S. Sahel  en África, franja de tierra que separa el desierto
military force to prevent European interference in de otras zonas más húmedas (pág. 284)
the internal affairs of Latin American nations while Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre  August 24, 1572; a
reserving for the United States the right to intervene massacre of 6,000 to 8,000 Huguenots in Paris autho-
(p. 765) rized by King Charles IX and his mother Catherine
Corolario de Roosevelt  cambio en la Doctrina Monroe de Médici (p. 541)
en la que se declaraba que Estados Unidos podía masacre del día de San Bartolomé  24 de agosto de
intervenir en los asuntos internos de los países latino- 1572; sangriento episodio que ocurrió durante las
americanos (pág. 765) guerras religiosas en Francia después del intento de
Rosetta Stone  a granite stone found in 1799 that bears asesinato de un líder militar hugonote, planeado por
an inscription in hieroglyphics, demotic characters, Catalina de Médici; el resultado fue un extenso com-
and Greek; gave the first clue to deciphering Egyptian bate donde murieron entre 6,000 y 8,000 hugonotes
hieroglyphics (p. 78) (pág. 541)
Piedra Roseta  piedra de granito hallada en 1799 salons  gatherings in which intellectual and political
donde se ve una inscripción en jeroglíficos, en carac- ideas were exchanged during the Enlightenment
teres demóticos y en griego; sirvió como primera pista (p. 575)
para descifrar los jeroglíficos egipcios (pág. 78) salóns  reunión donde se intercambiaban ideas
Royalists  supporters of government by a monarch; used intelectuales y políticas durante la Ilustración
as a name for supporters of England’s King Charles I (pág. 575)
(p. 547) samurai  a professional Japanese warrior hired by
monárquicos  defensors de un gobierno monárquico wealthy landowners for protection in feudal Japan
(pág. 547) (p. 517)
Rus  northern European force, probably Vikings, who set samurai  guerrero profesional japonés contratado por
up a state centered on Kiev in the mid-800s that grew los terratenientes ricos del Japón feudal para obtener
into Russia (p. 357) protección (pág. 517)
rus  nombre que se daba a los europeos del norte a sanctions  economic or political penalties imposed by one
mediados del siglo IX (pág. 357) country on another to try and force a change in policy
Russo-Japanese War  (1904–1905) an imperialistic (p. 1003)
conflict that stemmed from the rival designs of Russia sanciones  penalidades económicas o políticas impu-
and Japan on Manchuria and Korea, resulting in the estas por un país a otro para obligarlo a cambiar su
defeat of Russia (p. 730) política (pág. 1003)
Guerra ruso-japonesa  (1904–1905) conflicto entre Sandinistas  Marxist group who led the revolution
imperios que surgió debido a las intenciones rivales against the dictator of Nicaragua and then ruled the
de Rusia y Japón respecto a Manchuria y Corea; ter- country from 1979 to 1990 (p. 972)
minó con la derrota de Rusia (pág. 730) sandinistas  grupo marxista que dirigió la revolución
contra el dictador de Nicaragua (pág. 972)
sansculottes  “without breeches”; a radical group of shop-
keepers and wage earners during the French Revolu-
tion who wanted a larger voice in government and an
end to food shortages (p. 595)
sansculottes  “sin pantalones”; grupo radical de
comerciantes y trabajadores a sueldo que, durante la
Revolución francesa, querían tener más participación
en el gobierno y poner fin a la escasez de comida
(pág. 595)

english and spanish glossary R115

satraps/sátrapas Sikhism/sikhismo

satraps  governors of ancient Persia (p. 53) serfs  peasants who were legally bound to their lord’s
sátrapas  gobernadores de Persia antigua (pág. 53) land (pp. 384, 729)
siervos  campesinos que estaban legalmente obligados
english AND spanish glossary

savanna  open grassland (p. 284)
sabana  pradera abierta (pág. 284) a quedarse en las tierras de su señor (pág. 384, 729)

scholar-officials  elite, educated members of the govern- shah  name given to a king of the Safavid Empire (p. 502)
ment during the Song period in China (p. 312) shah  nombre dado al rey del Imperio safavida
funcionarios eruditos  miembros cultos de la élite que (pág. 502)
gobernaba China durante el período Song (pág. 312) Sharpeville massacre  (1960) an incident in which South
Scholasticism  in the Middle Ages, the theological and African police fired on a crowd of apartheid protestors,
philosophical school of thought that attempted to killing 67 people (p. 944)
reconcile faith and reason (p. 417) masacre de Sharpeville  (1960) incidente en el cual
escolasticismo  escuela de pensamiento teológico y una organización nacionalista africana convocó a
filosófico de la Edad Media que intentaba reconciliar una manifestación frente a la estación de policía del
la fe y la razón (pág. 417) municipio de Sharpeville; la policía abrió fuego contra
los manifestantes y mató a 67 (pág. 944)
scientific method  a method of inquiry that promotes
observing, measuring, explaining, and verifying as a Shia  a branch of Islam whose adherents believe that the
way to gain scientific knowledge (p. 568) caliphate must go to a descendent of Muhammad—
método científico  método de investigación basado en particularly a member of the family of Ali (p. 264)
la observación, medición, explicación y verificación chiita  persona que cree que el califato debe ser para
como la verdadera manera de adquirir el conocimien- un pariente de Mahoma, especialmente un miembro
to científico (pág. 568) de la familia de Alí (pág. 264)

Scientific Revolution  a transformation in European Shining Path  guerrilla group in Peru that terrorized the
thought in the 1500s and 1600s that called for scien- countryside in the 1980s and 1990s (p. 977)
tific observation, experimentation, and the question- Sendero Luminoso  grupo guerrillero de Perú que
ing of traditional opinions (p. 568) sembró el terror en las áreas rurales en la década de
revolución científica  transformación del pensamiento 1990 (pág. 977)
que ocurrió durante los siglos XVI y XVII debida a Shinto  “Way of the kami (spirits)”; an indigenous religion
la observación, experimentación y cuestionamiento of Japan that holds that everything in nature has a
científico de las opiniones tradicionales (pág. 568) spirit; believers perform ceremonies to ask for the
secession  the act of separating from (p. 703) blessings of the spirits; traditionally, Shinto believers
secesión  acto de separarse de algo (pág. 703) venerated the emperor (p. 323)
shinto  “camino de los dioses”; religión indígena
Second Estate  in pre-Revolution France, the nobles de Japón que consiste en rituales y plegarias para
(p. 594) apaciguar a los espíritus de la naturaleza y en ven-
Segundo Estado  en la Francia anterior a la Revolu- erar al emperador (pág. 323)
ción, los nobles (pág. 594)
shogun  the hereditary chief of Japan’s warrior class who
Secretariat  body of the United Nations responsible for held the real power, while the emperor ruled in name
carrying out the administrative tasks (p. 1041) only (p. 519)
Secretaría  de Naciones Unidas; grupo se encarga de shogun  jefe hereditario de la clase guerrera japonesa
las tareas administrativas de NU (pág. 1041) que poseía el verdadero poder, mientras que el emper-
secular  having to do with worldly, as opposed to reli- ador sólo gobernaba nominalmente (pág. 519)
gious, matters (pp. 439, 1037) Siege of Leningrad  (1941–1942) Nazi army’s unsuccess-
secular  relacionado con cuestiones terrenales, en con- ful attempt to capture the city of Leningrad in the
traposición a las cuestiones religiosas (pág. 439, 1037) Soviet Union during World War II; as many as 1 mil-
Security Council  body of the United Nations, consisting lion civilians perished during the siege (p. 846)
of 15 members, five of them permanent, charged with sitio de Leningrado  (1941–1942) toma de Leningrado
being the guardians of world peace (p. 1041) por parte de Hitler en Rusia; durante este sitio, muri-
Consejo de Seguridad  de Naciones Unidas; su función eron nada menos que un millón de civiles (pág. 846)
es mantener la paz (pág. 1041) Sikhism  an Indian religion founded in the late 1400s
Senate  a body of legislators (p. 166) whose beliefs blend elements of Hinduism and Islam
Senado  cuerpo de legisladores (pág. 166) (p. 506)
sikhismo  religión no violenta cuyas creencias unen
Sepoy Mutiny  (1857–1858) a rebellion of Hindu and
las religiones hinduista y musulmana (pág. 506)
Muslim soldiers against the British in India (p. 742)
Motín de Sepoy  (1857–1858) rebelión de los soldados
hindúes y musulmanes contra los británicos que esta-
ban en la India (pág. 742)

R116 english and spanish glossary

stating that people would give up some (pág. 538) of their freedom and in return. la marcha pacífica se tornó violenta. 730) and Japan for influence over Korea. 751) hay propiedad privada y el estado posee todos los Guerra sinojaponesa  (1894) guerra entre China bienes y los distribuye entre los ciudadanos (pág. killing more than Guerra de los Seis Días  (junio de 1967) guerra entre 600 people and wounding 4. the result nas (pág. 1967) war between Israel and Egypt. terminó con una rebelión de Soweto  (1976) importante protesta estu- victoria aplastante para Israel (pág. Israel’s victory gave it control of Soweto Uprising  (1976) a major student protest against areas with large Palestinian populations. England (p. 231) socialismo  sistema económico y político en el cual Rutas de la Seda  rutas comercial que se extendías la sociedad. 757) english and spanish glossary R117 . 892) coreanos (pág. owns the goods and ideas from China to the Roman Empire means of production (p. 231) private property and the state owns and distributes Sino-Japanese War  (1894) war fought between China all goods to people (p. and order the Soviet Union (p. 205) Spanish-American War  (1898) war fought between Spain agricultura de tala y quema  método de cultivo en el and the United States that began after the sinking of cual se despeja un campo talando y quemando árboles the battleship USS Maine.000 (p. 764) metallic components (p. their government Sputnik  (1957) the first artificial satellite. men) assembled by Spain in 1588 for an invasion of mente alto sobre los productos agrícolas y manufactu. smelt  to melt or fuse metal in order to separate the Guam. España y Estados Unidos que comenzó tras el tes metálicos (pág. Japan’s victory república socialista  tipo de república en la cual no symbolized its successful modernization (p. Syria. 764) was a worsening of the Great Depression (p. incluía aproxi- social contract  an agreement between a people and their madamente 130 barcos y 20. usually in the form of the government. 648) english AND spanish glossary (p. 730) y Japón a causa de una rebelión en Corea. 757) sello oficial cada vez que compraran artículos de papel darwinismo social  visión de la sociedad basada en (pág. 892) Syria. fue un desastre para España Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act  (1930) a U. 205) war in four months. 581) la teoría científica de la selección natural de Charles Darwin (pág. bought paper items (p. seguridad Stamp Act  (1765) a law passed by the British Parliament y orden (pág. Guam y las Filipi- tect American farmers and manufacturers.Silk Roads/Rutas de la Seda Stamp Act/Ley del Sello Silk Roads  trade routes stretching from China to the socialism  a political and economic system in which soci- Mediterranean. 85) hundimiento de Maine. 884) (p. 575) Sputnik  (1957) primer satélite artificial. tomando el poder de Puerto Rico. y Jordan. ambas Solidarity  an independent labor union founded in Soviet- naciones enviaron tropas para someter a los rebeldes controlled Poland in 1980 (p. 575) that raised tax money by requiring the American colonists to pay for an official stamp whenever they Social Darwinism  an application of Charles Darwin’s sci. security. con fields are cleared for farming by cutting down and más de 600 muertos y 4. colonos estadounidenses.S. 956) diantil contra el apartheid que ocurrió en el municipio slash-and-burn agriculture  a farming method in which de Soweto. socialist republic  a type of republic in which there is no rio romano (pág. 944) burning trees and brush (p. and the Philippines (p. law that set y Estados Unidos ganó la guerra en cuatro meses. extremely high tariffs on imports in an effort to pro. 751) Solidaridad  sindicato independiente fundado en 1980 Six-Day War  (June. 538) rados (pág. 85) Guerra hispano-estadounidense  (1898) guerra entre fundir  derretir el metal para separar sus componen. 815) Spanish Armada  a great fleet (130 ships and 20. and Jordan.000 Ley arancel Smoot-Hawley  (1930) arancel extremada. the United States won the y arbustos para luego cultivarlo (pág. 956) the peaceful march turned violent. desde China hasta el Mediterráneo y que permitió el posee los medios de producción (pág. 815) Armada española  gran flota de barcos. en la Polonia controlada por los soviéticos (pág. generalmente en la forma del gobierno. which allowed for the exchange of ety. lanzado por contrato social  acuerdo entre un pueblo y su gobierno la Unión soviética (pág. the West Bank and Gaza (p. including apartheid that took place in the township of Soweto. obligándoles a pagar un ism (p. 944) Israel y Egipto.000 heridos (pág. launched by would provide them with peace. gaining control of Puerto Rico. 581) entific theories of natural selection and the survival of Ley del Sello  (1765) ley aprobada por el Parlamento the fittest to the struggle between nations and races. 884) que establece que el pueblo cederá parte de su liber- tad a cambio de que el gobierno brinde paz. británico que aumentaba los impuestos para los used in the late 1800s to justify imperialism and rac.000 marineros y soldados government. 648) intercambio de bienes e ideas entre China y el Impe.

