Authors

Susan Elizabeth Ramírez
Peter Stearns
Sam Wineburg

Senior Consulting Author
Steven A. Goldberg

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ii CONTENTS

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Authors
Susan Ramírez
Susan Elizabeth Ramírez is the Penrose Chair of History and Latin
American Studies at Texas Christian University. She received her
Ph.D. in History from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and taught
for many years at DePaul University. A specialist in the history and
culture of the Andean region, Professor Ramírez is the author of
numerous articles and books, including The World Upside Down:
Cross-Cultural Contact and Conflict in Sixteenth Century Peru.
Her most recent book, To Feed and Be Fed: The Cosmological
Bases of Authority and Identity in the Andes, offers a new inter-
pretation of the rise and fall of the Inca Empire. She serves on
the editorial boards of the Hispanic American Historical Review
and The Americas.

Peter Stearns
Peter N. Stearns is Professor of History and Provost at George Mason
University. Founder and longtime editor of the Journal of Social
History, Stearns is also author and editor of numerous books, including
the Encyclopedia of World History and the six-volume Encyclopedia
of European Social History from 1350 to 2000. Professor Stearns
received his Ph.D. from Harvard University and has taught for
over 40 years. He is a member of the American Historical Society
and the Social Science History Association, among other profes-
sional organizations. His current research topics include the
history of gender, body image, and emotion. His most recent
book is Childhood in World History.

Sam Wineburg
Sam Wineburg is Professor of Education and Professor of History (by
courtesy) at Stanford University, where he directs the only Ph.D. program
in History Education in the nation. Educated at Brown and Berkeley, he
spent several years teaching history at the middle and high school levels
before completing a doctorate in Psychological Studies in Education
at Stanford. His book Historical Thinking and Other Unnatural Acts:
Charting the Future of Teaching the Past won the Frederic W. Ness
Award from the Association of American Colleges and Universities.
His work on teacher community won the 2002 Exemplary Research
on Teaching and Teacher Education Award from the American
Educational Research Association. He was a member of the blue-
ribbon commission of the National Research Council that wrote
the widely circulated report, How People Learn: Brain, Mind,
Experience, and School. He is also the Senior Consulting Author
on Holt’s American Anthem.

COntents iii

Christopher L. Michigan Jonathan Beecher. Louisiana University of Georgia Derrick Davis Athens. Clark.D.D. Ph.D. Ph. Santa Cruz Indiana University Columbia University Santa Cruz.D. Ph. Ph. California Bloomington.indd iv 2/15/07 8:13:58 AM . New York Duke University Columbia Durham. Senior Reading Researcher Alexander. Ph. North Carolina Columbia. Indiana University Sheldon High School Department of History Bloomington. Indiana New York. California Ann Arbor. Professor of History and School Development Program Professor of Rabbinic Judaism and Religious Studies Yale University Talmudic Literature Department of History New Haven.D. Karamustafa.D. Ransel. Ph.D. Ph.D. Department of History Department of Anthropology Department of History University of California. Illinois Terry Dawdy James Madison University Lake Travis High School Harrisonburg.D. Tim Bayne Department of History Lincoln East High School Benjamin Ehlers. Ph. University of Illinois Department of History Urbana.D. Ph. Meier.D. Texas iv CONTENTS w8ncfs_frm_revsur. California David L.D. Paolo Squatriti. Massachusetts Berkeley.D. Ph. Amherst University of California University of Michigan Amherst. Marc Van De Mieroop. Virginia Austin.D. Burstein. Indiana Sacramento. Connecticut Department of Religious Studies Washington University in University of Virginia St. NCSS Board of Directors John Carlisle Kilgo Professor Professor of Geography and Chair Emeritus Social Studies Department Chair of Religion Department of Geography New Rochelle High School Department of Religion University of Missouri- New Rochelle. Texas Lamont King. Elizabeth Shanks Ahmet T.D. Vasudha Narayannan Educational Reviewers Professor Emeritus of Ancient History Department of Religion Department of History University of Florida Sally Adams California State University. Salter. Ph. Ph. Department of History Chris Axtell Prasenjit Duara.D. Geoff Koziol.D. Ph. Virginia St. Tulane University Lincoln. Louis. Louis Senior Consulting Author Charlottesville. Ph. California University of Chicago Chicago. Ed. California Los Angeles. Missouri Program Advisers Academic Reviewers Christian Appy. Ph. Gainesville. Ph. Reagan High School Department of Anthropology Austin. Missouri Steve Goldberg Elizabeth A. Consultants Program Consultant Academic Consultants Kylene Beers. Georgia Helaine Silverman.D. Robert J. New York Stanley M. Department of History Department of History Department of History University of Massachusetts. Illinois Susan Schroeder. Florida Garden Grove High School Los Angeles Garden Grove. Ph. Nebraska Department of History New Orleans.

Virginia Nick Douglass Josh Mullis Anderson High School Patrick Teagarden Barr-Reeve Junior/Senior High School Cincinnati. Shuran Hutchinson Central Technical High Reagan Williams Tullahoma High School School DH Conley High School Tullahoma. Garcia Michael B. New York Derrick Davis David Futransky Reagan High School Brian Loney Cosby High School Austin. California Prep High School Foxburg. North Carolina Nancy Webber Ernestine Woody Barbara Harper E. New York Greenville. Texas Jefferson County Public School Cosby. Arkansas Krissie Williams Barnstable High School Hyannis. Pennsylvania Chicago. Marshall Lake Travis High School Jennifer Ludford Booker T. Nevada Tim Bayne Steve Goldberg Lincoln East High School Preya Krishna-Kennedy New Rochelle High School Lincoln. California Palo Verde High School Owasso. E. Indiana Lynn M. Tennessee Buffalo. Florida Bryant. Ohio Homestead High School Montgomery. Indiana Fort Wayne. Nebraska Bethlehem Central High School New Rochelle. North Carolina Tampa. Harris Bruce P. Washington High School Austin. Massachusetts COntents  .Educational Reviewers Field Test Teachers Sally Adams Saundra J. Colorado Terry Dawdy Anthony L. Waddell High School Freedom High School Bryant High School Charlotte. New York Delmar. Beichner Garden Grove High School Lane Technical College Allegheny-Clarion Valley High School Garden Grove. Tennessee Golden. Oklahoma Virginia Beach. Oklahoma Las Vegas. Texas Princess Anne High School Tulsa. Illinois Chris Axtell Earl Derkatch Sheldon High School Marc Hechter Owasso High School Sacramento.

. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 7. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .06 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of Archaeology Geography Starting Points: Early People and Agriculture. . . . .. . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NC6 UNIT Prehistory–AD 300 1 The Dawn of Civilization . . . . . . . . . . 30 . . . 38 SECTION 2 Fertile Crescent Empires . . .. . . . .. . . . . . 6. . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . xxx How to Use Your Textbook .. . . . .. . . . . . H1 Test-Taking Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. .01. . . . .01. . 2 . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 SECTION 1 The First People . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 World Literature: Excerpt from The Epic of Gilgamesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5 SECTION 2 The Beginning of Agriculture . . . . . . . 4000 BC–550 BC . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 45 SECTION 4 The Persian Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 2.. . .. . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . 2. . .. . . .. . . .01. . . xxxiv Social Studies Skills Handbook . . . . . . . .02. . . . . . . 1 The Beginnings of Civilization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contents Themes of History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 6. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ... . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .04. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .06. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 Document-Based Investigation: Building Empires . . . Prehistory–1000 BC .04. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . 1.. . . . .05. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . H40 North Carolina Standards . .. . . . .000–3000 BC . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . .. .04. . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 24 Document-Based Investigation: Methods of Archaeology . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 The Ancient Near East. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . .03.. . .05. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NC2 Countdown to Testing . . 1. . . .. . xxxii Scavenger Hunt . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 39 SECTION 3 The Hebrews and Judaism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 56 Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200.03 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of Judaism throughout the World Geography Starting Points: Fertile Crescent . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .06.. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . 26 Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 32 SECTION 1 Mesopotamia and Sumer . ... . . . . . . . . . . 1. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . ..02. .. ... . . 18 History and Geography: River Valleys and Civilizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . 58 vi CONTENTS w8ncfs_toc_survey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .indd vi 2/15/07 8:09:01 AM . 12 SECTION 3 Foundations of Civilization . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .indd vii 2/27/07 7:11:54 PM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . 108 Document-Based Investigation: Changing Views of Early China . . . . . . 2. . 8. . . . . . . . . .04. . . . . . . . . .03. . . . .03. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 . . .06. . . . . . .02. . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . 1. 93 SECTION 2 Hinduism . . . . . 114 Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03. . . . . . . . .01 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of the Egyptian Pyramids Geography Starting Points: The Nile Valley . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02. . .01. . . . . . . . . . . .02. . . . . . . . 122 CONTENTS vii w8ncfs_toc_survey. . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . .01. . . . . 118 Themes and Global Connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . .02. 6. . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . .01. 6. . . .06 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of Hinduism as a World Religion Geography Starting Points: Eastern Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .06.05. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .05. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . 62 SECTION 1 The Kingdom of Egypt . . . 71 SECTION 2 Egyptian Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 SECTION 1 Early India . . . . . . . . . . .04. . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . .04. . . . 103 SECTION 4 China’s First Dynasties . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . 2. . . . . . . . . 63 Focus on Themes: Belief Systems: Government and Religion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 SECTION 3 Buddhism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . 5000 BC–AD 300 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Ancient India and China. . . . . . 116 Standardized Test Practice . 2500 BC–250 BC . . . . . 8. . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . .05. . . Nile Civilizations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03. . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . .04. . . . . . . . . .08. . . 81 Document-Based Investigation: The Gift of the Nile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 . .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . 72 Arts Around the World: Architecture: Egyptian Temples. . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . 80 SECTION 3 The Nubian Kingdoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .01. . 2. . . . . . . .02. . . . . . . . . . .03. . . . . . . . . .01. . . . .indd viii 2/15/07 8:09:13 AM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Document-Based Investigation: Rome’s Legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 SECTION 5 The Fall of Rome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Rome and Early Christianity. . 171 SECTION 3 Roman Society and Culture . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .03. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03. . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Focus on Themes: Government and Citizenship: Citizenship . . . . . . . . . .04 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of the Greek Scholars Geography Starting Points: The Early Greeks. . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 viii CONTENTS w8ncfs_toc_survey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 World Literature: Excerpt from The Odyssey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . 150 Document-Based Investigation: The Diffusion of Greek Culture. .08. . . . . . . . . . .03. . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . 149 SECTION 4 Alexander the Great and His Legacy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 600 BC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 SECTION 1 Early Greece. .04. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02. . . .02. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . 177 SECTION 4 The Rise of Christianity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . 133 SECTION 2 The Classical Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . 8. 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . 2100 BC–150 BC . . . . 3. . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNIT 2100 BC–AD 1500 2 The Growth of Civilizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . 2. .06 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of Ancient Rome on the World Today Geography Starting Points: Italy and the Mediterranean. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 SECTION 3 Greek Achievements . . . . . . 142 Arts Around the World: Drama: Greek Drama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 SECTION 2 From Republic to Empire. . 192 Chapter Review. . .123 Classical Greece. . .04. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 750 BC–AD 500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . by Homer . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . 156 Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 . . 162 SECTION 1 The Foundations of Rome . . . . . .

. . . . . .04. . . . . . . . . . . . 1. c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 SECTION 3 South America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . . . . . . 253 Muslim Civilization. . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 CONTENTS ix w8ncfs_toc_survey.# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. 8. . . .06. . . . . 2. . . . 256 SECTION 1 The Origins of Islam. . . . 250 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 SECTION 1 North America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 Themes and Global Connections. . . . . . . . . . . 8. 233 SECTION 4 Indian Society and Culture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .06 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of Mayan Achievements on Math and Astronomy Geography Starting Points: Environments of the Americas . . . . . . . 1000 BC–AD 1500. . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . .indd ix 2/15/07 8:09:22 AM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 History and Geography: Nomads and Empires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . .01. . . . . The Americas. . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . 550–1250 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 . 220 . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320s–220s BC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. .06. . . . . . . 196 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Standardized Test Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . 199 SECTION 2 Mesoamerica. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 BC–AD 600 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 SECTION 1 The Growth of China . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .02. . . . . . . .03.01. .04 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of Buddhism as a World Religion Geography Starting Points: China and India. . .06 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of Islam throughout the World Geography Starting Points: Arabia. . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . 242 Document-Based Investigation: Chinese and Indian Views on Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03. . . . . . . . 8. . c. . . . . . . . 216 Chapter Review. . .01. . . . .03. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 SECTION 2 The Spread of Islam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Empires of China and India. . . . . . . . . . . .02. 223 SECTION 2 Chinese Society and Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02. . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . 6. . . . . . . . . 550. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 UNIT 100–1500 3 Cultures in Contact . . .01. . . . . . .02. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211 Document-Based Investigation: Theories on Migration to the Americas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .05. . . . . . . . . .08. . . . . . . .06. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . .04. . . . . . 8. . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . 228 SECTION 3 Indian Dynasties . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . 295 Document-Based Investigation: The Influence of Trade on African Culture . . . . . . 329 Document-Based Investigation: Status of Women in Asian Cultures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 World Literature: Excerpt from The Tale of Genji. . . 309 SECTION 2 The Mongol Empire . . . . . . . . .02. . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 SECTION 1 Early Civilizations of Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 SECTION 1 Chinese Empires . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .indd x 2/15/07 8:09:28 AM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03. . . . . . 7. . . . . . 336 Standardized Test Practice . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .05. . 8. . 306 . . . . . . . . . 278 African Kingdoms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 w8ncfs_toc_survey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Arts Around the World: Decorative Arts: Islamic Calligraphy . . . . .06 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of Chinese Culture on Japan Geography Starting Points: East Asia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .04 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of the Salt Trade Geography Starting Points: Environments of Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . History and Geography: Diffusion of a Civilization . . . . . . 340 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 600 . . . 275 Document-Based Investigation: Navigation and the Hajj. . . . . 294 SECTION 3 Kingdoms of West Africa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . by Lady Murasaki Shikibu . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 Themes and Global Connections. .02. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 SECTION 3 Japan and Korea. . . . . . . . . . . .07. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550–1400 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .04. . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . 328 SECTION 4 Civilizations of Southeast Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . 283 SECTION 2 Trading States of East Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 SECTION 3 Society and Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 Cultures of East Asia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100–1500. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . 288 Focus on Themes: Economic Systems: Barter and Alternative Economies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . 302 Chapter Review. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 Document-Based Investigation: Views of a Ruler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 Kingdoms and Christianity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .02 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of Christianity as a World Religion Geography Starting Points: Spread of Christianity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800–1215 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03. . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396 Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of the Feudal System in Europe Geography Starting Points: Europe. . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . 398 CONTENTS xi w8ncfs_toc_survey. . . . . 382 SECTION 4 The Growth of Monarchies . 344 . . . .01. . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 History and Geography: City at a Crossroads . . . . . . . . . UNIT 300–1500 4 Medieval Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300–1200 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 The Early Middle Ages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 SECTION 1 The Byzantine Empire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300–1250 . . . . . . . . 392 Document-Based Investigation: Perspectives on Magna Carta . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 SECTION 3 Christianity in Western Europe. . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . 815 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 SECTION 2 New Invaders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 SECTION 3 The Feudal and Manorial Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .04. .02. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02. . . .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03. . . .01. . 1. . . . . . . . . . 354 SECTION 2 The Rise of Russia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .indd xi 2/27/07 7:12:01 PM . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 SECTION 5 Power of the Church . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 World Literature: Excerpt from The Song of Roland . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 SECTION 1 Charlemagne’s Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02. . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 Arts Around the World: Architecture: Hagia Sophia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .06. . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .indd xii 2/15/07 8:09:50 AM . . . 462 Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444 World Literature: Sonnet 61. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . 432 UNIT 1200–1800 5 New Ideas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03. 426 Standardized Test Practice . . . . 433 Renaissance and Reformation 1300–1650 . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . 400 . . 436 SECTION 1 The Italian Renaissance. .02. . . . . . . . . . . . 449 SECTION 4 The Counter-Reformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . 430 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Sonnet 116. . . . .02. . . . . . . . . .04. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New Empires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464 xii Contents w8ncfs_toc_survey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418 SECTION 4 Challenges of the Late Middle Ages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403 SECTION 2 Trade and Towns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. 455 Focus on Themes: Migration and Diffusion: Diffusion of Ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 Themes and Global Connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448 SECTION 3 The Protestant Reformation . . . . . . 1095 . . . . 413 Focus on Themes: Arts and Ideas: Universities . . . . . . . . . .01 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of the Bubonic Plague Geography Starting Points: Europe. . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . by Francesco Petrarch. . . . . .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1300 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of the Renaissance and Reformation Geography Starting Points: Europe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .04. . . . . . . . . . . . 402 SECTION 1 The Crusades . . . . . . . . by William Shakespeare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . 1000–1500 . . . . . . . . . . 408 SECTION 3 Art and Culture of the Middle Ages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419 Document-Based Investigation: The Black Death . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 SECTION 2 The Northern Renaissance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . 461 Document-Based Investigation: The Renaissance and Individualism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The High Middle Ages.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . .04. . . . . . . .03. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . .02. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530 CONTENTS xiii w8ncfs_toc_survey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469 SECTION 2 Conquest and Colonies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488 Document-Based Investigation: Contact and Change. . . . . . . 509 History and Geography: The Voyages of Zheng He . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498 SECTION 1 The Ottoman and Safavid Empires. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . .04. . . . 492 Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . 504 SECTION 3 The Ming and Qing Dynasties . . . . . .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482 SECTION 4 The Atlantic Slave Trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . .06. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . 528 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .07. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .04. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499 SECTION 2 The Mughal Empire .03. . . . . . . . .01 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of the Columbian Exchange on Europe and the Americas Geography Starting Points: European Discovery. . Exploration and Expansion 1400–1700 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1200–1800 . . . 476 SECTION 3 New Patterns of Trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1600s . . . . . . 522 Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1400–1700. . . . . 468 SECTION 1 Voyages of Discovery . . . . . . . . . . 466 . . . . . . 526 Themes and Global Connections. . . . . . . . . . . .01 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of the Samurai Tradition on Japan Today Geography Starting Points: Asian Empires. . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516 Document-Based Investigation: Feudalism in Japan and Europe . . . . . . . 524 Standardized Test Practice . 514 SECTION 4 Medieval Japan and Korea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . 1. . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496 . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .indd xiii 2/27/07 7:12:22 PM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .05. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494 New Asian Empires. . . . . .02. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545 The Arts Around the World: Music: Classical Music . .01 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of Spain’s Golden Century Geography Starting Points: Monarchs of Europe . . . . . . . . . . . 551 SECTION 4 Rulers of Russia and Central Europe . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .531 The Monarchs of Europe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558 Document-Based Investigation: Views of Absolutism . . . . . 4. . . .04. . .03. . . . . . . . . . .indd xiv 2/15/07 8:10:05 AM . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552 History and Geography: Imperial St. . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532 . . . UNIT 1500–1820 6 Changes in European Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560 Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . . . . 562 xiv CONTENTS w8ncfs_toc_survey. . . . . . . . . 534 SECTION 1 The Power of Spain . . . . . . 535 SECTION 2 Absolute Monarchy and France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1500–1800 . . . . 540 SECTION 3 Monarchy in England. . . . . . . . . 1. . . 1. . . Petersburg . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enlightenment and Revolution. . . . . . . . 622 Standardized Test Practice . . . . . . . . . . 592 SECTION 1 The Revolution Begins . . . . . . . 608 SECTION 4 Napoleon’s Fall and Europe’s Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03. . . . . . . .03 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of the Declaration of Independence Geography Starting Points: European Centers of Learning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. .02. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 588 The French Revolution and Napoleon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614 Document-Based Investigation: Reactions to Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 626 . . . . . 567 SECTION 2 The Enlightenment. . . . . . 7. . . . . .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . 593 World Literature: Excerpt from A Tale of Two Cities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of the French Revolution Geography Starting Points: Europe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 590 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 624 Themes and Global Connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 620 Chapter Review. . . . . . . . 628 CONTENTS xv w8ncfs_toc_survey. . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601 Focus on Themes: Government and Citizenship: Equality . . . 586 Chapter Review. . . . . . . 564 . . . . . . . . 574 SECTION 3 The American Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . by Charles Dickens. . . . . . . . . . . 1789 . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .04. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 600 SECTION 2 The Republic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607 SECTION 3 Napoleon’s Europe . . . . . . . 4.02. . . . . . . . .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . . . . . 1550–1800 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .indd xv 2/15/07 8:10:20 AM . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1789–1815 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1750 . 566 SECTION 1 The Scientific Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 580 Document-Based Investigation: Documents of Democracy . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . .04. . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 706 Chapter Review.01. . . . . . . UNIT 1700–1920 7 Industrialization and Nationalism . . . . . . . . . . . 1800–1900 . . . . . . . . . . 659 Focus on Themes: Science and Technology: Electricity . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685 SECTION 2 Revolution and Change in France. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 682 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .04. . . . . . . . . . . . . .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . 680 Reforms. . . . . . . . Revolutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632 SECTION 1 A New Kind of Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .04. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640 SECTION 3 New Ideas in a New Society . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . 678 Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and War. . . . . . . . . .03. . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 701 Document-Based Investigation: Independence in Latin America . . 630 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1800 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of Industrialization Geography Starting Points: Resources of Great Britain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 656 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . . 691 SECTION 3 Independence in Latin America . . . . . . . . 652 Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1700–1900 . . . . . . . . . .indd xvi 2/15/07 8:10:27 AM . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1800–1900 . . . . . . . . . 677 Document-Based Investigation: Artistic Responses to the Industrial Age. . . . . . . . . . .01 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of Technology Geography Starting Points: Urban Growth in the Industrial Age . . . . 654 Life in the Industrial Age. . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . .01. . . . . . . .02. . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 695 SECTION 4 Expansion and War in the United States . . 666 SECTION 3 Daily Life in the Late 1800s . . . . 7. . . . . . . . 671 Arts Around the World: Painting: Impressionism. . . . . . . . . 629 The Industrial Revolution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03. . . 658 SECTION 1 Advances in Technology . . . . . .03. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of the Women’s Suffrage Movement Geography Starting Points: European Possessions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646 Document-Based Investigation: Child Labor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . 1. . . .02. 3. . . . . . . . . . 684 SECTION 1 Reforms in the British Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. 708 xvi CONTENTS w8ncfs_toc_survey. . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1800 . . 665 SECTION 2 Scientific and Medical Achievements . . . . .02. . . . . . . . . . 633 SECTION 2 Factories and Workers . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1800–1920 . . 761 Document-Based Investigation: Imperialism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03. . .05. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 738 . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .05. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 728 World Literature: Excerpt from War and Peace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1800–1920 . . . 1850 and 1914 .04. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 712 SECTION 1 Italian Unification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 736 The Age of Imperialism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02. . . . . .03. . . . . . . . . . . . .06. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .indd xvii 2/27/07 7:12:32 PM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 713 SECTION 2 German Unification . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . 733 Document-Based Investigation: Revolutions and Unification . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 756 SECTION 4 Imperialism in Latin America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of Nationalism Geography Starting Points: Europe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 766 Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . by Leo Tolstoy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 746 History and Geography: Imperialism and a Global Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . 774 w8ncfs_toc_survey. . . . . 740 SECTION 1 The British in India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 718 SECTION 3 Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 768 Standardized Test Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . 723 SECTION 4 Unrest in Russia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772 . . . . . . . . . . . . .02. . . . . . . . 741 SECTION 2 East Asia and the West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 770 Themes and Global Connections. . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 754 SECTION 3 The Scramble for Africa . . . . . . 710 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of Imperialism Geography Starting Points: European Imperialism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 734 Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . 1815 . Nationalism in Europe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . 806 SECTION 1 Unrest in Asia and Africa . 1920s . . . . . . . . . . . .02. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of Modern Warfare Geography Starting Points: European Alliances and Military Forces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 779 SECTION 2 A New Kind of War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 783 SECTION 3 Revolution in Russia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 794 Document-Based Investigation: Causes of World War I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .05. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1914–1918 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .05. . 789 SECTION 4 The War Ends . . . . . . . . . . . . .indd xviii 2/15/07 12:36:01 PM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 776 . . . . . . . 817 SECTION 3 Japanese Imperialism . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .04. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .05. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 778 SECTION 1 The Great War Begins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 828 Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . 5. . . . .02. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1919–1939 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01. . . . . . . . . . .01 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of the 1929 Stock Market Crash Geography Starting Points: Postwar Colonies and Nationalism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .775 World War I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800 Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1914 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 807 SECTION 2 The Great Depression. 818 SECTION 4 Dictators in Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 823 Document-Based Investigation: Nationalism in India and Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . 812 Focus on Themes: Society: Social Welfare Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 802 The Interwar Years. . . . . . . . 804 . 6. . . . . UNIT 1914–1945 8 The World at War . . . . . . . . . . . . 830 xviii CONTENTS w8ncfs_toc_survey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 834 SECTION 1 Axis Aggression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1930–1945 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 851 History and Geography: The Battle of Stalingrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1930s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1945–Present . . . . . . . . . . . .03. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 874 . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . 852 SECTION 3 The Holocaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 868 Themes and Global Connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .04. . . .04. 1. . . . . . . . . . . .04. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 900 Document-Based Investigation: The Collapse of the Soviet Union . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02. 832 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . World War II. . . . . . . . . 858 Document-Based Investigation: The Holocaust . . . . . . . . . . .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . . . . .03. . 888 SECTION 4 After the Cold War .03 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of the European Union Geography Starting Points: Communist and NATO Countries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 835 SECTION 2 The Allied Response. . . . . . . . . . . 1949 . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 872 UNIT 1945–Present 9 The Contemporary World . . . . . . . . . . . 876 SECTION 1 Beginnings of the Cold War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . 854 SECTION 4 The End of the War . . . . . .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01.indd xix 2/27/07 7:13:18 PM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 864 Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of World War II Geography Starting Points: Europe. . 8. . . . . 870 . . . . 1. . . . .02. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 904 CONTENTS xix w8ncfs_toc_survey. . . . . 843 World Literature: “Hatred. . . .06. . . . . . . . . . . .03. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 866 Standardized Test Practice . . . . . . . . 873 Europe and North America. . . . . . . . 877 SECTION 2 Superpower Rivalries . . . 902 Chapter Review. . . .” by Wislawa Szymborska. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 882 SECTION 3 Changing Societies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 894 History and Geography: The Nuclear Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . .

. . . . . . . 920 SECTION 4 The Rise of Pacific Rim Economies . .03 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of Oil Geography Starting Points: Africa and the Middle East. . . . . . 908 SECTION 1 South Asia after Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 966 SECTION 1 Revolution and Intervention . . . . . 937 Arts Around the World: Sculpture: African Sculpture . . . . . . . . 1945–Present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 986 xx CONTENTS w8ncfs_toc_survey. . . . .02. . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02.# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . .01. . . .02 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of Vietnam’s Location Geography Starting Points: Asia. . . . . . . . 1945 . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 942 SECTION 2 Post-Colonial Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 984 Chapter Review. . . . . .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . .04. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1945–Present . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . 1950 . . . . . . . . . . . 909 SECTION 2 Independence Struggles in Southeast Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. .05. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 930 Chapter Review. . . . . . . . 906 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 964 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 925 Document-Based Investigation: The Cultural Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . 967 SECTION 2 The Rise of Dictatorships . . . 948 SECTION 3 Nationalism in the Middle East and North Africa . . 936 SECTION 1 African Independence Movements.indd xx 2/27/07 7:13:23 PM . . . . . . Asia. . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . 1. . . . . . . . 962 Latin America. . . . . 1945–Present. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of NAFTA Geography Starting Points: Turmoil in Latin America. . . . . . . . . . .04. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 949 SECTION 4 Conflicts in the Middle East . . . . . . . . . . . 973 SECTION 3 Democratic and Economic Reforms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02. . . .03. . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .06. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .06. . . . . . . . . . . 954 Document-Based Investigation: The Iranian Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .05. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 934 . . . . . . . .04. . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . 960 Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 978 Document-Based Investigation: NAFTA. . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 932 Africa and the Middle East. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 943 World Literature: Excerpt from “After the Deluge. . . . . . . 1945–Present. . . . . .” by Wole Soyinka . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 914 SECTION 3 Communist China . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1010 Chapter Review. . . . . . . . . 996 SECTION 3 Threats to World Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .indd xxi 2/15/07 8:11:34 AM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R19 Atlas . . . 1022 CASE STUDY 2: Developing Societies: Brazil and Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 991 SECTION 2 Social Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03. . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1019 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of the United Nations CASE STUDY 1: Civic Participation: The United Kingdom and South Africa . .1000 SECTION 4 Environment and Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1026 CASE STUDY 3: Building Economic Powerhouses: China and India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R1 Key Events in World History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R32 Economic Handbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1030 CASE STUDY 4: Women in Society: Ireland and Turkey . . .# North Carolina Standards Social Studies Objective 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1009 Document-Based Investigation: Genetically Modified Crops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R123 Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 988 . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . .04. . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1014 Themes and Global Connections. . . . .1040 Reference Section . . . . . .05. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .04. . .06. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R54 Biographical Dictionary . R79 English and Spanish Glossary . . . . . . . 1016 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 990 SECTION 1 Trade and Globalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1018 UNIT Case Studies: Issues in the Contemporary World 10 Document-Based Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1005 Focus on Themes: Geography and Environment: Climate Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R155 CONTENTS xxi w8ncfs_toc_survey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1036 CASE STUDY 5: The Role of the United Nations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001 Geography Starting Points: World Per Capita GDP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .R2 Geography Handbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R93 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Today’s World . . . . . . . . . R48 Primary Source Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . .05 History’s Impact Video Series Impact of September 11. . . . . . . . . . . 1012 Standardized Test Practice . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . 577 The Sunni-Shia Divide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 City at a Crossroads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Analyzing Primary Sources: A Cuneiform Tablet . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Sacred Texts: Dhammapada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 Link the people and events of world history to the world you live in today. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 994 Sacred Texts: Bhagavad Gita . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548 Ashoka’s Lasting Fame . . . . . . . . . . . . 886 World Religions Analyzing Primary Sources: Occupation of Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .558 Analyzing Primary Sources: Maya Carvings . . . 234 Interpreting Literature as a Source: Voltaire’s Candide . . . 236 The Battle of Stalingrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Imperialism and a Global Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Analyzing Points of View: Globalization . . . . . . . . 82 Diffusion of a Civilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 911 Massacre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Sacred Texts: The Qur’an . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 Recognizing Bias in Primary Sources: The Crusades . . . . . . . . . . . . . 938 shaped world history. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Evaluating Historical Interpretation: Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 731 Women in War . . . 900 Analyzing Secondary Sources: Great Zimbabwe’s Walls Speak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 Linking TO Today Analyzing Primary Sources: Justinian’s Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analyzing Visuals: Reformation Woodcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Interpreting Political Cartoons: A View of Oliver Cromwell . . . . . . . .S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520 Mythological References Today . . 918 Judaism . . . . . . . . 852 Interpreting Literature as a Source: Sufi Poetry . . . . . . . . . 507 on the Textile Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 754 Interpreting Literature as a Source: A Tamil Poem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .260 Christianity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .292 Analyzing Visuals: Song City Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 974 Sacred Texts: The Torah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 693 The Balkans Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 Analyzing Points of View: Viking Raids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 663 Interpreting Political Cartoons: The Dreyfus Affair . . . .667 Telephone Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 The Nuclear Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .indd xxii 2/27/07 7:13:30 PM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568 Island Animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 726 Analyzing Visuals: Bloody Sunday in St. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546 Analyzing Primary Sources: A Scientist’s Report on The Science of Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 The Voyages of Zheng He . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Analyzing Visuals: Storming the Bastille . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 Analyzing Secondary Sources: An Early Historian The Sikhs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Features HISTORY &Geography READING LIKE A HISTORIAN Analyze and interpret primary and secondary source Explore the relationships between history and documents on world history. . . . . . . . . 810 Recognizing Bias in Secondary Sources: The Nanjing The Conflict in Kashmir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Petersburg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 957 xxii CONTENTS w8ncfs_toc_survey. . . 35 Nomads and Empires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . geography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459 Hinduism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Petersburg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 796 Roots of the Arab-Israeli Conflict . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480 Roads and Armies . . . . . . . . 242 Analyzing Points of View: A Description of Nubia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 821 Analyzing Visuals: Propaganda Posters . . . . . . . . . . . . 786 Interpreting Political Cartoons: U. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 847 Analyzing Visuals: A Soviet Military Parade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596 Eastern and Western Christianity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neutrality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 636 The British Monarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 912 Buddhism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 Analyzing Primary Sources: Greek History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analyzing Visuals: Stone Age Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514 Analyzing Primary Sources: The Law of the Twelve Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 926 Analyzing Primary Sources: Kwame Nkrumah’s Learn about some of the major religions that have I Speak of Freedom . . .10 River Valleys and Civilizations . . . . 165 Imperial St. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Sacred Texts: The New Testament . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 Analyzing Primary Sources: Recruiting Colonists . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Evaluating Historical Interpretation: Harappan Trade . . 951 Islam . . . . . . . . 54 Analyzing Visuals: Kabuki Theater . . . . .

. . . . .960 NAFTA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 Chinese and Indian Views on Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 The Divine Comedy  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1004 The Collapse of the Soviet Union . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 647 Feudalism in Japan and Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 The Pillow Book . 600 Art and Architecture: The Italian Renaissance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 766 Economic Reforms in China . . . . . . . . . The Odyssey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560 Bolívar’s Message to the Congress of Angostura . . . . . . 944 Nationalism in India and Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Primary Sources DOCUMENT-BASED INVESTIGATION Examine key documents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 841 Independence in Latin America . . . . . . . 26 The Battle of Thermopylae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 Navigation of the Hajj . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800 Mandela’s Trial Speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 Architecture: Egyptian Temples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 678 The Attack on Pearl Harbor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . by Leo Tolstoy . . . by Francesco Petrarch and Sonnet 116. . .” by Wole Soyinka . . . . 353 A Tale of Two Cities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 864 Ethnic Conflict in Darfur . . . . . . . . 448 Architecture: Hagia Sophia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . by Lady Murasaki Shikibu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 652 Stalin’s Five-Year Plan . . . . 825 Artistic Responses to the Industrial Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474 Status of Women in Asian Cultures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 The Tale of Genji. and other primary sources that tell the story of Analyze topics in world history by using a variety world history. . . . . . . . . . . . 291 Rome’s Legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 War and Peace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Sonnet 61. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 648 Views of Absolutism . . . . . . . . . 734 The Marshall Plan . . . . . . . . . 239 The Diffusion of Greek Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 706 Hiroshima . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 594 The Renaissance and Individualism . . . . . . . . 550 Perspectives on Magna Carta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 The Three Estates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Methods of Archaeology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396 Rousseau’s Social Contract . . . . 879 Imperialism . 942 COntents xxiii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 Theories on Migration to the Americas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492 A View of Andrew Carnegie  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 699 Documents of Democracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Take a closer look at a period in world history by examining the arts of that period. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1010 Literature Learn about the beliefs and experiences of people who The Arts Around the World lived in other times and places through excerpts from world literature. . . 733 Music: Classical Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 902 The Cultural Revolution  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of primary and secondary source documents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . by Charles Dickens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478 Views of a Ruler  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Decorative Arts: Islamic Calligraphy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 An Explorer’s Journal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416 The Influence of Trade on African Culture . . . . . . . . 984 World Genetically Modified Crops . . . . . . . . . Epic of Gilgamesh  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586 Mazzini’s Young Italy . . . . . . 462 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen . . . 930 The Iranian Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677 “After the Deluge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 The Treatment of Native Americans . . . . . . . . . 861 Nationalism and Unification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Changing Views of Early China  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 A Summons to Parliament  . . 828 Fidel Castro Speech . . . . . . . 575 The Black Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 The Gift of the Nile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 620 Lenin’s Call to Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 948 Music: The Blues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .” by Wislawa Szymborska . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 598 Contact and Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138 Building Empires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Virgil’s Aeneid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hammurabi’s Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . by Homer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 924 Causes of World War I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 by William Shakespeare  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551 “Hatred. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Ibn Battutah in Kilwa . . . . . 216 Benedictine Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . speeches. . . . . 851 Painting: Impressionism  . . . 814 Sculpture: African Sculpture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 793 Child Labor  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 The English Bill of Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 The Death of Caesar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . political cartoons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 715 Reactions to Revolution  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 Drama: Greek Drama . . . . . 969 The Holocaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 The Song of Roland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522 The Iron Law of Wages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Faxian’s Record of India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .indd xxiv 2/27/07 7:13:38 PM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 Did Disease Cause Rome’s Fall? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 975 Was Napoleon Murdered? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abraham Lincoln . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Saving and Investing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 Violeta Chamorro . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Otto von Bismarck . . . . . . . . 22 What Can We Learn from Mummies? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617 Do the Prints Match? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486 Can a Mutant Cell Stop a Killer Disease? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Watson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Woodrow Wilson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572 George Washington . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Scarcity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 979 Thomas Aquinas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505 Cardinal Richelieu . . . . . . . . 225 Anne Frank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 856 Identifying the Dead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .442 John Calvin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Needs and Wants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 840 Pachacuti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .939 Alexander Nevsky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 Mao Zedong . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .698 about their lives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705 Mary and Louis Leakey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Kaiser Wilhelm II . 139 Mohandas Gandhi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 809 Hannibal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541 Peter the Great . . . . . . . . . 921 Justinian and Theodora . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Winston Churchill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Vladimir Lenin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 846 Shi Huangdi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543 What Happened to the Princes? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 Making Economic Decisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 855 al-Khwarizmi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 Factors of Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .762 Hatshepsut . . . . . . . . . . . . 896 FFACES ACES OF HISTORY ISTORY Simón Bolívar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Emiliano Zapata . . . . . . . . . . 782 Confucius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 James D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 750 Zoroaster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 Ho Chi Minh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 795 Pericles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Sun Yixian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 660 Marie Curie . . . 213 Dwight D. . . . . . . . . . . . . 501 Akbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 668 xxiv CONTENTS w8ncfs_toc_survey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 Jomo Kenyatta . world history. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 916 Kublai Khan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 619 James Watt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554 Galileo Galilei . 299 Mikhail Gorbachev . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490 Budgeting Money and Preventing Debt . 826 Scipio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 Suleyman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Can DNA Help Trace Our Origins? . . . 720 Nebuchadnezzar II . . . 581 Napoleon Bonaparte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 Golda Meir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eisenhower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 669 Was It the Angel of Death? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1008 Leonardo da Vinci . . 442 Michelangelo Buonarroti . . . . 637 Thomas Edison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 956 Eleanor of Aquitaine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 634 How Were Slaves Treated in the North? . . . 889 Mansa Musa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 997 Joan of Arc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 792 Laozi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 611 Prince Klemens von Metternich . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FORENSICS IN HISTORY HISTORY AND ECONOMICS Uncover a mystery in history using the tools of Explore basic economic concepts in the context of modern science. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .892 Wu Zhao . . 417 Aung San Suu Kyi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Martin Luther King Jr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Adolf Hitler . . . 698 Meet the people who have made history and learn José de San Martín . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Government and Citizenship: Citizenship . 784 Two Sources on Colonies . . . . . . . 672 Views on the Mongols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 883 Two Views on Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . 1914 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665 China and India. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470 European Centers of Learning. . . 316 COUNTERPOINTS A Typical Manor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . past and the present. . . . 642 Two Sources on Alexander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1800 . . . . . . . 712 HISTORY CLOSE-UP European Imperialism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1900 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 684 Europe. . . Communist and NATO Countries. . . . . 592 Women’s Suffrage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 Mongols on the Move . . . . .000–3000 BC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Belief Systems: Government and Religion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410 The Way of the Warrior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576 Tiananmen Square. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Turmoil in Latin America. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 748 Two Sources on the Power of the Papacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582 Two Sources on Indian Society . . . 1800 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1930s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468 Asian Empires. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2006 . . . . . 402 Study historical themes through key dates and Europe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . European Discovery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570 Europe. . . . . 993 CONTENTS xxv w8ncfs_toc_survey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Government and Citizenship: Equality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1300 . . . . . . . . 1920s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 834 and photo essays. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 815 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1002 Urban Growth in the Industrial Age . . . . . . . . . . 839 Two Sources on China and Trade . . . . . 740 European Alliances and Military Forces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 600 . . . . . . . 686 Resources of Great Britain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 Themes Through Time Europe. . . . . . . . . . . 200. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 966 Inca Roads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1750 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1950 . . . . . . . 16 Asia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . 970 A Global Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1945–Present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 Europe. . 1850 and 1914 . . . . 214 World Per Capita GDP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 922 Two Views on the Domino Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 Spread of Christianity.485 The London Blitz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Migration and Diffusion: Diffusion of Ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300–1000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Geography and Environment: Climate Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658 European Possessions. . . . . . . . . 990 Dome of the Rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Africa and the Middle East. 198 Science and Technology: Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 917 Communism in Cuba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 908 A Shang King’s Tomb . . . . . . 632 Terrorism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .498 Democracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Economic Systems: Barter and Alternative Economies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 936 Roman Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1600s . . . . . . 436 moments in world history. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566 Astronomy . . 294 Eastern Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . .indd xxv 2/27/07 7:13:43 PM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1095 . . . 806 history through in-depth and close-up illustrations Europe. . . . . . . . 1949 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539 Valley Forge . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 817 Arabia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71 Fertile Crescent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320s–220s BC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461 Italy and the Mediterranean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Factory Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 778 Explore key developments and events in world Postwar Colonies and Nationalism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Wreck of the Spanish Armada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512 The Cuban Missile Crisis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1815 . GEOGRAPHY Starting Points Maps Focus on Themes Interactive Start with a map that establishes Explore a world history theme in two contexts—the the geographical setting of the chapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 Mansa Musa’s Pilgrimage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 Shanghai. . . . . . . . . 534 Exploration .134 Monarchs of Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 The Nile Valley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418 The Early Greeks. . . . Early People and Agriculture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 Trench Warfare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607 Environments of the Americas . . . . . 222 Society: Social Welfare Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1945 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1009 Environments of Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 876 Çatal Hüyük: An Early Farming Village . . . . . 92 Arts and Ideas: Universities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1789 . . . . . . . . . 385 A Trade Fair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 New York City in the Late 1800s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 East Asia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518 Examine some issues in world history through different viewpoints. . . . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1400–1700 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 600 BC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

895 Phoenician Trade . . . . . . . . . . . .83 Ethnic Groups in Austria-Hungary . . . . . R47 Qin and Han Dynasties . . . . . 1858–1870 . . 721 Israel after the Six-Day War. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1947 . . . . . . . . . . 878 Japan and Korea. . . . . . . . . . 837 Colonies in the Americas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Imperialism in Africa . . . . 1294 . . . . . . 852 North Carolina: Physical . . . . .SF4 Aksum and Ethiopia . . 684 Uprising in Eastern Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1001 Shang and Zhou Dynasties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 880 The Expansion of Russia . . . . . . . . . . 126 European Imperialism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1845 . . . . . . . . 1842–1900 . . 1950–1951 . . 1800 . . . 380 Eastern Asia . 849 Mughal Empire. . . . . . . . 1950 . . . . . . . 409 Persian Wars . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 1815 . 468 Arabia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 864 Governors of the State of North Carolina. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 618–1279 . . . . . . . 1865–1871 . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 The Assyrian Empire . . . . . . . . . . . R40 The Roman Empire. . . . . 41 Industrialized Europe. . . . . . . . .14 Independence in Latin America . . . . 1600 . . . . . . . . .64 U. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .indd xxvi 2/27/07 7:13:46 PM . . . . . . . . . . . . . R46 Early American Settlements . . . . . . . 764 Asia: Political . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1592–1597 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 Italy and the Mediterranean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 The Chaldean Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 697 The European Union. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1800 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 Early People and Agriculture. . . . R32 Athens. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1940–1941 . . . . . 1967 . . . . 1867 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1965 . . 162 1914 . 140 Caribbean . . . . 820 South America: Physical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 The Silk Roads . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 Interactive Tang and Song Dynasties. . R38 Early People of Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498 Turmoil in Latin America. 263 Nazi Camp Locations . . . . . . . . 1500 BC . . 489 East Asia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 Communist and NATO Countries. . . . . 566 Japan. . . . . . . . . . . . . 955 Egypt and Kush. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 712 Crusader States . . 650 Missionaries and Monasteries in Europe . . . . . . . 725 Israel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 The Long March. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584 Explorers and Their Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658 Europe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SF2 Spread of Islam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511 Europe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 European Possessions. . . . . . . . 500 BC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maps Interpret maps to see where important events happened and analyze how geography has influenced world history. . . 1914 . . . . . 1767–1858 . . . . . . . . . . Christianity. 2006 . . . . 364 The Nile Valley . . . The South Pole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 908 Central Europe. . . . . . . . 1815 . . .43 Latin America. c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300–1000 . . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 697 The Breakup of the Soviet Union. . . . 885 North Carolina Facts . . . . China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 740 Medieval Trade . . . . . . 806 Religions in Europe. . . . . 982 Early India. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magyars. . . . . . . . 502 World Per Capita GDP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 892 Growth of Agriculture .62 Urban Growth in the Industrial Age . . . . . . . . . . 390 Spread of Buddhism . . . . 256 Axis Advances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R45 South American Cultures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1763 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1812 . . . . 1400–1700 . . . . . 632 The Growth of Russia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Railroads. . . . . . . 1300 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472 Africa and the Middle East. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1895 . . . . . . . . . . 168 World War I Battles. . 1300–1683 . . . . . . . . . . 1949 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1526-1707 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 808 North America: Physical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 915 Kingdoms. . . . . . . . . . . . . 402 The Iron Curtain . . . . . 9 Asia and the Pacific World . . . . . . . . . . . . . 787 Europe: Political . . . . . . . . European Centers of Learning. . . . . . . . . . 798 North America: Political . . . . . . . 897 Israel and Judah: Kingdom of Israel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Postwar Colonies and Nationalism. . 966 Russian Campaign. . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1942–1944 . 115 Southeast Asia. . . . . . . . . 2006 . . . . . 151 The Panama Canal . . . . . . . .32 Napoleon’s Empire . . . . 661 Monarchs of Europe . . . . . . . . . . . 216 The London Blitz. 600–1350 . . . . . . . 955 Egypt and Kush. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 The Hittite Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 BC . . . . R39 The Punic Wars . . . . . . . . . . . . 1575 . . 424 Environments of the Americas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1850 . . . 1790 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615 The Safavid Empire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . . 106 Europe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1931–1937 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 759 World: Physical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 The End of the War. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 Fertile Crescent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477 Environments of Africa . . . . . . . . . . 557 European Discovery. 702 Pakistan. . . . . 618 The Byzantine Empire . . . . . . . . . . . 878 North Carolina Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1964–1975 . . . . . . . . 1930s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 916 The Revolutionary War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 930 BC . . . . . . . . . . . 555 Europe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 The Ottoman Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Divided Berlin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R44 Early Mesoamerican Civilizations . . . . . . . . 910 Israel and Judah: Divided United States. . . . . R47 Mauryan and Gupta Empires . . . . . . . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Atlantic Slave Trade . . . . . . . Hundred Years’ War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 European Alliances and Military Forces. . 753 World: Political . 632–760 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 815 South America: Political . . . . . . . . . 1994–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . 700 BC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 United States Intervention in the Africa: Political . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 592 Korea. . . . . . . 781 Asia: Physical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 War in the Pacific. . . . 834 Map of the World. . . 747 South African Elections. c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 845 The Ottoman Empire. . 454 China and India. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 United States. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 778 Spread of the Black Death . . . . . . . . . . . . 517 The Crusades.34 Europe after the Congress of Vienna. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534 xxvi CONTENTS w8ncfs_toc_survey. 222 1920s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 West African Kingdoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1100 . . . . . . . . . . . . and Muslims. . . . . . . . 111 Imperialism in China. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 824 Oceania: Political . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1915–1917 . . . 940 The Persian Empire . . . . . . . . 1024 Sanxingdui. . . . . . . . . 1995–2005 . . . 1793 . . . . . . . 330 Ancient Mesopotamia . . . 1949 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . . . . . . 308 1941–1943 . . . . . . . . . . 684 The Holy Roman Empire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 859 North Carolina: Political . . . . . . . . . 51 The Unification of Italy. . . . . 661 Vikings. . . . . 955 New Kingdom Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 702 Religious Groups in India and c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sunni and Shia Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 920 BC . . R41 The Spread of Christianity . . . 725 Poverty in Latin America. . . . . . 320s–220s BC . . . . 186 and 1921 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 The Unification of Germany. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1750 . . . 1945–Present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1215 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Railroads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R42 Division and Invasion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . United States. . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 The Invasion of the Soviet Union. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 990 U. R43 North American Cultures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . . . . . . 1600s . . . . . 1944–1945 . . . . . 716 Creation of Israel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1915 Europe: Physical . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Europe and the Middle East. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . 1853 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 839 The North Pole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 702 Southeast Asia. . . . . . . . . . .S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SF1 Islam in Arabia. . . . . . 1789 . . . . 436 Asia. . . . . . . 282 World War II in Europe and North Africa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 936 France. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 612 Southeast Asian Kingdoms. . . . . . . . 41 Resources of Great Britain. . . . . . . . . 1095–1204 . . . . . . . . 2002 . . . . .SF3 Bantu Migration . . . . . . . . . 1368–1911 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1300 . 1500–1639 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1700 BC . . . . . . . R36 Peloponnesian War . 1870 . . . . . . . . . . Spread of Protestantism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 Spread of Christianity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 Europe. . . . . . . . . . 1947–2006 . . . . . . . . 876 Ming and Qing Dynasties. . . .S. . . . . . . . 1095 . 743 World Terrorism Incidents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 918–1392 . . . . . . . . 550 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 The Early Greeks. . R34 Minoans and Mycenaeans . . . 235 1941–1943 . . . . . . . . . 1934–1935 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506 Europe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632 . . . . . . . . . . . . 604 Asian Empires.48 A Nation Divided . . . . . . . 1991 . 311 Mongol Empire. . . . 764 Africa: Physical . . 287 Cold War Hot Spots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .000–3000 BC . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1939–1941 . 204 Japanese Aggression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404 The Korean War. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1803 . . . . . . . . . 704 Independence in Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 The Spread of the Blues . . . . . 600 . . . . . . . 212 Totalitarian Governments . . . . 372 Old Kingdom Pyramids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 727 World Average Life Expectancy. . . . . . . . . . . . Migration of Early Humans . . 1945 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468 The Vietnam War. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1050 BC . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 The British in India. . . . . . . . . . . 600 BC . . 815 . . 1900 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . 4 Europe. . . 162 World War I Battles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800–1000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 The Dual Monarchy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1850 and 1914 . . . . . . . . . 323 200. . . . . R37 Alexander’s Empire. 998 Early China. . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . 1919–1939 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 Mexico’s Trade Balance. . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Chapter 27 Visual Study Guide . . . . 999 Cyrus and Darius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1945–Present . . . . . . . . . . . 830 Ancient India and China. . . . . . . . . . 1300–1650 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Effects of World War I . . . . . . . . . . . . 900 Chapter 21 Visual Study Guide . . . . . 2100 BC–150 BC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 881 The Americas. . 630 Basic Principles of Mercantilism . . . 722 Asia. . . . . . . Indian War . 166 Causes of the 1929 Stock Market Crash . . 376 Political Trends in Post-Colonial Africa . . . . . . . . 813 The Beginnings of Civilization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 993 Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 622 Decline of World Trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 945 Kingdoms and Christianity. . 912 New Ideas in the Sciences . . . . 654 Hindus by Country. . . . . . . 2500 BC–250 BC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Causes and Effects of WWII . . . . . . . . . . . . 1929–1933 . . . . . . . . . . 776 Causes and Effects of the Scientific Major Christian Denominations. . . . . . . 196 Trading Empires of West Africa . . 1039 Reforms. 644 Europe’s Jewish Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 590 The Columbian Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qin and Han Dynasties . . . . .66 Roman Empire and Nomads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 689 Europe and North America. . . . . . . . . Cities . . . . . 267 Chapter 28 Visual Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . 760 World Cases of Polio. . . . . . . . 573 Major U. . . . 738 The Scientific Method . . . . . . . 1945–Present . . . . . . . 524 Nationalism in Europe. . . . .S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 736 China’s Oil Consumption. 564 Causes and Effects of the French and World Internet Access. . . . . . 2 Causes and Effects of the Fall of Rome . . . . . . . . . . . . . Increase in Leisure Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 688 World Jewish Population by Country. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579 Major European Cities . . . . . . 649 Global Nuclear Weapons. . 1000 BC–AD 1500 . 300 Contrasting Economic Systems . 768 UN Budgets. . 116 Forms of Imperialism . . 1950–2000 . . . . . . 1965–1985 . 866 750 BC–AD 500 . 799 Checks and Balances in the Roman Chapter 26 Visual Study Guide . . . . . . . 1890–1913 . . 508 UN Millennium Development Goals . . . . . . . . . 350 BC–AD 600 220 Chapter 10 Visual Study Guide . . . . . 1980–2005 . . . 1980–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2005 . . 1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 804 Key Enlightenment Ideas . 951 Economic Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 15 Visual Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 995 1550–1800 . . 1945–Present . 904 African Kingdoms. . . . . . . . . 158 Causes of World War I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 958 Chapter 20 Visual Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Common Features of Totalitarian Nile Civilizations. . 819 The Ancient Near East. . . 816 Conflict in Iraq . . . . . . 874 Causes of the Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 983 Mesopotamian Achievements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 824 The Rulers of Egypt . 703 Motor Vehicle Production. . . . . . .44 Chapter 23 Visual Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . 862 Classical Greece. . . 226 Innovations . . . . . . . . . . .indd xxvii 2/27/07 7:13:50 PM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1945–Present . . . . . . . . . . 928 Chapter 22 Visual Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2005 . . . . . . . . . 1028 The Varnas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1029 The Industrial Revolution. . . . . . . . . . 658 World War II. . . . . . . . . . . . 550–1400 . . . . . . Charts and Graphs To examine key facts and concepts. 988 Effects of Industrialization on Women . . . . . . . . . . 407 Chapter 31 Visual Study Guide . 957 The High Middle Ages. . . . 439 Chapter 32 Visual Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 986 The Monarchs of Europe. . . . . . . . . . . . . Military Involvement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1700–1900 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595 Germany’s Economic Growth. . . . . . . 483 Megacities . . . . . . 857 Today’s World . . . . . . .37 Causes and Effects of Westward Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1800–1900 . . 984 New Asian Empires. 816 Latin America. 494 Education Rates in Turkey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800–1215 . . . . . . 400 Causes and Effects of the Crusades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 656 Chapter 16 Visual Study Guide . . . . . . 1986–2004 . . . . . . . . . . Roman Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 2001–Present . . . 1500–1800 . . . . . . . . . . . . 100–1500 . . . .30 Chapter 6 Visual Study Guide . . . . 975 Chapter 1 Visual Study Guide . . . . 179 Social Programs in Selected Countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 742 India’s GDP by Sector. 1780–1920 . . . . . . . . 1028 Chapter 3 Visual Study Guide . . . . . . . . 906 Governments of Revolutionary France . 4000 BC–550 BC . . . . . . . . . . . 398 Muslim Population by Country. 569 World War I. . . . . . . . . . . 714 Election Turnout. . . . . . . . . . 790 Revolution . . . . . . . 680 HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa . 464 Agreements . . . . . . . . . . . 532 The Reformation . . . . . . . . . 932 Cultures of East Asia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675 Economic Growth in Asia. . . . . . . . 780 Etruscan Influences . . . . 336 Chapter 29 Visual Study Guide . . . . . . 160 Chapter 9 Visual Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1042 Changes in France’s Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1930–1945 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1038 Life in the Industrial Age. . . 1200–1800 . . . . 254 Chapter 11 Visual Study Guide . . . . . 898 Muslim Civilization. . . . . . 1033 Chapter 4 Visual Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 981 Exploration and Expansion. 496 Causes of the Renaissance . . . 460 Major Trade Organizations and Enlightenment and Revolution. . . . . . 1035 Causes and Effects of the Peloponnesian War 141 The New Imperialism in Africa . . . . The End of Unity . .58 Steps to Unification in Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 692 Chapter 17 Visual Study Guide . . . . . . 1929 to 1940 . . . 423 Mexico Then and Now . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 719 Election Turnout. . . . . . . 218 Governments . . . . . . 615 Unemployment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S. 550–1250 . . . . . . . 729 Brazilian Ethanol Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1024 Chapter 2 Visual Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1950–2030 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 Causes and Effects of the Cold War . . . . . . 891 Empires of China and India. . . . . . . . 1993–2003 . . . . . United Kingdom . . . . . . . . . . . . 5000 BC–AD 300 . 863 Rome and Early Christianity. . . . . . . . . . . 1929–1933 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459 Russia in Turmoil . . . . . . . . 606 The Armenian Massacre . . . .84 Czars of Russia . . . . . . .22 Causes and Effects of Revolution in Brazil’s Foreign Debt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1800–1920 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 700 GDP Per Capita in Latin America . . . . 143 Chapter 25 Visual Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Nationalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Graphs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658 The Interwar Years. 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 708 World Urbanization. . . . . . 752 India’s Labor Force by Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 Effects of the Plague . . . . . . 7 British Reforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481 Chapter 33 Visual Study Guide . . . . . . . . 1800–1920 . . . . . . . 1024 Egyptian Influences on Kushite Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 832 Chapter 19 Visual Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . .1042 Greek Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484 Ireland and Turkey Comparison. . . . . 300–1250 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Major Japanese Events. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 710 Chapter 18 Visual Study Guide . . . 132 The Meiji Reforms . . . . . 466 Chapter 14 Visual Study Guide . . 1007 The French Revolution and Napoleon. . 817 Prehistory–1000 BC . . . . .90 Han China and Nomads . . . . . . . 306 Charlemagne’s Achievements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 Recent U. . . . 1996–2005 . . 670 Buddhists by Country. . 280 Chapter 12 Visual Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . 802 Government . . . . 1400–1700 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 Feudal Obligations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562 The Age of Imperialism. . . . . . 946 Early Hominids . . . .60 Chapter 7 Visual Study Guide . . . . Revolutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Chapter 8 Visual Study Guide . . . . . . . . . 1000–1500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 788 Africa and the Middle East. 2005 . . . 1914–1918 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1042 Chapter 5 Visual Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 732 Brazilian Alternate Fuel Vehicles . . . . . . . . 1800–1900 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 The Russian Revolution of 1905 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 934 Soldiers in Napoleon’s Russian Campaign . . . . . .28 Latin America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 952 The Early Middle Ages. . . . . . and War. . . . 1035 The Greek Gods . . . . . . . . . 682 Achievements of the Mughal Emperors . . . . . look Charts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 World War II Casualties . . . . . . . . . 370 Chapter 13 Visual Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 Chapter 24 Visual Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 962 Renaissance and Reformation. . . . . . . . . . 918 CONTENTS xxvii w8ncfs_toc_survey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 Chapter 30 Visual Study Guide . . . . . . 588 Population of Ireland. . . . . . . . . . . 1945–2005 . . . . . . . . . . 383 Causes and Effects of the Suez Canal Crisis . . . . . . 964 Effects of the Factory System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Time Lines for this special logo: Analyze information presented visually to learn more about history. . . . . . . . . 1012 1789–1815 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . abridgement of Columbus’s personal journal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sura 2:196 . . . . . . . . . . . . Politics Derived from Holy Writ . 1561 . . . . . . . . . . A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms . . . . . . . 389 Author Unknown. . . . . . . . . . . . 277 John Locke. . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Raymond d’Aguilers. . . . . . . . . Secret History . . . . 587 Marco Polo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . letter to the bishop of Metz. . . . . . . . 244 Matsuo Basho. . . . 85 Magna Carta. . . . . . . . . 1081 . . . . . 512 Panchatantra. . . On the Misery of the Human Condition. . . . . . . . . . . 166 Charles D’Avenant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Prince. . . . . . . . . 375 BC . . . “Testimony from the Iceman. . . . . . . . . . . edited by Akhenaten. . . . . . . 1776 . . Book VIII . . . . . . . 1350 . . . . . . . . . . The Spirit of the Laws. . . . . 240 Lord Macartney. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Lope de Aguirre. . . . . 512 Hanfeizi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. . . . . . . . by that was India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 Aristophanes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Summons to Parliament. . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Benedict of Nursia. . . History of the Persian Wars. . . . . . 561 Qur’an. 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 The Sehetepibre Stela. . . . . History of the Franks who Captured Jerusalem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Hispaniola. . . 485 Cicero. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 Arrian. . 36 Einhard. . . . . . . . . . . The Fairest Land. . . . . . letter to King Philip II of Spain. . . . . . . . 152 Desiderius Erasmus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1776 . 1215 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 Hammurabi’s Code . . . . . 396 Strabo. . . . . . . . 320 Thomas Paine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441 Sappho. . . . . 1050 . . quoted in The Viking World by James Exodus 20:2-14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . quoted in A Literary History of Persia. . Description of the World. . . 489 Virgil. .L. . . . . . . . . . 425 Xenophon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1067 . . . . . . . . . . . . 586 Anonymous. . . . . . . . . by Edward Ashoka. . . . . . 1300s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Cambridge. . . . . . . . . 325 London Times. . . . 463 Wiraz. . . . . . . . . . . . .111 Marchionne. . . . . 492 Thomas Jefferson. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Pillow Book. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Court of Louis XIV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1651 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570 Ibn Jubayr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Augustus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 Magna Carta. . . . . 383 Herodotus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Emperor Henry IV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Edward Peters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Leviathan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select Documents . . . reply to Duke William of Aquitaine. . . 522 Kautilya. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trans. . 55 King Edward I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1776 . . . . . 335 UNIT 1 UNIT 4 Justinian. . . . . 438 Plato. . 587 Marco Polo. . . . February 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Jean Froissart. . 1660 . 164 Adam Smith. 27 Procopius. . . . . . . . 508 Faxian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 Pericles. . . . . . . . quoted in Thucydides. . . . . . . . 1763 . . . . . . . . 550 Rumi. . . . . . 239 Qianlong. . . . . . . . Hammurabi’s Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Procopius. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1513 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Common Sense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 Ian Hodder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Pope Innocent III. . 264 The English Bill of Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . History of the Peloponnesian War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 Hammurabi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575 Ibn Battutah. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Loyalty Instructions . . . . Book VI . . 349 Donald Johanson. . . 586 Li Bo. . . . . . . . . Description of the World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Panegyric to the City of Florence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 The Manner of Doing Homage and Fealty . . . . . . . . . “This Old House. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . account of Florence during the Black Death . 152 Journal entry from a writer who accompanied Magellan . The Institutes . . . . 605 xxviii CONTENTS w8ncfs_toc_survey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 Jacques Benigne Bossuet. . 302 Thomas Jefferson. . . essay. . .indd xxviii 2/27/07 7:13:55 PM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1250 . . . . . . . translated by Arthur William Ryder . . . . . . . . . . . 1215 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523 UNIT 3 UNIT 6 Qur’an 29:46 . . . . . . . . . . Two Treatises on Government. 6 The Russian Primary Chronicle. . . 577 Leo Africanus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 Egyptian hymn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lady Murasaki Shikibu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Divine Comedy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1403 . . . . . c. . . . . . . . . 1759 . . . . . The Hymn to Aten . . . 1697 . c. . . . . . . . . . . . . Candide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 Esma’il. . 320 Thomas Jefferson. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .P. 172 Olaudah Equiano. . . . . . . Life of Alexander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576 Ibn Fadl Allah al-Omari. 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On My Country and the World. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plant Physiology. . quoted in War Stories: Jean de Venette. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . September 26. . . . . . . . . article. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . visitor to the Lancashire mines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1034 Millard Fillmore. . . 1273 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . speech. . 1917 . . . . . . . . . . . 1961 . . June 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 679 Jo Fisher. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 782 Claudia Rosett. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . “The UN at 60: Senescence or Renaissance?” French report on German morale. . 1819 . . . . . 864 Mary Wollstonecraft. 678 Fidel Castro. . . . 2003 . 1940 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1918 . . . . . . . . . Gallagher. . Roosevelt. . . . . . . . . . 828 Julius Caesar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 714 Norman Borlaug. . . . . . . . . 1994 . . . . . . December 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 879 Nelson Mandela. . child mill worker. . 994 John O’Sullivan. . . . . . speech. . . . 1914 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Communist Manifesto. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 715 Giuseppe Mazzini. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 931 Elizabeth Bentley. . . . . . 1028 Sun Yixian. . 1010 Nathaniel Aguirre. . . . . . 865 Erich Maria Remarque. . . . . address to the United States. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R71 Herman Graebe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Roosevelt Corollary. . . . . . . . . July 31. . . . . . June 15. . . . . . 1025 Cecil Rhodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Irish priest. . . . . . . . paper. . . . . . . . speech before House of Commons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1853 . . . . . . . . . . . speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 703 Meghnad Desai. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1748 . . .indd xxix 2/27/07 7:19:35 PM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . January 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . François-Auguste-René de Chateaubriand. . . . . . . . . . 1985 . . . June 1991 . . 1942 . . . . 1991 . . . . . . . . . 1905 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1038 UNIT 8 Nilufer Gole. “How Corrupt Is the United Nations?” Commentary. . . . German soldier. . . . . . . . . R66 Father John A. . . . . . . . . . August 14. . . . . . 1651 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1877 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 653 Ideology. . 707 Center for Food Safety. . . . . . . . . . 862 Adam Smith. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mothers of the Disappeared. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1521 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R78 and the World. 621 Dwight Eisenhower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . December 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . “J’accuse. . . . . .” 1831 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R61 Seaman Second Class Eddie Jones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Apology . . . . . . . . . . speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 903 London Times. . . 1972 . . R69 Leon Bass. . . . speech. . . . . . . 1947 . . . . . . . . . . 902 Mikhail Gorbachev. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R64 Captain Reid Draffen. . . . . . . 1793 . . . R70 Maximilian Grabner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Dao De Jing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1863 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R73 Pablo Picasso. The World is Flat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . An Enemy of the People. . . . 1955 . . . . . . . July 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Confessions of Faith. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . memoir. . . . . . . . 699 Leslie Sklair. . 939 Charles Darwin. . . . 793 Ann Florini. . . . . . . August 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800 David Lloyd George. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . quoted in War Stories: Remembering Miguel de Cervantes. Refusal at the Diet of Worms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PBS. . . . . . . Address to the United Nations . . . . . speech. . . . . . . . 706 Norman Borlaug. . . . . . . . . 985 Simón Bolívar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1815 . . . . . . . . . . . by Thomas Wood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1776 . c. . army minister. . . . . . . . . . . . speech. . . . . . . . . March 5. . . . . 1615 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beowulf. . . . . . . . . . . . . 637 Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction to General Douglas MacArthur. . . “Eyewitness to Hiroshima—August 6th. . . . . . . 2003 . . . . Leviathan. speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1797 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . quoted in Useful Toil . . . NAFTA’s effects on the Émile Zola. R74 UNIT 9 Elie Wiesel. . . . . . . . . 621 Jawaharlal Nehru. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1927 . . . . 1043 Vladimir Lenin. . . . . . . speech. . 864 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . December 1. . R67 in The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. . . . . . . . . . . June 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . response to Napoleon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 820 Plato. . . . . . . . 1941 . . 892 CIA report to Congress. R60 Franklin D. . . . . . . . . . . . 667 Nelson Mandela. 641 Youqin Wang. . . . . . . . Wise and Kevin P. . 1819 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . “On Nationality. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2006 . . . sociologist. . . 648 People’s Liberation Army Daily. . . 879 Eleanor Roosevelt. . . 1862 . . . . . . . . . “The White Man’s Burden. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1832 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .” 1898 . . R62 Remembering World War II . . . . . . . . . . September 1918 . . . . . . . . . . 1833 . . . . . . . . . . . . R55 Joseph Stalin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