over 20 million Chinese died. quien declaró que se canal de Suez  canal de agua egipcio del que se apode. the bourgeoisie. built in 1869 by Franco-Egyp. and Israel over control of the Suez Canal Taj Mahal  maravilla arquitectónica creada por el (p. combinaba strike  a work stoppage (p. the first four caliphs as rightful successors of Muham. standard of living/nivel de vida Third Estate/Tercer Estado standard of living  a measure of the quality of life (p. 19) o grupos. Francia e Israel por el otro. sobre el Afghanistan in the late 1990s. rama del cables (pág. 94) subsidies  grants of money (p. 264) tecnología  aplicación de conocimientos. Morse in 1832. Christianity. artisans. 595) Tercer Estado  en la Francia antes de la Revolución. 40) estepas  praderas áridas (pág. 748) raron los ingleses en 1882 (pág. 1006) teocracia  gobierno de líderes religiosos que afirman desarrollo sostenible  desarrollo económico que se tener la autoridad de Dios (pág. 644) (pág. 19) terrorismo  uso de la violencia. 485) Taiping Rebellion  (1850–1864) revolt against the Qing subsidios  dinero que se otorga (pág. 292) subcontinent  a large landmass that is part of a conti- nent but is considered an independent entity either geographically or politically (p. Asian. asiática e islámica huelga  detención del trabajo (pág. 500) necesidades (pág. 452) mantiene durante cierto tiempo. destrezas y herramientas que usamos para satisfacer nuestras sultan  title for the ruler of the Ottoman Empire (p. 758) encabezada por Hong Xiuquan. suppressed with British and French aid (p. it uses pulses of electric current to send mes- Sunnis  “people who follow the Sunna (way of the Proph. skills. 748) tian company. 595) R118 english and spanish glossary . B. 263) terrorism  the use of violence by individuals and groups to advance political goals (p. 651) Swahili  an African society that emerged in the late 1100s nivel de vida  medida de la calidad de vida (pág. por parte de individuos excedente  lo que sobra (pág. 651) along the East African coast and combined elements of African. 10) sultán  título del gobernador del Imperio otomano (pág. and Islamic cultures (p. 1000) sustainable development  economic development that is theocracy  a government ruled by religious leaders who maintained over a period of time but does not harm claim God’s authority (pp. 66. 952) United States invasion of 2001 (p. 688) talibanes  grupo que tomó el control de gran parte de sufragio  derecho a votar (pág. pero que no daña el medio ambiente (pág. 452) the environment (p. 952) Shah Jahan (pág. 663) Islam que acepta a los cuatro primeros califas como sucesores legítimos de Mahoma (pág. 66. a convert to Suez Canal  Egyptian waterway connecting the Mediter. eventually ranean and Red seas. 264) technology  the application of knowledge. 1000) surplus  excess (p. Shah Jahan from 1632–1643 to honor his wife (p. 507) France. 1006) Third Estate  in pre-Revolution France. los artesanos. Morse en 1832 que usa pulsaciones de corriente eléc- mad (p. 688) Afganistán después de la ocupación soviética en 1979 (pág. sages across long distances through wires (p. in 1875 Britain bought Egypt’s share rebelión de Taiping  (1850–1864) rebelión en China in the canal (p. 40) swahili  sociedad africana que surgió a finales del siglo XII a lo largo de la costa africana oriental. 94) subcontinente  gran masa de tierra que es parte de un continente pero se considera una entidad independi- ente. 758) Taj Mahal  a mausoleum built by India’s Mughal emperor Suez Crisis  (1956) Egypt’s confrontation with Britain. 663) et)”. 500) telegraph  a machine perfected by Samuel F. B. la burguesía. mystical connection with God (p. 644) elementos de las culturas africana. workers. and tools sufís  místicos musulmánes que intentaban vivir una to meet people’s needs (p. were ousted by the control del Canal de Suez (pág. los trabajadores y los campesinos (pág. ya sea geográfica o políticamente (pág. para conseguir objetivos políticos (pág. the largest branch of Islam. 263) trica para enviar mensajes a larga distancia mediante suníes  “personas que siguen la Sunna”. and peasants (p. 292) english AND spanish glossary steppes  arid grasslands (p. establecería una nueva dinastía (pág. 899) Sufis  a branch of Islam emphasizing a personal. 10) vida simple (pág. 485) dynasty in China led by Hong Xiuquan. 899) suffrage  the right to vote (p. believers accepted telégrafo  máquina perfeccionada por Samuel F. 507) crisis de Suez  confrontación entre Egipto por un lado Taliban  Islamist group that took control over much of y Gran Bretaña.

584) y que el gobierno reprimió con fuerzas militares. 584) democracy protest in Beijing’s central square in 1989 Tratado de París  (1783) acuerdo que puso fin oficial- (p. fought over religion and power to U. begun in 1891. would never be ruled by the same monarch (p. 923) Spain and Portugal that created an imaginary north- Torah  the first five books of the Hebrew Bible. States (p. 479) Torá  los primeros cinco libros de la Biblia. los textos Tratado de Tordesillas  (1494) acuerdo entre España y más sagrados de la fe judía (pág. secuencia la muerte de casi la cuarta parte del pueblo fue una victoria protestante y extendió la tolerancia cherokee (pág. 19) established the League of Nations (p. 750) una guerra por motivos religiosos y de poder entre Treaty of Paris  (1783) the agreement that officially familias dominantes (pág. en Treaty of Tordesillas  (1494) the agreement between consecuencia. it gave the throne to Louis totalitarismo  forma de gobierno en la cual la persona XIV’s grandson but also stated that France and Spain o partido que está en el poder tiene un control abso. resulted in the deaths of almost one-fourth Years’ War. 556) U. 556) que hizo la tribu cherokee desde su territorio natal en Tratado de Westfalia  (1648) tratado que puso fin a Georgia hasta el Territorio Indígena. beliefs. linking trench warfare  a form of combat in which soldiers dug western Russia to Siberia in the east (p. 730) trenches. murieron cientos de personas (pág. pero también impuso la condición guerra total  guerra que requería el uso de todos los de que Francia y España nunca serían gobernadas recursos de una sociedad (pág. 797) economía tradicional  sistema económico donde las Tratado de Versalles  (1919) tratado que puso fin a decisiones económicas se toman sobre la  base de la Primera Guerra Mundial.S. it extended religious toleration to Protes- Ruta de las Lágrimas  (1838–39) marcha de 800 millas tants and Catholics within most of the empire (p. and habits (p. 785) por el mismo rey (pág. para protegerse del fuego enemigo y defender sus posicio- nes (pág. 703) Emperor. 544) luto de todos los aspectos de la vida (pág. fue japoneses (pág. 479) or party in charge has absolute control over all Treaty of Utrecht  (1713) treaty that ended the War of aspects of life (p. la Guerra de los Treinta Años. 750) Guerra de los Treinta Años  (1618–1648) conflicto Tratado de Kanagawa  (1854) tratado que permitió a europeo que comenzó en Praga como una rebelión los barcos estadounidenses detenerse en dos puertos protestante contra el Santo Imperio Romano. 824) Tratado de Utrecht  (1713) tratado que supuso el fin total war  a war that requires the use of all a society’s de la Guerra de Sucesión Española y dio el trono al resources (p. 784) occidental y el este de Siberia (pág. 797) Trail of Tears  (1838–39) an 800-mile march made by the Cherokee from their homeland in Georgia to Indian Treaty of Westphalia  (1648) treaty ending the Thirty Territory. nomic decisions are made based on customs. the most south line dividing their territory in the Americas sacred texts of the Jewish faith (p. to seek protection from ferrocarril transiberiano  ferrocarril que unió Rusia enemy fire and to defend their positions (p. 923) mente a la Guerra de Independencia estadounidense masacre de la plaza de Tiananmen  gran protesta en y estableció el reconocimiento británico de la indepen- favor de la democracia realizada en China en 1989 dencia de Estados Unidos (pág. 46) Portugal que creaba una línea imaginaria de norte a totalitarianism  form of government in which the person sur que dividía el territorio de las Américas (pág. 544) traditional economy  an economic system in which eco.Thirty Years’ War/Guerra de los Treinta Años trench warfare/guerra de trincheras Thirty Years’ War  (1618–1648) a conflict in Europe that Treaty of Kanagawa  (1854) trade treaty between Japan began in Prague as a Protestant rebellion against the and the United States opening up two Japanese ports Holy Roman Empire. tuvo como con. or deep ditches. 784) english and spanish glossary R119 .S. admiral Matthew Perry (p. 785) nieto de Luis XIV. 556) Trans-Siberian Railroad  railroad. 556) ended the American Revolution and established Tiananmen Square Massacre  violent suppression by British recognition of the independence of the United the Chinese communist government of a large pro. exigía a Alemania que costumbres. trade. required Germany to pay huge war reparations and religion. it reduced the power of the Holy Roman of the Cherokee people (p. 19) pagara enormes indemnizaciones de guerra y estab- leció la Liga de las Naciones (pág. signed in response to a show of force by english AND spanish glossary among ruling dynasties (p. creencias y hábitos (pág. 730) guerra de trincheras  forma de combate en que los soldados cavaban trincheras. Treaty of Versailles  (1919) treaty ending World War I. o pozos profundos. en un sentido general. 46) (p. 824) the Spanish Succession. 703) religiosa (pág.

383) vasallo  en la Europa medieval. 135) tirano  hombre poderoso que tomaba el poder por la Vedas  sacred writings of the Indo-Aryans (p. 780) urbanization  the migration of people from rural areas to Triple Alianza  alianza entre Alemania. Victorian Era  the era spanning the reign of Queen Victo- lim Caliphate (p. triangular trade/comercio triangular Victorian Era/época victoriana triangular trade  trading network lasting from the 1600s unequal treaties  trade treaties that China signed under to the 1800s that carried goods and enslaved people pressure of invasion. a person granted land from a (pág. 383) threatened by communism (p. 165) and II (p. 165) U-boats  submarines used by Germans in World Wars I veto  prohibición (pág. 688) Umayyad  (661–750) califato de Mu’awiya que marcó época victoriana  reinado de la reina Victoria entre los un período de enorme crecimiento y cambio para el años 1837 y 1901 (pág. 688) imperio musulmán (pág. 879) Día V-E  (1945) 8 de mayo de 1945. Austria. the Americas. 672) austrohúngaro e Italia (pág. 135) Velvet Revolution  (1989) a quick. 479) Umayyad  (661–750) first ruling dynasty over the Mus. peaceful revolution that swept the Communists from power in Czechoslo- vakia (p. and Africa (p. 479) marinos que usaron los alemanes en la Primera y la virreyes  funcionarios que gobernaban en el imperio Segunda Guerra Mundial (pág. 780) Triple Entente  alianza entre Francia. 489) cios comerciales a las potencias occidentales (pág. 97) trovadores  cantantes de la Edad Media que viajaban de una ciudad a otra para entretener a las personas vassal  in medieval Europe. 780) urbanización  migración de las áreas rurales a las Triple Entente  an alliance between France. and Italy in the late 1800s (p. 173) varnas  the four social classes in Vedic society (p. 863) Hungary. 416) lord in return for services (p. 780) triumvirate  a ruling body of three members (p. gave Western powers trade between Europe. 795) español en las Américas (pág. del Estados Unidos Truman para prestar ayuda it stands for “victory in Europe” during World War II económica y militar a los países amenazados por el (p. 893) veto  ban (p. Russia. 263) ria of England (1837–1901) (p. Rusia y Gran Bretaña (pág. 416) (pág. 208) Naciones Unidas  organización internacional que pro- Triple Alliance  an alliance between Germany. 747) english AND spanish glossary comercio triangular  redes de intercambio de bienes y tratados desiguales  tratados comerciales que China esclavos entre Inglaterra. (p. 263) R120 english and spanish glossary . 672) Great Britain in the late 1800s (p. mueve la cooperación entre las naciones (pág. 96) (pág. 97) troubadours  traveling singers who entertained people varnas  las cuatro clases sociales de la sociedad védica during the Middle Ages (p. and ciudades (pág. 747) tribute  a payment made by conquered peoples to their United Nations  international organization formed in conquerors in order to obtain security (p. 173) triunvirato  alianza política de tres gobernantes (pág. 1945. 893) revolución de terciopelo  (1989) revolución rápida y pacífica que expulsó a los comunistas del poder en Checoslovaquia (pág. 208) 1945 to maintain world peace and encourage coopera- tributo  pago hecho por los pueblos conquistados a sus tion among nations (p. las colonias norteamerica. el Imperio cities (p. 860) claimed to rule for the good of the people (p. 489) benefits (p. 96) fuerza y afirmaba gobernar por el bien del pueblo Vedas  escrituras sagradas de los indoarios (pág. 860) comunismo (pág. 879) Doctrina Truman  (1947) compromiso del presidente V-E Day  (1945) May 8. president Truman’s pledge tierras de un señor a cambio de ciertos servicios to provide economic and military aid to countries (pág. 863) conquistadores para obtener seguridad (pág.S. persona que recibía Truman Doctrine  (1947) U. a term used by the Allies. 795) viceroys  officials who ruled Spain’s American empire U-boats  nombre que recibieron los pequeños sub. firmó bajo amenaza de invasión y que dieron benefi- nas y África (pág. fecha en que los Aliados celebraron su victoria en Europa en la tyrant  a strong man who seized power by force and Segunda Guerra Mundial (pág.

782) english AND spanish glossary Vietcong  fuerzas militares del Frente Nacional de frente occidental  durante la Primera Guerra Mun- Liberación. 226) War of the Spanish Succession  (1701–1713) war fought over the Spanish throne. 1002) ñan a las personas a concentrar la mente y el cuerpo armas de destrucción masiva (WMD. eran una gran amenaza militar para China (pág. as well as military personnel. and the Holy Roman Empire to gain the throne for France (p. 101) injure civilian. 1002) english and spanish glossary R121 . emperor Wudi (red rose) families (p. 544) Stalin to reach an agreement on what to do with Ger- many after World War II (p.Vietcong/Vietcong yoga/yoga Vietcong  communist guerilla force allied with North Western Front  during World War I. 421) norte de China durante el reino de Wudi. established in 1955 Roosevelt. 915) la sociedad occidental. Louis XIV wanted it for his son and fought a war against the Dutch. cubrir los Aliados declararon la victoria sobre Japón en la la plancha de tinta y presionarla sobre un papel Segunda Guerra Mundial (pág. English. 101) en inglés)  armas que matan o hieren a los civiles así como a los militares. establecida en 1955 (pág. generalmente. 1945. and Joseph en manos francesas (pág. 916) faced off (p. namely Europe and America (p. los españoles Yalta Conference  (February. chemical. 553) villa  casa de campo (pág. 862) (pág. 178) woodblock printing  a type of printing in which text is V-J Day  (1945) August 15. de Europa y Estados villa  a home in the country (p. 553) Vietminh  fuerza dirigida por Ho Chi Minh que desafió occidentalización  adopción de la cultura e ideas de la autoridad de los franceses en Indochina (pág. armas nucleares. 862) Warsaw Pact  a military alliance of the Soviet-dominated Conferencia de Yalta  (1945) encuentro entre Franklin countries of Eastern Europe. 178) Unidos (pág. 782) that fought for Vietnamese independence from French westernization  the adoption of the culture and ideas of rule in the 1940s and 1950s (p. Winston Churchill. it stands for “victory over Japan” during World coated with ink and pressed on the page (p. usually yoga  serie de ejercicios físicos y mentales que ense- nuclear. a term used by the carved into a block of wood and the block is then Allies. 1945) a meeting between y el Santo Imperio Romano para que el trono quedra Franklin Roosevelt. 862) xilografía  tipo de impresión que consiste en grabar Día V-J  (1945) 15 de agosto de 1945. 421) fought against them in the mid-100s BC (p. grupo que quería derrocar al gobierno de dial. and biological weapons (p. químicas y biológicas (pág. 880) llegar a un acuerdo sobre qué hacer con Alemania Pacto de Varsovia  alianza militar entre los países después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial (pág. 862) controlados por los soviéticos de Europa oriental. 915) Western society. 313) War II (p. 880) yoga  a series of physical and mental exercises that teaches people how to focus their bodies and minds weapons of mass destruction (WMD)  weapons that kill or (p. fecha en que una página de texto en una plancha de madera. 226) Guerras de las Rosas  (1455–1485) guerra entre las xiongnu  nómadas que vivían en las praderas del familias inglesas de York y Lancaster (pág. Winston Churchill y Joseph Stalin para (p. 313) Wars of the Roses  (1455–1485) civil war for the English Xiongnu  nomadic raiders from the grasslands north of crown between the York (white rose) and Lancaster China during the reign of Han dynasty. área del norte de Francia donde los combates Vietnam (pág. the deadlocked region Vietnam which fought to overthrow the government in northern France where German and Allied armies of South Vietnam from the 1950s to 1975 (p. es decir. por sus siglas (pág. Luis XIV lo quería para su hijo y luchó contra los holandes. 916) habían llegado a un punto en que ninguno de los Vietminh  nationalist organization led by Ho Chi Minh bandos podía avanzar (pág. 544) Guerra de Sucesión Española  (1701–1713) guerra por la sucesión al trono de España.

to establish a Jewish state in Palestine (p. 956) Guerra de Yom Kippur  (1973) ataque a Israel por par- te de Egipto y Siria el día de Yom Kippur. que autorizaba el libre comercio y establecía aranceles comunes para las importaciones. 795) Zionism  nationalist movement.S. se hizo popular entre los aristócratas japone- ses y era parte del código samurai (pág. Yom Kippur War/Guerra de Yom Kippur Zollverein/Zollverein Yom Kippur War  (1973) war launched by Egypt and Syria against Israel on the Jewish holy day of Yom Kippur. and transit (p. 517) ziggurat  a Sumerian temple made of sun-dried brick that was dedicated to the chief god or goddess of a particular city-state (p. 727) Jóvenes Turcos  partido político reformista y nacional- ista turco. 34) zigurat  templo sumerio hecho de ladrillos secados al sol. 719) R122 english and spanish glossary . 956) Young Turks  Turkish reformist and nationalist political party active in the early 20th century (p. became popular among Japanese aristocrats and was a part of the samurai’s code (p. allowed for free trade among themselves and common tariffs on imports. entrance into World War I. dedicado al dios o diosa principal de una determi- nada ciudad estado (pág. 719) Zollverein  alianza económica entre la mayor parte de los estados alemanes en 1834. 517) budismo zen  secta del budismo que enfatiza el valor de la meditación como medio para alcanzar la ilumi- nación. 727) Zen Buddhism  sect of Buddhism that stresses medita- tion as a means of achieving enlightenment. exports. 694) sionismo  movimiento nacionalista para establecer un estado judío en Palestina (pág. 34) Zimmermann Note  a telegram sent to a German official in Mexico prior to U. activo a comienzos del siglo XX (pág. 694) Zollverein  an economic alliance of most German states in 1834. que expulsaron a los sirios y pasaron a Egipto cruzando el canal de Suez (pág. begun in the 1890s. proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico (p. supported by the english AND spanish glossary United States repulsed the Syrians and Egyptians (p. con la propuesta de una alianza entre Alemania y México (pág. 795) Telegrama Zimmermann  telegrama enviado a un fun- cionario alemán que estaba en México antes de que Estados Unidos entrara en la Primera Guerra Mun- dial. the Israeli counterattack. las exportaciones y el tránsito (pág. tuvo como consecuencia un contraataque de los israelíes.

760 Afrika Korps. 811. 886. 153p. 362. 564–565. 477–479 INDEX R123 . Aksum. 583–584. 146 Chavín. 261 adobe. enclosure movement. 266p. 1001. used in c = chart g = graph m = map ethnic conflicts in. R2. 845 Allied Powers. 299–300. R11 challenges. High Middle Ages and improvements American Revolution. 663. Alexander. 176. 505–506. 68–69 758. Duke of. 947. disease and desertification. revolution begins. 728p. 232. Ethiopia. 102 colonization: diseases from Europeans. 491 2. beginning of Renaissance. al Qaeda. manorial system.S. 8–9 Alba. Akhenaten. 729c. after WW I. Lope de. 14m African sculpture. geography of Africa. 938. 485q agriculture. 582p– Songhai Empire. invention of. early farming societies. Aguinaldo. economic and environmental Alexander II (Russian czar). Atlantic slave trade. 297m. 703 945. 810–811 al Bakri. by Dutch. 784–785 q = quotation p = picture Green Belt Movement. 238. 289m. 127 age-sets. alphabet. 940m. Declaration of line. 6–7 ahimsa. 53 478. Nataniel. Kush. 289m Africa. 208. 946. 240. WW II and employment. African Akbar the Great. Salvador. 899. 662p. Mali Empire. 844 al-Khwarizmi. 44. 241p imperialism in. influence on French Hausa city-states. R7 post-colonial Africa: Algeria. 150p. 582 African Americans: civil rights movement. 511–512. 234. 582q. 302q alliance. 846. political Alexander the Great. 361p. development of. 943–945. 359–360 Abraham. before WW I. 417 Abbasid dynasty. Song dynasties. 537 ‘Abbas. slash-and-burn on. 289m. 784p–785p. 147 apartheid. 314–315. 707 Atlantic slave trade. 942p Aguirre. 232 culture. 581 889. 579. 37c motivations for. Great Zimbabwe. Akkadians. 948 All Quiet on the Western Front (Remarque). South Africa. 729c. 944– Alfred the Great. 45. 388 Adal. 290p. 85. 585. 324 288–290. Aravind. 934–935 Ali. Akkad. 265–266. Index KEY TO INDEX domestication of plants/animals. 634–635. Portuguese 151m. Enlightenment influence 300c. 272 abbot: defined. 617 absolute monarchy. 200 African National Congress. John. 258 challenges. 489m archaeological discoveries. ethnic tensions and 730 absolutism: documents on. Tenochtitlán. 756–760. today. 174. Industrial Revolution and. 290 After the Deluge (Wole Soyinka). 14. 380 African Kingdoms. 15–17. 332. early African societies. Aegean Sea. abolition. barter. 290. 271 Adiga. 384–386. 68 287m. Prince of Novgorod. 36–37. 46 945. 941. 479. Amenhotep IV. 581. 550. 375p migration of early humans. time Algeria. Alexander (Pope). Alexander III (Russian czar). Emilio. 946. 295–297. 36–37 758. 16p. Sunni. Roman Empire. 789. Mutapa Empire. 375. 976 adoption. 760. 560–561 civil war. 292p. European claims in. growth of. 292–293. by Portuguese. 302–303. 484. 14m. democracy spreads. forming new identity. 759m. 301 Aguirre. time line. 937–941. 291– in. 764 Americas Yoruba kingdoms. 758. 456 Abu Simbel. 285. 633. 939. 938–939. Ainu. Constitution. 438. Battle of. 262–263 gain independence. 300. 182 agriculture: ancient Mesopotamia. Khmer Empire. 780 Adwa. 582–583. Declaration of Independence. by Spanish. Bantu migration. 12–17. 14–15. 63–80. Suez Canal. Confederation. 299–300 Adams. 258. 288–290. 946. 483c. Maya 584–585. 957 Pan-African Congress. 19. 70 Ghana. 1002 African Diaspora. 580. 410. Belgian Congo. 842 Adulis. Leo. 503 nationalism in. 1004 WW I. Articles of 301. Scramble for Aksum. trade 209 583p influence on African culture. 491 Allah. 500 Afrikaner. 81–85. systems and. 300c. Aldebaran. Mahmoud. 14m. R10 Ahriman. 285–287. 282m. 759m. 285. 498m. 781 Adrianople. colonies Egypt. 899. by Cold War and. 757. 323 13p. 758. protesting Alexandra (Russian czarina). 287. Boer War. dictatorships and military rule. 288p. 945. 634–635. 212. 272 Aeneid (Virgil). by French. 581. 480. 488–491. 811p alchemy. battles of. 730 Abu Bakr. 289m. Alexander I (Russian czar). development of. 758 Alaric. struggling economies. 560–561. 944. 14m airplanes: invention of. Abu Talib. specialization at Revolution. 205. 581–582. 758. 949p. 939. Ming dynasty. Althing. 131 and Belgian colonies. 1002 domestication of plants and animals. 34. 1034q African Diaspora. 949–950 Adams. 479–480. 13–14. 292. 191 Aachen. 163 agora. 1005 Ajanta temple. invasion of. R5 Achilles. Al-Masudi. 791 Acropolis. 153. Valley Forge. 179 Africanus. Ghana Empire. civilization. 488–491. 150–153. Kenya. 885 Ahura Mazda. 540–544. 297 Afghanistan. 289. 1023 Allende. 280–301. 294. 297–299. 585. 286– agriculture. Iron Age. Berlin Conference. 124p–125p. 176 acupuncture. 756p. 285 R72 Aeneas. revival of African Alexandria. 479. R12. French Africa. 728. 582. 293q Aeschylus. 53–54 English. 53. 941 Allies. Bill of Rights. 297q index Abbas. 535. 13–14. Samuel. 838. early African societies. 756–760. 584. 361. 297m. 521 Africa 13p. Han dynasty. 293. 944. irrigation 584m. 481. 302. coastal trading cities. Amaterasu. 300c. Ali. 615. 756. 284– 332p. 556. 129. 508c resistance to. U. Benin kingdom. 359p. 263–264 Independence and. 129 Almagest (Ptolemy). opposing British 287. 205. 364 Tunisia. 291–292 945. Almoravids. 238p. 192. 949–950. R7. 70. Morocco. Tang and policies.

documents on. lasting fame Anglican Church. Roman pogroms in czarist Russia. 36–37. Richard. 927 212. Moche. 26q. 275p. 235q. in ancient India. 180–181p. 40m. 677. 350. 206. classical. 229 classical. 153 Armenia: Armenian Massacre. 205. 210p. 132c Apollo. South Benin. golden age of. age of Pericles. apprentice. 973–974. 513. 415. 274 275p. 149. 730 art: Africa. Persian Wars. 51 Anyang. 788p 569. 30. 536p–537p. 483–484 Aquinas. 235. 22. Antigonus. Atatürk. Ottoman Empire. 173 Around the World. 478 apartheid. religious art Mesoamerica. Sargon Empire. 982–983. 941. Renaissance. Muslim civilizations. 979 Association of Southeast Asian Nations anthrax. illumination. 391 537. R55 ancient. 499. Athena. 1003 Aristide. Apology. 199–202 Liberation Organization (PLO). 36 Asante. 80p. 110–111. 131 Angkor Wat. 96. 332 Ares. 956–957 212p. 551. 1031 animals: domestication of. 143–144. 41q Angola. Babylonian Empire. 26p. 353p. R56 Israel. 272–275. 500m 60p–62p. Palestine Northern. 149p. themes through time. 41–42. 312p. 73p 275. ancestor worship. 978. 670. 236 Sumerian.. protesting. 154p. 80p. 956. 275p. Armenian Massacre. 80. 788. 232. 957. 814. Hagia Sophia. appeasement. 240. 301p Amritsar Massacre. 452 archaeology. Marc. 196p–197p Arabian Peninsula. 135–136. 413–418. Aztecs. 496. The (Plato). 943–945 Byzantine religious art. 13p. 947. Thomas. 942p. in early armistice. 238p. 139. 521. 56–57. Yasser. 501. Muslim civilizations. 971 36. Perón’s rule. Aryans. 353. Hindu. Ethiopia. 676. 668. 350p. 237p. 34–36 442–443. 814p. Greek. 73. Persian Machu Picchu. 86. 788c. Gupta empire. 826 Andhra kingdom. Aztecs. 440. tapestries. High Middle Ages. 329p. 569–570. 241p. invasion of Egypt. Oslo Accords. time line. ancient. 300 animism. 149p. 301. Persian Aryabhata. 956 Song dynasty. 241. Solon and law code. 677. Roman rule. 670 Aristophanes. High Middle Ages. 974–975. 822. Apostles. 313. Ming dynasty. 635p. 142–144. Battle of. 500. 9m Accords. 979. Renaissance. 272. 413p– Greek Drama. Egyptian temples. Egypt. Industrial Age and. 215. 216–217 417 677p–679p. conquest of Kingdom of Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty. 815m. 666. 814. Sumer. 313. Arouet. 43–44. 37. 132c 21p. South America. 147. Hamas. migration of early humans to. 198m Arabian Nights. 155 Artemis. philosophers in. dirty war. Falklands War. 73 26–27. Muslim civilizations. 149. Empire. Gupta Empire. rebuilding of. Roman Empire. Renaissance. 694. 68–69 Aphrodite. Camp David and architecture. classical music.S. 929. 837 Arkwright. theories on migration to. 65p–66p. 143c. 447. 944. Stone Age. Francois-Marie. Thomas: life of. romanticism. artisans. index Amon-Re. 180. 232. 507. 131. 636. R5. market reforms. anti-Semitism: Black Death and. heliocentric theory. Napoleon’s empire and. Arts Empire. Amish atman Columbian Exchange. 809 Archimedes. 6. 568. 417. 854–855. St. 48. Italian. 180 401. 814p. 939. 693p. Gothic. 240. 551. Aten. Astyage. 826–827. 147. 414. 84. Hellenistic. 956. 405 788p. Mothers of Plaza Askia Muhammad. 13–14 dictatorships. 349–350. 21 Anawrahta. 10. 956–957. intifada. 210. 196–197 Arbenz. 353p. Sumerian. Antony. 974–975. 331 flying buttress. R16. 11. 200 Empire. U. of. Chaldean Empire. 11. 900p Aristotle. aqueducts. 43m. Jacobo. library. 677p. 441p. 273p. 645 Ankara. 887. R18. 788. realism. 241 50–55. 417. artifacts. Hagia Sophia. 323 Arthasastra. Classical Ancient Near East: Assyrian Empire. 536 Arafat. 113 architecture. 132c Ashoka. Spanish exploration in. assembly line. 147–149. 453. T1. 65. environments of. 677. 440. 569. 99 R124 INDEX . Hebrews. Corazon. 132c Anabaptists. 131. Ashurnasirpal II. Greek. 532. 413–414. documents on. Dreyfus affair. 978p. 149. Han dynasty. 797 Revolution. Han Music. 56. R60 414–415. Cold War and. 174 astronomy: Copernicus and. 442–443. 203–210 Arab-Israeli conflict. 353. 185 147p. 42. 551. 329. 6. 440p–441p. 139. atman. Nazi Party and Hitler. 131. 234 Anglo-Saxon England. 836 240. 211–215 Six-Day War. 41m. Arrian. 130. in Germany before WW II. 639 41–42. 668 archon. Renaissance. Amorites. 209. North America. 80. 676. Byzantine Articles of Confederation. Ottoman Empire. 994 anthropology. 27q Tokugawa Shogunate. 413–415. 41m. Spanish Golden Age. blues. 441p. 567. Hellenistic 137m. 257–258 Empire. 131. during Scientific 423c. 72. Fertile Crescent. 39–40. 50. 131. 446p–447p. dynasty. Phoenicians. See Voltaire. post-colonial. 241p. 388 974–975. 274. 136–138. 256m. 52q 154p. Amish. 814–815. 86p. Atahualpa. 272. 570–571 Anubis. 502. 10p. 41m. 45–49. 70. 275. 415p. 610 956–957. Incas. 41 Antioch. 139–140. 809 Africa. 885 979. Yom Kippur War. discoveries of. 567p. Nazism and. 418. Persian Empire. 301. 942. 135 Aquinas. 55. The Blues. 155p. 572–573. methods of. 676–679. 20 677p. 295 anesthetic. 942. Anti-Comintern Pact. 546–547 Argentina: Chamorro. 107. 41–42. 412 world. 957. 441p Empire. 216–217 Aragon. Mughal Islamic calligraphy. 37 Archbishop of Canterbury. 788c. 977 (ASEAN). 55. 676. 458 archipelago. 954. 287 de Mayo. 584 Anasazi. 414p–415p. 312p. 452. 245q Analects. 42. 80p. 233. Hittite Empire. Italian 32m. 6 Anatolia. 147q Assyrians. 215. Maya civilization. 423. defined. South America. documents on. Impressionism. 502. 290. military. 414. military Asian Tigers. impressionism. 814p. Tang dynasty. 132c as characteristic of early civilization. 241p. Gupta Empire. Arts Around the World: African sculpture. early American settlements. 181. 136 Asclepius. 73. Kemal. democracy in. 401. 677p. 440. 134. 362 Yoruba. theme of. 155. 33–34. Scientific Revolution and. 77–78. teachings of. 362. 234. Toltec. empire of. Egypt. 353p. Jean-Bertrand. 500 return to democracy. 353. 216m Aquino. Athens. 146p. 80.