• What do people believe about the nature of the universe? Geography and environment influence the way • What do people believe about how society should societies develop. look for the eight themes described below. but throughout history. The arts can inspire us. People both modify their environment and adapt to it • How do beliefs motivate people? in order to best meet their needs. and ideas? • How are scarce resources allocated in a society? • How do the arts of different societies express enduring human needs and beliefs? • Why have some people or groups of people had more resources than others? • How do economic systems affect political and social systems? Beliefs can be powerful forces for societies as well • How do different systems strive to ensure as individuals. ARCT IC SEA ICE BOUN DARY IN 1979 Geography and Environment . A desert society develops different be ordered and governed? economic and social practices than a sea faring one. nomic systems may change—from a simple barter • What ideas unite and motivate a society? system to today’s complex global capitalism—but the need to order the exchange of goods. services. and • How does a culture express itself through its arts resources remains a constant in human history. and art. These themes help you see ways all peoples and societies are alike and ways they are different. have efficiency? fairness? inspired great works of devotion. sacrifice. • How do people change their environment and make changes to their environment? Economic Systems • In what ways do geography and environment influence a society? NORTH POLE Since 1979 more than 20% of the Polar Ice Cap has melted away. every society needs an economic and in ideas. for instance. Eco- move us to action. Religious beliefs.Themes of History N o two historical events or periods are exactly alike. As you read Human Legacy. but there are common themes that can be traced through all of human history. and ideas can system by which to allocate available resources. not just in this textbook. They can also serve to define and divide people. Some of the noblest human aspirations and Because resources are scarce and people’s needs and achievements have been enshrined in artworks wants are many. They appear again and again.

he cies. which took control of France in French Revolution. and air is a and increase trade among and Citizenship challenge in many places. providing services and economic and educating people about health issues are worldwide challenges. and • What are the social classes that make up a society? diseases spread? • How is political and economic power distributed? • What motivates people to seek new lands? • What are the customs and norms that unite a society? The Contemporary World. For In spite of the progress made by many democra. environment. most people believe that a government’s power Humans use science to try to understand their comes from the consent of the governed—that in gov. development with practices that will help pre- Regional trade organizations serve and protect the natural resources and Reducing Pollution Preventing and clean- that seek to lower trade barriers environments that we depend on. the world face today? are connected more than ever before.&3*$" In both developed and developing countries. Skills the article applied to women. Fighting Global Warming Reducing green- The 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the house gases without disrupting economies is Outsourcing an international challenge. hunting animals. looking for fresh fields to plant. In Human Rights Despite government commitments to protect human and Mrs. making quality health care available. ways of doing things. trade are growing. when King Louis XVI was overthrown. goods. Determined that everyone should be treated the is important in democracies around the world today. culture. A global culture is developing as people have more access to the same information and products. and using them in a sustainable way can be a major challenge. or even appear in public alone. How have globalization. Then create a chart other more than ever for Environmental around the world are growing like this one and use it to describe how these global goods and services.&3*$" Despite the for example. The / 0 35 ) &6301& "4*" titles—and should be abolished. the French equivalents of Mr. water. fighting poverty and health Health Fighting disease and hunger. aspect of human nature. The first article of the declaration states. That women were expands. The challenge that people face developments spread. global and regional environment. Poverty Poverty is a major problem in both developed and developing people. and ideas has the The complex pattern of relationships—political. countries. and they use technology to try to shape ernment. cultural—that bind people together make and nations. But that and control it. store locations and major resource locations ™ 45"3#6$. The urge to understand the world belief is relatively new. places around the world been derived from the words for lord and lady—noble against people based on their gender. and it fright. Growth of Trade work overseas. • What is the proper form of government? • What are the different concepts that people have • Who should be a citizen? Why has that question had about the world? How have they changed over time? had different answers at different times? • How have the tools people used changed over time. hold office. required to address one another as “Citizen”. How is globalization changing the world’s economic systems? What environmental challenges are affecting the world’s people and places? Focus on Themes Globalization is the process by which countries are linked through trade As populations and economies grow. equality for all is still a goal—not a reality—for their societies. As a result. the Convention went so far as to ban the titles In most modern democracies. citizens are the ultimate authority. but many asserted that growing as the world economy Globalization them in others. In any historical period. • What is the relationship between those who govern often radically reshaping the limits of human or rule and those who are governed or ruled? possibility? • How have technological advances given one society advantages over another? From the days of the earliest humans in Africa. Global Culture countries are growing. challenges facing society. Convention leaders argued. FOCUS UNDERSTANDING THEMES Effects on My Community equal to men was a truly revolutionary idea. How does ". and seeking new places for trade. the idea that all people are equal 1792. EQUALITY THEN Equality was a key goal of the EQUALITY NOW Just as it was in France during the National Convention. government’s inten. occupation. despite global efforts to reduce it. same. people have been on the move. laws have made it illegal to discriminate What challenges do societies around rights. groups of the effects of globalization around the world?  . people around the world are still victims of human rights abuses. many governments and their citizens. Instead.Today. people were or income. creating jobs in “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. women—are free to take part in the government. drive cars. The movement of peoples. In many places. Consequently. #:$06/53:  4065) problems. France. These titles. people face many difficult issues that affect example. the information on this map show some of opportunities to migrants and immigrants. Multinational Corporations in? Read a local newspaper to gather information about Societal Challenges Countries are relying on each protest unfair working conditions. Challenges in size and influence. after his family’s ancient name. ing up pollution of the land. Citizen described how the French government would Companies are sending more treat its citizens. of a multinational coffee company. These include safeguarding Making Connections This map shows the "'3*$" human rights. With globalization. Different societies—in the past and to invent new tools to shape it is a fundamental and even today—adopt different forms of government. themes are affecting the area where you live. can affect those of other places far away. and environmental issues affected the community you live Globalization ened many people in France and the rest of Europe. Interdependence NOW Young workers in Rennes. and businesses in one place ". all citizens—men and CHALLENGES FACING SOCIETIES TODAY Global Connections STARBUCKS™ AROUND THE WORLD monsieur and madame. • How are new ideas. a society. goods. 1945–Present Themes & Global Connections ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES TODAY Using Resources Wisely People need to use resources to survive. had addition.” The Global and regional trade are Effects of some places but eliminating declaration uses the word men. so too does Protecting the Environment Living in and and culture. and information to spread the need for resources and the demands on the them is a challenge as populations grow and around the globe faster than ever before. too. Large companies that operate current events in your community. and countries are increasingly linked economically around the globe is how to balance growth and Free Trade Government and culturally. these patterns may be loosely defined or they may be embodied in institu- • What are the large patterns of movement that shape human history? tions such as governments and churches.44503&4 became Citizen Capet. Improvements in mass communication and modern transpor- using the earth’s environments while protecting tation technologies have allowed people. women cannot vote. power to transform and even destroy empires economic. race.

Predict Do you think women around the world will gain who did not pay taxes. Analyze How did the treatment of women during the Human Legacy allows you to track important themes through history. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON 607 themes of history xxxi w8nafs_nap_sec2. rights or lose rights in the future? Why? THEN Parisians march- ing on the Legislative Look for special themes of history features as you read. and people French Revolution differ from the Declaration’s goals? 3. "6453"-*" and protecting societies from the threats of Migration and Urbanization As cities grow and people migrate to new tions. U.indd 1016 10/23/06 3:42:54 PM w8nafs_u09_themesrev. The ideal of equality supported in globalization based on this map. Department of Agriculture. rights.indd 607 9/13/06 10:49:26 AM . Sources: starbucks. Write a short essay identifying three effects of o were not treated equality a reality. they were not allowed to participate in the Skills FOCUS UNDERSTANDING THEMES new government. Brands.com. threats from terrorism and regional conflicts. included servants. Fortune Magazine Starbucks is a registered trademark of Starbucks U. men under 25. w8nafs_u09_themesrev. Women in the French Revolution. Summarize What does the Declaration of the Rights of from the government Man and of the Citizen say about equality? 2. o $PGGFFTPVSDF equally. is Terrorism and Security Societies around the world face increasing 1BQFSTPVSDF o 4VHBSTPVSDF particular had few alive in the world today.S.S. though not fully achieved. providing them with jobs and services is a challenge. Assembly. however. people people all around the world are working hard to make terrorism and conflict.indd 1017 10/23/06 3:42:56 PM Other people banned 1. places. LLC Ltd. Although many o women had taken 1016 UNIT 9 THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD 1017 part in the Revolution.

ture. these cereal grasses were adaptable to other areas and are still practiced today. State the Pray five times a Give alms to the Fast from dawn Go on a Pillars of Islam are very 254 CHAPTER complicated 9 require and Ah. states that Muham- mad was the last prophet sent by God to humanity. built between about 706 and 715.indd 255 10/9/06 11:53:00 AM b. and Roman scripts form the basis of most geography and environment. a. such as Egyptian. In time. pyramids in Egypt at sunrise. is one of the oldest and largest monuments in the Islamic world. 257–261) 15. Your textbook How to Use The Dawn of Unit Civilization Unit Openers  list the chapter titles and the years Prehistory–AD 300 the chapters cover. Identify What do Islamic texts say about Practice Online After Muhammad’s death. compare the architecture 2. were made. Muhammad’s journey from Mecca to Medina other research as needed. and they helped shape the soci. and several other women were among the first Description: Writing a Comparison In the Islamic world. A true alphabet. Explain Why did Muhammad EVENTSrelocate from Tang dynasty Charlemagne Mayan civilization ends Anglo-Saxon rule of England. scholarship. Egypt. China was China The ruler needs the Mandate of Heaven and ancestors such as the Nile valley. to whom does “the munity following Muhammad’s death? w8nafs_isw_opener. and let the Credit go. dynasty that defeated the Umayyads xxxii 278 CHAPTER 9 MUSLIM CIVILIZATION 279 w8nafs_isw_review. Ramadan. spread to a vast area over a very short time. Muslim scholars helped preserve ancient slavery? Using the Internet Keyword: SHL ISW Greek texts and made original contributions to b. Three religions—Hinduism. one of the world’s major monotheistic faiths. goats. Develop What was the connection between many fields. environment provided plants and animals Year after year. Use your textbook and other resources to answer the following questions and to complete the chart. medical scholar who was also known as Avicenna 6. begins in China. they bring Canaanite relates to the period of history covered in with them their beliefs. Persia Zoroaster founds Zoroastrianism. Theme Islam. India Hinduism. assessments. how migration and diffusion European scripts today. The advantages of writing were obvious. Greek. converts. Jainism. years of study to determine their meaning. ways of life. King John signs the See Skills Handbook. However. ments of the Islamic faith? richest and grandest cities in Europe. Some of these women even went into battle. different civilizations possible? and Euphrates. geography. 969 like a Historian The Great Mosque in Damascus. How attracts followers. the first caliph Identify the correct term or person from the chapter that 9. Review Key Terms and People 8. and praising rulers in their works in order to gain were confined to a secluded part of the palace called the 24. and pigs and silkworms in China. Assignment: In an essay. or move from one place to another. SECTION 1 (pp. and Córdoba became one of the Muslim art developed distinctive features. Early civilizations arose in river valleys and sometimes disastrous floods struck. Phoenician alphabet River valley civilizations were not the only ancient places with the unit. Skills FOCUS UNDERSTANDING THEMES features end each unit. influenced by the philosophical ideas of are venerated. and trade. and metalwork 18. including writing prompts. Analyze What do you think Khayyam is recom- The Spread of Islam Islamic Civilization the split between the Sunni and the Shia? mending to the reader? c. needy people. nomadic Arab peoples different. Khayyam was both a poet 618 768 c. The migration of peoples spread ideas and Themes & Global Connections goods from one part of the world to another. the Indus. or spread. a building for Muslim worship mation from this chapter.indd 120 10/23/06 2:00:20w8nafs_u01_themesrev. Native grasses in the Near East and China were suitable for domestication. 732 Muslim advance in Europe stopped in France at the Battle of Tours. Then create a brochure that describes the main achievements of the era. and place for political gatherings. The peoples who invaded Meso. to Mecca. In this way the diffusion. and gains influence in Arabia. 1 and environment. The works of poets and keyword above. Mesopotamia People worship many gods. depleting the soil of became more complex. A Global Connections box helps potamia adopted cuneiform to their own languages. MUSLIM CIVILIZATION 255 profession of faith. Then answer the questions that follow. Use specific examples to 13. and a painting or photograph.indd PM 121 10/23/06 2:00:24 PM Chapter C HAPTER History's Impact video program 9 Watch the video to understand the impact of Islam Chapter Openers  include an introduction called 550–1250 throughout the world. the mosque served not just as a place of wor- VISUAL STUDY GUIDE Comprehension and CHAPTER Critical Thinking Muhammad is Interpreting Literature as a Source 622 Muhammad flees 786 Harun al-Rashid leads the Fatimid rule extends to 1055 The Seljuk Turks 1258 The Mongols capture ship. Baghdad. 20. They Rubaiyat tures. Abbasid caliphate to its height. other writers are still read today. valley civilizations all concerned them. Consider the diffusion of writing. Take a few minutes to become familiar with the book’s easy-to-use organization and special features. Also domesticated were native cattle in Egypt. England. of Canaanite words. alphabets built it. and secure a successful harvest. becoming one of Chapter Review  pages provide a full array of the world’s major religions. Islam spread across much of the Eastern Hemisphere. homeless shelter. The Fertile Soil ment and religion. necessary nutrients. Each unit opener identifies the CHAPTER 1 The Beginnings of main themes covered in the unit. Scholars think the that could be domesticated. conflict surrounds the Scholarship succession. CHARACTERISTICS OF RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS BELIEF SYSTEMS How did the geography and Reliable Source of Water What were the belief systems of CIVILIZATION/ environment of various river valleys The rivers provided the water necessary for agriculture in regions without early civilizations like? PEOPLE BELIEF SYSTEMS The belief systems of these early civilizations around the world make the rise of adequate rainfall. however. Describe What happened to the Muslim com. Migrating peoples also adopted and adapted the ideas and goods of the people they GEOGRAPHICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL encountered. Prepare a presentation to explain what changed the Phoenician alphabet to suit their language. Islam’s holy book. architecture developed distinctive fea- best fits each of the following descriptions. 1000 Vikings settle on the Magna Carta in Mecca to Medina? “ of the Franks. The Qur’an. medicine. The Big Picture. Covering the hair and sometimes wearing a veil also of traditional mosques with the architecture of 3. Mecca. but ends with disunity and invasion. and it remained impressive sites such as the pyramids in Egypt. Evaluate Evaluate this statement: “The Five Some for the Glories of This World. Building irrigations systems helped selves with the need to control nature that had similarities in their geography tame the rivers and provided the right amount of water to the fields.hrw. Sometimes the Tigris Belief systems associated with the river varied widely.” SECTION 2 (pp. A chapter Civilization theme is also highlighted. law court. Explain How did scholarship in the Muslim 23. The Greeks adopted and Roman alphabet and why it was built.indd 278 10/9/06 11:51:46 w8nafs_isw_review. the annual flooding of the rivers replenished Jews began the first monotheistic religion. a. historian who warned later historians against bias the Abbasid dynasty. persons who follow Islam 10. poet whose poems were collected into the “Khadijah Women played vital roles in the early Muslim community. Society Abbasid dynasty had a major impact on Islam as a under the austere rule of the Seljuk Turks. Syria. and some coast of North America. A historic painting or photograph illustrates the time period you are Civilization Prehistory–1000 BC CHAPTER 2 The Ancient Near East 4000 BC–550 BC CHAPTER 3 Nile Civilizations about to explore. 7. and the Huang He did not have enough water. The geography of those ruler played a central role in both govern- valleys provided water and fertile soil. do research to explore Muslim The Abbasid dynasty stimulates trade. and the arts. Reading Skills Spain. but also as a religious school. Under Umayyad rule. What is the implied main idea of the paragraph? provide support for your comparison. In this chapter you will learn how Islam is a belief system that affects every aspect of a devout follower’s life. How to Use Your Textbook Holt World History: Human Legacy was created to make your study of world history an enjoyable. The Rubaiyat 16. a. Elaborate Why might a historian say that the 22. or hajj. The Nile’s flooding was predictable. Muslim civiliza- tion developed states that touched three continents and produced some of history’s most notable achievements in the arts and sciences. 270–274) Omar Khayyam’s poem? go. Recall Where was Muhammad born. 120 UNIT 1 121 w8nafs_u01_themesrev. belief systems Canaan/Israel The ancient Hebrews create Judaism. 1 2 3 4 5 c. Zoroaster founded another monotheistic religion and emphasized the concept of w8nafs_u01_opn. and cattle are native to the Fertile Crescent. take the Cash. How did geogra- phy and environment shape that civilization? How might migra- Theme Geography and environment Contributions and tables show how each unit theme Migration and diffusion tion and diffusion have influenced its development? What were Egyptian scripts the unique characteristics of the civilization’s belief systems and Belief systems How did migration and diffusion affect early civilizations? have they had a lasting influence? When people migrate. and other fields. beautifully styled writing often applied to build- became common during Abbasid rule. pottery. Arts Muslim expertise in astronomy and the require. become important. textiles. and Buddhism begin here. Many beautiful mosques from the early years of also influenced political decisions. group that seeks a mystical religious experience 11. who 750 1000 1250 Analyzing Visuals Judging from the photo. Explain What roles did Ali and Husayn play in 21.indd 254 Prophet” refer? 10/9/06 11:51:57 AM w8nafs_isw_opener. was once a sacred site. Using the including calligraphy. The Romans the site can tell us about the people who built it and their adapted the Greek alphabet. Develop The region where Khayyam lived was Muhammad reports revelations from Allah. CHAPTER History's Impact video program Reading 9 Chapter Review TIME LINE Review the video to answer the closing question: What impact has Islam had on the world? 610 Muhammad reports the first revelations from Allah. and what the monu- ment reveals about the belief systems of the people who developments in history. use infor- prayer 19. instrument used to navigate at sea favor harem. Graphic organizers Choose one of the civilizations discussed in the unit to look at more closely.indd AM 279 10/9/06 11:51:53 AM . the philosophies of Confucius and Laozi Themes and Global Connections  Confucius and Laozi. Advances in The Umayyad dynasty expands territory and history. The Egypt People worship many gods and emphasize the afterlife. term that means “successor” describe ways that the buildings are similar and 14. 262–267) Nor heed the rumble of a distant Drum! ” —Omar Khayyam. and Buddhism—began in India Once domesticated. concept of Dualism. 570 built. world affect Europe? of both Muslim and Jewish culture. c. the treatment of women and slaves. his reign as king trading empire in reaches its peak. its individual symbols repre. When it was c. p. Spain reached a golden age astronomy. or Roman temples. 500 and what The excerpt is from the Rubaiyat by Omar Khayyam. EVENTS born in Arabia. Identifying Implied Main Ideas Read the passage below from this chapter. and even domesticated plants and scripts Stonehenge and its megaliths. What details help you find the implied main idea? 12. West Africa. In the centuries after his death. hospital. The Phoenicians used this system as the basis Making Connections Choose one of these sites or for their alphabet. ” houses of worship that you have already studied. tall towers from which the faithful are called to ings. what Five Pillars of Islam was his occupation as a young man? lived from about 1048 to 1131. SECTION 3 (pp. 800 900 1066 The Norman Conquest 1215 role do you think the mosque plays in its community? WORLD and a scholar familiar with medicine. pigs. Modern European might have influenced the monument. especially agriculture and architec- strengthens the caliphate’s central government.indd 1 10/10/06 7:58:57 AM Plants Suitable for Cultivation dualism. another ancient site and research what is known about how you examine the global impact of key sented sounds rather than syllables or ideas.Ghana and is a major b. 5000 BC–AD 300 CHAPTER 4 Ancient India and China 2500 BC–250 BC Themes Unique environmental and geographic fea- tures led to the development of civilizations This photograph shows the with common characteristics in different parts The Dawn of Civilization. Sigh for the Prophet’s Paradise to come. or animals.com 17. and 5. leading to the Sunni-Shia split. a time line for the years covered in Muslim the chapter. Women of the Abbasid court the caliphate still stand. begins astronomy. Jainism. take Baghdad. H26 mathematics. eties in which they arose. Global Connections huge stones. Islamic texts influenced the structure of the world religion? do you think the Seljuk Turks would have viewed family. previous chapters. pigs in Harappa. and writing diffused rapidly. Prehistory–AD 300 Chephren and Mycerinus of the world. Canaanite scribes used Egyptian in England and New Grange in Ireland are two examples of hieratic and demotic scripts to represent the sound of the initial letter Greek alphabet prehistoric sites in Europe. meaningful experience. early peoples planted the same crops. day while facing poor and other to dusk during pilgrimage. Animals Suitable for Domestication The ancestors of domesticated sheep. of ideas or things from one place to another takes place. Women lost status during 1. mathematics. Reading Like a Historian to Medina—the hegira. To 4. Stonehenge in use until the first century AD. the soil by adding a new layer of silt to the fields. Infer In the second line.