Jomo. 363 Bangladesh. Giovanni. Otto von. 42p Bhagavad Gita. 954p. 515m. 780 359. 210. Martin Luther. Zoroaster. 45. Pachacuti. 1008. al-Khwarizmi. blues. 916. House of Christian. 439 Baghdad Pact. 671. Industrial Washington. 7c barter. Richelieu. 477–478. 874p–875p. today. 46. 301 church. empire. 8. 892. 951 Middle Ages. T1. 956 Cardinal. 358 Meir. 173–174 High Middle Ages and. 187. 505. 676 Babylon: conquest by Cyrus. 318. Beijing. Congress of empire. Amelia Jenks. 49. 363q. Winston. Elizabeth. Wu Zhao. 758. 69. 662 and iron speech. 727 Black Hand. Woodrow. 394 Aztecs: achievements of. Marie. 698. 210. 445p. Shi Huangdi. religion. 217 Black Death. 889. 690 Ban Zhao. L. 437. Augustus. 442. Nebuchadnezzar II and. 798. 504. 425. Bentley. 501. 422– division of. 112. break up. Battle of. Auschwitz. 174. 724–725. achievements Bank of France. 484–485 Bill of Rights. 864 King. David. Ho Chi Australopithecine. selection of. 272. tearing Black Tuesday. 51. 173p. 188p. Bastille. 95q and Theodora. 452. Austro-Prussian War. 272 Belisarius. Simón. R4 Biafra. 724. 206 slavery. R17. 364 biotechnology. Beta Israel. 424m Berlin. 618–619. 299. Eisenhower. after WW I.. 899 Boer War. 422–425. 750. 318. 364–365 biology: Aristotle and. Hannibal. 571 837m. 216. 677p Dwight. society and Beowulf. 969 Mansa Musa. 71. 508c Berlin Wall. 885. 718p. Augustine of Hippo. Lincoln. Wilhelm II. 597 Louis. George. 37. 810 Biography: Akbar. 896 Ben-Gurion. Metternich. 661 blitzkrieg. 857 Bantu: migration in early Africa and. 188. 726–727. 848 da Vinci. Eleanor of Aquitaine. 179 Balkans: in Ottoman Empire and Balkan Thomas. 636q bicycles. 42. 344 782. 388. Bay of Pigs. 719. Australia. 639 D. Michelangelo creation of Austria-Hungary. 613 Violeta. resistance to change. 954. 990p. 610 287m Gorbachev. 726 Bismarck. 792. 671 Bacon. 762. 795. Kenyatta. 724–725. 668. 112. 813. theme of. Begin. 296 719–720. 270. 721. 43. 826. 39. 174q. 546 43. Mary and 780–781. splendor of. 168. 741. Scipio Africanus. 191 Balkan Peninsula. Austerlitz. establishing self-rule of. 423. Zapata. augurs. 861–862. 596–597. 921. 556 Bass. 878m 423. 671. rise to power. 880 Black Hole of Calcutta. 423c. Leakey. 522p Balboa. Berlin. 855 Berlin Conference. 215 Bengal. 40. 229 Hatshepsut. Averroes. 415 Klemens von. Italian Beethoven. 184. 741 Babi Yar. Attila. life under. 857 Second Reich. unification. science. Franz Joseph I. 421. 271. 267 445. R58 of Berlin. Mikhail. 209–210. forming. Otto von. index War. spread of. 913 698. 571. Bataan Death March. 294 Minh. 45. Berlin airlift. 878. Bayeux Tapestry. 505. 888 down. 713–717. 210 Bergen-Belsen. Confucius. 664 biological weapons. Leon. 705. 585 Bodiam Castle. 662 belief systems: 71. Watt.. Adolf. 554p. Mao Zedong. 569 Bible bloomers. 720 Belgium: Congo. Laozi. 257 611. 671p Baghdad: Abbasid dynasty. 861p. Jr. Aung San Suu Kyi. Lenin. Jewish Bessemer process. Galileo Galilei. 395 during Scientific Revolution. ethnic groups in. 720. 838 by Hittites. 815m Wisdom. 952 Hebrew. 6. automobile: invention of. 144. 100–101q. 579. Francis. 979. A. 199 disease. 348. 860. 951 Bodh Gaya. rise Benz. Forbidden City. discoveries of. Aquinas. Mongol destruction of.. 730–732. Augustine of Canterbury. Thirty Years’ Basham. course of Bering Strait. 880. 945 Bloomer. of. Watson. 840. 254. Churchill. 510 225. Chamorro. rebuilding of. 814. 724 509p. 724. Frank. Sun Yixian. 6. Vladimir. 837 Benedict of Nursia. San Martín. Vasco Núñez de. James autocracy. Menachem. 956. 210. 173. Benedictine Rule. 893 Blake. Alexander Graham. 424–425. 453p. 724–725. banks: Great Depression and. Enlightenment bedouins. 661 bloodletting ritual. 474 bin Laden. 362 Wars. early Christian Azores. 471 Benin. Suleyman.. Emiliano. 53–54 Bell. Thomas. art. Magyars revolt. 846. 266. 321. Joan of Arc. Dual Monarchy. writing. Osama. E. 348 310. 758 INDEX R125 . 272 Benedictine Order. 53 Avesta. 744–745 bishops: church reforms during Early Azerbaijan. 208–209. See Black Death. 508c Banks of the Loing River (Sisley). and. 779 Berlin airlift. 510. Alexander Nevsky. 168. Bastille Day. Berber traders. 442. 208. 997. Congress of. 507–508. 814p. 780 Batu Khan. 758 Black Plague. German unification. 971 Buonarroti. Anne. 735q. 724. 454. effects of. 637. origins of. 547 Boccaccio. R5. 1003 Avicenna. Metternich and. 676 Peter the Great. 855. storming of. in Batista. 619. John. 842. 48. 393. defeat Bessemer. 660. William. documents on. Triple Alliance. 725m. 139. 100–101 Bloody Sunday. Leonardo creation of. 104 Baines. 729 Revolution in. 581.atomic bomb Boer War atomic bomb. 882 Balfour Declaration. Aurangzeb. Justinian Austria: Seven Years’ War. 813 baby boom. 213. 554. Golda. Henry. Babur. 541. Kulturkampf. James. 423. 814–815. King James. Wilson. 1008 ayllu. 671p bodhisattvas. Napoleon Bonaparte. 423. 724–725. Axis Powers. advances of 1939–1941. 291 Bloody Mary. Fulgencio. Pericles. 884. 48. 720. 721 Beringia. Gutenberg’s. Abraham. 476. 9m. 597p Khan. 210p. 727. Dual Monarchy. 318. Ludwig van. 731p Babylonian Captivity. 287. Kublai Austria-Hungary: beginning of WW I and. Calvin. 417. R9. life of. Hitler. 855. 410 Edison. 509. blood Cortés conquest of. 798. 557. 199. Carl. Prince Austrian Empire: Austro-Prussian War. 939. 185q. 939. 710p–711p. Bolívar. 718. Tenochtitlán. 106 balance of trade. 652 Bismarck. 208p. Curie. 720. José de.

646–647. Robert. 43. Calvinism. Bruegel. 103p. 311. 537p. 351–352. 104. 332. Charles. 104. 919 capitalism: defined. Battle of. divisions Camp David Accords. 348. Miguel de Bogolyubsky. 879 Cape of Good Hope. 350. spread of. 333. 456 Bulge. 577 Boleyn. 453 Brunelleschi. 347–355. 500–501. 537. Ashoka and. 275p Catholic Church. 358 civilizations. 474 1036–1039 Movement. 1026–1029. art and architecture. Andrew. 726 enlightenment. 954. 472–473m Castiglione. 275. Bogolyubsky.. 781 231. 899 joint-stock companies. 351. 918. 499. 390 books: burning in Qin dynasty. 458 cave art. 647. 104. 445. Camillo di. emergence of. 700. teachings cannons. Punic Wars. 21. 66 capital: as factor of production and Gutenberg’s press and revolution in. 348. 414–415 Burma. 358. John. Rouge. emerging economic Brazil power of China and India. 595 conquest of. 191. 840 Calderón. Felipe. Cold War. R63 Bolivia: market reforms and. Carter. early life Canaan. 479 death of. 499p. schism caravel. 956 census. documents on. 331p. 217 Crusades. Gupta empire. Simón. 581 Justinian’s Code. 698 517 Canterbury Tales. 446p. Great British control of. 500. 726 of. 981. 487. 263. 792 Bulgaria. 487. independence. 303 Bosnia and Herzegovina. 416. 487. 349–351. 330. 452 Caucasus. 571 of Islam. 348. 1023p Republic. today. 174 Catherine of Aragon. 104–105q. Andrew. 578–579 Brunei. 14. 453 106m. 956 boyars. 10p. 742 calendar. R57. invasions of. 103. 43m. 878. R65 R126 INDEX . in early Japan. 900p Calcutta. 349–350. 741 Castro. 1010. 27q British Museum. 16p. 857p “Call to Power” (Lenin). Jacques. Calvin. 104. Iconoclasts. Caribbean: Spanish colonization. religion and arts. 518p of. 945. 617 Brezhnev. 859–860 Capetians. 761. 103. Robert. Quiet Central Powers. 493 caste system. 203 104–105. 103. 510. 330. Leonardo. Eightfold Path. teachings of. as colony of France. 357–358. 915. 111 Catherine II (czarina of Russia): 534p. 915. 224. 890 Cervantes. 857. 263 Catholic and Royal army. Vietnam War. 97. Anne. Shang dynasty. Turks attack of. 487. during Age of Exploration. 350–351. Brahmins. 14m. 166 Dhammapada. Borlaug. Burgoyne. 332. 477 Bossuet. Han dynasty. 171. 99. 64 Brontë. Justinian Carolingian kingdom: Charlemagne and. 981p catacombs. 332 Bushido. 263. 581 weaknesses. cultural achievements Caputo. 354m. 99c. 954. 352. 331. Cabot. Jacques. market reforms. 441p caliph. 1022–1025. 561q influence on Russia. Cavour. Baldassare. 636 Brahman. 581 I and Theodora. Hugh. See Roman Catholic Buchenwald. Battle of the. Boston Tea Party. 969q. 1026–1029 role of United Nations. 583 Industrial Revolution. 19. 97c developing societies of Brazil and Bramante. David. 351–352. 438q caliphate. Andrew Cervantes. 841p 555. 569–570 Byzantium. 1040–1044. 330 Bush. 885–886. 699. Bruce. Sebastian. early civilization. The (Chaucer). Miguel de. 534 m. 104–105. 172. 266 Catherine the Great. in Southeast Asia Revolution. Borneo. 1945 to present: Landless Workers’ Cabot. 646q 206. 647p Boston Massacre. Filippo. 1011 Burundi. 311. 649. Roman 235. 975 Caesar. R4. 793q Church Buddha: early life of. 241p. 187p British East India Company. John. 762–763 Boxer Rebellion. internal Carlsbad Decree. 967. Board of Education. 1030–1035. Four Noble Truths. illuminated manuscripts. 202 Canton. 724 Boston: American Revolution. 753. George W. Nika Carranza. 331. 954p. 103–107. rule of. Enlightenment and. 104. index Borromeo. See Catherine II Bruni. 330 Caligula. 510. Khmer Cayuga. Cathedral of Florence. 699q. social democracy and. animals. 447 California. 487. 919. 452. 848. 239 982–983. 954p. 391 Portugal. 457 Byzantine Empire. Donato. 452. 917 Celtic monasteries. 635 445p. 472. Jimmy. 682p–683p. 472–473m. Muslim civilizations. Lord. 511m Bolshevik Revolution. 896–897 culture. 471 Bosporus Strait. 52 censors: Ming dynasty. 715. 330m. spread Carthage: founding of. 517. 676 Revolution and. Age of Buddhism in Khmer Empire. 331. 348. Cambyses. Marx’s view Borobudur Temple. 390 bonfire of the vanities. 201p. 233. 324. 471 Bolsheviks. 891 Departure. Edmund. 190 Cartwright. 549 calligraphy. Olmec. Leonid. 173 Castlereagh. origins of. Canada: after WW II: social changes. Norman. 440 hyperinflation. 240. Ottoman Turks’ 373–377 bourgeoisie. 107. 648 Bosnia. 45–47 Central America: domestication of plants/ of Buddha. Fidel. cataracts. Venustiano. Candide (Voltaire). 352 Capet. Charlotte. 690. 17. 499. 501 of 1054. Maya civilization. Boyle. 912 Case Studies: civic participation. crossing Rubicon. 560. Castile. 475 Brahe. and independence. 504 Bolívar. 603. Julius. Pieter. 969–971 Britain. Buddha’s enlightenment. Canossa. and 168–169 Bradley. as French colony. 749 Revolt. 392 of. 878m. 404 Cartier. R13 status of women in Ireland and Turkey. 889 204. 272. 604 bubonic plague. 479–480. 715q Buddhism. 982–983 buffalo. John. military dictatorship and Cabral. 10. 349q. Tycho. 244p. decline of. colonization by. 552–554 Seljuk Turks’ defeat of. 106. Pedro. 996 Industrial Revolution and. 324. 890. 364–365 238p. French Çatal Hüyük. life of. 331. 233. 918. 107. 267. centrally planned economy. Zen and samurai. 202 Tang dynasty. 967p. bureaucracy: defined. 210. Carnegie. 213 of. Cameron. 443 Mexico. rise of. 471. 790 Bulgars. 441p Brown v. as developing country. life of. 11 104–105 Cambodia. 273–274.

Chandra II. Hongwu. 1003 imperialism in: Boxer Rebellion. 226. See Maurya. Charles X (French king). U. 226. 334p. R63 242m–243m. 886 317–318. 759p. 229. 11m. R7. 114–115. 750. 186m. 226–227. 673. capitalist reforms in. social Byzantine Empire and. See Gupta. 376. 453.S. 982–983. 374. Silk Roads. Chaldeans. 982 230m. 808 Door Policy. 510. 109–111. monasteries. 349–351 Chavín de Huantar. 320–321. 311m. 224. 186. 225. decline of. time line. children and Warring States Period. 509–513. civil service system. improvements Ming dynasty. 111m. 692 women in. 225m. Zheng He. 226. Period of Disunion. 808. early church. 821–822. science and technology. 556 Han dynasty. 362. 244q–245q. during Scientific foreign influence takes hold. 109. 746p. 313– Charles VI (Holy Roman Emperor). Christianity. and Cold Mongol Empire. 886 509–510. culture. 318–321. 512. 747–750. 373p. footbinding. Chandragupta. 324–325 362. Christendom. Tiananmen Square. 112–113. 821. trade. 513. 312–313. May Fourth of China and. 513 Chang’an. 232. 231. Claude. persecution and martyrs. 373. 312–313. South Carolina: American 226. Pax Ceylon. 509p. after WW I: Chinese Civil War. 315 Period. R16. 223. Neville: appeasement policy. 231. 511m. 312–315. 224–232. 515m. 311. sea voyages of. 511. Kublai Khan. 231. 521 INDEX R127 . 363 Chaucer. society. 316–321. Confucianism and. 807. 511. Shang dynasty. Mao of. decline of. 375. 227. 747m. Second Sino-Japanese War. 225. 536 921–922. in early Ethiopia. 224. Legalism and. 112. 314–315. 76. 480 ancient: Confucianism. nomads and. 310–311. in China. fall of. communist China. 318. R14. religion. documents on. 808. literature and art. Opium War. 514m– Protestant Reformation. 111–112 Chartism. military 920–921. Benedictines. 220–221. 583 230. 535p. 315. 226. 183–187. 923 314–315. 232. 112. 363–365. 686–687. laws. 226. Yuan dynasty. Nanjing. 1911 Revolution. society. Hundred Years’ achievements of. 346. 231. Samuel de. 227. time line. 535. March. education. 320q. 186m 976. 536. family life. 225–226. 224. 400p–401p under Wudi. China agriculture and society. 374. 512–513. 459c Chávez. 376 930–931. 510. 747–748. Age of Buddhism. 521 620 231. 223. 1030–1035 inventions and innovations. 364–365. Factory Act. 310 111–112 Sino-Japanese War. Cultural Revolution. Treaty of. Cholat. R6 checks and balances: in Roman Republic. 687 Empress Lü. arts. in Aksum. Counter-Reformation. spread of. achievements of. 314–315. 290p Revolution. Chandra I. 922p–923p. 807p. 459. 232. economy. conquest by Cyrus. 350–351 Pinochet regime. 416 Chartres Cathedral. geography and. 376c. literature and art. Celtic factories. 691. 228. 223. Long Qin dynasty. government. 652–653. 227. documents on. origins of. 979 Movement. 48 Communist-Guomindang partnership. in early African societies. Hugo. 109–111. Factory Act. Liu Bang. 184 Revolution. 364m. 350 child labor: in coal mines during Industrial Rebellion. Chamorro. 510. Fu Qing dynasty. 228. Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor). Choson kingdom. Sun Yixian. 922. Communist takeover. Charles VII (French king). 822 monasteries. 924. 312–315. 51. ancient. 108p. growth of trade. children: education in Industrial Age. art. 109. in medical care and drop in infant 513. 229. culture.Cetshwayo Christianity Cetshwayo. Peasants’ War and. 512. power. 571 748. 231 Crusades and. 362–363. 364–365. Forbidden City. documents Chamberlain. 314. Jiang Jieshi. 186 Cold War and. 451. crowning of Charlemagne. 808. 233. 230m. 913 China Mongolia. See Gupta. strengthening papacy. 749–750. 90–91. 532p–533p. products of. 502m. 229– WW I: formation of Communist Party in. 184. 596p–597p Chateaubriand. 166c Zhang Qian. Gang Neo-Confucianism. 923. 312p. 187. 459 285 foreign relations. Xi. 808. monks and Egypt. 511. empire. 807. Violeta. 513p. paper. R17 Song dynasty. 549 Guards. 226. 244. 807p. Great Wall 836–837 Zedong. 747 medieval period: Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. 187p chemistry: discoveries of. 416. Great Leap Forward. 41m. skyscrapers. government and civil service. 674 746–747. 334. 808 rise of. 808 charter. Yellow Turbans. 311m. 111m. 315 War. agriculture. Zhou dynasty. 108– 513. 669. imperialism and Chandragupta Maurya. 373–377. 519 Charleston. 222m. working in influence on early Japan. Emperor Wudi. 185 Chile 510p–511p. 510–511 Chechnya. 686–687. 512. 751–752 Charlemagne. 312. Genghis Khan. 223–224. 895–896 226–227. 749. Christendom. spreading Christianity. 511. in Roman Empire. 547–548 of Four. Versailles. 404–407 chemical weapons. expansion chivalry. 231. economic 808. 455–460 166. Taiping iconoclasts. Han dynasty. economy. 43. 229p. 310. 309–310 Chaldiran. 212 232. 111m. today. 923. 922. 346m War. Zhou dynasty. 510. 449–454 1945 to present: Allende’s presidency. 311m. 501. 290. Chandra Gupta II. in Tokugawa Shogunate. 351 Chicago: migration to. Yonglo. 742. Deng Xiaoping. 748. 421 Buddhism and. trade. government. 979 Marco Polo. 460 emerging economic power of. R3 index Chang Jiang (Yangzi River). Battle of. 225m. 186. Warring States Qianlong. 637. 229. 313c. 226–227 Chandra Gupta I. 510. 230. 289. Geoffrey. trade. 288–290 Chavín. 227. Franks. 312p. 510–511. Sui Dynasty. 920–924. Champlain. Charles II (English king). 108. Nanjing Massacre. 358 Chiang Kai-Shek. rebuilding china. 185–187. 363. 230m. Kangxi. 976. rise of. Revolution. 808m. Constantine and. 760 return to democracy. 243m. 212 structure. 310 Charles I (Spanish king). Open in early Russia. Shi Huangdi. 319m conquest of Kingdom of Judah. 363 mortality. 112–113. trade. 511m. Treaty of Jesus of Nazareth. 500m. 224. Francois-Auguste-René de. 375. 822. 675. Red Tang dynasty. 922. 312 Charles I (English king). 514m–515m schism in. 220–221. 641 Interwar Years: Manchurian Incident. 509. Daoism. Great Wall. 1040 growth. Shang dynasty. Xiongnu. time line. Paul of Tarsus. Eastern and Western Christianity. 318–321. 503 808. market reforms.

24m–25m. urbanization in Latin 886. 315. 324. 477m. Bill of civil service: Han dynasty. 208p. domino theory. 880m. for steam engines in Industrial Bolshevik Revolution. 883. 896–897. Tenochtitlán. 499p. migration to. 200 command economy. 639 War. 95 codex. 166 604 477. 406. 492 Churchill. 310. compared to fascism. Korea. 891 862–863 cloning. 885. polis in early 878. 324. 887. 880 Ville in 1789. Tansu. Indus Valley Civilization. Dutch Byzantine Empire. 469p. 836–837. 245q. 884– concentration camps. 229. 637 472–473m. 884. The (de Venette) contemporary issues Chronicle. postwar Rights. Congress. index citadel. environmental issues. Roman Empire. 395. 884. 20–22. 878. Roman Republic. 898–899. 362p commonwealth. 637 920–924. livable. 673. in Great Britain. and government. warfare. society during. Georges. rise of. Sese Seko. 196. late 1800s. Tang and Song 880–881. 167 Revolution. R62 Clermont. 811. New York City in and Red Scare. 642. colonies. 164q. treatment of Native Americans. 173 Columbian Exchange. 879. Gandhi’s protest of British rule 348. NATO. 620p and beginning of Renaissance. 182 486–487. 649. 363 struggle begins. Marx. unrest in colonies. today. Tordesillas. 438 collectivization. Constitution Civil Rights Act. causes/effects 646–647 674. 837. Marshall Plan. Han dynasty. John. 94p. 488–491. pollution from factories Industrial Age. 327. Cold War 590. Anti. 392 Columbus. 885m. 810– Roman Republic. 590. 880. 548–549 Cicero. Mobutu. 894–897. 880 Clemenceau. Vietnam War. R6 defined. See Constantine: rule of. Korean War. 792. 824–825 town in middle ages. 968. ethnic and religious R128 INDEX . 971. 889 811. 878m. life of. SALT I and II. 411. in cities: Aztecs. 484c. theme of. Warsaw Pact. 166q Cluny. 649. slavery trade and. 19. 209. 206 in Cuba. 225. 501 civil law. 584–585. Berlin Communist Manifesto. Maya civilization. 895 Ciller. 484–487. 891–893. 887. Greece. Korea. 204 Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. 1003. 166 civil rights movement. consuls: defined. 333 an empire. Africa. 603. R17. 995 Cleisthenes. Eastern Europe. and. The (Delaroche). defined. Justinian I and Theodora. Conquerors of the Bastille before the Hotel de 129–130. 190. 888–893. 864m 673. 216. free around world. 939. French. 1036q coal: in Great Britain and Industrial communication: changes in. Clive. 613 95. 916. 362. Joseph. 370. Spain builds constitutional monarchy. 229. 178 contemporary issues: dangerous weapons. The (de Venette). 1008 Common Sense (Paine). 882. consumerism: globalization and. 724 High Middle Ages. factory towns. Qing dynasty. 160p–161p. 411–412. 510. Zapotec. life of Confucius. Mobutu 124. during Cincinnatus. 474 using. Chronicle. life of. ghettos. Council of. 1005–1007. 19–20. glasnost and perestroika. 884. clergy. 314p. 894–899. 840q. 347. characteristics Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty. mercantilism. 797 Colosseum. 19. 208–209. disagreement with appeasement cliff dwellings. 352. 799 containment policy. expansion and 479–481. of. Cold Cistercian monasteries. 479. 71. 206. 999. 883p. cultural Possession. Pigs. 727. R17. changing societies. 879. 674. 855–857.S. impact on society. 885. 889 nationalism in Africa after WW I. Cuban missile crisis. 395p Cockerill. 806m. 499. 224. of. breakup of Soviet competition: Industrial Revolution and. 170. France. 1022–1025 colonization. Treaty Consulate. 880. German occupation. 892p–893p. 312. Egypt’s Christianity. 635. 34. French and Indian War. 585p Song dynasty. 476–479. early Greece. 1009 Committee of Public Safety. 546 Clovis. communism: Anti-Comintern Pact. 134–135. 879. 1027. Age of. Qin dynasty. 458. Cuba and. 999c. of first. 877–899. 585. Tang dynasty. 478q. 477. as characteristic Cold War. 205. 22–23. 894–896. 658m. Ming dynasty. location of. after Balkan Wars. Compromise of 1867. 609 civil war: in France after French Revolution. 511. 404 comedy. Red Scare. 892–893. Robert. sources of. diffusion and. 146 879. Confucius. 510. 751p Common Market. 483–484. 190. Winston. 19 independence from Britain. 884. Maya civilization. 512 America. end of. William. The (Marx). 175. Europe. Christopher. 482–487. 674. 112–113. Europe after communism. Berlin airlift. Marxism-Leninism. 825 conquistador: defined. industrial. 587 Church of England. T2. river valley civilizations. 135 after WW I. 229p. Wall. 704–705. conquest of. 607. 550 vietnam. during Song dynasty. 71p. Constitutional Convention. 617–619. new patterns of trade and. 673– Union. 895m. 705. United States. 354p–355p. 585q. Cold War. suburbs. 884. 112–113. Eastern influences on. European Constantinople. Qing dynasty. Ming dynasty. Clermont. Yalta climate change. Portuguese in Brazil. 226. 1800. 642. Crusaders attack on. revolutions in Congo: Belgian Congo. Cleopatra. 704m 204. 23. 840. 314. 726. 649. Congress of Vienna. 881c. 808–809. 473–474. 226. 885. in China. French Revolution. Question. Nuremberg trials. 483c 1102–1103. nuclear arms race. 885. growth in the Industrial Age. of early civilization. 186. 878p. 672p–673p. 880. 112 citizenship: equality. rise of capitalism. 20p–21p. 206. Neo-Confucianism dynasties. 882p. iron curtain. 94– 885. 481. in China after WW I. Japan. 395 Commonwealth of Independent States. 838. 469. 34. 1029c. 884–886. Sumer. 487. 477 civic participation. nonaligned nations. Bay of Soviet Union under Stalin. U. 890. 521. writing. 877–899. 312. 916m. 570q megacities. 584–585 Ming dynasty. 885. 479–481. 917. 1009. spread of civilization also Imperialism. 891. Conduitt. détente. Ottoman Empire’s 24m–25m of India. characteristics encomienda system. 882–883. 476–481. R4. Concordat. Circus Maximus. 808. circus: Roman Empire. 129–130. 692 city-state: Sumerian. 945 776 898–893. growth during Industrial Age. 607. containment policy. 512. 741. 730. 914–917. See also of. Soviets launch Sputnik. R71 globalization and urbanization. 584 City of God (Augustine). Truman Doctrine. 663–664 circumnavigate. 178 Revolution. Mesoamerica. 792–793. 968p. fall of. 684m. Confederate States. 891 policy. 170. environmental and English colonies in Americas. 351 early. 472p. 22c. 874p–875p. 206. 879. Constantine V (Byzantine Emperor). 604p Conference and Potsdam Conference. 208–209. 758. 969–971. deterrence. 582. 23. 350. 20. 178 632m. 8. 618m. 887. 393p. 887. fear Confucianism: establishment of. 479.