This location and the geogra- phy of Japan has shaped life in the region. Describe How does Rivera represent the leaders of the a. The religious crises during the Middle Ages were 'SBODF-PXDPVOUSJFT(FSNBOZ4DBOEJOBWJB#SJUJTI*TMFT 'SBODF-PXDPVOUSJFT#SJUJTI*TMFT(FSNBOZ4DBOEJOBWJB A He would be concerned with the needs of the poor. had nurtured in the shadows of the Hidalgo and other prominent figures in Mexico’s that are reserved just for them. "E 10356(". Recall what you have learned about the diffusion of C ruled directly by the pope. D having Roman law codified. . eyes of a Cuban revolutionary. meaning “Land of Korea by land or by water during the 660s? major events and periods in early Korean history? The legendary gods Izanagi and Izanami the Rising Sun. In José Martí. you will be asked to write an essay outlining similarities and differences The country where we were born.  C the threat of excommunication.PSFB#BZ The Myth of Izanami and Izanagi. D He wanted to increase the church’s wealth.1*3& $"-*1)"5&  . they result. C defeating his enemies in battle at the Milvian Bridge. They took artisans to GEOGRAPHY China. in .  C Muslim themes. a.P SF BIRTH 6OJmFE4JMMB. Standardized Test Practice  tests appear at the end Skills FOCUS D OCUMENT 1 READING LIKE A HISTORIAN D OCUMENT 4 of every unit. When as a Spanish lieutenant-colonel of In the 1900s Mexican artist Diego Rivera painted ters and lords. pub- lished an article in 1891 describing José de San Mar- tín. They forced . humiliations. REVOLUTIONS. Rivera depicts Father should never aspire to the honors and public positions of his native memories. Movement Did the Tang Chinese invade Sequence What were the Japanese call their land Nippon. revolution. he was no longer enormous murals throughout Mexico City. Napoleon issued a proclamation to the people It is not a circumstantial freedom conceded to ourselves in this mural? differences between San Martín and other revolutionaries alone that we want. Feudalism was a response to 10-"/% D William the Conqueror. they think that we lands] deep in his America. A Henry II. Interpret How does Aguirre characterize the documents above and information from this chapter. Spanish? a thesis that expresses your opinion. UJD B encouraging learning and codifying laws. and how did be written on the flags of the colony. D drought and poor harvests 428 UNIT 4 MEDIEVAL EUROPE 429 HOW TO USE YOUR TEXTBOOK xxxiii w8nafs_u04_stp. and how did he questions help you check your w8nafs_cea_sec3.  cise power over nobles because of C He would want to build magnificent churches. This map shows Europe The person who first unified most of the Christian C codifying Russian law. we will thus be slaves when he that a rebellion in Haiti might occur in the future? reasons. The Consul maintains slavery in b. Analyze How do Toussaint L’Ouverture’s words indicate People supported independence in the Americas for many ognize your freedom and equality of rights” should Martinique and Bourbon. Recall what you learned A founding the city of Constantinople. In 1392 a Korean general founded 1.com create the first island of Japan. a. theirs.indd 428 10/11/06 2:32:09w8nafs_u04_stp. But our country is a separate land. A codifying Byzantine law. Write a brief essay D closed by barbarian raids in the AD 300s. the brine dripping down from 1BFLDIF.BFTPOH   thrived. Byzantine art is characterized by Constructed Response After the fall of Rome and dur-  A secular themes. Interpret Why did Toussaint L’Ouverture refuse to follow the property of his like. the origin of the sunrise. examination system similar to China’s.” For -BNCFSUDPOGPSNBMDPOJDQSPKFDUJPO (: ¡& gods who were brother and sister.hrw. played important roles in Europe. ²% C defeated the Normans in England. “We have KOREA. The Koreans later improved  o D brother and sister went on to create all the islands of Japan. de la Rosa’s teacher tells him about liberator of Argentina. Historical Context These four documents are accounts of several Latin American revolutions by people involved in or affected by these revolutions. all with one command. He was taken to Spain to at the end of every chapter. to form the land of Japan. ¡/ :B /(/ . Gregory the Great worked to 4FB #BMUJD &/(-"/% 4FB C Charles Martel. Italy. Identify Who was Prince Shotoku. instance. his father was governor thousand leagues away. Those of us who are their very children 34 he returned to fight against Spain. 1885. on the other side of the ocean. Summarize What aspects of Chinese culture did the Korea Japanese borrow? 3. feudalism. and People Critical Thinking 322 Section Assessment  1. according to Aguirre? See Skills Handbook. no one A European king who fought in the Crusades was D eventually settled the coast of northern Italy. In 1885 Bolivian writer and statesman Nataniel Agu- irre published The Memoirs of Juan de la Rosa. Korean society was divided between a 1ZPOHZBOH 5A 4FBPG+BQBO "& entrusted the mission to them. He decreed that the words “Remem. Then write a short b. pp. of the holy gospel . Then write a brief essay in which you summa- B leading the Nika Revolt. go. assessment practice online. the brother During the Koryo period. and a disadvantage? Japan 2. D on the land route from Europe to Asia.indd PM 707 9/27/06 2:11:53 PM Directions Write your answer for each statement or question on a separate answer sheet. As a *NKJO3 /"/ . 5IF'POUBOB&DPOPNJD)JTUPSZPG&VSPQF 7PM5IF.” After creating this first island. Compare and Contrast What are some similarities and 1799. 54 . black or white cannot be a.indd 327 10/10/06 7:51:25 AM Test Prep and Practice CHAPTER 23 Document-Based Investigation Holt World History: Human Legacy provides many Independence in Latin America A Bolivian Supports Independence A Cuban’s View of San Martín opportunities to help you prepare for standardized tests. Viking raiders from Scandinavia SJB 4F #:. but the Most High himself A Philip Augustus. H28 706 CHAPTER 23 REFORMS. Analyze How did China’s nearness to Korea affect the main ideas. In addition. which ruled until 1910. . and manorialism affected life in D classical Greek themes. &45*. the Buddhist texts. From the Conquest to 1930. and Key Terms and People. B set back by the Crusades. . What factors shaped early archipelago notes about early borrowing from China Japanese civilization? Shinto How to Use Japan and Korea. C the creation of friars. feudalism. and He learned to read on the mountain slopes and grew up in we never know when—if at all—the resolutions that his the town as a gentleman’s son in the shade of the palms Council dictates. enslaved many Koreans. A the Crusades Europe. a. Photograph © 2007 Museum of Fine Arts. Identify Cause and Effect How did the status of women in Japan influence the development of Japanese literature? 4. H25. $"45*-& "3"(0/ #MBDL4FB D the inability of kings to defend their lands from attack. Standing on the Heavenly Floating Bridge. A The Hundred Years’ War. by Diego Rivera.   . &BTU4FB #" &.000 wooden blocks to print . .JOHEPN Reading Check  was the island Onogoro. At the age of 12 the child “who seldom laughed” Mexico’s History Reflected in Art themselves nothing more and nothing less than our mas. as well as many other His veins flowed with the blood of a soldier from León and Document-Based Investigation  features appear between several Latin American revolutions. Boston [Izanagi and Izanami] the Heavenly Jeweled Spear. B a smallpox epidemic goods and ideas between Asia and Europe. /PSUI B Charlemagne. showed me what I ought to do. SECTION 3 ASSESSMENT Online Quiz Keyword: SHL CEA HP Reviewing Ideas. A controlled by merchants from northern Europe and B developing the Cyrillic alphabet. AND WAR 707 Standardized Test Practice w8nafs_ref_dbi. each section includes the following special features: SECTION Taking Notes  graphic 3 Japan and Korea organizers help you record BEFORE YOU READ As you key ideas as you read. Terms. 54 no land. however. D hindered by guilds that prohibited the used of credit. D the growth of trade and towns. But Toussaint L’Ouverture refused to follow the order and responded will be stronger.PSZP. obey a king who is two a granddaughter of conquistadors. and Peru through the Task Study the documents and answer the questions that some of the motivations behind the revolution. Analyze How does Rivera represent the people of Mexico b.0)"% B &. Place What physical features help separate WORLD Northeast of China and some 100 miles east of the a new dynasty. 1900s follow. countries in this part of the world."/ C convert the Roman emperor to Christianity. and when they . His agents believe that they are demigods. Focus Questions. (& )" 4 WFS 3 "/ “At this time the heavenly deities. the will to work systematically and in the center of the mural. revealed to me that I ought to live according to the model B Saladin. were important in moving goods and ideas from Asia into B clustered in major cities. learn dancing and Latin in a school for the sons of noble- high above us. B eventually settled in France. explain how China influenced Japan b. This sec. Which of the following best explains the change in A after Charlemagne. What were some of these reasons. are scorned and condemned to suffer innumerable according to plan for American independence. It takes one year for our complaints to reach his feet. only nobles could take the test. They follow a format like the kind used on a. Identify Cause and Effect Using your notes and a graphic other major religions? organizer like this one. The world still had culture . or even his sovereign dispositions."5&%1016-"5*0/*/"3&"40'&6301& D during Charles Martel’s reign. The 2.  1PQVMBUJPO JONJMMJPOT A the fealty oath. How did foreign influences Prince Shotoku tions of Japan and Korea. Narration You are a member of a Japanese mission sent to b. the process by creating metal movable type.JMPNFUFST .JOHEPN D B4 5TVTIJNB the tip of the spear piled up and became an island. and forced men to serve in the Yuan mil- itary. ². They allow you to analyze arrive here.” C during Charlemagne’s reign.  B the Benedictine Code. European population shown on the graph? B before Charlemagne. B an increase in the amount of heresy against the church. form with the following words. by Obayashi Eitaku. Interpret Do you think Martí respects San Martín? Why or Freedom in Haiti Mexican Revolution? why not? Several months after he seized power in France in b. ²7 /"7"33& A destroying Roman texts. about each topic.  rize how the church.JOHEPN D ¡& in beauty and was highly prized. the first gods appeared the section with an on-the. and how does it differ from many 5. There is also Tang China. After you have studied all the documents. ocean of the world and stirred. 2.JOHEPN D $IFKV For the early people who lived on these islands.” powerful nobility and the rest of the people.indd 706 9/27/06 2:11:50w8nafs_ref_dbi. Describe What was life like at the Heian court? understanding of a section’s b. Kore- SKILLS INTERPRETING MAPS Early Japanese Civilization opportunities to review and ans rebelled.PHVSZP. among young patricians and struggle for independence standing above the eagle mixed Spanish and Indian blood]. :FMMPX4FB &. D OCUMENT 3 they affect Latin American independence? Using the a.$JQPMMBFE  The early monasteries of Europe were A a rich prize for invading peoples. C the plague on how these contacts affected Europe during the Middle Ages.  D the ability to choose bishops. a supporter of the Cuban revolution. Those who presented themselves to C Richard the Lion-Hearted. will and the urundays [kinds of trees]. When the Yuan dynasty weakened.JEEMF"HFT  (MBTHPX$PMMJOT'POUBOB  o Constructed Response Muslim traders and the Mongols A instrumental in spreading Christianity. Choose Yaroslav the Wise was known for The growth of trade in Europe was the letter of the word or expression that best completes the statement or answers the question. B near the Bosporus. Identify Main Ideas Why should Bolivians support the essay to support your opinion. the church. free black citizens. Recall Which kingdom first unified Korea? 6. So the gods ordered Izanagi and Izanami. .POHPMJOWBTJPO o beliefs. In addition.JOHEPN D USB the Koreans used Chinese methods of printing 4JMMB. A expand the power of the pope.indd 322 10/9/06 3:09:35 PM contribute to early Japanese history? China b. “When the Lord gave me the care of some brothers.indd PM 429 10/11/06 2:32:16 PM . Lady Murasaki Shikibu Japan Korea shape life in early Japan? Koryo dynasty 3. A unemployed knights pillaging the countryside. C encouraging the Crusades." ¡& mikoto: ‘Complete and solidify this drifting land!’ Giving and government positions were inherited. What does the following excerpt from the will of UFSSBOFBO4F0'4*$*-: Francis of Assisi indicate about him? ² B D developing separate laws to suit each conquered tribe. 918–1392 ¡& always had a deep adoration for Tang-style scene story from history. C attempts to improve the manorial system.   . We are free today because we are Napoleon’s order? ber. Charlemagne changed Frankish society by -&»/ &. the result of  During the Middle Ages. —the criollos [Bolivian-born people with only Spanish the man forged by the wind and rain of the pampas [grass- and write about historical documents. the Koryo adopted a civil service . Constantinople’s location was important because :FBS it was 4PVSDF +PTJBI$3VTTFMM i1PQVMBUJPOJO&VSPQF wJO$BSMP. though.” Japan sits on the western edge of the Pacific—what perhaps felt to the early Japanese like assess your understanding. CULTURES OF EAST ASIA 327 w8nafs_cea_sec3. JU +"1"/ lifted up [the spear] again.ZPOHKV This celadon pottery rivaled Song porcelain water] with a churning-churning sound. His subjects who come from there consider men.JMFT  when the heaven and earth separated. Korean culture 4POHEP )B O . 0$&"/ '3"/$& 30. "5-"/5*$ )0-: B the need for vassals to provide fealty to lords.1*3& )6/("3: D complete an important work of philosophy. A defeated the Magyars. and manorialism A major accomplishment of Justinian I was  B Christian themes. “They stirred the brine [sea 1VZV 40 # " . MAIN IDEA READING FOCUS KEY TERMS AND PEOPLE use a graphic orga- nizer like this to take Geography and cultural 1. of Yapeyú on the banks of one of America’s great rivers. Explain How has Japan’s location been both an advantage and Korea. Your textbook read.Section Each section begins with a Main Idea statement. became a cadet. C well fortified and had a good water source. the In the 1200s the Mongols of Yuan China $IJOFTFJOWBTJPO o ever-present nearness of the sea shaped their lives and OF THE invaded and occupied Korea. This and carved some 80. Chile. that the French people alone rec- the stronger party. a.          Europe. whose blood is half like noblemen from Madrid. but the soldier who. Write a short diary entry in which you describe development of Korean culture? what you are doing and the purpose of your mission. Korea. Korean artisans created pottery cov- 3  and sister dipped the Heavenly Jeweled Spear into the $)*/" .*/(%0. shaped the early civiliza.U1BFLUV . B expand the power of the kings over the church. lands in western Europe after the fall of Rome was D defeating Constantinople."/5*/& "-. brave blacks. What were the main events in the history of early Korea? How might geography shape a society’s beliefs? According to Japanese legend.FEJ . B He would be concerned with the needs of the rich. MV (/*. poor. a novel about a fictional soldier in the Bolivian revolution. principle that any man born red. popes were able to exer. Koryo’s rulers continued to adopt Chinese ideas but worked to maintain distinct Korean features. in the glow shows the history of Mexico. What characteristics defined Japan’s Heian period? The Inside Story  begins 4. C controlled by the Hanseatic League. Today the legend of Izanagi and Izanami remains a questions provide frequent Koryo’s rulers to pay immense tributes and FLOATING popular Japanese creation myth. tion of Rivera’s mural in the city’s National Palace blood]—are looked upon with disdain.5 3J ". Korea from China? Asian mainland lies the island country of Japan. ing the Middle Ages. follow this kind of life distributed all they might have to the D Frederick Barbarossa. In the article Martí describes the life of the the excerpt below. said to the two deities Izanagi-no-mikoto and Izanami-no. The mestizos [people with Masonic Lodge of Lautaro. (  GU  N 0/ and our people’s character is different. c. 5 4 ered with a blue-green glaze called celadon. It is the absolute adoption of the D OCUMENT 2 you have read about? of Haiti promising to respect the rights of the colony’s many standardized tests. One Koryo ruler declared. Recall What is Shinto.

such as analyzing primary sources. Section 3? Where do you find time lines to help you understand the chronology of events? Where do you find important academic vocabulary words defined? Where do you find review questions to help you study? If you want help with test-taking strategies. Before you begin your journey into the past. where do you look? Where do you look to find a list of all of the primary sources used? Where can you find a map that gives you an introduction to Chapter 18? xxxiv . Scavenger Hunt Holt World History: Human Legacy opens a window on the past. How many units and chapters are in the book? How do you know? Where in Human Legacy do you find the atlas? The Reading Like a Historian section in the front of the book offers students instruction in various skills. Where and how do you find key terms and people for Chapter 22. Enjoy your journey. On a separate piece of paper. write the answers to the Scavenger Hunt questions below. take a minute to familiarize your- self with this book and its contents. Name two other places in Human Legacy where you find additional Reading Like a Historian skills practice.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H32 Analyzing Points of View . H4 Creating Written Presentations: Persuasive. . . H25 Analyzing Visuals . . . . . . H36 Identifying Main Ideas and Details. . H47 Interpreting Pie Graphs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H2 Creating Written Presentations: Expository. . . . . . . . . . H13 Strategies for Line and Bar Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sam Wineburg. . H19 Analyzing Costs and Benefits. . . . . . . . . H35 Academic Vocabulary. H38 Understanding Causes and Effects . . . . . . . . . H42 Making Generalizations. . . . . . . . . H33 Skills handbook H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H17 Interpreting Movement Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . H16 Strategies for Document-Based Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kylene Beers. . . . . . . . H14 Strategies for Constructed Response. . . . . . . . H45 Interpreting Time Lines. . . . . Skills Handbook with Test-Taking Strategies Reading Skills Writing and Speaking Skills Skills Handbook Becoming an Active Reader Creating Written Presentations: Biography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H46 Interpreting Line and Bar Graphs. . . . . . . . . . H20 Evaluating Information on the Internet. . . . H28 Recognizing Bias in Primary Sources . . . . . . . H26 Interpreting Political Cartoons. . . . . . H40 Identifying Problems and Solutions . . . . . H6 Creating Written Presentations: Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H7 Making Oral Presentations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H10 Strategies for Multiple Choice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H22 Analyzing Primary Sources. . . H43 Strategies for Pie Graphs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H11 Strategies for Historical Sources. . . . . . . . . . H21 Reading Like a Historian Skills Reading Like a Historian by Dr. . . . . . H30 Recognizing Bias in Secondary Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . H31 Evaluating Historical Interpretation . . . . . . . . H29 Analyzing Secondary Sources. . . . H44 Social Studies Skills Strategies for Political and Thematic Maps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H9 Test-Taking Strategies Making Inferences. . H41 Drawing Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H48 Interpreting Charts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H18 Interpreting Historical Maps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H15 Strategies for Extended Response. . . . . H8 Understanding Comparison and Contrast . . . . . . . H37 Sequencing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H27 Interpreting Literature as a Source. . . . . H34 by Dr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H12 Strategies for Political Cartoons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

economic embargo. leader naturally anger Brazil’s large landowners.S. The Reading Check questions offer opportunities to Members of Brazil’s assess what you have learned as you go.S. The CIA intervened in a coup that VOCABULARY sites in Cuba. more than 1. an Central America? build camps on large. or radical. look for questions from power. ships in Guatemala. Kylene Beers D o you read a letter or email from a friend the same way you read a newspaper article? What about a poem and the instructions to an exam? Or a novel and a textbook? Chances are the answer is no: you read Skills Handbook differently depending on your purpose for reading. In just in social studies. In a textbook. But it was a disaster. people’s civil liberties are through unfair elections and repression. Cuba’s economy suffered.” Understanding a U. in other Central American countries. In the end. government Soviet Union. places. How did the Cuban Revolu- countries experienced con. however.S. nomic and social trends in industrialization America after World War postwar Latin America? Liberation Theology absorbing the main points. Effects of conflicts. an outspoken gov- through a network of neighborhood spies. You have to be an active reader—questioning what you read. Most went to the United States. Romero margin under the heading Academic Economic effects have also been mixed. nuclear war as it had ever been. Academic Vocabulary  When we use a Results of the Revolution In the years since these Cold War conflicts. are organized in 1 Revolution and outline format. Some joined rural guerrilla forces. changes did it bring? Sandinistas iarize yourself with some of the ways that this text- tion by the United States. The coup was the start of nedy ordered a naval blockade to intercept affect its outcome that reinforce the reading skills you will be nearly a half century of repressive dictator- Soviet ships loaded with missiles for Cuba. Watch for these words as organization of countries in the Americas that promotes economic and military cooperation. import-substitution led social conditions in Latin section. What were some key eco. When you are reading for information. lands. Their mission was designed to spark a nationwide uprising against Castro. the MST has gained legal rights to much people. In 1961 a U. Castro relied on the Soviet Union for economic sup- port. stopping to review. The gov- 1980 government assassins gunned down ernment jails opponents and watches citizens Archbishop Oscar Romero. where military dictatorships kept power education. with main heads and subheads to help Intervention you navigate the material. sphere of influence and wanted to keep Brazil’s huge Landless Workers’ Movement. What other conflicts arose Contras in Central America? book facilitates reading comprehension. to invade and causedland In addition. H LATIN AMERICA 971 Skills handbook w8nafs_lat_sec1. and repression landless farmers placesprivate as well.S. brought the world as close to learning in this handbook.S. and events that you will communism out of the region. In the margins. Cuban Revolution? Violence continued into the 1990s.S. known as the Cuban The harshness of the government and the missile crisis. land.S. but if he’s not of each section you will find a list of terms. MST is regularly in conflict with the police and other govern- ment officials. opposition. The OAS was strongly anticommunist. There are unused properties in the region. Cuba has also suffered for decades because of a U. For example. El Salvador Civil war also struck El Salva- Cubans have good access to health care and dor. Involvement Cuba’s move toward Other Conflicts of the country’s farmland. As a result. El Salvador. The Reagan administration sup- Identify Cause and Effect ported the Salvadoran government and the What were some of the causes and effects of the army by providing money and military aid. into an event to a military dictator. a peace accord brought an end to the fighting. Pressure from the United Fruit Company. an American company that owned w8nafs_lat_sec1. and the end of social reforms upset many peasants. interested. the guerrillas and government troops. word that is important in all classes. the Organization of American States (OAS). You will see these words in Cuba’s economy struggled as a result.-trained Guatemala In 1952 Guatemala’s president. concepts. making connections. especially a history book. landless workers have joined together to try to get land for READING leaders. 967 peasants. Take a moment to famil- Trends Conflicts II. U. a compromise was reached. attempts to oust Cuba’s com- munist leaders failed. However. along Cuba’s southern coast. such as when you are reading a textbook. and civil war raged from the 1970s to the 1990s between Soviet Union removed the missile sites. In 1962 the CIA learned that that Guatemala’s president must be removed ACADEMIC the Soviet Union was building nuclear missile reading. what’s the point? We have to organize and take over that land ourselves. Landless Workers’ Movement march to the capital. we define it in the restricted under a one-party system. the United States helped set up The MST Yet economic conditions organizes Political affected were groups ofcorruption manyunused not the only cause the MST for its initials in Portuguese. LAND FOR THE Reading Focus and Reading Check  The Reading Focus questions act as a type LANDLESS of outline for each section. They viewed Latin America as part Brazil’s of As poor problem Cuba. and Nicaragua. Becoming an Active Reader by Dr. Castro’s policies led many Cubans to leave the country. This policy hurt the United Fruit Company. was founded in 1984. less than 3 percent of the population owns about two-thirds ate [take] them. mala.5 million he’s a landowner. economic inequality was a serious SKILLS in citizens. Ken. ernment critic. Kennedy soon found himself in Guatemala. You can’t expect to absorb all that if you just let the words slide by. these invasions One MST U. presi- dent John F. Who has a right to a country’s There is only one way to force the government to expropri- Key Terms and People At the beginning land? In Brazil. anticipating. so you should learn what 1991. Peasant villagers were often caught in the middle as government- other textbooks. There are frequent review BEFORE YOU READ Take notes on trends M I R F K T PEOPLE in Latin America and questions to help you assess whether or not you are AIN DEA EADING OCUS EY ERMS AND In reaction to economic and on the conflicts in this 1. communism during the Cold War troubled U. However. Jacobo Arbenz. junta 3. Human Legacy is structured to help you be an S ECTION active reader. and was one of many priests in Latin America who supported Liberation Theology. You think they’ll do it if we write them a letter? Asking the mayor is a waste of time. known as Causes and Over the years. sponsored “death squads” roamed the coun- tryside killing civilians suspected of aiding the they mean while reading this book. Missiles from these sites would intervene to enter toppled Arbenz in 1954 and replaced him with be able to easily hit targets in America. Shortly after World War II. as he was leading mass. there are a lot of facts. make sure they understand what they are along with concerns that Arbenz was a left- a far more serious crisis with Cuba and the ist. Che Guevara tion come about and what flicts that involved interven. Romero’s murder sparked a bloody civil Vocabulary. Bay of Pigs. This tense confrontation. A different purpose calls for a different way of reading. many Central American Fidel Castro 2. especially if U.S. About 350. the need to know.indd 10/10/06 4:04:24 PM huge amounts of mostly uncultivated land in ber of reading skills and strategies to Cuban troops easily defeated the invaders.indd 971 10/10/06 4:06:50 PM . you have a different purpose than when you are reading just for fun. and unfamiliar words and names. Finally. you read.S. used land reform to take over LATIN AMERICA 967 invasion force of Cuban exiles landed in the large landholdings and distribute the land to Reading Skills  Good readers use a num. the Cuban in 1996. Still stinging from this defeat.000 families have acquired land through What conflicts in invasions and takeovers. persuaded the U. But when the Soviet Union collapsed in war between Communist-supported guerrilla groups and the army. not Revolution has had mixed results. for example. support explained ments for anticommunist the reasons stirred for these landbut nationalist corrupt invasions: passions govern- “You in have Guate- a right to land. Sections. As a result. You could talk to the priest. Repeated U.

and events in the Summarize  what you are reading fre. • Construct tables or K-W-L charts into which brought about. vocabulary Sequencing words: first. how- read. main ideas and focus questions. to help determine titles of chapters and sections. They look for signal words shown below. finally visuals such as charts. causes events to occur. Predict  what will happen next on the Connect  events in the text to what you basis of what already has happened in already know or have read. ever. then. . earlier. • Preview what they are supposed to read • Use clues from the text. Skilled readers . later. second. smaller parts. third. similarly.Read Like a Skilled Reader How can you become a more skilled reader? For starters. as a result of. the reason for. thus. and what understanding. such as the before they begin reading. They Comparison and contrast words: like- write notes in the tables or charts as they wise. When your predictions do not Clarify  your understanding by pausing match what happens in the text. and Cause and effect words: because. places. next. information in the before. Read some of the text and summarize. Active readers know that it is up to them to figure out what the text means. to clarify or read further to collect Constantly ask yourself why events hap. as well as. and that. soon. words and key terms. you first need to think about how to become a better reader. listings of or cement understanding. reread occasionally to ask questions and check to clarify meaning. also. so. led to. since. Envision events or places by draw- quently. the text. . graphs. Skills handbook H . making charts. Do not try to summarize an entire ing maps. more information before you gain pen. Visualize  people. Then move on. text. after. maps. what certain ideas mean. following margin such as Academic Vocabulary. Here are some steps you can take to become an active and successful reader. photographs due to. or taking notes chapter! Instead. on the other hand Active Reading Successful readers are active readers. break a chapter into about what you are reading. therefore. for meaning. You may need to reread Question  what is happening as you read. You also can use the following Skills Handbook ideas and strategies. unlike. consequently they organize ideas from the reading.

or national origin intervene  to enter into an event to affect its outcome displace  t o cause a person. They appear in the margins of sections. often political commission  t o order the creation of something such as a immigrate  to move to another country to live piece of art import  bring into a place or country component  part or element incorporated  combined or made into one body or unit constraints  limitations infrastructure  p  ublic works. not constant because of race. Key terms and people are listed at the begin- ning of every section. Academic vocabulary are words you need to know for other classes. You will encounter the definitions of the terms as Skills Handbook you read the section. Below is a list of these academic vocabu- lary words. Building Your Vocabulary Holt Human Legacy helps you build your vocabulary by highlighting two types of vocabulary words. such as buildings and roads. Academic Word/Definition administer  to manage or to run export  an item sent to other regions for trade allocate  to distribute for a particular purpose framework  t he context or background for an action or event amendment  a written change to a legal document fundamental  basic assessed  evaluated or determined generation  g  roup of people born and living about the assume  believe to be true same time blockade  to isolate an enemy by using troops or warships hypothesis  assumption or theory commerce  trade or the exchange of goods ideology  a system of ideas. currency  money that are needed to support a population cycle  to alternate among two or more things or events initiate  to begin despite  in spite of institute  to originate and establish deviate  to turn away from a course or topic integrate  to blend or join together discrimination  t he act of treating a person differently intermittent  happening from time to time. You can also turn to the Glossary for definitions. gender. or thing to move from its usual place invest  to commit money in order to make a financial return distribution  t he spread of something among a group of irrelevant  not appropriate or related to the subject people labor  work diverse  made up of many elements. These are words you need to know to master the social studies content. animal. varied legislation  laws or rules passed by a governing body domestic  relating to the home or to household activities legitimacy  the right to rule entity  having an independent or separate distinction liberal  supporter of political and social reform ethnic  common background or culture maintain  keep up or support H Skills handbook . along with their definitions.