765. 30 African societies. R68 132. 405. 799. R16 513. 215. 187. 376. 639. Counterpoints: Alexander the Great. 362 459. 315 power of papacy. 729–730 Crimean War. 521. cuneiform. 17. 885. 769. Cyrillic alphabet. 667 458. 990m 972. 598. 811. R8. 662 576 Bay of Pigs invasion. Davis. 35p deforestation. Nicolaus. 439 counter revolution. rank. 644 First Crusade. 536 Clermont. 37. 610 881. Cornwallis. compare. Battle of. 427. 1004. Sumerian. Marie. 641. 582–583 supporting details. results of. 1006 977. 440p. 598. 327. W. 44. 314p. 885–886 Dai Viet. 352. 287. 549 77p. 381. 169. 753. 641–642. 609 Cullen. 51m. 301. 48 Crassus. 603p. 859 creoles. 393. Gupta Empire. 391 Cro-Magnons. 159. 619. 995 Dardanelles. 84. 1000–1003. Battle of. 953. ancient. 763 Dao De Jing. Gustave. early Africa. Tokugawa independence and.Continental Army Delhi sultanate conflicts. infer. Lord. early reformers. Coronado. 261. 455. 476. 423. 969. 690. 709. Francisco de. 173 cultural exchange. R4–R5 Court of Blood. in factory. 231. 312–313. 883p. Muslims in High Middle Ages cities. 567p. 563. 601p. 76–77. 155. 360. 882. Copan. 325–326. colonies. 507 987. 664. 994–995. make judgments. 156. 508. 971. 23. women and. World 727. 972 generalizations. Bob. 406q index Córdoba. Egypt. 141. 206 191. 460. Qing dynasty. 23. 325. Olympe. Industrial Council of Trent. 679p cultural diffusion. Cortés. Inquisition. 455–460. 412. 51m 991–995. 886 daimyo: defined. 722. 959. 573. Licinius. 503. 487. 938 70. 694. 154 Delaroche. 200m. 404. Council of. 913. 889 and. 764. 491. 180–182. 148. 601 Croats. Jefferson. cotton gin. 700. Convention People’s Party. 274. 321. 219. 660. 113. 320. 35–36. 407c. 240–41. elaborate. 696 Empire. 85. Ming dynasty. Charles.S. reasons for. 59. The (Castiglione). Cyrus the Great. 369. make Contras. 995. 671–676. 787 court: defined. 49. 887. views on society. Damascus: spread of Islam. 403–407. 525. 503. 655. 395. Jacques-Louis. 411–412 ancient. Latin America’s 315. 963. China and trade. 848 267. 112–113 Courbet. 536 Crusades. 472. 113. Darius III. 465. 999. explain. 646p Song dynasties. 922. diffusion of Greek. 850. Platt Amendment. 569. Death of Marat (David). 941. 405–406 177–179. 603. 995. 55. 456. 822. 404. revolution at end of Cold War. science and 227. Dachau. D’Avenant. Charlotte. Han dynasty. 327. Cyril. 803. Shogunate. 195. 971 Daladier. Continental System. 365. 263 hysteria. 919. Richard. bonfire of Castro’s rule. 109 Cultural Revolution. 156–157. Paul. popular. Luddites. U. Cynics. North America. political effects of. 863. 552 technology. 983. 11. evaluate. 485. Copernicus. human rights. 305. F. Raymond. 557. goal of. early Darwin. Edouard. electric power and. 79. WW Per Capita GDP. Scientific Revolution. 399. 882. 284p–285p. 136. 85. 23. 394. John. Mughal D-Day. 505 INDEX R129 . Second Crusade. 1004 Courtier. 696. 229– cottage industry. 421 Empire. 867. 138. Georges-Jacques: role of. Charles. 131 Cromwell. 782. 46 6. 167. 447. 681. 443 credit. Gupta David. 107. 636 Crusades. Tang and Domino Theory. Han dynasty. globalization. in cottage Corinth. defined. 604 Cuban missile crisis. 237. 50. papacy Age. 857 Coral Sea. 72–80. 8–9 daily life: Augustan Age. 583 Cromwell. Korea. 51–52. 883p. 333 the vanities. 971 Danes. 763–764 Dante Alighieri. Crystal Palace. 831. 407. 947. women in. 602 counts. compare and contrast. 40. 358 Delhi. 571c 857. Pierre. develop. David (Michelangelo). persecution and revolution: goals of. 337. Council of Trent. 939. theories of. rate. identify II: annexation of by Germany. 232. 917. involvement. 836 457. 375 Cuban Revolutionary Party. 564. 30. 2006. 717. Decembrist Revolt. 60. Declaration of Independence. 127–128 200c–201c. 651. 547–549 industry. in late 1800s. 606. counterculture. Juana Ines de la. 641. 215 de Klerk. 482. 472m Corday. 933. trade influence on in 607 102. 513. Jesuits. 52–53. trade in High Middle Ages and. 858. Ottoman Empire. 905. 200–202. 507. 130. 544. sequence. 241. 512. 152. 231. 440 culture: Ancient Near East. 582p–583p. 239. 521. social challenges. 582q. 477–478. 579. 816. 404m–405m. Charles. 605 247. 788. 417. 348 d’Aguilers. terrorism. Japan. Third in Middle Ages. 513. Curie. 302q–303q decolonization. 381. 611p Crécy. 519 Counter-Reformation. Vasco. Hernán. 412. 454. 1003–1004. effects of. 589. 969. 443. 704 410 Kush. 950 29. 406. identify cause and effect. Roman Empire. 391. 538. 456– Cuban missile crisis. 611p. 458–459. 971 Danton. 598. 732. 472p. Empire. 1007–1011. 456. 930–931 Darfur: ethnic conflict in. Song dynasties. 599. Oliver. 670. 286. 358 Delhi sultanate. 842. 667 de Gouges. 97. 537. czar: defined. 210. 582–583. Curie. 202. Heian Period. 326. categorize. 457–458 Spanish-American War. 879. 456–457 control of Holy Land. 404. 405. Egypt. 293. 324p–325p. 765 Dalton. 676. 929. Fourth and later 230. summarize. 858p. 997. Czechoslovakia: Cold War. cultural Darius I. 667 Cradle of Civilization. 27 Daoism. 176. 705. 620p 737. 899. life of. Cuzco. 505. 635. Safavid 587. 117. 567. 793. Crusade. 601p Crete. 671–676. 386. globalization and David. 152 covenant. 537 diffusion. 174. 405q. Declaration of the Rights of Man and 645. 490–491. 995. 456. 167p. 623. Gottlieb. in French Republic. 668 De Gaulle. 760. 827. 481. 182. 893. 944–945 495. 35. 333. identify causes. Mongols. 566m. 878. Cuba Daimler. 723 501–502. 361. Hittites.. 679. 1008. 232. 667. 267. 156. Roman Republic. 386. 550. 537p slavery in colonies. 885. 613. 745 da Gama. 486q crafts: guilds in High Middle Ages. 1013. 89. 813. Roman Empire. 279. 416. R54 coup d’état. 667q. 878m. 475. 996–999. Critical Thinking: analyze. 836–837 Continental Army. Tang and of the Citizen. 924. 893. Cruz. 937.

Sir Francis. 676 815. in Athens. scarcity. 549. sanitation drama: Greek. Perón. 474. cultural dynasty: defined. 330. 992 706–707. Peter. 477. sustainable disciples: defined. 600. 522– Earl of Pembroke. diffusion: cultural. Sulla. Pinochet. 1002 1026–1029. development. 149p economies. Prussia and. Reid. R46–R47. 666. 19 Duke William of Normandy. 648. in post. 488p Economics Handbook. 306. 977. Bartolomeu. 577. 319m. Albrecht. growth of. 945. 2. trade. 676 462–463. 264. R13. 382 détente. R65 systems. Jean. 646–647. 923. Asian Tigers. 537p. Industrial Revolution and new Dien Bien Phu. changing views War of Spanish Succession. mercantilism. 857q 292–293. 609 Domosh. Dreyfus. 945. developed countries: defined. 78 Age of Exploration. 586–587. 327m. documents on. 896 Dunkirk. 486. early civilization. of early china. 461. supply Directory. China. 26–27. Black Death. 114–115. Roman status of women in Ireland and Turkey. 1031 revolution. 184 Don Quixote de la Mancha (Cervantes). in of women in Asian cultures. NAFTA. command. status economics: Adam Smith. Duvalier. global economy. genetically modified. 1006 power of China and India. Duomo. Draffen. factors of post-colonial Africa. T1. imperialism. 635. 192–193. and. 225m. biological weapons. Malaria. 734–735. Benjamin. 26–27. bubonic Door of No Return. 389. 694 294. Columbia Exchange. 309–321. 172. 173. 378. 190. 688. 487. 964. 998. in U. navigation and hajj. 895. 388 Demeter. 693p. 906. William. defined. 916. 1006. sickle-cell anemia. 521. 1023 960–961. 897. contact and change during dynastic cycle: defined. 997. 798. Ancient Near East. 1044. 285. 190. 388 joint-stock companies. Charles. East Asia. 323m. 416 Dual Monarchy. methods of archaeology. 979–981. in Latin 653. development of. 930–931. 912 767. Duvalier. collapse of Soviet Union. influenza of 1918. Mongol Empire. 64 division of labor. Drake. 294. 620– Eastern Europe: Cold War. barter. 917 and investing. Document-Based Investigation: absolutism. 209q 621. 724–725 Delphi. 946. child labor. 946. and Great artistic responses to Industrial Age. 344p–345p economic systems: contrasting. 424–425. direct. views of a ruler. theme of.S. 694 975. Southeast Asia. 230m. The (Dante). types of economic disease: anthrax. Draco. 856. 217 Dominican Republic: American occupation decisions. 302–303. 516–521. 535 Du Fu. 577. 678–679. 132c Dominic of Osma. A (Ibsen). 357 Dunstan. trade with Ming China. 441p 135–136. 35 Deng Xiaoping. 434. 819. 294. Rome’s legacy. 396–397. 1010–1011. Delian League economy Delian League. 976. 544. 420 capitalism and colonization. 606. 924. 136. 560–561. 296–297. with England. 296c. Department of Homeland Security. 222m. Meghnad. 134–135 1022–1025. China today. 111 demotic writing. 892. 556. 99. 1022–1025. 880. 216–217. Dormition Cathedral. 447 586–587. 887 523. 994q 156–157. Disraeli. 523q index theme through time. civic participation. devolution. 885 902–903. Republic. iron law of wages. 642. 473p. 15. saving direct democracy. De Venette. Southeast (Galileo). 924q. R62 culture. production. 492–493. 330m Dias. 484–485. 422–425. Iranian revolution. Dneiper River. René. Alfred. Great Depression and Keynes. 22c 1003. 444p. 791–792 democracy: Athenian. 919 975. 720 developing societies of Brazil and Mexico. 543. 22c HIV/AIDS. 132c Djenné Mosque. 273. 995. 548–549 colonial Africa. Native Americans and colonization. 948. in Japan after WW II. costs of WW I. 56–57. 864–865. 511m. 311m. 23. 167. 484. 296. of WW I. 132 divine right. 798–799. 57q 877–899. See also China. Korea. 634. Dutch: Thirty Years’ War. R46–R51 plague. 299. 517m. Desai. 53 649. 1030–1035. 135–136. 760 devas. 149. 879 Diaz del Castillo. 646–649. 156. Francois. 146–147. Mona. laissez- of. 413 feudalism in Japan and Europe. 883 Holocaust. 509–515. 848q for. Chinese and Indian views on Dutch East Indies. Alois. Diocletian. 334–335. 312 delta: defined. 484. 705 types of. 750. 301. Asia. perspectives on Magna Carta. 316–321. 231. democracy. 572 276–277. Black Death. Egypt. reactions to revolution. 1040– East Timor. 22. 929. 693p. Dialogue concerning Two Chief World Systems Germany. 766– German colonization. 893 dictators: Brazil’s military dictatorship. 286. 189–190 of. 86–87. Douglas. in Japan during Interwar Years. 569 ancient. T2. 486. terms early farming societies. globalization and. war Magna Carta. 281. 914 Dome of the Rock. 13–14. 273p ideas. balance of 977. Bernal. 289. Cold War. dharma. 800–801. 758. 514m– Dhammapada. 300. 172 1036–1039. 104q–105q migration to Americas. Duus. influence of trade on African Korea. 308m. preventing. Noriega. revolution at Dickens. 286 Dreyfus affair. 244–245. 973–974. 446p. end of Cold War. theme Domesday Book. 487. government. 513. 537. 484–487. 891c. 281p Duma. 828–829. 926. independence in Latin America. 946. in factory towns and. deterrence. 139 Divine Comedy. 135 economy: African kingdoms. 326–327. nationalism in India and 517m. trade with Britain. Thomas. 298. 918 America. Denmark. 668. 444. 765 484c. 472–473m. fall of Rome Dorner. return to. 878. R46. 22c. 977 Democratic Republic of Congo. 223–232. alternative 478. 100 984–985. 136 domino theory. emerging economic desertification. Brazil and military dictatorship. making economic Dillehay. 688q dualism: defined. Renaissance and individualism. diffusion of Greek culture. rise of Dionysus. 840 participation. Diderot. Sun Yixian and. revolutions and unification. 492. 387. R130 INDEX . 577 Doll’s House. causes Japan. Denis. SARS. 288–293. 488. Maurice. 538 after communism. 156q and demand. Stephen. 366–367 992–993. 471 396–397. Descartes. Dürer. 308m. civic DNA. 470–471 domestication. 521. Caesar. de Sully. Japan. 322–326. 891. 515m. needs and wants. East Africa: early trading states of. 99c. 291. East Germany: creation of. 878m. 329–333. 13p faire. Japan. 997–998. role of United Nations.

II. 719 Einstein. 545–546 Enlil. women and Puritans. 575–576. of Parliament. 185 goddesses. 78. 571c. religious practices. salons. Henry VIII. c. Erasmus. 22c. Howard. 613. An (Ibsen). post-WWII. time line 545–546. 64m. 415–416 ancient: architecture. 545–546. 155 of. 63–64. Napoleon Bonaparte King Faruq. 22c. 78–79. 83m. Juan Sebastián de. belief systems. 67–68. 971 change. Charles economic power of China and India. manorial system. 668 577. 69–70. 550 647. Hobbes. 418 enclosure movement. See also Great Britain Epicureans. 885 Protestant Reformation: Bloody Mary. 579. 389 encomienda system. 574–575. Indus Valley Civilization. Locke. 389. Ellora. 453p. 887. France. 546p entrepreneur. 846 influence on American Revolution. 240. enlightened despots. 288. 388. market Cold War and. 454. emerging and burial. 421 Engels. R3. 79. 595. Friedrich. dynasties Anglo-Saxon period. civilizations. 267 453p. 64. 215. writing. Albert. 405 government. 389. 793. French and Indian War. 1009 Edward VI (English king). 1030–1035. 545–546. 71. culture. 74–76. 154p. Elizabeth I. 362 Epistles. flying buttress. 34 1750. Eightfold Path. 660. Dwight. 64. R3. 546. 998 bureaucracy. Leif. life of. of Japan during children. 457. French Edessa. 453 Russia. Epic of Gilgamesh. 888–889. Wollstonecraft. 65–66. 956–957 William and Mary. 547–549. elite. 388–389. 547. 819. during 1920s. 575– Edo. Jr. 1007. Kingdom. 64. 846. 388. Enlightenment and. 213. Long Parliament. 679 sustainable development. Thomas: inventions of. Suez Canal. Montesquieu. 811 formation of Anglican Church. factory system and workers. 241p environment: of Americas. 547–548. 407. 511. 537 575.. railroad Roman conquest of. 583 Tang and Song dynasties. 538. 578–579. 454. 453. mummification Hundred Years’ War. 517m. 613. green buildings. 578. 927. spreading of ideas of. 66. 198m. 550. 80. market economy. 42 Egypt Roman Empire. 845–846 enlightened despots. Victor (Sardinian king). 68m. 649. Jesuits and. 76. Middle Kingdom. New Economic Policy in Moses and Exodus. Elting. Edict of Milan. commonwealth. 580. 78p–79p Tudors and parliament. 67. 67. decline of. Muslim independence from British rule. 1008. R3. 186 916. 547–549 R47–R49. index Ming dynasty. new views on 660 electricity: daily life. 1005–1007. 946. securing. shogun period. 616 582. green Edward III (English king). territories in Esfahan. 577 revolution. 460. terms for. 539p. 35. 576–577. Rousseau. Napoleon’s defeat at. Zollverein and Germany Einhard. new views on Edison. 289m. unification. 1006. 419. 609 Spanish Armada. theme of. Arab-Israeli conflict. time 210. 952–953 War of Spanish Succession. Nile Valley. 502m. temples and growth of. 154 77–78. Qing dynasty. 643–644. 1010–1011. 204 line. 503. 503q 83–84. 226. 546 R2–R3. England. Emmanuel. Elizabeth I (English queen). 704 desertification. 503 78p–79p. 388. Diderot. 578–579 of Roman Empire.S. 1006. 888–889. 521. 545p. 53. 934. math and science. 634–635 warming. Adam Smith. 574. 226. 72. exploration by. 180p–181p. influence on Constitution. R2–R3. 512. 80p. 73. Egypt. Hyksos. economic growth in monotheism in. Restoration. 454. Aztecs.Edessa Ethiopia Crusades and. life of. contemporary issues 375. 445. 62m. 548–549. 362 epidemic. 453p. in Industrial Age. 405 Eisenhower. colonies in Americas. English Civil War. during 1920s. of Japan after WW II. 481 early kingdom. 95. 70. El Salvador: civil war. II. 577 578. social contract. 388 Essex. 38. pyramids. 421–422 expansion and. Hundred Encyclopedia (Diderot). 546–547. 577q. Voltaire. 544 890–892. Eleanor of Aquitaine. 812–813. Olaudah. unification of. Elizabeth II (English queen). 549. Esma’il. 474–475 Ethiopia medicine. education: Alfred the Great. New monarchy: Charles I. cave temples at. 899. 421m U. 536p. 477 1005. Edirne. Eleanor of Aquitaine.S. 682. 502–503. 952–953 English Civil War. 463q documents about. 595. Carta. 388. Fatimid dynasty. 981–983. 500 Elcano. 86. Years’ War. 1006–1007. 271. 72–80. 865 of. 576–577. of. 376 577. Charlemagne’s Empire. 1009. 474 576q. religion. 71. pollution. 362. 239. 662. Nasser and. 86p. deforestation. European Centers of Learning. 76. Edict of Worms. 453. 8. Han dynasty. 575. Desiderius. 1006. 73–74. reforms in Latin America. 665. Earl of. Eriksson. R11–R12. Early Middle Ages: Alfred the Great. James 231. 417. 575. trouble WW II and. 86–87. James I. 64m. 451 Elba. 180–181 epics. Industrial Age and. trade. geography and early. 65. Cromwell. 361. 73–74. of Japan Upper. global universities. 545p. Kush and. 315. 472–473m. 414. Gupta Empire. 388. art. 64p–65p. 952 453. mixed. development Eratosthenes. Persian Empire. 550. 1008. 396–397. Lower. 722c. El Greco. 988. 578p. 388. Edict of Nantes. U. 917q. Magna Eritrea. 19. 271–272. 575q. 547–548. 64. 756 Hatshepsut. post-WWII. Edward I (English king). 375. 846 579. 584. traditional. monks copying texts and. Muslim civilizations. Elizabeth I. 104–105 Enlightenment. 68. 489q daily life. climate 456. 290 INDEX R131 . 574–579. 384–386. 1006p. 889. 539m colonial Africa. 67. Domesday Book. 576q. 67–70. 859. Suez Crisis. European Union. R71 T1. society. 538. 54. 716–717 modified plants. 77p. 946. 564–565. 420–421. 546 engineering. France before French Revolution. 546–547. 169 Wars of the Roses. 675. in Turkey. segregation. 881. key ideas of. pharaohs. 46–47 Parliament. Revolution and. 65m. 361p. Glorious Revolution. 380 government and religion. Henry VIII. as Age of Reason. 758 English Bill of Rights. hieroglyphics. genetically 179. 647 in imperial China. 189. Old Kingdom. 66–67. 454. Edward IV (English king). William the Conqueror. 68–69. 575. Roman Empire. 721–722. 481 Equiano. 549. of 66. 897. 897m. 541 El Alamein. Battle of. 76–77. Incas. 576. 73p. 78. Germany’s Second Reich. Alfred the Great. Green Belt Movement. Reformation and. Safavid Empire. Ramses the Great. 74p–75p. 519 660 576. 549–550. Napoleon and. 420–421 Enemy of the People. 1039c. R12. ancient. R4. in post. Emancipation Proclamation. 566m. chief gods and Anglo-Saxon kingdoms.

164. 824–825. 475 Violeta. Fertile Crescent. 41m. Frank. 472–473m. fief. 54 Crimean War. 408 Europe: Age of Exploration. new patterns of trade and. 271. 487. Justinian Fiedel. Faruq. 438 Renaissance. 313 ethnic conflicts: today. 315. 581 Etruscans. 285. 112. Columbian Falasha. 41–42. new economy and workers. 43m French Revolution. 24m. formation of new government. 127 642p–643p Forbidden City. 286. 554. 164p. 541. 481 Edison. 168. 9. Watt. José de. 493q. life in Florini. 409. Wu Zhao (Empress Wu). Anne. Michael. 523q. drive to explore. 383 696. James. 669 ethnic cleansing. Aung San Suu Kyi. 438. Bolívar. 994 fall. 165. 939. Watson. 390. Ferdinand (Spanish king). R132 INDEX . Michelangelo First Continental Congress. 484–487. 897 Meir. 112. 460 698. Scientific system. Fourth Crusade. 422. 473. Hitler. Leonardo Fillmore. 636. R9. Hannibal. 825q 618m. 42. monarchs in. Calvin. 267. 1008. Mussolini. 384. 43–44. 473–474. by Italy under Mussolini. 383 monarchy. 949–950. Kublai Fifteenth Amendment. factories: changing labor conditions. Nebuchadnezzar II. 619. First Punic War. treatment of slaves. fingerprints. 179 490 Portuguese explorers. 846. workers’ unrest. 838. Arthur. Assyrian exploration by. 409m. King. 436–448. 897. Peter the Great. 310. 571. Counter-Reformation. mummification. 598–599. 767q invasion of. Eisenhower. 509p. 104 and. 41m. 705 595. 792. James D. 979 Mengele’s remains. 554p.. 752–753. 855. documents on. 838–841 Fawcett. 669. 239q Americas. 643. Laozi.. 482–487. 46–47 fair trade. 532–557. 414 European Union (EU). mass production. Cold Sun Yixian. cottage 411. Thomas. in Faxian. 1044q European Economic Community. Florida. 717 Mansa Musa. 442. 782. end of and Theodora. 301 Factory Act. Franco-Prussian War. 39–40. Wilson. Eleanor of Aquitaine. 644c. 826. 641. 688 colonialism: in Africa. Shi Huangdi. 475. routes. Nevsky 359. Ferdinand II (Holy Roman Emperor). 273 32m. Zoroaster. 522–523. 187 611. John. 981 Fatimids. 644c. King. 921. Chaldean Empire. 660. 856. 382–384. Marshall. Fitz Stephen. 705 line. Stuart J. Pachacuti. West February Revolution. Marie. 897m. textile flying shuttle. 747. 756. 229. 636 1037 industry and. Five-Year Plan. 509. Pericles. 889. 594p Euclid. 147 168. 760 Federal-Aid Highway Act. 174 Enlightenment. 607. Jr. 173 Euripides. 470–471. 259–260 index 483–484. Chamorro. Wilhelm II. Zapata. ancient. James. fealty. 762. explorers and Egypt. 449–454. Congress of Vienna. 824 da Vinci. 288–289 Fatehpur Sikri. 791 Africa. Franco. Thomas. 584 Fairbank. Han dynasty. 321. 610 Revolution. French and Indian War. 404 France. 585.. Lincoln. 519 War. 164c Buonarroti. DNA evidence and migration Exploration. 155. 795. Napoleon’s empire. 720. 69. time fascism: compared to communism. 956. flying buttress. Columbian Exchange. 594. 637. 660. 33–34 Martín. 42. William. 649–650. 19. Jomo. George. Hittite Empire. 593–595. Galileo Galilei. 595c. 139. 474–475. Henry. 510 Ewuare. Mao Zedong. 32m. Ann. in Southeast Asia. missing explorers. Martin Luther. Metternich. 568. 40m. nationalism in. 114q Forensics in History: disease and Rome’s Exodus. Napoleon Bonaparte. Saint Domingue. Dutch explorers. San First Temple. 641. 939. 644. identifying the dead. 405 Eucharist. Otto von. a new nation. Suleyman. in Japan. 291 of early humans. sickle-cell anemia 475. 662 executive branch. 517–519. Woodrow. 660. 469–475. fingerprints. Falklands War. 698. Winston. Roman and malaria. 608–617. 299. Kenyatta. 892. 225. First Crusade. Florence. 417. 567–573 growth of middle class. 6. 660q Ezana. Churchill. Fourteenth Amendment. Dwight. 590–619. 466–467 defined. 75. 642. First Estate. 33–34. Scipio Africanus. 705. 438p. Declaration of Hatshepsut. 979. American Revolution influence on. First Triumvirate. effects of factory Renaissance. Phoenicians. French explorers. 479–480. ethnic cleansing France independence during Scramble for Khan. federal system of government. Millard. monarchy during. creating Gorbachev. English family life: early African societies. 483–484. Muslim civilizations. 505. 994. 348. 334p Evans. Empire. 168 Euphrates. Empire. 838. Vincente. Alexander Federal Republic of Germany. R7. 1003–1004 Klemens von. 237. 645. Mikhail. mercantilism. 891. 617–619. Washington. Fertile Crescent. Millicent Garrett. 750 823–824 Fox. R17 factory town. 383 the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. knights and lords. 167. 665 Forum. 595. 581. children working in. 668. 726 Faces of History: Akbar. 978. 229. 406 extraterritoriality. princes. 686–687 Ford. Industrial Revolution effect on. Flavians. Medici family and. 452. 334. 76. Richelieu. 592m. Scientific Revolution Farmer. Leakey. Emiliano. Simón. John. 823. R9 390 Bismarck. 447 388–391. 750. 896. Golda. 644–645. 442. 167p capitalism. 840. Joan of Arc. 271. 880 Early Middle Ages: Capetians. 470. 599. 469–475. 710–732. 997. Lenin. Age of. 750. 288q. 53 Flemish School. complexity of. Minh. 455–460. Mary and filial piety. Spanish explorers. causes of. 390. 760 Louis. 889 Four Noble Truths. 484c. 720 Confucius. Abraham. 855 Italy’s attempt to control. working in. High Middle Ages. 471–472. 272 213. 877–899. feudal system. 216 598. Enlightenment ideas. Ho Chi 383. 995c. Cardinal. 916. Vladimir. 522–523. DNA evidence of Exchange. 978p. 557 Edict of Nantes. 229p Africa. Adolf. 797 technology advances and. electric power and. Aquinas. Final Solution. 20. 190. Five Pillars of Islam. Napoleon’s death. al-Khwarizmi. footbinding. 617. economy and. 952 Fourteen Points. 501. Curie. 421. 584 English rule of. origins of. Prince fireworks. 388. rise of Faraday. 505p Fox. 574–579. Protestant Reformation. Five Highways.