Chronological Terms BC  short for “Before Christ. Holt Human Legacy follows events.” it refers to dates after the birth of Jesus birth of Jesus Skills handbook H . began around AD 525. such as a person or scope  extent or degree a scene sector  a subdivision of society preclude  t o prevent something or someone from doing something security  freedom from danger or fear predominant  most common or important stability  resistance to change or destruction prejudiced  b  iased against a racial. this common usage. Latin for “in the Year of CE  short for “Common Era. gain general acceptance in Europe until cal eras use different methods for dating the 1200s. position. or national stance  a n attitude. following in time privileges  s pecial rights granted to certain people because of their position in society sufficient  enough of what is needed prohibition  an order or law that forbids synthesize  to combine several parts into a whole proportion  t he size or amount of a thing in relation to technique  method.” it refers to dates before BCE  short for “Before the Common Era.” it refers to dates after the the Lord.Academic Word/Definition maximize  to increase to the greatest possible level resolved  determined patriarch  father figure revenue  m  oney that a government uses to pay for public programs perspective  personal point of view sacraments  s olemn Christian rites believed to have been phase  a period or stage within a longer process instituted by Jesus Christ Skills Handbook portray  t o show or depict something. way of performing a task another thing theories  p  lausible general principles offered to explain prosperity  wealth or success what has been observed rational  having reason or understanding utilize  to make use of regime  a specific and often harsh government valid  correct or justified region  an area with one or more common features violate  break or ignore regulation  a law designed to control or govern conduct welfare  well-being A Note about Chronological Terms Historians like to fix exact dates on The system of dating used in the West events. events and their meanings.” it refers to the birth of Jesus dates before the birth of Jesus AD  short for Anno Domini. for example. The table below measured dates by the years in the reign shows some of the terms used in dating of an emperor. religious. but that isn’t as easy as it seems. The ancient Romans. though it did not Different cultures and different histori. or view about someone or group something preliminary  c oming before and usually forming a status  position or rank necessary introduction to something else subsequent  later.

Identifying Main Ideas .# North Carolina Skills
1.02 Summarize to select

and Details
main ideas.

Define the Skill
SKILLS HANDBOOK

The main idea is the central thought in a passage. It is a general statement
READING SKILLS

that conveys the key concept the author wants the reader to know. The main
idea can come at the beginning, middle, or end of a passage, although it is most
often found at the beginning. The main idea can be one or two sentences and
can be implied or directly stated.
Details are statements that support or explain the main idea. Details are
specific and provide additional information to the reader, such as the who,
what, when, where, why, and how of the main idea. Details include statements,
statistics, examples, explanations, and descriptions.

Learn the Skill
Read the passage below and note how the details support the main idea.

France continued to grow and change during the era of the Third
Republic. Officials wrote a new constitution under which the govern-
ment would have a two-house legislature and a president. Public edu-
cation laws required free education for children between the ages of 6
and 13. Union membership became legal. All men now had the right
to vote.

Main Idea
France continued to grow and change during the era of the Third Republic.

Details
Detail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3 Detail 4
Officials wrote a new Public education Union membership All men had the right
constitution that laws required free became legal. to vote.
would have a two- education for children
house legislature and aged 6 to 13.
a president.

Apply the Skill
Turn to Section 4 of the chapter titled Reforms, Revolutions, and War and locate
the blue head titled “Effects on Native Americans.” Use a graphic organizer like
the one above to identify the main idea and details of the passage.
1. Identify the main idea in the passage. Restate it in your own words.
2. What details support the main idea?
3. Explain how the details add to the main idea.

H6 READING SKILLS

w8ncfs_frm_SH_H6_H13.indd H6 2/15/07 8:16:35 AM

Sequencing .# North Carolina Skills
1.08 Use context clues and appropriate
sources such as glossaries, texts, and
dictionaries to gain meaning.
Define the Skill
Placing events in chronological order is called sequencing. By sequencing, you
can gain a greater, more accurate understanding of the events that took place.

SKILLS HANDBOOK
Learning to sequence can also help you to understand relationships among
events, including how a past event can influence present and future events.

READING SKILLS
Learn the Skill
Days, months, and years can help in determining sequence. Clue words, such as
before, after, then, by, first, and next, can also help.

First Event World War I By 1914 conditions in Russia were so bad that Second Event Czar
Date 1914 the arrival of World War I provided some relief Nicholas II takes com-
for Nicholas and his top government officials. In mand of Russian forces.
late 1915 Czar Nicholas II decided to take per- Date 1915
sonal command of the Russian forces. After the
czar took command of the troops, things grew
even worse for Russia. By the end of 1916, Rus-
sia was once again on the edge of a revolution.
Change finally arrived in Russia on March 8,
Last Event Citizens take 1917 as unhappy citizens took to the streets of Third Event Things grew
to the streets. Petrograd, the Russian capital, to protest the worse for Russia.
Date March 8, 1917 lack of food. Clue Word after

Apply the Skill
Identify the three main events in the passage below and place them in correct
chronological order. List the clue words or dates that signal the order of the
events.

The year 1917 went badly for the Allies. A failed French offensive
in the spring caused rebellion among some French troops. In July,
the British launched an offensive near Ypres, in Belgium. Known
as the Third Battle of Ypres, it was a disaster for the British. The
Germans held the only bit of high ground in the very flat area, and
they used it effectively to defend the region. In November, the Brit-
ish assault was finally called off.

1. In what year did the British launch the offensive near Ypres?
2. What happened in November 1917?
3. How long did the Battle of Ypres last?

READING SKILLS H7

w8ncfs_frm_SH_H6_H13.indd H7 2/15/07 8:16:38 AM

Identifying Causes .# North Carolina Skills
1.04 Detect cause and effect.

and Effects
Define the Skill
SKILLS HANDBOOK

By understanding causes and effects and seeing connections between them,
READING SKILLS

you can determine why certain events occurred and whether events are related.
A cause is something that makes something else happen. Often times a cause
will be directly stated in the text. Occasionally, a cause will be implied—or
stated indirectly. An effect is something that happens as the result of a cause.
One cause may have more than one effect and, similarly, an effect may have
several causes. Identifying causes and effects can help you better understand
what you have read.
Cause
Learn the Skill The Treaty of
Versailles
Identify the causes and effects in the passage. Start by identifying a cause
and then look for one or more of the effects. Look for clue words such as since,
because, therefore, and however.
Effect
First cause The German
The Treaty of Versailles, which ended World economy was
War I, had seriously damaged the German damaged.
economy. The terms of the treaty left the
Germans feeling humiliated. Adolf Hitler
wanted the nation to have more “living Effect
room” in which the German people could Germans felt
grow and prosper. In other words, Hitler humiliated.
wanted more territory for Germany.
Last effect

Effect
Hitler wanted
Apply the Skill more territory
Read the following sentences and answer the questions using what you have for Germany.
learned about identifying causes and effects.

At the end of the war, much of Europe and Asia lay in ruins. Tens of
millions of people had died in the war, many of them civilians. In many
areas the physical devastation was nearly complete. Entire cities, vil-
lages, and farms had been destroyed or damaged heavily, and national
economies were near collapse.

1. What were the effects of the war on civilians?
2. What caused the collapse of national economies?
3. Identify one effect of the war on cities and villages.

H8 READING SKILLS

w8ncfs_frm_SH_H6_H13.indd H8 2/15/07 8:16:41 AM

In France. He believed that everything should be doubted until it could be proven by reason. unlike. something that should be analyzed closely. In England. although besides Apply the Skill Read the following passage and answer the questions using what you have learned about comparison and contrast. ideas of both philosophers were used in creat. and dictionaries to gain meaning. while. Clue Words held the belief that people were naturally rea- Comparison Contrast sonable and that the purpose of government was to protect people’s natural rights. also. but. in addition. Learn the Skill Clue words can help you identify when a comparison or contrast is being made. Look at the chart below for some clue words. 1. they did not all agree on what type of Underlined words are government was the best. however. or events. Define the Skill SKILLS HANDBOOK Comparing involves looking at both the similarities and differences between READING SKILLS two or more people. Thomas Hobbes clue words. similar. The share. Understanding Comparison . Descartes relied on mathematics and logic to prove basic truths. ing new governments. like.indd H9 2/15/07 8:16:48 AM . What did Bacon and Descartes help to develop? READING SKILLS H9 w8ncfs_frm_SH_H6_H13. Francis Bacon wrote in 1620 that the only true way to gain scientific knowledge was through experimentation—observing. How did the philosophy of Bacon compare with that of Descartes? 2. Contrasting means examining only the differences between things. measuring. different. John Locke.# North Carolina Skills 1. and verifying. Being able to identify comparisons and contrasts is an important tool for comprehension. both.08 Use context clues and and Contrast appropriate sources such as glossaries. believed that society needed a strong central authority to control and contain the natural barbarism of humans. however. René Descartes placed more empha- sis on reason. places. meanwhile. Many Enlightenment philosophers shared Highlighted words are the belief that governmental organization was points of comparison. texts. Two of the most important scholars who helped develop the scien- tific method were Francis Bacon and René Descartes. But.

Apply the Skill Read the following passage and then use the three steps described above to make an inference about it. 3. The worst day was October 29. or educated guesses. Totalitar- ianism threatened democracy in Italy. 1. What the passage says Mussolini favored a totalitarian Though he became prime minister through demo. cratic means. 1. stock prices col- lapsed completely. Making Inferences . Making inferences involves using clues in the READING SKILLS text to connect implied ideas with ideas that are stated. In their drive for con- behaviors of the Italian people. and then make an educated guess about the implied meaning. Define the Skill Sometimes reading effectively means understanding both what the writer tells you directly and what the writer implies. 2. This attempt to trol. On that single day. Mussolini quickly became a dictator.indd H10 2/15/07 8:16:55 AM . feelings and experience.03 Draw inferences. known as Black Tuesday. dictators violate the democratic control all aspects of life is called totalitarianism. rights of their citizens. investors sold off 16 million shares. With few people wanting to buy the stocks that flooded the Market. topic or can connect to your he sought to influence the thoughts. What you know about the Not satisfied with simply having political control. By filling in the gaps. Make an inference. On Black Tuesday.# North Carolina Skills 1. what economic crisis did the United States face? 2. Learn the Skill To make an inference. What can you infer about the effects of the stock market crash? H10 READING SKILLS w8ncfs_frm_SH_H6_H13. Using the reading and your prior knowledge. explain the effects that a major economic crisis can have on a country’s people. You also draw on your own prior knowledge and use common sense to make inferences. form of government. study what the passage says. you are making SKILLS HANDBOOK inferences. Think about what else you know about the subject. Many investors who had bor- rowed money to buy stocks were forced to sell at a loss to repay their loans. 3.

torture. Learn the Skill Look for problems that are identified in the reading and then determine what solutions were or are being pursued. and working with national The UN works to pro- governments to improve conditions. stronger economic conditions can help foster adherence to human rights standards. people have faced problems and sought solutions to those READING SKILLS problems. Apply the Skill Use a graphic organizer like the one above to identify the problems and solu- tions in the following passage. It sought to strengthen its international and domestic intelligence services. Moreover.S. and even killing are daily occurrences in some countries. Identify two solutions that the U. The United Nations works to protect human rights by monitoring Solution 1 areas of concern. face from terrorism in recent years? 2. As a result. economic situations in many countries. Not only do opportunities increase. 1. investigating abuses. It increased its focus on the security of the nation’s borders and transportation networks. the United States government took many actions to prevent future terrorist attacks. Solution 2 but businesses gain an incentive to follow practices that will help Globalization improves them avoid potentially ruinous publicity. advances. used to address these problems after September 11. It sought to find and cut off the funding sources for terrorist networks. By identifying problems and solutions. 2001. you can better under- stand the challenges that people have faced over time and the means by which they have resolved such difficulties. Arbitrary arrest.01 Use hypothetical reasoning and Solutions processes. historians describing historical events often structure their writing by identifying a problem and then describing its actual or possible solutions. After September 11. helping children to get an education and more women to find jobs. as has the violence of these attacks. the number of worldwide terrorist attacks has increased. Problem Human rights are being In spite of international agreements. Identifying Problems . Define the Skill SKILLS HANDBOOK Throughout history. During recent years.indd H11 2/15/07 8:17:05 AM . slavery. as globalization tect human rights. people around the world violated in the world.# North Carolina Skills 4. READING SKILLS H11 w8ncfs_frm_SH_H6_H13. Most problems have more than one solution. What problem does the U.S. continue to suffer human rights abuses.

The new invention caused a sensation. and telephone companies quickly laid thousands of miles of phone lines in every region of the United States. Apply the Skill Read the following sentences. 1. Information gathered What you already know What all the information from the passage you + about the topic = adds up to—your are reading Electricity is a huge part of conclusion Thomas Edison invented people’s lives today and is The invention of the lightbulb the lightbulb in 1879 used in many capacities in was one of the first steps and built the world’s first everyday life. By 1900 almost 1. Drawing on the work of Faraday and Swan. “Mr. you analyze the reading and form READING SKILLS opinions about its meaning. When did telephone usage become commonplace in the United States? 2.06 Draw conclusions. Then put it all together. The telephone was born. we know today. demand for telephones increased. Define the Skill Historical writing provides you with facts and information. Think about what you know about telephone usage today. but through the device’s receiver as well. along with your prior knowledge. Edison then needed to supply the elec- tricity that powered them.indd H12 2/15/07 8:17:13 AM . One day. Bell and his assistant Thomas Watson were working on a new device. During the 1880s. Drawing Conclusions . What information can you conclude about the importance of the telephone in creating modern communications? H12 READING SKILLS w8ncfs_frm_SH_H6_H13. Use the process above to draw conclusions about the passage.5 million telephones were in American homes and offices. Watson. life during the Industrial Age became easier and more convenient. Learn the Skill To draw conclusions. to draw conclusions about the reading. towards the modernized world central electric plant. Thomas Edison developed the first usable and practical lightbulb in 1879. But often you have to determine the meaning of events on your own. The telephone was on its way to becoming the ubiquitous instrument it is today. In drawing conclusions. combine the information you find in the reading with what you already know. The plant illuminated several city blocks.# North Carolina Skills 4. come here. So he built the world’s first central electric power plant in New York City. Having created a demand for lightbulbs. Bell suddenly yelled. I need you!” Wat- son was pleased to hear Bell’s voice not just from across the room. You need to combine the SKILLS HANDBOOK facts and information. Look for a common link or theme. As a result of Edison’s work.

In Nicaragua. identify examples that have something in common. The inflation rate exceeded 2.08 Use context clues and appropriate sources such as glossaries. the econ- omy crashed. inflation. What conflict took place in El Salvador? 2. Making Generalizations . In Brazil. identify what they have in common. For many years. Meanwhile. 1. Oil prices rose in the 1970s and the economy fell into debt and hyperinflation. make a generalization about the struggles in Latin America. and foreign debt. struggling economies.# North Carolina Skills 1. A generalization is a statement that applies to different examples or situa- tions not just to one. and Define the Skill dictionaries to gain meaning. They struggled with declining industry as well as rising unemployment. they cracked down on dissent by severely limiting personal freedoms. READING SKILLS H13 w8ncfs_frm_SH_H6_H13. as opposition to their military dictatorship grew. An anti-Somoza movement gained strength. The Somozas’ anticommunist views kept them in favor with the United States. Then try to make a generalization that applies to all the examples. What was a problem of the Somoza family in Nicaragua? 3. and then make a statement that READING SKILLS applies equally to all examples. a civil war broke out in which Communist-supported groups battled the army. hyperinflation. Villagers were often caught in the middle as the government’s army roamed the countryside killing civilians suspected of aiding the opposition. a very high level of inflation that grows rapidly in a short period of time. Apply the Skill Using the process described above. Example 1: Example 2: Generalization: Argentina’s military dic. Learn the Skill In the passage. Make a generalization about Latin American political struggles. In Brazil. infla. the military Many Latin American tatorships struggled with + dictatorships led the = countries under military declining industry. and foreign debt.indd H13 2/15/07 8:17:28 AM . control was in the hands of the Somoza family who had ruled for four decades. but their corruption and violent repressive tactics alarmed many Nicaraguans.500 percent by 1993. texts. right-wing military dictatorships ruled Argentina. In El Salvador. you collect different SKILLS HANDBOOK examples. economy into debt and dictatorships had tion. When making generalizations.

2 Determine the time intervals of the time line. Recognize the types of events that spaced. TIME LINE Changes in France’s 1871 A strong demo- Government cratic government with a 1830 King Charles fled France 1852 Louis Napoleon arrested new constitution emerged during the July Revolution and members of the National Assembly during the Third Republic. These are called parallel time lines.# North Carolina Skills 3. Apply the Skill 1. contrast. every 5 or 10 years. By organizing events chronologically. The time span SKILLS HANDBOOK SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS is the years between the beginning date and the ending date. Time intervals mark shorter increments of time within the time span. 1 Identify the time span of the time line. for example.indd H14 2/15/07 8:18:01 AM . What are the time intervals of the time line? 3. Check to see whether the years are evenly 3 Analyze the events on the time line. 1848 After the Revolution of 1848. What is the time span of the time line? 2. It has a beginning date and an ending date. They appear at regular intervals. and the French elected him emperor. Time lines also allow you to compare. and draw conclusions about historical events. Learn the Skill Use the following strategies to read the time line. Louis Philippe abdicated and the Second Republic formed with Louis Napoleon as president. Define the Skill A time line organizes events that occurred during a specific period of time into chronological order. or by another division. Look at the beginning date and the ending date to determine the time period. Interpreting Time Lines . Seeing how events are related can help you find cause-and- effect relationships between the events. time lines can help you see how events are related. Determine whether the time is divided the time line describes and deter- by decades. mine how they are related. by centuries. Two time lines can be used to list events that happened within a certain time span but at different places. How are the events on the time line related? H14 SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS w8ncfs_frm_SH_H14_H21. There are parallel time lines at the beginning of each chapter in this book. Louis Philippe was crowned king.02 Interpret graphs and charts.

1 Read the title of the graph. They can display amounts. #3".indd H15 2/15/07 8:18:05 AM . the quicker the change. 5IF8PSME"MNBOBDBOE#PPLPG'BDUT  and gives the units of the slower the change. while a double bar graph compares two sets of data. The measurement. 1 Read the title of the graph. What information does the bar graph compare? 3. closer the line is to being per- pendicular to the horizontal axis. 2.FYJDP :FBS   4PVSDFT5IF#SB[JMJBO&DPOPNZ(SPXUIBOE%FWFMPQNFOU   "%ÓWJEB&YUFSOB#SBTJMFJSBo&WPMVÎÍPF$SJTF 1FSV     7FOF[VFMB 2 3   Read the horizon. In most cases. Graphs are diagrams that present statistical or numeric data.        axis labels. What information does the line graph compare? surement. Look at the slant of the line. Read the title and the legend to determine the subject of the graph. 3 Analyze the information on the graph. What conclusion can you draw from the data in the bar graph? SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS H15 w8ncfs_frm_SH_H14_H21. Interpreting Line and Bar Graphs . the vertical axis of a line graph shows quantities while the hori- zontal axis shows time. 2 Read the horizon- tal and vertical axis labels.*-4'03&*(/%&#5 o (%11&3$"1*5"*/-"5*/". trends. %PMMBS"NPVOU JODPOTUBOU64 The labels explain what The closer the line is to being 4PVSDFT5IF8PSME"MNBOBDBOE#PPLPG'BDUT  the graph measures parallel to the horizontal axis.# North Carolina Skills Define the Skill 3. A bar graph compares quantities. gives the units of mea- 1. Learn the Skill Use the following strategies to interpret the line graph. A line graph is a visual repre- SKILLS HANDBOOK SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS sentation of data organized so that you can see a pattern of change over time. Use the following strategies to interpret the bar graph. A single bar graph compares one set of data. Analyze the informa- tal and vertical tion on the graph. The title tells you the subject or purpose of the graph. ratios. Knowing how to interpret line graphs and bar graphs can help you recognize historical trends. or changes over time. The labels tell what the Compare the amounts Apply the Skill bar graph measures and shown on the bar graph.02 Interpret graphs and charts.&3*$"      %FCU JOCJMMJPOTPG64 "SHFOUJOB       #SB[JM     $IJMF         $PMPNCJB       (VBUFNBMB          .

Which branch of Christianity has the fewest number of followers? 3. Knowing how to interpret pie graphs will allow you to better understand and evaluate historical data as well as to recognize historical trends. The slices of the SKILLS HANDBOOK SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS pie represent the individual parts of the whole.02 Interpret graphs and charts. Apply the Skill 1. $)3*45*"/'0--08&34 1 Read the title of the graph. Learn the Skill Use the following strategies to interpret the pie graph.indd H16 2/27/07 7:59:16 PM . Determine what the percentages tell about the subject of the pie graph.# North Carolina Skills 3. 1SPUFTUBOU JODMVEFT "OHMJDBO  3PNBO $BUIPMJD 0SUIPEPY   2 Read the percentages. What information does the pie graph compare? 2. What percentage of Christians are Roman Catholic? H16 SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS w8ncfs_frm_SH_H14_H21. Define the Skill A pie graph is a circular chart that shows how individual parts relate to the whole. Compare the sizes of each piece within the graph. The circle of the pie symbolizes the whole amount. The title tells you the 803-%8*%&  subject or purpose of the graph. 0UIFS$ISJTUJBO  3 Analyze the information on the graph. Interpreting Pie Graphs .

1936 Japan signs agreement with Germany. Apply the Skill 1. 1931 Japan takes control of Manchuria. Simple charts combine or compare information. China. chronologically. The title tells you the subject of the chart. Interpret. MAJOR JAPANESE EVENTS 1929 TO 1940 1929 The Great Depression hits Japan. 1933 Japan withdraws from the League of Nations. Knowing how to read and use charts allows you to interpret. Diagrams illustrate the steps involved in a process so that the information is easier to understand. Historians use charts to orga- nize. 3 Analyze the information found in the chart. and summarize information in a convenient. China. 1 Read the title of the chart. the information in the chart to draw conclusions and make infer. Charts can be organized alphabeti- limits on its navy. According to the chart. Learn the Skill Use the following strategies to interpret the chart. Numbers. easy-to- SKILLS HANDBOOK SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS read format. 1934 Japan announces it will no longer submit to 2 Look at the way the infor- mation is organized. How many events are listed on the chart? 3. dates. what major event occurred in Japan in 1931? SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS H17 w8ncfs_frm_SH_H14_H21. Define the Skill Charts are visual representations of information. and other data can be classified in the columns and rows of a table for reference and comparison. compare.# North Carolina Skills 3. How is the information in the chart organized? 2. cally. and contrast 1940 Japan attempts to expand its power in Asia by proposing an economic alliance of Asian nations. Interpreting Charts . simplify. Japanese troops in Shanghai.indd H17 2/15/07 8:18:13 AM . analyze. 1937 Japanese troops kill hundreds of thousands of civilians in Nanjing. and evaluate historical information. China ences or predictions. condense.02 Interpret graphs and charts. Tables classify information by groups. compare. percentages. or by topic.

To which continent were most enslaved people sent? H18 SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS w8ncfs_frm_SH_H14_H21.&3 *$"   &. They can track sea voyages.indd H18 2/15/07 8:18:17 AM . THE SLAVE TRADE 1 Read the title and legend. . or thousands of years. or migrations. They can span a week. Learn the Skill Use the following strategies to interpret movement maps.*-   3¡4 Analyze the information on the map. their chronology.&3*$" movement from #3*5* "5-"/5*$ 4)/ 035 )" 0$&"/ start to finish.JMMFSQSPKFDUJPO ¡8 ¡8 ¡8 information pro. #SB[JM ¡& ¡& ¡ vided in the map. 4MBWFGPSU %JSFDUJPOPGTMBWFUSBEF Apply the Skill 1. Which continents were directly involved in the slave trade? 3. #SJUJTI/PSUI"NFSJDB 4QBOJTI&NQJSF #SJUJTI8FTU*OEJFT    . movement shown on the map. Interpreting Movement Maps . a few months. explora- SKILLS HANDBOOK SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS tions. The legend explains what Identify the the symbols and the colors on the patterns of map mean.JMFT Draw conclusions 'SFODI8FTU*OEJFT    .# North Carolina Skills Define the Skill 3. Different types of maps are used for different purposes. The title tells you the subject of 2 the map. /035) Trace the path of ¡/ ". and the geographical locations they have affected. What was the path of the slave trade? 2. Understanding how to read and interpret a movement map can help you learn more about historical events.01 Use map and globe reading skills.JMPNFUFST based on the %VUDI8FTU*OEJFT .&3*$" 0$&"/  #3". Movement maps show travel from one point to another.1*3&    41"/*4)   5SPQJDPG$BODFS ¡/ "'3*$" #3*5*4)8&45*/%*&4 4U-PVJT    1"$*'*$ '3& / $)8 +BNFT*TMBOE "DDSB 0$&"/ &45* /%*& 4  &MNJOB 8IZEBI    "TTJOJ %6 ¡ &RVBUPS 5$) 8& ¡8 ¡8 4065) 45* /%*& 4 */%*"/  ".

that have changed. battles. eco- nomic activity.&9*$"/ 06/ 6/*5&% FB $&44*0/ 45"5&4 U1  MBJ 5"*/4 ¡8 OT 3 Analyze how places have ¡/ ¡& changed over time.# North Carolina Skills Define the Skill 3.0 .JMPNFUFST "MCFSTFRVBMBSFBQSPKFDUJPO Apply the Skill 1. ("%4%&/ Compare and contrast the differing 163$)"4&  areas and think about the historical ¡8 1SFTFOUEBZCPVOEBSZ . and movement of people and goods. 1 Read the title and legend. Historical maps can help you learn how places have changed over time. The title will help you identify the subject and the purpose of the map. Learn the Skill Use the following strategies to interpret historical maps. Interpreting Historical Maps . political alliances. or to trace human interaction with the environ- ment. . Historical maps can show information such as population density. 1853 $"/"%" / 30 / 2 Identify the areas $.indd H19 2/15/07 8:19:03 AM .  ¡ -06*4*"/" : : 163$)"4& 8 .0  ¡/ (S (S 6/*5&% 6/*5&%  FB FB 6 / 5" 6 / 5" 45"5&4 U1 U1 45"5&4 #FGPSF MBJO MBJO */4 */4 T T 5&9"4 "//&9"5*0/  '-03*%" $FEFE $&44*0/ . You can use historical maps to locate historical events.&9*$0 events that led to these changes.01 Use map and globe reading skills.&9*$0 . to learn how SKILLS HANDBOOK SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS geography influences history. How did the United States change from 1803 to 1853? SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS H19 w8ncfs_frm_SH_H14_H21.   . The legend explains the meaning of the symbols and the colors on the map.&9*$0 CZ4QBJO   UNITED STATES. $.JMFT   . Historical maps provide information about a place at a certain time in history. What is the purpose of these historical maps? 2. (S changed as time passed. ¡/ : Note which parts of the map . Westward Expansion of the United States 1803 1845 $FEFECZ $"/"%" $MBJNFECZ (SFBU#SJUBJO (SFBU#SJUBJO  $"/"%" ¡ / VOUJM 03&(0/ 30 30 $06/53: $.

The process is relatively straightforward when costs and benefits can be expressed in terms of money or basic economic indicators such as employment figures. gross domestic product. are not easily measured by how much money is earned or lost. A cost-benefit analysis is a process that measures whether a project or a policy is worthwhile by calculating its benefits and comparing those benefits to SKILLS HANDBOOK SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS its costs.01 Read for literal meaning. 3 Analyze the costs and the benefits and draw conclusions. What was one cost of building Versailles? 2. Determine the COSTS BENEFITS 2 Identify the benefits. • Created resentment • Was clear symbol among the people of king’s power • Palace uncomfortable • Palace had many grand and crowded and beautiful features. country’s annual revenue Paris crowds proposed project. Historians have the benefit of hindsight. and inflation. such as time or safety. however. Analyzing Costs and Benefits . Businesses large and small as well as government agencies all conduct cost-benefit analyses before deciding on a course of action. do you think it was a good investment to build the palace? Explain. What was one benefit of this project? 3. H20 SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS w8ncfs_frm_SH_H14_H21. people may disagree about the value of the costs and benefits. Determine the costs of this • Cost five percent of the • Kept court safer from benefits of the project. Learn the Skill Use the following strategies to analyze costs and benefits. Also. Apply the Skill 1.# North Carolina Skills Define the Skill 1.indd H20 2/15/07 8:21:01 AM . BUILDING VERSAILLES 1 Identify the costs. Based on the cost-benefit chart. Some costs and benefits. They can look at events that have already happened and make cost-benefit analyses to determine whether a deci- sion was the right one. Compare the costs with the benefits.

SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS H21 w8ncfs_frm_SH_H14_H21. try to deter- mine the author’s credentials. educational institutions.net. Determine who sponsors the Web site. Define the Skill SKILLS HANDBOOK SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS The Internet is an international computer network that connects schools. . Every Web site on the Internet has its own address called a URL. The domain tells you the type of Web site you are visiting. and .org.indd H21 2/27/07 7:59:20 PM . and govern- ment agencies usually pro- vide accurate and reliable information. or to entertain. What is the domain of the Web site? Do you think the informa- tion on the Web site will be reliable? Why or why not? 2. decide whether pose of the site is to inform. Not all sites provide you with an 2 Understand the purpose of the site. If the site does. busi- nesses. A Web site with the domain . Evaluating the content found on the Internet will help you determine its accuracy and reliability. government agencies. Find out whether the pur- author. Evaluating Information . Common domains in the United States are . If the site does not.edu.gov means that it is sponsored by a government institution. What is the purpose of this Web site? 3. 1 Identify the Web site’s domain. Apply the Skill 1. information or is overly biased toward a certain point of view.edu means that it is sponsored by an educational institution. .# North Carolina Skills 2. . the Web site presents balanced to persuade. and individuals. Web sites sponsored by reputable organizations.gov. 3 Identify the author and check for bias. Do you think this Web site presents a balanced point of view or a biased point of view? Explain your response.03 Utilize different types on the Internet of technology. Learn the Skill Use the following strategies to evaluate information on the Internet.com. Each URL has a domain. The Internet can be a valuable research tool. A Web site with the domain .

A World recently swept through. and upon War and Peace treatment of Native Americans by Europeans.hrw. The third thing— FOCUS READING LIKE A HISTORIAN Keyword: SHL WRLIT and beat them. they already had their own kings?” the morning.com 1.” said Prince Andrew. he does not want that. supposing they understood. meeting. For each country they approach it as an argument. He will drag about as a cripple. and kicked Spanish mistreated Native Americans? idleness. he would go to the drink shop or fall ill.indd 478 10/21/06 1:35:46 PM w8nafs_nat_sec4. yes. Describe How would you describe Prince Andrew’s attitude crooked a third finger. Butwinin able to Cortés as a translator. p. Las Casas death agony. Dinner at the Zemstvo. hospitals. 1872 entered Tenochtitlán. Analyze According to Las Casas. sian writer. he hoped to chart like this one. cap) “from his animal condition and awaken in him “The Indians were totally deprived of their ers as the Spaniards if their first experience This painting shows Russian serfs in the 1800s. to Peru.” said another. army and took over the empire. Just as FOCUS READING LIKE A HISTORIAN I could not stand his terrible physical labor but should such work. Because she was able to speak dor named led an expedition Francisco Pizarro you read about. stating Cortés had several other advantages that Location Description defeat the Aztecs. H25 patch him up. spiritual needs. so he could not stand my physical Skills World Literature and pitilessly called them lazy dogs. Then you say. “educa- faced as forced laborers. he is dying. He Las Casas was writing? What makes you think so? toward Russia’s serfs? has a fit. a burden accurately portrays the views of some upper-class Russians to everybody.4 Students explain the be believed. like a pho- tographic memory. H28 H22 Reading like a Historian NATIONALISM IN EUROPE 733 w8nafs_exp_sec2. fiercest. Pizarro had heard of the fabulous the sense its coloniesof in a a brawl take notes about or street fight. thoughts come and I can’t sleep but toss out into the woods to find food and die. hungry. importance of analyzing nar- ratives drawn from different of the horses that they fled in terror. In addition to his Native American allies. Battle greatest novels of all time. they were stumped. neither of which emperor’s death. Not in argument—or the beginning of one.indd 733 10/10/06 7:39:25 AM . killed the people. what makes them distinctive? How they read. someone making helped ahimclaim. crooking a finger. You can’t help thinking. Pizarro demanded that Atahualpa Historians rely on primary sources. and deprived them of their rights? Just because want to make him what I am. ‘lighten his toil. during which Moctezuma was killed. killing many people.el’s characters. also now holding. Cortés and a few of his soldiers rode horses. the Spaniards told them to obey the King of him—but you want to cure him from love of him. is considered one of the to Spain. they seem pretty much like anyone else. 1519. crammed with dates and facts and stuff. “You the Christianity that Indians received. And allowed to graze in the fields. which was very frequently because ing. Though Atahualpa gave families in the early 1800s and presents a picture of Russian Pizarro a huge fortune in gold and silver. Also. Pierre Bezukhov and Prince Andrew Bolkonsky. killing thousands of people. Malintzin became invalu. hadtheonly animals never before seen in the Americas. Look at the name of the book century Spanish cleric. if he they are a delicate people unaccustomed to Skills didn’t. wealth the sense of of Peru’s Inca Empire. such as On November 8. with that outside world was with a people who piness is the only happiness possible. help others or to help themselves. “Maybe it’s like having a mind that spins around like a computer. as much a condi- Castile [Spain]. After months of heavy fighting. they often found it what obligation did they have to obey since medicine ever cured anyone! Killed them. while it seems to me that animal hap- freedom and were put in the harshest.’ But as I see it. but you and there are plenty of them as it is. medicine. weapons and heavy armor. While many historians know a lot about their areas of expertise. civil war had broken out. you’re holding. how have the die of it in a week. what a notion that tion of his existence. In his others who were gasping and moaning in their by Leo Tolstoy Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies. There they destroyed the Inca argue about whether or not people should live their lives to colonialism city and the entire Aztec Empire. to tell their Moctezuma greeted each other respectfully. And besides. At that the Aztec Empire. When the Indians physical labor is as essential to him. or even Amongathechapter Native Americansfrom the textbook who joined you are The Conquest of Peru About 10 years Even the two little words “human legacy” form an Cortés was a woman named Malintzin. but would grow fat and die. “Ah. In the passage below. I sometimes 2. a novel from a 19th century Rus. Cortés took the Spanish killed him and headed south to Cuzco. without giving him my ent if you grudged losing a laborer—that’s how I regard Even beasts enjoy more freedom when they are means. the good treatment. events shouldwake of the including the emperor. It would be differ- no one who has not seen it can understand. Think about how Prince Andrew views Russia’s serfs. History as an Argument When we read like a historian we notice things When historians sit down to read a letter from a 16th we’ve never seen before. that is you want to raise him” (point- Spain that they be protected and taught Christianity. He had metal trying toSmallpox had The Inca Empire that Pizarro found was already weakened significantly. by Grigori Mjasoedov. yes!” said he. a conquista- called Malinche. and some of that wealth for himself. as mental activity is it to you or were allowed to go home. Reading like a Historian Reading like a Historian skills Skills Handbook W hat does it mean to read like a historian? When I asked a group of 10th graders. Atahualpajust taken con- Spanish arrived. and that is just most horrible servitude and captivity which entered territories by force. So. Draw Conclusions For what audience do you think 1. PRIMARY SOURCES Excerpt from The Treatment of Native Americans Bartolomé de Las Casas was vocal in his protests of the came upon dead bodies on my way. Some Aztecs were so scared at their first sight trol of the empire when. p. and you come and bleed him and 2. despite orders from the king of tion and so forth. Cortés and his army accept Christianity and hand over his empire About the Reading Leo Tolstoy’s novel War and Peace. as well as guns. and when illness was apparent what else was it you talked about?” and Prince Andrew they sent them home as useless. Holt World History: Human Legacy. Others are being born 478 CHAPTER 16 See Skills Handbook. It would be far eas- toward serfs? Why or why not? ier and simpler for him to die. and “Come on let’s argue then. It follows the lives of five Russian took him prisoner. the society during this time. Though Cortés and published from 1865 to 1869. In the NEW YORK STANDARDS Literature 2. when you ask them questions about topics and eras they haven’t studied. Interpret Literature as a Source Do you think this novel See Skills Handbook. Atahualpa refused. if historians are not walking ency- clopedias.” answered one. “Remembering everything you’ve ever read—you know. I go to bed after two in deserted and had no other recourse than to go frowning angrily and turning away from Pierre. Is there a single nation which would not ing to a peasant who passed by them taking off his think that the world is full of just such evildo. a position. and the Spanish NEW YORK nonfiction and literary works. erupted. repeating “Hungry. the Spaniards did not believe them go. me. in the Caribbean. new ruler. When about till dawn. As it had times and places to understand Atahualpa heard of the Spaniards’ arrival Leo Tolstoy (1828–1910) historical events. what you want to deprive him of.” And described the terrible ordeals that the Native Americans this was the freedom. talk of schools. the Inca capital.” he went on. after the conquest of the Aztecs. because I think and can’t help think- they fell ill. the Aztec language. convince us that was his or her description of known to the Aztecs. disease also swept through and agreed to meet with them in 1532. for another ten years. I envy him. two of the nov- Unit 3-E6 Spanish stories—and to bolster their arguments. just as he can’t help plowing and mowing. the Spanish soon took the emperor prisoner. The truth is that historians are not computers and they have no better memories than the rest of us.

D OCUMENT 3 reactions to capitalism. which power. according crucial role to play in it. factory conditions. c. A Yes. Ancient textiles in her American colonies. be employed.from and information doubled the the speed at which worker in the harness were to fall or stumble? chapter. Kay was attacked See Skills Handbook. the ever-faster spinning Historians must read Woman pulling coal truck while children push. output had increased to 400. H30 connection between child labor and public attitudes. faster weaving system. requires understanding Q Does that keep you constantly on your feet? supported some reforms for child workers. manufacturesThe thread will produce it misery. an unlimited quantity of yarn at a reasonable price. few dispute that something big students that what mattered most was what hap. By 1800 the textile more likely to rebel against the strict rules and con- was said in Document 1? Explain your answer.the writejob. ravenous industrial machine by providing a steady not just the West. for us to truly understand the world we source of cheap cotton and a ready market for finished need to look beyond our narrow slice of it. mighty impulse was communicated to the cot- The quotation here is from a British historian. were not destined or preordained but become. and forth on a shuttle. solved the prob. economic. which had titles like Rise of England during the years 1780 to about 1830. artist unknown. Summarize What were some of the problems that Eliza- D OCUMENT 4 a. a. and by their means yarns were committed unquestioningly to memory. standing of how circumstances of Children were also hired to work in 2. Hargreaves’ of employment to labourers machine was not constructed specially for that purpose. FOCUS READING LIKE A HISTORIAN this problem with the spinning frame. ditions that were common in factories. attitudes about capitalism. there are so many frames and they run so quick. In 1770 England produced Supervisor whipping a young boy. and who we will argument goes. To meet that demand. must be backed by evidence rather than other historians before them had to say. what would they do? a fall in the rate of wages.000 bolts of cloth. system was known as the water frame. While Western Civilization or the Triumph of the West or the historians might dicker over the precise dates of the Tradition of Western Society. yarn. England also had a convenient Accordingly. and reli. But the message was key factor in the birth of the Industrial Revolution was clear. a larger. weaving machines. we had to get it as we could. There’s only one reason why China and Once you understand history as an argument you have a India didn’t industrialize before England. what is more probable. pulling a cart full of coal. it must which spun several tage. were subject to harsh punishment if they were late. drawing. as well as lower in price. in interview child workers and learn more about factory conditions. Details What details show the author’s attitude time and place influence perspective. Here is an excerpt from an interview with a and take the flyers off. must necessarily be unwholesome nature of manufacturing employment. from the old word manu- and beliefs of the people A Yes. the British were lucky enough to Holt World History: Human Legacy makes a have vast coal deposits in their soil. to their argument. as ancient Greece. In the words of one historian: “They on a silver platter for you to swallow whole. You can’t sit back and watch this Reading like a Historian happen.000 bolts.” According Everyone else was in the margins. Credibility Would Baines be an authority on the long-term effects of industrialization? Why or why not? The lower prices would have long-term results. In 1815 the British Parliament sent out researchers to Speech in the House of Commons. Q And they are in the habit of strapping those who are last in doffing? a measure which would prevent children from obtaining engaged inperfect. you have not time for anything. His beth Bentley faced at the factory? proposal to limit children’s workday to 10 hours? Finally.spun into thread or thronged [busy]? Q Your labour is very excessive? hours. Compare your book with those Consider this: the Industrial Revolution occurred in written 30 or 40 years ago. or were late. you have to make up your own mind. or talked too much. stronger have studied the documents. Analyze What social class does Spencer seem to repre- speaking affect your reaction to her testimony? Theinterests sent. 1853 wages.indd 653 9/14/06 8:03:58 AM .system driven by water power. After you cultural. you will be asked to write an essay describing the gious norms and values of Western worker wearing a harness and See Skills Handbook. a ans who wrote many years after the event. Describe What would happen to the small children if the ented above Using the documents by John Kay. pp. critically and demonstrate an under. Baines. political. form a thesis that might explain the general Identify Problem and b. the textile industry had already been thoroughly mechanized. You see. However.” calling something an argument means that it must the Textile Industry Analyzing Secondary Sources Historians often read what be defended.” see history as an argument you realize that for every major historical interpretation. Smaller selections and the chapter to support the position you take in your essay. a Because many work- picture felt about children working in the mines? short essay to support your position. against a proposed law to limit their work day to 10 as wholesome as thatThe fiber was of agricultural labourers. An Early Historian on Notice the adjectives the author used to describe the textile industry. historians who wrote about events soon after they happened usually had a different perspective than histori- produced far superior in quality to any before spun in England. and the rise of labor movements? fell behind in their work. which fueled the different argument: the whole of human history. Factory owners often preferred to hire children and women rather than men. and employers suspected that they were a. for Skills Handbook Europe to the Renaissance and the “discovery” of the example. another inventor. Weavers could now obtain was writing. sources 1785 critically. called the cotton gin. Solution How did machines solve problems that ers lost their jobs as a result. Using older sources. that We have gotcalled the spinning a manufacturing population. Draw a Conclusion How does Elizabeth’s plain way of b. revolution. and take the full bobbins off. Men expected higher D OCUMENT 2 about six feet wide—the width a man could an industry was born. and then put empty ones on.doThen. 1832 American any employment in factories named would not beEli moreWhitney injuri. in a speech. p. which were much cheaper than the linen warps CHAPTER formerly used. and set the frame going again. 1848 Interview with Elizabeth Bentley Q Explain what you had to do.indd 652 9/14/06 8:03:54 AM w8nafs_ind_dbi. History can no longer be served to this reasoning. in the loom. he was kingdom it will be impossible to render their occupation Q What were the hours of labour when you were not so A Yes. Summarizespun stronger. I am of the opinion that the effect . History of the Cotton Manufacture in Great Britain. It is too late now to argue about the A From six in the morning till seven at night. The “flying shuttle. This is an evil that can-a weaver. Pulling seeds from raw cotton blossoms Nevertheless. were contingent: They happily came together at the right time and the right place to produce the Industrial Your Role in the Argument Revolution. These factors. Edmund Cartwright That patented the power young woman who had worked in a textile mill. and prone to break when woven into cloth. particularly in Europe. the at thea spinning time. and carry them to the roller. is our legacy.then or per. solved factory. 652 CHAPTER 21 636 CHAPTER 21 THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 653 H23 w8nafs_ind_dbi. Cotton fabrics could be sold lower 21 Document-Based Investigation than had ever before been known. H25–H26 weavers faced? and fled to France. An machines soon created a demand for better A When the frames are full. 1835 Child Labor NEW YORK STANDARDS 2. They drew a from this fact to the question of “why”—why did the straight line from the Greeks and Romans to Medieval Industrial Revolution occur in England and not. you see an older. population who are not heirs to the Western tradition On one side are the historians who claim that the would make an appearance. so the China is as much a part of who we are. Skills —E. sons engaged James in out-door labour.3 Students examine the social/ Task Examine the documents and answer the questions that follow. manufacturers could use warps of cotton. John Charles Spencer was a member of the Brit- ish Parliament’s House of Commons. Factories needed ready supplies of A Yes. He died in poverty. Once you simply did not have colonies or coal. A build- A No. past. These older books taught Industrial Revolution. FOCUS READING LIKE A HISTORIAN London. Infer How do you think the person who drew this a weaver impact of child labor on publiccould opinion. tories. Here he addresses Michael Sadler. artist unknown. stream of cheap fuel. Children in Danger b. As long as that we haveremoved a manufacturing the seeds population efficiently. But the moment we turn Reading like a Historian skills pened in the West. Children in the Mines Historical Context The four documents below tell us about child labor during but Baines could not predict them all at this the early Industrial Revolution and how different people saw the issue. modern historians can learn how events were viewed in the When this admirable series of machines was made known. was time-consuming when done by hand. What is Spencer’s thinner main argument against thread. In this about the textile industry? early stage in the Industrial Revolution. Although he ous than beneficial to the labouring classes? lem. 3.” pat. Great Britain’s coal mines. When he ton manufacture. children push the cart from behind. chance and something called “contingency. Hargreaves. The children labor. the thread was woven into fabric. They had to be housed in large buildings context—the ing that housed knowledge children would cease to be employed at all in manufac. or. Now I appeal to the honourable member whether threads of diminishing the meansat once. a fellow member who proposed the law. extensive produced was still thick industrial machines became Q Do you consider doffing a laborious employment? known as a factory.3 Students analyze evidence 1. Any measure which shall have the effect Q Had you any time to get your breakfast or drinking? A Strap [whip] us. The West and its peoples were at the center. Use evidence from these and other world cultures. Cloth-Making in Factories The new a source’s historical A Yes. they have to stop the frames. . Compare Does this illustration confirm or contradict what What do you reach think werefrom side to the connections side among childto push the thread back about 50. and whose traditional is he upholding? in-home weaving loom was From this flurry of invention and innovation. not be remedied. Describe What does the scene show? b. and important took place. . in China or India we’ve landed ourselves in New World. our inheritance. Think about it. starting with “admirable. ized the spinning process with a machine he machines were too big for the weaver’s cot- Q What time was allowed for meals? Q Suppose you flagged [slowed down] a little. Q Constantly? Skills Richard Arkwright. He built a machine. Arkwright built early factories to house D OCUMENT 1 a. Now and then the four-fifths of the world’s the middle of a raucous argument. there are multiple ways of viewing things. A Forty minutes at noon. andjenny.

which pretation is the notion of continuity and change: the tional plant breeding. ingenuity. There is no single right answer to big questions of change. contingency. The public needs to be better informed about the importance of biotechnology would damage the environment even more. Even though historians argue over the meaning Norman Borlaug’s Opinion A scientist and crop researcher. Interpre. food production changes. the evidence and are able to explain more of the big If we think that the West owes its technological superi- picture—incorporating social. Put differently. . thereby doing so. gives birth to the world we’ll inhabit in decade or a century—while others may try to capture the future. people have always Historical Context The documents below provide information about the debate different perspectives. Technology allows us to have less impact on soil erosion. “was itself an this change: Since 1500.” of 1700%. biodiversity. imagina. scale. And we would have to use more herbicides in more fields. not a matter of chance. it shows a farmer singing about farm life while spraying crops. CHAPTER 33 different from the one inhabited by people in the past. Over the past 500 or so years. same inhabited territory that was known to the world torical dogfight. one may focus on what occurred during a present. our positions and policies toward ignore pieces of evidence or use ideology as a substi. Scale determines not only what histori- ans see but what they choose to look at. Better interpretations account for more of they are—guide the decisions we make in the present. The technology is more precise and farming becomes less time consuming. In this 2002 interview. others will be different than if we attribute our advan- tute for hard thinking. needed food. lived on just under seven percent of the earth’s 60 mil- The Industrial Revolution that swept England “was lion square miles of land. because historians focus on different time frames. Our reality in the same thing. American Norman Borlaug received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970 for his You can philosophize about this but I’ve been in the field for a long time and I believe genetically modified food crops will stop world hunger . Then. and enterprise. he speaks about the use of biotechnology and the develop- ment of genetically modified crops. Reading like a Historian skills Task Examine the documents and answer the questions that follow. We see the interplay of continuity and change when w8nafs_tod_dbi. ority to certain ways of thinking and a particular set of and political factors in so doing. tage to a set of environmental and historical factors Sometimes interpretive differences come about that came together at the right time. idea that the world before us is both the same and 1010 in food production so it won’t be so critical . the world’s population has achievement … the result of work. cultural. an increase tion. Weaker interpretations cultural institutions. using historians come down on the issue of the technological the children’s song “Old MacDonald Had a Farm” as a basis for the song’s lyrics. Most of these people are crammed into the There you have it—you are in the midst of a his. the role of ideas. argue historians on the other side. . most of the world’s population Hogwash. wildlife. You will need to use evidence from these selections and from the chapter to support the position you take in your essay. After you have studied all the documents. But consider of Britain. as now. in 1500! Making Historical Judgments Why History Matters How do you know which is right? Here’s where it gets Why should we care about any of this—continuity and dicey. Where The cartoon at right was created by American cartoon- ist Andy Singer. progress represented by the Industrial Revolution will depend on whether their focus is a 50 year period or a 500 year one. in order to increase cropland to produce enough food for an escalating population. how we interpret the past shapes Even though they may seem to be arguing about the the reality we create in the present.’” The scientific and technological superiority on the same 4. we would have cut down millions of acres of forest. mushroomed from 350 million to 6 billion. 2002 Skills Handbook A Cartoonist’s View are what historians call differences in scale.25 million square miles.3 Students analyze historic events from around the world by examining accounts written from For example. If we had continued practicing conventional farming. and grasslands. by Andy Singer. writes a historian on this side. CHAPTER 33 Document-Based Investigation Historians need to be able to understand continuity and change. of the past. what happened over millennia. Published in 2002.indd 1010 10/10/06 3:29:19 PM we compare the world today with the world around 1500. you will be asked to write an essay about geneti- cally modified crops. how to read like a historian? We should care because tations aren’t right or wrong as much as they are better our images of the past—how things got to be the way and worse. At the heart of almost every historical inter- Biotechnology will help these [developing] countries accomplish things that they could never do with conven- destroying wildlife habitat. of ‘things simply coming that hasn’t changed much: 70% of the world still lives together. geographical. or even historical interpretation like there is in math. but the technology of over genetically modified crops. . . Genetically Modified NEW YORK STANDARDS Crops 1. they often draw on the same concepts in work to end world hunger. forests. Old MacDonald’s Agribusiness Farm. in turn. These time differences And nothing could be more important than that! H24 Reading like a Historian .

# North Carolina Skills 2. Usually.01 Use appropriate sources of information. laws. arrest the gov- ernment. Vladimir Lenin issued his “Call to Power” speech on October 24. books. weapons. and Use the following strategies to analyze this primary source. “ I am writing these lines on the evening of the 24th. The date gives you a historical context in which to place the primary-source document. In fact The time frame of the primary source allows you to make con- it is now absolutely clear that to delay the uprising nections between your previous would be fatal. by the masses. The Bolshevik Revolution began the next day. this very night. that we are confronted by problems which are not to be solved by conferences or congresses (even congresses of Soviets). or other writings • Court opinions Learn the Skill • Autobiographies • Pottery. • Pamphlets. Analyzing Primary Sources . Apply the Skill 1. persuade. 3 Determine what the author’s intentions are in creating the primary source. 1917. this very evening. other artifacts • Government data. but exclusively by peoples. urging Russians to rise up and seize power from the provi- sional government. The document has a particular pur- We must not wait! We may lose everything! … ” pose and can be used by its author to inform. How would this source help a historian write a historical interpretation of the Russian Revolution? READING LIKE A HISTORIAN H25 w8ncfs_frm_SH_H25_H33. we. having first disarmed the officer cadets. These • Photographs • Diaries types of sources are valuable to historians because they give information about • Newspaper stories an event or a time period. and statutes • Speeches 1 Identify the author or creator of the primary source and the date in which it was created. Define the Skill Primary sources are documents or other artifacts created by people present READING LIKE A HISTORIAN SKILLS Primary sources can include: at historical events either as witnesses or participants. What is Lenin’s point of view? 2. and so on. by the struggle of the armed people. or influ- ence the audience. you can identify • Letters SKILLS HANDBOOK a primary source by reading for first-person clues such as I. and our. We must at all costs. that everything now hangs by a thread. 2 Compare details in the primary source to what you know about the historical event or time period. The situation is critical in the extreme. direct. … [W]e must not wait.indd H25 2/15/07 8:21:36 AM . knowledge and the information With all my might I urge comrades to realize the document provides.