923 of foreign powers. 597p. 434p–435p. 390m INDEX R133 . 693. 637 200. 568 reforms. 1033q Fertile Crescent. 458 Gallagher. 874p–875p. 936m. 610. 582. 1008 Continental System. 908m. 1400–1700. 390–391. Europe. 988. 593–594. 409. 985 Wall. Piero della. 915 Genoa. life of. 126. time line. 993. Revolution of Freud. 459 Frederick the Great. 409m exile to Elba. Europe. Wolfgang. 618m. 693 Friedrich. after WW II. Theodore. 108p GDP. 878. Tennis Court Oath. 90p–91p. a new nation. Philippe. 1830. 598. 1750. European Imperialism. 420 European Possessions. 593– 373–377 Gao Zu. Fu Xi. 617 (GATT). 596. 604m. 604–605. 557 Froissart. friars. storming the Franz Joseph I (Austrian king). 838 Galtieri. Charlemagne’s Empire. 581. 693. 684m. the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. 815. 571c. 798. NATO Countries. occupation of. 346m. 156 genetically modified plants. 716 Bastille. 815–816 Independence and. inequalities in Greeks. 222m. 632m. Mediterranean. outbreak of 596. Military Forces. Nuremberg Franco-Prussian War. Declaration of protest of British rule. 724 858–862. 315 Days. Battles of the Frontiers. 604p–605p. 1950. 597p. 420 Galileo Galilei. 597. Revolution of 1848. 596. 859m. George III (English king). Americas. 420–421.. 878m Franklin. Charles. 911–912 Trials. time line. growth in the Seven Years’ War. powers. time Friedman. Alberto. Spread of Christianity. 550. 1009 nationalism and. 810 Gericault. R12 Genghis Khan. 720 Gandhi. 436m. Nile Valley. 604–606. 605. 718. crowns French and Indian War. European 694. 952–953 From the Conquest to 1930 (Diego Rivera). R12– genocide. Asian Empires. 956. 639. German Confederation. European Alliances and abdicates. defeat and French Indochina. 592m. 566m. Louis 590–591 Centers of Learning. Battles of the. 782. Father. Napoleon III and French West Africa. Asia. 180. c. The World. 162m. Hundred R13. 421 Frederick William III (Prussian king). 358. Vietnam and. 596–597. World Per Capita WW I. 978 and West Germany. Italy and the Suez Crisis. 858. 1800. Monarchs of support during American Revolution. Arabia. Gautama. Frank. 421m Enlightenment and. relatives in power.C. 1010–1011 index Congress of Vienna. Eastern Asia. 809 Great Depression and. 788 613. 740m. 523q 1945–present. 1300. 781. 570. 300– in Triple Entente. 780 Fujiwaras. 597. 607. voting rights. 678. 599. 610. Thirty Years’ War. 691–692. 272. 1032. 103p. 957 Industrial Revolution in. documents on. 282m. Europe. 62m. 617–619. Great Fear. 103. Robert. Postwar 583 Frontiers. 939 European Discovery. 778m. radicals. 786. 617. Second Empire. meeting of Franks. 596–597. 604. 610. 92m. Benjamin. society. 1095. Waterloo. 1008. 599. 556 Fujimori. Caspar David. death of. Declaration of geography: theme of. T1. 893 Francis of Assisi. 650–651 Frederick Barbarossa. 580. 880. free trade. 620–621. rise to power. 457. 372m. 481. causes of. turmoil in Latin America. 658m. monarchy. time line. 693p. of Africa. 32m. creation of East Franco. 706p Europe. 1550. 512 797. Geography Starting Points: Africa and the 611p. 599. 299. 600. 612m. Indira. 616 government and citizenship theme. East Asia. 595c. Old Order. See Frederick II General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Joan of Arc. China and India. life of. 421q Industrial Age. inequalities ideas influence on. 782 Colonies. Enlightenment Ganesha. 995c monarchy. 724–725 Gaul. 880 of. 779p. meeting of Estates-General. accusations and trials. 838. 834m. German occupation German Democratic Republic. 682. 858p. 712m. 557. end of 198m. 604m. 720. storming the Bastille. Dreyfus Affair. Berlin Francis of Sales. 993 genetic engineering. See Liu Bang. Leopoldo. 593–594. 1914. War of Austrian Succession. 403 Ge’ez. Kevin P. 613. Treaty of Paris. Great Fear. 600 B. Communist and 590–591. 583. 1949. 841. 693. 580p.000–3000 BC. creating geocentric theory. 884. restriction of church Franz Ferdinand. 809. c. 571 Cold War: Berlin airlift. civil war. Dual Garibaldi. documents on reactions to. 605 restriction of church and monarchy. 579 Gaza Strip. 719 General Assembly. 2006. 101 in society. 590–591 Frederick II (Prussian ruler). 615m. formation of new government. French Revolution line. 191 Oath. Francisco. 402m. 934. 317–318. Europe. 595. Third Republic. 678p and Europe 1789. 599. 692. R8 himself. 590–600. 731p. Thomas. 289 Italian Wars. 598–599. 604p–605p. Napoleonic Wars. 779. 607. 834p. 730–732. 4m. Jean. Environments death by guillotine.. 613. Old Order. intervention of foreign 305m. 951. 595. 977 1800. gentry: defined. victims of. 300 Estates-General. 362. 498m. 540–544 Frederick William IV (Prussian king). economy and. 1930’s. radicals. Giuseppe. portraits of. 614p–615p. 859. Russian campaign. 557 Fulton. 966m. 598–599. peace treaties. American Revolution influence on. 441p Galen. 544. Franco-Prussian War. 297m. Tennis Court Monarchy. American R73. resources of Great Britain. Ganges River: Hinduism and. Gao. economic reforms. 692. 256m. 534m. 828. 724. 693. colonization: East Africa. 571 Berlin Wall. 612m. Sigmund. 566m. 99 Holy Roman Empire. Siddhartha. 592m. 1945. 676 WW II: D-Day. revolution and change in: Charles X 598–599. 760 Revolution and. c. empire in 1812. 734q and monarchy. 806. 910.Francesca. Piero della Germany 599. 914–915 Fulbert of Chartres. 1041 Napoleon Bonaparte. c. 596. Enlightenment ideas. 876m. 856 afterwards. Europe. 908p. 760. reform of church-state relations. 609. 990m Battle of Verdun. government after. Freeman. 594. 608–619. French Revolution. Syria and Lebanon as mandates Gerhard. 840 Germany Francesca. 670 468m. end of war. 599. 692–693. 880. 108. 593–594. 618. 692. Mohandas. 780–781 Gapon. 611. 855 Gandhi. 599. Anne. 614–616. 616. legal and educational 585. 613. 911. Early Reign of Terror. intervention 584 Gang of Four. 598. 326 1000. 173. Middle East. 593–595. 1815. 616. 104 Hundred Years’ War. 877–878. 606.

Great Depression and rise of 998–999. 892q. 721. Persian 858. interdependence and. 952–953 invades Soviet Union. Battles of the. government response. 810. 786. Han Seven Years’ War. 501. 9m 590. Yalta Conference. 8. Tuesday. 852m 594p. gladiators. Battle of. trench Gospels. 816c. 295–297 Empire. 500 Rousseau’s view of. Korea. Roman Republic. 169. 858–862. glasnost and Industrial Revolution: effect on country. 685. 719 Golden Pavilion. 292p. Grant. 992. anti-Semitism 20. 519. Bismarck’s plan 295–297. William. 822 R134 INDEX . rise of Indian nationalism. Franco-Prussian War. 726 721. international trade organizations. 991–995. trade free trade. 549–550. 859–860. Ireland. 1039q 744–745. Egyptian. 584. 179. response to North Africa. 234. 786. 111 political impact worldwide. 686–687. 109. factors of production. 780 London Blitz. 557 Axis Powers. 837m. life of. 602. Battle of. limiting church’s influence. 178 dynasty. Gothic architecture. Somme. textile Zimmermann Note. Battle of Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere Industrial Revolution in. 704q 224. 912 744p–745p. 172 Deal. 607. 836–837. WW II: Britain. Prussia. 798. Battle perestroika. 705 decline during. Sumerians. India and Peasants’ War. 858p. 124. 892–893 Gracchi (Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus). glaciers. voting rights. 1022–1025 822. 73. 688–689 Rhineland. 293 992. 143. 859m. 956 Falklands War. end of Gole. 166c. D-Day. 742–743. globalization. 575. 729. 845m. 794. 815. 859m. 815–816. 206. 997–998. multinational corporations. 719. Gandhi’s protest of. Boer War. 809 of the. 640–645 in Triple Alliance. cultural exchange. 742. 910. Roosevelt and New glasnost. 840. R11–R12 protest of British rule. 994 Zealand. 590. 177p. 782. 292 imperial rule of India: Amritsar unity. Grand Canal. 722 Zeduan). 650–651 993. Black G. Girls Sifting Corn (Courbet). 795. 782. 816. 787. Interwar Years: Anti-Comintern Pact. economic and cultural cities. 886 spread around world. social Going Upriver at the Qingming Festival (Shang democracy’s growth in. 73p. Hellenistic world. 720. occupation of France. as industry. 811. Iraq and Palestine. 978. Ming dynasty. Old Order of France. 71. See also England during. 781. Empire. disease and natural colonialism: Africa. Napoleon: Battle of Waterloo. civic participation and democracy. Gorée Island. 826. Japan under shoguns. Zollverein. 607. 858–862. 307 809. 862–863 ghazis. 796–797. 488p reasons it began in Great Britain. 319m Company. Stalingrad. Chinese and Indian views on. then crash. 781. 175. 838. Hitler’s rise to power. Holocaust. Gettysburg. Potsdam Ghana: independence of. Great Depression and. French Revolution. Maximilian. Battle 838. revolution in Golden Horde. South Africa. Keynes and economic theory. 813. Roaring Gladstone. gold trade in East African War. gold: gold-salt trade in early West Africa. 978p index unification. British East India nationalism in. Zhou 814. Ottoman Empire. regional trade blocs. 887. 174 I and. attacking civilian ships. 689c 722. 814–815. 838. in Triple Entente. 814–815. militarizing early. 719. 635. 839p. 815–816. plan Gorbachev. 836. Qing dynasty. Reform Act of war. end of views on. 859. 244–245. 310. 938 Massacre. 685–690. 575–576. 782. medieval. 814. 688 Grabner. 903q. 720. 632m. 184 633–635. Tang dynasty. 134–135. as Jewel in the Crown. 635–636 WW II: annexing Austria and characteristic of early civilization. expansion before system of. Battle of. Romans. 941. R13–R14. 864 Twenties. stock developing countries. Gettysburg. 787 836. steam power. 809. 512. 310 market boom. 575. resources of Great Britain. 812–813. 309. 488. 637. London Blitz. 177. of. 809. 721– 132c. Opium Prussian War. 226. 333. 605 theme of. 704 Empire. Potato Famine and control of Second Reich: economic growth. federal Factory Act. Hitler’s totalitarian control. outsourcing. D-Day. 196. Victorian Era: voting reforms. Gold Coast. 854–857. 593–594. warfare. 686–689 war. 206. 992. 616. 816. in Gettysburg Address. population movement. 840. Napoleonic Wars and. 993. Incas. 776. 1832. Nilufer. 460 gods/goddesses: early Greece. 449–451. 840. 846. 679. R15. Locke’s view of. Hobbes’ view of. Peninsular War. Gandhi’s Republic. 858p. Roman Conference. 782. Graebe. Somme. unemployment 997. 370. 391. 510. 797. 639. separation Great Departure. T2. 309p. 852p–853p. imperialism in China. 994. 575–576. 854–855. 460 glyphs. 859. Canada. 166. Nazi Party. Third Battle of Ypres. 855 of powers. Tannenberg. Australia and New 826. WW fighting. early. Enlightenment and reforms in. 576. equality. Suez Crisis. Song Great Depression. Third Battle of Ypres. in. Aggression Pact. 892–893. 717. 21p. 845–846. Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act. 375. 812–817. Sepoy Mutiny. in North Africa. Britain. 34–35 Crimean War.. 103p ghetto. 865 815–816. WW I: Frontiers. developed and Granada. Vietnam. blitzkrieg. 312. early battles. 758. Weimar global warming. Golden Temple. Austro. 746–750. Bulge. social welfare programs. Ghana Empire. 131–132. afterwards. 817. 306p–307p. 840. 758 Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. 994–995. 72. 314p factory system and workers. 154. 826 Glorious Revolution. 581–584 Great Enclosure. Battle of. WW I. 826–827. Egypt’s Nazi anti-Semitism. formation of of German’s Second Reich. Korea. 938 Great Depression. 689–690. 679p Sumerians. 840. 837. 690. 207p end of. 318. Verdun. 941. Great Britain. 840–841. Battle of. 937. for swift victory. Japan. 816c 754m–755m. 863. czarist Russia. defined. 686. 944–945. 889 dynasty. 719c. 103. 687. response. imperialism and global economy. Qin dynasty. 812–813. 690. 810. Mikhail. Czechoslovakia. American Revolution and. 746p. human rights challenges. 782. 458. end of war. Hoover’s Girondins. Frontiers. Montesquieu’s view of. in Africa. 213. 746–747 for. Chartism. Battle of. disasters. 795 government: belief systems and. Mauryan Palestine and Iraq as mandates 845–846. Shang dynasty. of. Maya civilization. 937–939. 858. 839p. Charlemagne’s Empire. 414 1800. dynasty. Nazi-Soviet Non. 291. 1009 independence from. Bill of Rights. Battles Good Emperors. 719–720.I. 992. 743–745. 848. Protestant Reformation. 576. 836. 34–35. fair trade. 324. 892 650–651. industry slow down and. 521. 780 Golan Heights. Plato on. 798. early. new government of. Ulysses S. rebuilding military before. 814. 721. peace treaties. 786. poverty. 326. 722c. 992. R13 reforms. 610–611 Battle of. 1007. Herman. 170. 610–611. 53.

232. Torah. 224–232. 42p. 226–227. 143. 636 and preventing debt. literature. independence. 55q. 65. 363 technology. 282m. 242m–243m. 232. 99–100. 349 144–147. 325p. Johannes. 169 226. making economic guillotine. Moses and Exodus. The (Herodotus). Musa and. Halley’s comet. 132c Cold War. 540. factors of guilds. 90p–91p. trade and. 925 Guam. 153–155. Gregory VII (Pope). art. city-state. 231. 225–226. 460. Duvalier’s rule. children and women in. 124–125 Hamilton. 232. Hermes. Athenian democracy. 228. 231. 879 638 Herodotus. Hestia. 225. 231 civilizations. origins of. 534p. 128–129. 471 Alexander the Great. Hamas. Hebrews. Ganges green revolution. needs and wants. Emperor Wudi. products of. 392. 229. 68. 94 Histories. 46. Sparta. 99c. 409m. hajj. 69. 569 Great Pyramid at Giza. 554 Gutenberg. English king. diffusion of culture. 500 Hather. 231. 912. 409. architecture. 387p heresy: during High Middle Ages. 260 Henry the Navigator. 227. 235m. in Southeast Asia gross domestic product: World Per Capita Qian. 136–138. 387. Mansu Heraclius. 266 decisions. 127–133. 862. Socrates. 132c mythology. 142. 147. 98. 698 influence on Roman Republic. 46p–47p Great Mosque. 241. 129 system. 1005 under Wudi. Hundred Years’ War. Samudra I. 37. 292–293 Henry IV (French king). 276–277. 22. Xiongnu. 957. 541 Classical Age: age of Pericles. 99c. 94 Hispaniola. 151m. family life. Gupta. 1001–1002 Trojan War. 971 Harappan civilization. 350. documents on. 1008 paper. 36. hieroglyphics. 353p. 499. 60–61p. Hidalgo. 98–102. 543. 139. 909–912 Group of Eight. 856 heliocentric theory. 486. Great Fire of London. 748 global economy. 226. 224. 45–49. Abraham. 132. today. 765. 975. 130. Great Northern War. See also Judaism. expansion Hildegard of Bingen. James. 229p. 115q 128m. 46–47. 501 421 Aristotle. 146p. Yellow Turbans. 141c. 296 gunpowder. scarcity. 453. 597 architecture. 244q Hindus: India’s independence and. 604p. 415 Green Belt Movement. 236. 521 Henry VII. Delian Haiti. 824 Henry VIII (English king). Great Leap Forward. 145 early. 394 social structure. economic hieratic writing. 243m. 150p. 131. 225m. 896–897 129–130. time line. 44p Hades. 168–169 Hirohito. 969 Hargreaves. 226. 99. 226. 224. 128m. 70 Empress Lü. decline of. 388 supply and demand. 510p–511p. 298p–299p Hercules. 851 852–853. 99–100. 332. Guomindang. 541 Greece Habeas Corpus Act. 69p Constantinople. 241p. Hinduism and. Hinduism. document on. 1006p government. 231. 534m. 145 Guernica (Picasso). achievements Hessler. 272 Guadalcanal. 387. Che. 230. 676 History and Economics: budgeting money Guevara. 995c Hanging Gardens. 239 Heian Period. Chandra II. gods of Olympus. 319m 237. 132c. 174 Henry V (English king). 764 Hanseatic League. growth of trade. 127–128. Battle of. 45. 47–49. Peloponnesian War. 292p. 63. 825 Harvey. Fujiwara clan. 237 Hausa city-states. 78p–79p rule in Egypt. 318. 353. 220–221. 43 Hippocrates. Kingdom of Israel. Gregory the Great. Battle of. 808 “Hatred” (Symborska). arts. nomads INDEX R135 . 78 Roman conquest of. 634. Peter. 411–412 Harold. 558p–559p. basic teachings of. Hadrian. 313. Gulag. 225. 951 St. 153–155 Great Rift Valley. 144 132c. Brahman. Gupta empire and. 696 Guatemala. time line. science and River. 237. 46. 764 Harappa. sacred texts. daily life. 549 government. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. 977.Great Fear History and Geography Great Fear. 130 Great Sphinx. 101. 268–269. 240. 135–136. religious practices. Petersburg. 45. 126m. 394