Like any primary source. What details of Marat’s death are shown in this painting? 2. photographs. The time frame in which the who created the image image was created gives you an and the title can give idea of what the artist’s possible you clues as to what the intentions were in creating the artist intended the image image.05 Interpret history through artifacts. Learn the Skill Use the following strategies to analyze visuals. an and the way in which advertisement. 1 Identify the subject and determine the 3 medium that is being used. By analyzing visuals. arts. including paintings. they need to be SKILLS HANDBOOK analyzed critically. You can draw on your to show. Analyzing Visuals . 2 Identify the credit line and title. Define the Skill READING LIKE A HISTORIAN SKILLS Visuals. and media. Death of Marat. are another type of primary source. The details in the visual that surround the main subject can help you determine how the subject is depicted and what the artist wants you to know about the subject. In other instances. and political cartoons. Knowing and understanding an artist or photographer’s point of view can sometimes reveal more to a historian than the actual image itself. Sometimes visuals offer an accurate portrayal of the details of a historical figure or event. How does the artist portray Marat’s death? What might his purpose be in portraying Marat in such a manner? H26 READING LIKE A HISTORIAN w8ncfs_frm_SH_H25_H33. or a cartoon. The credit line tells you 4 Place the image in a historical context. Examine the details Visuals can be a photograph. used can help you determine the audience. Apply the Skill 1. drawings. a piece of fine art. 1793 knowledge of that particular time period to help further your understanding of the image. we are given an opportunity to see historical events through the eyes of the artist or photographer.indd H26 2/15/07 8:21:39 AM . The type of visual being the subject is depicted.# North Carolina Skills 3. by Jacques-Louis David. they represent an exaggerated or biased point of view.

facial features or people’s bodies are exaggerated. Learn the Skill Use the acronym BASIC to interpret political cartoons. Interpreting Political Cartoons . Symbols can also be used to simplify the cartoon or make its mes- sage clearer to the audience. Apply the Skill 1.# North Carolina Skills 3. Who are the parties being depicted in this cartoon? 2. either about politics in particular or society in general.indd H27 2/15/07 8:21:45 AM . B Background Knowledge Place the political cartoon in its historical context.04 Interpret social Define the Skill and political messages READING LIKE A HISTORIAN SKILLS Political cartoons are another kind of visual used to help us understand a of cartoons. Symbols can be used to represent large groups that can’t be depicted easily or to stand for a person or an event. To interpret political cartoons. examples of irony are implied through the various symbols and pictures. and historical context of the time. Irony is the use of words to express something differ- ent from their literal meaning. Historians use political cartoons to understand how a certain person or event was perceived at the time. examine all the elements while consid- ering the social. I Irony Examine the irony that is present in the cartoon. Analyze the message that the artist is sending to the audience. Sometimes in political cartoons. They often exaggerate characteristics of subjects or events in order to convey a specific message. C Caricature (or exaggeration) Often in political cartoons. A Argument Determine what the artist is trying to say in the political cartoon. What is the artist trying to say about the relationship between NAFTA and Mexican industries? READING LIKE A HISTORIAN H27 w8ncfs_frm_SH_H25_H33. Use your prior knowledge of what is being depicted to analyze the cartoon’s message about that particular event or person. Analyze any exag- gerations present in the cartoon and consider what the meaning of such exaggerations might be. particular historical time period. S Symbolism Analyze any symbols in the cartoon. These differ from visuals such as photographs SKILLS HANDBOOK and fine art because political cartoons express a point of view. political.

a week. because most literature is fiction. but toss about till dawn.indd H28 2/15/07 8:21:48 AM . as much a condition of tional response. that context. ” Apply the Skill 1. Learn the Skill Use the following strategies to interpret literature.’ But as I see it. Then you say. 1 Identify the author and time period of the piece. manner of expression. Literature. Excerpt from War and Peace. while it seems to me that animal happiness is the only happiness possible.05 Interpret history as a Source through artifacts. it needs to be approached with special caution. What can historians learn about social classes in Russia by reading this selection? H28 READING LIKE A HISTORIAN w8ncfs_frm_SH_H25_H33. physical labor or to elicit an emo- the author’s tone. arts. Interpreting Literature . I go to bed after two in from their audiences.” he went on. thoughts come and I can’t sleep Analyze the passage and subject he or she is writ. However. For example. Just as I could not stand matter. so he could not stand my physical idle- ness. and that is just what you want to deprive him of. or is as essential to him. Writers often try to elicit his existence. author feels about the the morning. by Leo Tolstoy. an emotional response The author’s tone helps us to understand how the You can’t help thinking. because I think and decide whether or not ing about. “You talk of schools. even historical fiction. tual needs. if he didn’t. and media. work into a historical crooking a finger. he would go to the be used to demonstrate another about the subject a widely felt emotion of drink shop or fall ill. I 3 Determine whether the literature is 2 Look for descrip. envy him. his terrible physical labor but should die of it in ticular time period. such as Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales. and events.” said Prince Andrew. “education and so forth. You can then is you want to raise him (pointing to a peasant draw on your knowledge who passed by them taking off his cap) from of that time period to interpret the meaning of his animal condition and awaken in him spiri- the piece. people during that par. the author is trying to literature the tone can make you feel one way or ing and mowing. What is the goal of the literature selection? 3. In historical can’t help thinking. as mental activity is to you or me. 1805 The time period allows you to place the literary “ Come on let’s argue then. places. certain historical event help you determine ‘lighten his toil. can provide historical details about the lifestyle of people in England in the 1300s. cannot be taken at face value or treated as a reliable source of information. but would grow fat and die. a poem set in the Middle Ages.# North Carolina Skills 3. meant to describe a tive passages that without giving him my means. What is the author’s point of view? 2. but you want to make him what I am. READING LIKE A HISTORIAN SKILLS Define the Skill SKILLS HANDBOOK Historians can sometimes use literature written during a particular time period to gain detailed insights into certain people. just as he can’t help plow.

To avoid bias. For example. Apply the Skill 1. Bias can help historians understand the different attitudes during a cer- tain time in history. Explain how a historian might use this document in preparing a historical account of child labor in coal mines. Primary Sources READING LIKE A HISTORIAN SKILLS Define the Skill SKILLS HANDBOOK To develop an effective analysis of primary sources. or personal beliefs. earned their wages by drawing the coals in tubs along the galleries by Analyze what beliefs the author is trying to convey to means of a belt and chain. Many girls were thus employed. waists. 1 Identify the speaker or author.# North Carolina Skills 3. ” 3 Compare the primary source with other sources and with historical evidence. the author may be trying to justify an action or sway an opinion. The author’s place in the context of a historical event or time period will give you an idea of what sort of bias he or she might have toward the subject. A person’s bias can be influenced by political. A bias is a prefer- ence or inclination that inhibits a person from making an impartial judgment. 1833 2 Examine the author’s point of view. a historian must look at many sources on the same incident or issue. cultural. Look to other sources available on this particular subject. Most primary sources reflect some type of bias. Learn the Skill Use the following strategies to recognize bias. Recognizing Bias in . READING LIKE A HISTORIAN H29 w8ncfs_frm_SH_H25_H33. and after a time became crooked and deformed. Bias can give clues about an author’s intent or background. “ The children. social. Use a variety of sources to develop your own conclusions regarding the event or time period. boys and girls. visitor to the Lancashire mines.03 Detect bias. historians must learn to recognize bias and the source of bias in primary sources. What is the author’s goal in writing this passage? 2. Carelton Smith. either from the person who cre- ated the source or the person viewing the source. which passed along their his or her audience.indd H29 2/15/07 8:21:54 AM . Sometimes an author expresses a personal view without knowing that it is biased.

Apply the Skill 1. Other kinds of secondary book can be considered a secondary source. and also for early-morning Mass. a document that we might • Encyclopedia entries • Web sites have initially considered to be a secondary source can actually be a primary • Articles and essays by source. historians sidered to be a secondary source. . sources include Depending on the sorts of questions we ask. he went to church morning and eve- ning with great regularity. and the late-night hours.01 Use appropriate Define the Skill sources of information. 2 The author and the Einhard. As long as his health lasted or a time period. Your text.# North Carolina Skills 2. by the source. Secondary sources often contain summaries and analyses of events and time periods. These people rely on primary SKILLS HANDBOOK sources in order to write their secondary-source accounts. “ Charlemagne practised the Chris- tian religion with great devotion and The author of a secondary source usually offers a summary of events piety. Determine whether or not this sec- ondary source could also be considered a primary source. It is important to pay attention to the ways in which a document is presented to us before determining whether it is a primary or secondary source. But if we use that book to look at the ways in • Biographies which history was written in the mid-1800s. 1 Identify the source. What important information about Charlemagne can be found in this passage? 2.indd H30 2/15/07 8:21:57 AM . Analyzing Secondary Sources . the history text then becomes a pri- mary source. . In what ways could this secondary source be viewed as a primary source? H30 READING LIKE A HISTORIAN w8ncfs_frm_SH_H25_H33. Use the date and your knowledge of the speaker to help you draw conclusions about how this source could be both primary and secondary. a history textbook from the mid-1800s is normally con. ” 3 Primary-source possibilities. the official biographer of Charlemagne. 830 historical events provided context for the source. Analyze the summary of date give you a historical The Life of Charlemagne. READING LIKE A HISTORIAN SKILLS A secondary source is an account that is produced after a historical event by people who were not present at the actual event. For example. Learn the Skill Use the following strategies to analyze secondary sources.

# North Carolina Skills 1. 1 This excerpt is taken from a Chinese History textbook and is Identify the compiled by the Peoples’ Education Company. distinctive purpose they had to hold fast to Lugouqiao. railroad bridge. Recognizing Bias in . places. you can recognize the bias in the writing. other discussed. like most primary sources. contain some sort of bias based on the author’s beliefs. READING LIKE A HISTORIAN SKILLS Define the Skill SKILLS HANDBOOK Most secondary sources. Even secondary-source accounts that are meant to be neutral can reflect a bias of some sort. They fought forward. The author is looking at clenched their teeth. subject. the soldiers instantly ran out he or she feels about the of the countryside.05 Recognize bias and Secondary Sources propaganda. Secondary sources After the fight curtain was drawn back. Many secondary sources take a position on a his- torical event or time period and use that position to interpret the events that took place. 3 Determine the author’s opinion about the subject being ing their comrades fall in the battle. Is there bias in this passage? Explain your answer. are written with a nese defending army issued an order that and events. hold back their anger.indd H31 2/27/07 7:59:45 PM . 2 Analyze the words the author uses to describe people. what are they? 3. Facing hundreds of Japanese attackers. Before this The words or phrases that toward the author’s command was issued. and they engaged in intense hand-to-hand fights with [the] enemies. without showing much sorrow. they were not cowed in the least. Learn the Skill Use the following strategies to recognize bias in secondary sources. The two lines of recognize what sort of bias Chinese soldiers defended either side of the the author has. What is the source? 2. Apply the Skill 1. It is important to be able to notice when bias exists in a secondary source so that you can make your own assessment of the source’s legitimacy. READING LIKE A HISTORIAN H31 w8ncfs_frm_SH_H25_H33. soldiers. the soldiers could not the author uses have a audience. Are there examples of emotional language in the excerpt? If so. Identify and ana- lyze these words in order to out the enemy immediately. So when the command great deal to do with how reached them. By analyzing where the author is coming from. these events with particular Even the wounded who were ordered to feelings towards his or her retreat were still charging ahead. author and his or her purpose in writing the text. the headquarters of the 29th troop of [the] Chi. wishing they could wipe subject. See. Nearly all of them died at the end of the battle of the bridge.

adapted for TV in the 1960s…But it is not only the large-scale which shows the deep penetration of our con- sciousness by Roman images (even if these are merely images of images). therefore. bias affects their interpretation of ” the event or time period. Evaluating Historical Interpretation . event that they are discussing. established our view of galleys and chariot-races indelibly… There have been many novels devoted to Roman subjects. One thinks of Ben-Hur and Spartacus. There are Roman-style porticoes on fast-food stores and statue 3 Examine the level of bias in the interpretation.indd H32 2/15/07 8:22:09 AM . are Robert Graves’ I. You may have to do additional research to find out what the author’s background is in order 2 to determine credibility. When was the source created? How does this affect the scholarship? 3. for example. the more credible the source. These interpretations can change over time as historians learn more about the people and events of the past. 1 Identify the author or publisher of the source to determine credibility. Consider when the source was created. which arship is and. perhaps. by historians Peter Jones and Keith Sidwell. The author or authors of histori- niches on minute houses on large estates. There is a laurel wreath on the Whitehall cenotaph [a World War Analyze the way in which their I monument in London]. A historical interpreta- SKILLS HANDBOOK tion is a way to explain the past. How does bias affect the interpretation? H32 READING LIKE A HISTORIAN w8ncfs_frm_SH_H25_H33. 1997 date is. The introduction tells you the author’s name and his profession. Apply the Skill 1. we can see trivial examples of this impact. There are Latin tags on British pound coins. level of bias. There are Roman soldiers on the particular time period or in Asterix books.# North Carolina Skills 1. and relevance of the material. Learn the Skill Use the following strategies to evaluate historical interpretation. Claudius and Claudius the God. Who are the authors of the interpretation? 2. For all this.05 Recognize bias and Define the Skill propaganda. the more recent the schol- “ Roman subjects have had a continuing appeal for cinema audi- ences. The best known in English. There are togas and cal interpretations take a position gladiators in Bugs Bunny cartoons. the world of Rome is ultimately responsible. The more current the publishing Excerpt from The World of Rome. READING LIKE A HISTORIAN SKILLS Historians and others evaluate historical interpretations to determine the credibility. All around.

Learn the Skill Use the following strategies to analyze points of view. Archaeologists Dennis Stanford and Bruce Bradley’s views on migration to the Americas. alternative points of view in ing evidence of Clovis occupation. ” the main points in each argument. where there is hardly any exist.000-9500 BC. Through such activities they ended was conducted. each retaining for several centuries the tool-making traditions of an ancestral population that originally entered through 3 Compare the points of view.# North Carolina Skills 4. Fiedel’s view on migration to the Americas. Which source do you feel has more credibility? Why? READING LIKE A HISTORIAN H33 w8ncfs_frm_SH_H25_H33. Two historians given the same primary-source documents may. work gives you an Determine what each insight into where their author is saying about the scholarship lies in the topic. 1987 subject material. or they may reflect two different schools of thought. 1999 “ We reason that generations of Solutrean hunters 1 Identify infor- mation given about the authors learned to cope with ice and weather conditions to fol- low resources such as Harp seals and Great Auks that migrated north and westward along with retreating and the time during which their research ice in late spring. “ The striking similarity of fluted points and asso- ciated artifacts across the whole expanse of North America suggests that the continent was rapidly filled by Paleo-Indian hunting bands. ” order to draw conclusions about the topic.indd H33 2/15/07 8:22:17 AM . But the their study and their conclu- only place from which this hypothetical group could sions. Apply the Skill 1. analyze the author’s have come is Alaska. and often do. Define the Skill READING LIKE A HISTORIAN SKILLS Interpretations of past events often come from differing points of view. and evaluate conflicting viewpoints. Good historians do additional research to find the accuracies in each account. understand. look SKILLS HANDBOOK at the historical event or time period in two completely different ways.02 Examine. grand scheme of the Archaeologist Stuart J. Based on the time period of the ice-free corridor around 10. up (by accident and/or design) along the exposed con- 2 Knowing the authors’ tinental shelf of North America discovering a New Define and analyze background and when they conducted their Land. What is the main point of each selection? 2. These differing interpretations may reflect an extreme bias for one view or another. Historians are often faced with alternative points of view of a time or an event in the past when conduct- ing their research. Analyzing Points of View .

Is he or she a leader. Personalizing history in this way makes it more interesting and easier to understand for many people. Be sure to get • Start with a quotation. You want to check with your teacher the main idea in each paragraph. giving facts and details that Identifying a Thesis Decide on your point of view reflect your point of view toward him or her. oral. or person to strengthen or expand your thesis. Write Identifying the Subject Sometimes you will be Use a Writer’s Framework to create a draft. of your paper scientist? Was he or she a hero. pick a person who interests you. sometimes you will have a choice. Also. WRITING AND SPEAKING SKILLS Follow these steps when you write a biography. Revise wording or sentence structure to strengthen the links between your thesis and the sup- porting information. • Identify your subject. It’s bet- ter to have a few paragraphs of carefully explained. • Give specific facts and examples that directly support tional sources. SKILLS HANDBOOK 1. • Restate the main focus (thesis) of your paper. and theatrical A biography is the story of a person’s life as told by someone else. H34 WRITING AND SPEAKING SKILLS w8ncfs_frm_SH_H34_H39. in articles. or to someone else in history. Prewrite 2. Revise and Publish only what best supports and illustrates your thesis and Evaluating and Revising Look back at each main ideas. places. assigned a subject. paragraph. and through other informa. on life to develop into paragraphs supporting your thesis. CD-ROMs and Web sites. toward the person. Choose facts. Use an outline to gather specific details • Relate the person to historical events at that time under a main idea for each paragraph in your paper. anecdotes. musical. Historical presentations of social studies information. You will not be able to use all the information you find. one Introduction that you would like to know more about. infamous? Focus your thoughts in a single statement. visual. related information than a running list of dates and Conclusion other facts. CREATING WRITTEN PRESENTATIONS Biographical Writing . and other groups sponsor essay contests. a • Clearly express the main focus. accounts usually include a great deal of biographical writing. Be prepared to revise your thesis as you gather infor- mation and learn more about your subject.indd H34 2/15/07 8:22:48 AM . your choice approved by your teacher. Check the guidelines for entering any such contests.# North Carolina Skills 2. Many historical societies. and events. check all dates.06 Create written. or thesis. Pick 3. Gathering Information and Details You will be Body able to find information about your subject in ency. • Choose three or four main events from the person’s clopedias and other reference books. examples. and other details that relate directly to your thesis. When choosing. Organizing Information and Details Almost all • Give additional biographical information about the biographical writing is organized in chronological. order. which can serve as your thesis statement. an artist. famous or in a single statement. A thesis statement tells what your paper will be about. anecdote or fascinating fact. or librarian to make sure your sources are reliable and • Use chronological order to organize your paper. objective. time. service clubs. Proofreading and Publishing Double-check the spelling of all names of people. a failure.

as a result. description readers will need to understand it. predicting future developments. followed by the next contrast.indd H35 2/15/07 8:22:51 AM . book reports. In other cases. usage. CD-ROMs. that the United Nations is like the League of Nations. and you will use chronological. scope. the structure is assigned. Comparison-contrast topic: Explain three ways • Briefly explain how you will develop your topic. your information in an outline according to the struc- ture you chose or were assigned. and what results of those changes are seen in today’s society? Sequence of events topic: Trace the history of Body European exploration of the Americas. and topic will guide the wording of your thesis statement. In a single sentence. give the cause(s) first. and other information in each paragraph. then the effect(s).# North Carolina Skills 2. • Briefly summarize (in a sentence or two) the key ideas and information in the body of your paper. oral. you will want to organize or exploring some other aspect of your topic. and other information • Expand on your thesis by explaining the sources can provide facts. your paper. examples. shown here with example topics. ments include a topic or choice of topics. Comparison-contrast thesis: Though similar in origin. visual. The specific information WRITING AND SPEAKING SKILLS you give and what you say about it depends on not only your topic. the United Nations and the League of Nations differed in organization. Cause and effect topic: How did industrialization change British social structure. restate your thesis in more specific words. Conclusion and authority. Prewrite 2. • Clearly state your thesis for your paper. CREATING WRITTEN PRESENTATIONS Expository Writing . etc. state the main idea behind what you will write about the topic. providing any details or common structures. about your topic. musical. Write Identifying a Topic Most expository writing assign. so check them with special care. and other assignments that require you to presentations of social studies information. you will more precise words or phrases. Much of your expository Introduction writing will involve at least one of the following three • Introduce your topic. WRITING AND SPEAKING SKILLS H35 w8ncfs_frm_SH_H34_H39. and theatrical Essay questions on tests. • Follow your outline in presenting examples. Organize by comparison-contrast: Sometimes you 3. and three ways they differ. but also the SKILLS HANDBOOK organization. Revise and Publish will want to give all your points of comparison first. sure that it is free of errors in punctuation.06 Create written. then all the contrasting points. the Web. Replace any weak transitional words with Organize by cause and effect: Usually. Follow these steps when you write an expository paper. rather than to relate ideas and information clearly. of your writing. aims and hopes. order to organize spelling. punctuation. facts. Gathering and Organizing Information Some • Use information from the body of your paper to expository writing assignments involve research. or time. or structure. Proofread and Publish Proofread your paper to be Organize by sequence of events: In most cases. and other details importance. Books. Use a Writer’s Framework to create a draft. you will Evaluate and Revise Make sure that you have give a point of comparison. then the clearly introduced both your topic and the structure of next comparison. 1. Transitional words often need to be set off by a sequence of events. then a contrast. explain or present information about a particular subject are types of expository writing—explaining or giving information about a topic. too. Often. As a rule. Writing a Thesis Statement Your response to your • Use transitional words such as then.

At other times you spelling. thing. Follow these steps when you write a persuasive paper. For example.# North Carolina Skills 2. these characteristics: • Give background information so readers understand 1. be may want to save it for the end. an editorial. Write Identifying an Issue One requirement for persua.indd H36 2/15/07 8:22:54 AM . the issue. Body Example thesis: Wealthier countries should help • Include at least three reasons to support your thesis. 1. You also need someone to read what you final impression. to sure that it is free of errors in punctuation.06 Create written. A persuasive • Organize the reasons by order of importance—most argument must be based on logical proof and evi. about. what changes you need to make. dence. have a clear statement of my thesis in the introduction Once you have gathered the support. you will have to do Evaluate and Revise Turn the statements in the some research for reasons and information to support Writer’s Framework into questions and ask yourself your opinion. If you are Introduction asked to create a persuasive essay. It may also include appeals to emotions or to a person’s ethics. or ethical appeals. opinion or thesis is called an argument. There are clearly defined pro and con arguments about the issue. to make a strong sure to use it. have written. You could submit a persuasive paper to the editorial page of your school or local newspaper. poorer countries develop their economies. “Do I newspapers. textbooks. such as love of country or human life and • Restate your thesis in different words. oral. You have an opinion about it. Sometimes you will want to put the strongest and Proofread and Publish Proofread your paper to be most compelling information or reason first. Evidence: Facts. 2. statistics. anecdotes. H36 WRITING AND SPEAKING SKILLS w8ncfs_frm_SH_H34_H39. or a • Start with a question. right and wrong Gathering and Organizing Support Unless you 3. • Support each reason with evidence. there is no need to persuade. You’ll most often find persuasive writing in advertisements. You can check online sources. Use a Writer’s Framework to create a draft: sion is a topic about which people disagree. start by identifying an issue with • Clearly state your thesis. quotation. visual. persuasive speech. If you have a computer with spell-check. CREATING WRITTEN PRESENTATIONS Persuasive Writing . Prewrite 2. etc. or in the speeches of political leaders. musical. you’ll need to my paper?” to think about the order in which you should present it. and capture your reader’s attention. or interesting fact. usage. expert testi- mony. If every- one agrees. write a sentence that defines your opinion or position on it. Persuasive SKILLS HANDBOOK writing turned into a speech is common in the great speeches of political leaders. welfare • Include a call to action—a sentence that tells readers Ethical Appeals: Appeals to the readers’ sense of what you want them to do. Identifying a Thesis Once you have an issue. to least or least to most. information. and theatrical presentations of social studies The purpose of persuasion is to convince others to believe something or do some. editorials written WRITING AND SPEAKING SKILLS for newspapers and magazines. and precise examples Conclusion Emotional Appeals: Appeals to ideas people care • Summarize your argument. Revise and Publish have already studied your topic. emotional Building an Argument The support provided for an appeals.

and theatrical presentations of social studies Unlike other expository writing. • Devote at least one paragraph to each main idea in and CD-ROMs. Evaluating and Revising Double check all quota- Depending on your thesis. Check to be sure that you have given a parenthetical citation for the source for each piece of information used in your report. relating it to your research. you • Clearly state your thesis. Writing a Thesis Statement Gathering informa- tion will guide you in answering your research ques- tion. Organize all of these in an outline. turn it into a research question. up-to-date. you might arrange causes in their order of importance or simply discuss Proofreading and Publishing Proofread to be sure causes before effects. SKILLS HANDBOOK 1. people. musical. logical. Where you have order of importance. and objective. Other times. Prewrite 2. of your report. might ask “What were the causes of the Bolshevik Revolution?” Gathering and Recording Information To answer your research question.# North Carolina Skills 2. that you have enclosed each direct quotation in quo- tation marks. Follow these steps when you write a research paper. Write Identifying a Topic and Research Question Use a Writer’s Framework to create a draft: In some cases. articles. • Summarize your main points. and use WRITING AND SPEAKING SKILLS information sources. you will develop in your report. Information from all sources needs to your outline. if your topic were the Bolshevik Revolution. you will need to seek informa- Body tion about your topic in sources such as books. be factual. Record each note on a separate piece of paper or • Insert a parenthetical source citation after each piece note card. To shape your topic. tions in quotation marks. comparison summarized or paraphrased information. then divide them further into subtopics. you might organize by tions to make sure they’re accurate. and events in history. That answer can serve as a statement of the Conclusion main idea. • Quote sources accurately and enclose all direct quota- Keep a numbered list of the sources you use. oral. your teacher will assign the general subject. visual. Revolution was long-term social unrest. • Grab readers’ interest by opening with an interesting fact or anecdote. Consequently. • Give background information to acquaint readers with your topic and the research you’ve done. With the example you have used your own words. you will Introduction choose your own. select. research writing requires you to present not only information. number(s) where the information appears. or topic. or cause and effect. your own ideas and knowledge on a topic but those of others. CREATING WRITTEN PRESENTATIONS Research Writing . thesis on the Bolshevik Revolution. Organizing Your Information Sort your notes into several major categories. Topics often include time periods. make sure and contrast. Revise and Publish to how you want to present the information. WRITING AND SPEAKING SKILLS H37 w8ncfs_frm_SH_H34_H39. including the source number and the page of research information that you use. • Create a Works Cited page listing your sources. the success of your research papers will depend on how well you find. places. or thesis.06 Create written. chronological order. For example. Example thesis: The primary cause of the Bolshevik • Restate your thesis.indd H37 2/15/07 8:22:57 AM . according 3.

and it ended in point. and finally on there are clearly defined pro and con arguments. and precise Russia. they mo re quickly abandoned the army H38 WRITING AND SPEAKING SKILLS w8ncfs_frm_SH_H34_H39.# North Carolina Skills Speeches are a common form of sharing information or persuading an audience. Expository thesis: Napoleon’s Russian Campaign examples. to statement of your main idea. soldiers ’ feet bled on the snow • Because many soldiers were not French. Prepare the Speech Typical ways to organize an informative speech include: Identifying an Issue or Topic Sometimes you will Organize by cause and effect: Discuss the cause(s) be assigned a historical topic or issues for a speech. soldiers kille your thesis. or other visual material the cause of his failure in the Russian Campaign. failure. Persuasive speeches need facts. 1. SKILLS HANDBOOK requires an additional set of skills. Organize by order of importance: Save the most Identifying a Thesis A thesis statement is the important and/or most dramatic point for last. expert testimony. you have gathered and identify the main points you • How long it took—October to tk Key Facts: want to make—the points that relate to and support • Statistic: From 600. Gathering Information Use reference books. For example.000 soldiers to 94. • Conditions: Winter. Make a separate card for: statements. his- tory books. addition to facts and examples. horrible. pro. Describe how Napoleon’s army dissolved on its retreat from statistics. or informative speeches. Organize by comparison-contrast: You might dis- vide facts about and/or explain a historical event or cuss one event or person and then discuss the other situation. visual. tify it as soon as you have a topic or an issue. You may be able to iden.06 Create written. however. you would typically: rely on emotional appeals. Organizing Your Notes Review the information attacks from Russian army and partisans. To Inform: Expository. and theatrical Preparing to give a speech usually involves the same steps as writing—planning. • Direct quotations to be read word for word. and other sources to Main Point: The Grand Army Dissolves gather information. In their legacy to the world. you need may also wait until after you have done some research to speak from a few note cards rather than a written and gathered information. or ideas you want to use to support that was troubled from the beginning. information. anecdotes. wh ich meant they had to walk. drafting. military skills. examples just as much as expository speeches. presentations of social studies WRITING AND SPEAKING SKILLS researching. organizing. musical. Organize by sequence: Discuss stages or actions in Identifying your Purpose chronological order. to support your points. chart.indd H38 2/15/07 8:23:00 AM . Then select a way to organize your • Set up quote d and ate their horses.000 • With no food. • Each major point. primary sources. you might compare two change listeners’ opinions about an issue on which kings on political skills. no food. Add reminder notes about facts. Follow these steps when you prepare and deliver a speech about a historical event or issue. Delivering a speech. mud-soaked roads. • With no shoes. presentation. Other times you will be able to choose your own. but you Making Note Cards In most situations. and revising. make a final impact on your audience. before the effect(s). Here are examples of thesis paper. Persuasive thesis: Napoleon’s ego and pride were • When to show a map. 2. MAKING ORAL PRESENTATIONS Expository and Persuasive Speeches . persuasive speeches For a persuasive speech. event and person. oral. You can also organize by points To Persuade: Persuasive speeches attempt to of comparison.

Deliver the Speech give listeners time to think No matter how well you have planned and researched Nonverbal Communication  We use nonverbal sig. Here are Eye Contact:  Maintaining eye contact with your some things you can do to make speaking easier: audience makes them feel as though you are com. Practice controlling the following: and giving the speech is a challenge. Rehearse  If possible. but when giving a speech. Don’t be distracted or the audience to see and read. Verbal Communication  In a speech. Focus on What You Want to Say:  Concentrate on • Use visuals that are large enough for everyone in your purpose for speaking.2. emphasis on your main idea or point. actually standing in front of an audience effectively. municating directly to them make sure all electronic equipment is cued up and Gestures:  Move your arms. signals. That way you can listen to the speech as well as observe the way you handled your- self while speaking. adjust how well you do the following: • Speak clearly and slowly • Project your voice more loudly than in normal speech • Stress words related to the main points • Use small silences to suggest important points or 3. etc. Check Your Audiovisual Media:  Before the speech. wander. it is not just the words that are important. it is also how the words are expressed. Audiovisual media include audio recordings. personal computer. writing and speaking skills H39 . signal one is a little bit nervous when giving a speech. graphs. smiling. emphasize your verbal message Read the Audience:  Do they seem to be agreeing or disagreeing with the points you are making? Are Using Audiovisual Media  Audiovisual media can they going to sleep or whispering to one another? make your speech more interesting and clarify your You may need to adjust your verbal and nonverbal ideas. maps. You need to prac- tice more than once. As you rehearse. Practice the Speech Practice will help build your self-confidence as well as help you spot and correct mistakes. Don’t rush through it to get to the end. hands. or head to ready to go. pictures. It is also helpful to practice in front of a mirror or make a video of your practice session. Almost every- Facial Expressions:  Frowning. illustrations. it and out—and how much you have practiced your is especially important to control and use these signals presentation. films. practice your speech in front of an audience—friends or family members. even your feelings people who have made a career as a speaker. evaluating and changing your speech as you go. • If you are going to use media as you present your Finish with Finesse:  Close your speech with speech. you need to include it when you rehearse. your topic—and you should know your topic inside nals whenever we speak. charts. Slow Down:  Force yourself to control the pace of power point presentations or anything else stored on a your speech.

Answers: 1 (A). You can eliminate C the creation of the Lutheran Church. C Renaissance artists rarely created sculptures. Consider the options that D Renaissance paintings used a technique known as remain and select the best. the above as you would any other possible response. Read the stem carefully and 1. absolute words such as always or B Renaissance art always had a religious theme. These questions consist of a stem and several answer options. all. D Johannes Gutenberg Eliminate answer options that you know are incorrect 3. In these cases. Absolute words such as always. B the formation of new religious orders. none. Which of the following best explains why Henry VIII broke Stem review each of the answer away from the Catholic Church? options. Use the strategies below to answer multiple-choice questions. perspective. option C if you recall Consider options such as all that the Lutheran Church of the above and none of D all of the above. select the option that makes the never. If you are not sure of the answer. your choices. look for the answer option C Miguel de Cervantes that is not true. 2 (D) . Which of the following accurately describes Renaissance Watch for modifiers. 3 (B). Examine the question for Answer Options B He was a close friend and follower of Martin Luther. 4. asking. Which of the following was not a writer associated questions that are phrased with the Renaissance? in the negative. Pay careful attention to 2. art? Answer options that include A Renaissance art never focused on individuals. was a result of the Protes- tant Reformation. 4 (D) H40 TEST-TAKING STRATEGIES . A William Shakespeare Some questions contain words B Christine de Pisan such as not and except. TEST-Taking Strategies Skills Handbook The word best indi- cates that you should Learn look for the option that best explains why Henry broke from the church. A The pope refused to grant him an annulment. Multiple Choice One of the most common questions you might see on a test is a multiple-choice question. key words and facts that C He wanted to be head of the church. most sense. indicate what the question is D He strongly opposed the sale of indulgences. never are sometimes incorrect. and every often signal an incorrect option. The Catholic Counter-Reformation led to This will help you narrow down A improved relations between Catholics and Protestants.

And. —Samuel Eliot Morison.” the kind of sea captain who slept little and woke at tion to focus on. What is the author’s point of view toward the subject? A The author believes that Magellan’s voyage was not very important in world history. 2. he was able to outwit enemies Look at the title and skim the who were plotting to kill him. he was “an industrious man. as the Portuguese sailor who wrote the Leiden Then read the questions to help Narrative recorded. author thought highly of Magellan. about the subject. p. Learn Ferdinand Magellan Briefly examine the histori- Magellan’s greatness stands out. despite all attempts to cal source and the questions disparage him. persons. B He was the first European to reach the Marianas and Re-read the questions that the Philippines. and never you understand what informa. rested. Use the strategies below to answer questions using historical sources. C The author thinks highly of Ferdinand Magellan. or other ianas and the Philippines where no European had touched details that provide information before. to find the answers. men. Was it intended to create a reac. 1974. Look for clues that might indi- cate why the source was created. he planned it. test questions will include historical sources in order to assess your ability to analyze documents or images. source and review the source D He discovered a sea route from Europe to Asia.Historical Sources Often. D He believes that Magellan was a better sailor than Columbus Answers: 1 (B). He not only had the gift of making the right that accompany it. and discovered the was created and by whom. Which of the following correctly identifies an accomplish- ment of Ferdinand Magellan? tion in the audience? Is it for informational purposes? A He wrote the Leiden Narrative. and although Examine the source carefully. 1. Historical sources can be primary-source documents created by people present at historical events or during a historical time period. decision at the right time. 320 Study the source to deter- These words mine its purpose and point indicate that the of view. 2 (C) TEST-TAKING STRATEGIES H41 . Historical sources are written or visual sources that tell us about important events or people in history.” as well as the Mar- for key events. The European Discovery of America: The Southern Voyages. Look “Strait that shall forever bear his name. As a mariner and navigator he was unsurpassed. or second- TEST-Taking Strategies Skills Handbook ary sources created after an event by a person who was not present. and to keep the loyalty of his source to identify the subject. B He thinks that Europeans were wrong to colonize the Americas. he did not live to complete the greatest voyage of discov- Take note of when the source ery in the world’s history. a moment’s notice for anything like a change of wind. accompany the historical C He was the greatest explorer who ever lived.

Interpret symbols and images used in the cartoon. B The First and Second estates share their wealth with the Third Estate. 2 (A) H42 TEST-TAKING STRATEGIES . the peasants and laborers can also help you identify the of the Third Estate subject matter. stand what point the artist 1. Showing the peasant being literally crushed Determine the cartoonist’s might indicate that the point of view. Identify the cartoon’s and Labor). exams use political cartoons to test your knowledge of a particular period. Taxes. What point is the artist most likely trying to make in this cartoon? A The First and Second estates oppress the Third Estate. Impots et Corvee (Tithes. Because cartoons often provide insight into the opinions and values of a TEST-Taking Strategies Skills Handbook historical period. Read the cartoon’s title and cap. an olive branch might represent the idea of peace. positively or negatively. D social problems before the French Revolution. C Members of the Third Estate should not pay their taxes. cartoonist agree or disagree with the issue? C political reasons for Napoleon’s rise to power. Political cartoons are primary sources that use images and symbols to make a point about political figures or issues. and man were common tion to help determine its sub. Read the questions carefully and study the political car- toon to find the answers. Political Cartoons Another common type of test question asks you to analyze a political cartoon. Second estates. Use the strategies below to answer test questions that deal with political cartoons. Answers: 1 (D). Political cartoons often use symbols to express ideas. The priest and noble- The title. Recognize whether the subject is portrayed A France’s economic difficulties under King Louis XVI. place. The man ject as France on the eve under the rock represents when the cartoon was created of the French Revolution. For example. D The three estates should work together to solve the coun- try’s economic problems. The cartoon likely represents is trying to make. Does the B religious disagreements that led to the French Revolution. Exaggerated images or facial expressions often indicate emotions. Learn Taille. France late 1700s subject. date of the cartoon symbols of France’s First and ject. Estate was suffering. artist believed the Third Examine the cartoon to under. Information that indicates help us identify the sub. 2.

D After years of population growth."/:4&$0/0. 2 (B) TEST-TAKING STRATEGIES H43 . 1016-"5*0/0'*3&-"/% o (&3. Read the questions that accompany the Legends and additional labels provide informa- graph. Line graphs illustrate how quantities and trends change over time. OEQBTT FGB on the most important part of the  graph. Bar graphs compare groups of numbers within categories and some- times show change over time. that German production of steel and coal was rising . The vertical axis generally indicates what the Re-read the questions and review the graph graph measures. tion about what the colors. Graphs are used to show statistical or numerical information in a visual way.JMMJPOTPGUPOT  The purple seg-  ment of the line   indicates the period of   the Great Famine. both experienced dramatic increases. Learn Read the title of the graph to determine its Read any legends or additional labels on main idea the graph. 4PVSDF 0YGPSE"UMBTPG8PSME)JTUPSZ 1. Line and Bar Graphs Other test questions assess your ability to read graphs. Germany’s A The Irish population declined dramatically A coal production declined as a result of around 1900. economy was relatively stable. Which statement best summarizes the 2. between 1890 and information in the line graph? 1913.*$(3085) o  4UFFM1SPEVDUJPO $PBM1SPEVDUJPO      1PQVMBUJPO NJMMJPOT (SFBU'BNJOF o   5IPVTBOETPGUPOT   . to find the answers. while steel pro- as a result of the Industrial Revolution. Use the strategies below to answer questions that cover line TEST-Taking Strategies Skills Handbook and bar graphs. patterns. C Ireland’s population increased dramatically C coal production declined. population declined rapidly around the time of the Great Famine. or symbols Reading the questions first will help you focus in XOBGT@OBUB on the graph mean. graph reveals. Identify any trends or patterns that the Study the label on the vertical axis. According to the graphs. the Great Depression. The horizontal axis usually tells you the time The bars indicate period the graph covers.                :FBS   4PVSDF )FBSUI5BY3FUVSOT *SJTI$FOTVT     The graph covers the :FBS :FBS years 1780 to 1920. Examine the label on the horizontal axis. duction increased. Answers: 1 (D). the Irish D. B The population of Ireland has always been B steel production and coal production smaller than that of Great Britain.

#:$06/53:  Read the questions that 3VTTJB accompany the pie graph. Draw conclusions about the information presented in the graph. 6OJUFE 6OJUFE . larger or smaller than others. Use the strategies below to answer questions about pie graphs. B in Israel. Look for a legend or labels to explain what the different slices 4PVSDF +FXJTI7JSUVBM-JCSBSZ The slices on this graph refer to the represent. WNAFS?AMEA Pie Graphs NDPASS    Some tests include questions that require you to interpret information in pie graphs. 2 (A) H44 TEST-TAKING STRATEGIES . Which of the following conclusions can accurately be drawn from the graph above? trends. Learn Read the title of the graph to learn the topic and time 803-%+&8*4)1016-"5*0/ period it covers. 1. D In 2005 Judaism was the third largest religion in the world. If there are two graphs.JOHEPN Identify the different 4UBUFT 0UIFS  “slices” into which the pie graph is divided. What percentage does different countries around each slice represent? the world where Jews lived in 2005. compare and contrast them to identify and understand 2. Slices of a pie graph should add up to 100% and are proportional to the percentage each represents. review the graph to find the C A large number of Jews lived in Europe in 2005. about the topic of the graph? D outside the United States. answers. Re-read the questions and B Jews make up the largest religious group in Israel today. In 2005 the majority of the world’s Jewish population lived Consider why some slices are A in Europe. 'SBODF Reading the questions first will *TSBFM "SHFOUJOB  help you focus in on the most $BOBEB important aspect of the graph. What does the data tell you C outside Israel. A pie graph shows how parts are related to a whole. Answers: 1 (C). A In 2005 Jews lived in many different parts of the world. Sometimes exams will have two TEST-Taking Strategies Skills Handbook pie graphs side by side in order to show a comparison.

Reading the ques. . In 1530 the Mughal Empire was centered borders."3"5)"4 #FOHBM O TUF U FS rose and scale. 3J %FMIJ Study the map legend.VTI 5FSSJUPSZBEEFE o The map’s title will often indicate . such as icons or arrows. D in southern India. These can give 4FB Empire and indicates the ¡/ symbols for battles and you details about the purpose of trading posts.BCVM  &VSPQFBOUSBEJOHQPTU  the subject. #PNCBZ 1MBUFBV  BUT #BZPG Examine the map’s compass (I 8F . Political maps show countries and the political divisions within them. A around coastal cities. Re-read the questions care. are often used on thematic maps. the map1&34*" contains "HSB " - " : " 4  T *OEV the name and the . Special sym- TEST-Taking Strategies Skills Handbook bols. Learn Mughal Empire.Political and Thematic Maps Questions asking you to interpret maps frequently appear on tests. while the  ¡/ $BMJDVU scale can help you estimate the ¡& ¡& distance between two places. distribution of resources. )JOEV.VHIBM&NQJSF  5FSSJUPSZBEEFE o accompany the map. They may also highlight physical features such as mountains or bodies of water. Use the strategies below to answer questions about political and thematic maps.BOEBIBS #BUUMFTJUF tions will help you identify infor. 2 (B) TEST-TAKING STRATEGIES H45 . B in the Himalayas. fully and review the map to C in northern India. 'BUFIQVS 4JLSJ  (BOHFT3JW you what territory FS what the different colors and  #&/("- was added to the Mughal "SBCJBO */%*" $BMDVUUB symbols mean. or symbols. Thematic maps focus on a specific topic and often show patterns of movement.JMFT   . 4"'"7*% battle site on  1BOJQBU  ) #SBINBQVUSB3JW FS WFS * . .JMPNFUFST Read all the labels and study the 5XPQPJOUFRVJEJTUBOUQSPKFDUJPO other information. (PB SO */%*"/ &BT (I The compass rose can help you 0$&"/ BUT determine direction. Why might European trading posts have been located along India’s coasts? A to be close to valuable natural resources B to be near shipping routes C to be protected from invaders D to be nearby large cities Answers: 1 (C). find the answers. such as colors. or location of events. 4SJ-BOLB Study the information pro-   vided on the map. 2. 1526–1707 Identify the map’s subject 53"/409*"/" and read the questions that '&3("/" . 1. -BIPSF  %BUFPGCBUUMF Note that each mation you need to focus on. %FDDBO the map.IBOVB  The legend tells The legend will help you identify year of the battle.

fig. Germany Examine the title and any other World Trade (in billions of U. or points of view. How might the decline in world trade have affected the you to make inferences using unemployment rate? information not in the source. decline and unemployment rates to rise. you are expected to do to answer the questions. Identify the subject of the TRADE. Use the strategies TEST-Taking Strategies Skills Handbook below to answer constructed-response questions. 30 10 Study the document care. charts. short-answer questions. the answers are not given. Others may require 2. Political Exchange States. European Historical Statistics ure. w8nafs_iwy000026a Constructed Response 1st pass 7-12-06 w8nafs_iwy000014a Some tests include constructed-response questions. unemployment rates? Use the space provided to write The Great Depression caused world trade to your answers to each question. What country had the highest unemployment rate between be found in the source. 1929–1933 1929–1933 document and read the ques- 70 30 tions that accompany it. H46 TEST-TAKING STRATEGIES . $) 60 25 information that might indicate Percent of Workforce 50 the subject of the document. opinions. Some questions require answers that can easily 1. then use the document and your knowledge of the sub- ject to find the answers. 20 Great Reading the questions help you 40 Britain identify the information you 15 need to focus on. Directions  Examine the line graphs carefully and answer the Make sure you understand what questions that follow in complete sentences. or other visuals. 3. graphs. information from different parts of the source. What caused the decline of world trade and the rise of Write your answers. Constructed-response questions ask 3rd pass you to interpret a source and answer open-ended. 10 5 Documents can include written excerpts. Others 1929 and 1933? ask you to connect pieces of Germany had the highest unemployment rate. Unlike multiple- 7-12-06 choice questions. political 0 0 cartoons. maps. Learn DECLINE OF WORLD UNEMPLOYMENT.S. The drop in world trade could have caused a Re-read the questions and decline in the number of available jobs. Read the directions that accompany the questions. You have to construct them. 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 Identify information presented in Year Year Source: Economic Discrimination and Source: Historical Statistics of the United the document such as facts. 20 United States fully.

fully. however. use the strategies below. 1. TEST-TAKING STRATEGIES H47 w8ncfs_frm_SH_H40_H49. replaced by WTO [1948] purpose of the document. were created to strict oil sales of its members so that each will receive a high price for their products. Group of Eight (G-8) [1975. Study the document care. You will be assessed partly on your ability to write a coherent. How have regional and international trade organizations Start with your topic sentence. or map and then to write a response. Develop an outline or graphic organizer to help Directions Use the table and your knowledge of world trade organize your main points. to write an essay that answers the question below. environmental. promotes other details that can indicate a (WTO) [1995] lower trade barriers document’s subject and purpose. usually consist of a para- TEST-TAKING STRATEGIES graph or essay. Extended-response answers. affected world trade? What are the advantages and disad- Then refer to your outline as you vantages of such organizations? write. How- Use facts and examples ever. use the strategies you have already learned. Exporting Countries (OPEC) most in Middle East. In addition to your interpretation and analysis of the document. grammati- SKILLS HANDBOOK cally correct response. General Agreement on 125 members (in 1995). worked to Tariffs and Trade (GATT) reduce tariffs and other international Identify the subject and trade barriers. Some organizations. graph. international trade organizations have served to mar. Be sure to use correct gram. Extended Response Extended-response questions are similar to constructed-response questions in that they ask you to analyze information presented in a document such as a chart. To analyze and interpret the document. Examine the title. boost world trade. LEARN Read the directions and ques- MAJOR TRADE ORGANIZATIONS tion carefully to determine AND AGREEMENTS the purpose of your answer. as G-6] discuss international economic. labels.indd H47 2/27/07 8:00:07 PM . Others. For the most part. spelling. help support your answer. your answer should also include some prior knowledge of the topic. To answer the question. Write your answer in com- plete sentences. and punctuation. avoid simply restating the from the document to question as a sentence. European Union (EU) [1993] 25 European nations. answer the question. like OPEC. work for European economic and political Questions often point towards integration an effective topic sentence. like the GATT were created to boost trade. and World Trade Organization Nearly 150 members. ORGANIZATION [date formed] Members (in 2006) and goals Be clear about what the question is asking you to do. 8 major industrial democracies. and other issues Read the text and note facts or details that might help you Organization of Petroleum 11 major oil exporting countries. coordinate oil Use the question and your [1960] policies of members notes to create a topic sen- tence.

answer the questions that follow each docu- Review the Task information. Docu- ment-based questions usually consist of two parts. and identify key points. 1. Learn Read the Historical Context Historical Context  In 1917 the United States was debating information carefully. in Europe. There was strong sentiment to maintain neutrality. in World War I. Only two documents are shown here. Typically. Study each document carefully. stand the background of the issue and documents that you Task  Using information from the documents and your knowl- will read. What did the Zimmermann telegram propose to Mexico? The Zimmermann telegram proposed that Mexico join in an alliance with Germany against the United States.” also want to make notes in the Zimmermann margin. whether or not to enter World War I. to get an idea of the issues it presents. not succeeding.. then raging in its third year This section will help you under.. carefully. generous financial support. and an If you are allowed to mark up understanding on our part that Mexico is to   the exam. underline or otherwise reconquer the lost territory in Texas. the first of February. we make Mexico a proposal of an alli- Look for points that might help ance on the following basis: Make war together. You may Arizona. edge of world history. ment in Part A. In this case. New Mexico. the Be sure to pay attention to what question asks about United States neutrality the question is asking you to do. Skim each of the documents Part A: Short-Answer Questions in Part A. H48 TEST-TAKING STRATEGIES . peace together. Discuss the positions both pro and con for United States entry into World War I and describe the Read the essay question eventual course of events. The second part asks students to use their answers and TEST-Taking Strategies Skills Handbook information from the documents to produce an essay on a given topic.. The first part asks short-answer ques- tions about each document. Use the strategies below to answer document-based questions. We shall endeavor in spite of this Carefully examine and study to keep the United States neutral. Your answers to the questions will help you write The task provides you with direc. In the event of this each document. document-based questions 16 January 1917 involve between four and eight “We intend to begin unrestricted submarine warfare on documents. Then answer the question or Briefly examine each document questions that follow each document in the space provided. Document-Based Questions Document-based questions ask you to analyze written and visual documents. in which you will be asked to: tions for answering the docu- ment-based question. make you answer the essay question. the Part B essay.

TEST-TAKING STRATEGIES H49 . a main body with details that explain it. Create an outline or graphic organizer to help organize your main points. write a well-organized essay recount- ing the debate over the United States’s policy of neutrality in World War I and the events that altered that policy. Part B: Essay Using information from the documents and your knowl- edge of world history. think about how each connects to the essay topic. Return to the essay question to help you form a topic sen- tence or thesis. TEST-Taking Strategies Skills Handbook Read and answer each of the document-specific questions. Review the document and any notes you made to find examples to support your points. Include specific details or documents to support your 2. As you answer the questions. and a closing paragraph that summarizes your position. War I is this political cartoon attempting to make? It makes the point that American patience is wearing thin. What point about United States neutrality in World ideas. Include an introductory para- graph that frames your argu- ment. Write your essay.

nat. C after the Neolithic Revolution. 4 How did Judaism differ from other religions in the ancient Near East? (Chapter 1. w8nafs_frm_countdown. Egyptian hieroglyph- ics. References at the end of B led to the establishment of towns and cities. that day’s question. B Judaism forbade the building of elaborate artisans. B by industrial civilizations. C the emergence of new plants as the climate C Slaves were valued more than free people. D the establishment of permanent settlements (Chapter 3. grew warmer D Crimes against slaves were not punished. nets.indd CT3 10/23/06 11:30:06 AM Other Test Prep and Practice Other opportunities to practice and prepare for standardized tests include: Test-Taking Strategies Handbook in the Student Edition w Unit-level Standardized Test Practice in the Student Edition w Test Preparation Workbook w Test-Taking Tips Use the Countdown to Testing questions to help w w Read each question carefully. which characteristic of a civilization? C Jewish religious traditions had little influence A advanced government on daily life. B division of labor D Judaism developed as a monotheistic religion.1.3) A Jewish leaders served as political and religious rulers. There are 24 weeks of Countdown to Testing WEEK 1 WEEK 2 practice questions.1) is one question for each arrows were developed “If a man put out the eye of another man. his eye day of the week. . CT2 . and the Phoenician alphabet were important because they A allowed people to keep records. to relevant material in COUNTDOWN TO TESTING CT3 your textbook.2) weeks before your test. 3. Holt World History: Human Legacy provides many opportunities for you to prepare for the standardized tests.1) (Chapter 1. Preparing for Standardized Tests Countdown Everyone wants to ace the big test. w Review your answers. C food surplus D large cities (Chapters 2. A w know the answer to a question. . If you don’t Get plenty of sleep the night before the test. value. and eraser and anything else you may need on test day. B the invention of advanced tools B Free people were valued more than slaves. If he put out the eye of a man’s slave. 2. Before handing in your test. Arrive at the test prepared.2. Remember your pencil w take a minute to look over your answers.2) 5 Sumerian cuneiform. section will help you study A during the Stone Age. B rivers made the transportation of animals D Kushites modeled their pyramids after those easier. A powerful rivers provided protection for B Egypt sent Christian missionaries to Kush. during the test. There The Countdown to Testing 1 Tools such as spears.3) (Chapter 1. but doing well takes preparation and to Testing practice. in Egypt. w Answer the easy questions first. C Kushites learned to make iron from Egyptians.” COUNTDOWN TO TESTING —Hammurabi’s Code (Chapter 1.2) 2 On what was the power of Egypt’s pharaohs 3 The development of farming brought based? about which of the following changes? A royal control of irrigation A the first chariots B their great wealth B the construction of permanent settlements C the belief that pharaohs were divine C long-distance migration D the construction of pyramids D the ability to control fire (Chapter 3. D led to advanced technologies. 2 Which of the following developments helped lead to the beginnings of agriculture? A the rapid increase in population 1 Why might the punishments in the quote above be different? A Crimes involving injury were not tolerated. he shall pay one-half of its and prepare during the D by workers in the first civilizations. Be sure you know you prepare.3) to grow plentiful crops. or break the bones of a man’s slave. shall be put out . and bows and (Chapter 1. D the fertile soil of river valleys allowed settlers (Chapter 2. Spend a few minutes every day answering exactly what the question is asking. C aided in the development of farming in the each question direct you Near East. skip it and come back rested mind thinks more clearly and will help you focus to it later. C many early religious practices were centered on the worship of water. and priests is an example of temples.3) 3 How did Egyptian civilization influence the 4 The earliest civilizations likely emerged Kingdom of Kush? along river valleys because A Egyptians taught Kushites how to raise cattle. 5 The division of society into merchants.1) (Chapter 2. early settlements.

D led to advanced technologies. grew warmer D Crimes against slaves were not punished. C Kushites learned to make iron from Egyptians. If he put out the eye of a man’s slave. C many early religious practices were centered on the worship of water. B rivers made the transportation of animals D Kushites modeled their pyramids after those easier.2) 2 On what was the power of Egypt’s pharaohs 3 The development of farming brought based? about which of the following changes? A royal control of irrigation A the first chariots B their great wealth B the construction of permanent settlements C the belief that pharaohs were divine C long-distance migration D the construction of pyramids D the ability to control fire (Chapter 3.3) 3 How did Egyptian civilization influence the 4 The earliest civilizations likely emerged Kingdom of Kush? along river valleys because A Egyptians taught Kushites how to raise cattle. shall be put out . .1) (Chapter 2. cOUNTDOWN TO TESTING CT3 . value.1) 1 Tools such as spears.3) to grow plentiful crops. 4 How did Judaism differ from other religions in the ancient Near East? (Chapter 1. D the establishment of permanent settlements (Chapter 3. which characteristic of a civilization? C Jewish religious traditions had little influence A advanced government on daily life. 5 The division of society into merchants. he shall pay one-half of its D by workers in the first civilizations. B by industrial civilizations. in Egypt. nets. and the Phoenician alphabet were important because they A allowed people to keep records. Egyptian hieroglyph- ics. A powerful rivers provided protection for B Egypt sent Christian missionaries to Kush. B division of labor D Judaism developed as a monotheistic religion. his eye A during the Stone Age.” Countdown to Testing —Hammurabi’s Code (Chapter 1. bones of a man’s slave. B led to the establishment of towns and cities. Week 1 Week 2 (Chapter 1. C the emergence of new plants as the climate C Slaves were valued more than free people. 3. and bows and arrows were developed “If a man put out the eye of another man.3) (Chapter 1. . early settlements. D the fertile soil of river valleys allowed settlers (Chapter 2.1.2) 5 Sumerian cuneiform. and priests is an example of temples. or break the C after the Neolithic Revolution.1) (Chapter 1. B the invention of advanced tools B Free people were valued more than slaves.2) 2 Which of the following developments helped 1 Why might the punishments in the quote lead to the beginnings of agriculture? above be different? A the rapid increase in population A Crimes involving injury were not tolerated. B Judaism forbade the building of elaborate artisans. 2. C food surplus D large cities (Chapters 2.2.3) A Jewish leaders served as political and religious rulers. C aided in the development of farming in the Near East.

5 Which of the following correctly describes the spread of Buddhism? (Chapter 5. D foreigners cannot become citizens of the United States. (Chapter 5. 3 One similarity between Hinduism and Bud.*/03 4F D were destroyed by invaders from Egypt. B constructed large temple-pyramids.3) A the earliest known Greek civilizations.2.1) XOBGT@HSFNBQBD . "4*" BO . 4 Alexander the Great’s empire extended from B Japanese missionaries introduced Buddhism to A Italy to Persia.JMPNFUFST 1 The map above illustrates (Chapter 4. advanced cities. B Asia Minor to the Caspian Sea.S. CT4 COUNTDOWN TO TESTING .2) 5 The government of the United States differs from that of ancient Athens in that A U.1) C believe Brahman created and preserves the world.4) . D peasants should not participate in government. citizens elect representatives to vote for them.JOPBOTFUUMFNFOU Do#$ indicate that early Indian civilizations (3&&$& . and discipline are values that would have been most highly prized by D spread throughout Africa. (Chapter 5. B rulers should obey the gods’ wishes.S. )388PSME)JTUP citizens of which city-state? XOBGT@HSFNBQ A Athens (Chapter 4.ZDFOBF Countdown B to Testing 1FMPQPOOFTVT )388PSME)JTUPSZ (Chapter 4.1) 1 Excavations at Mohenjo Daro and Harappa . and Japan.ZDFOBFBOTFUUMFNFOU D#$ A practiced monotheism. D Egypt to Mesopotamia.OPTTPT B Buddhist civilization C Sumerian civilization   .1) (Chapter 5. C Chinese merchants are credited with spreading C Greece to the Indus River.3) C the gods would not allow corrupt rulers to govern. China. B U. B emphasis on thinking for oneself.S. D Buddhism originated in China and later spread to India. TUQBTT what new civilization arose in India? A Aryan civilization . F E J U F S SB O F B O 4FB . C U.ZDFOBFBOT 2 After the decline of the Indus civilization. B Greek colonies in Asia Minor. bravery. Buddhism to India. Southeast Asia. Week 3 Week 4 (Chapter 4. 4.JOPBOTBOE.4) A Buddhism originated in India but later spread to Southeast Asia.JOPBOTBOE. 3 Aristotle is best known for his A discovery that Earth is round. B believe in rebirth. meditation.ZD B Corinth TFDPOEQBTT 4 According to China’s Mandate of Heaven C Macedonia A a powerful god created the first Chinese D Sparta civilization. (Chapter 4. dhism is that they both C the empire of Alexander the Great. 2 Loyalty. C recording of the teachings of Socrates. leaders can serve as many terms as they wish.3) D logical study of most fields of science. government is made up of only one branch.JMFT $SFUF D Varnas civilization   . A encourage the practice of yoga to aid in D the most powerful city-states in Greece. (Chapter 5. . "F HF C built large.

Maya. 7. giant resembles today’s U. D science.1) (Chapter 7.2) ceremonial centers. Aztec achievements in astronomy? A the development of a writing system (Chapter 6. A him win a decisive battle. C the Olmec were polytheistic. 5 One way in which the Inca helped unify B engineering. D Julius Caesar B Trade played an important role in both civilizations.3) is credited to the efforts of A Augustus 2 Which of the following is a similarity B Constantine between the Aztec and Inca civilizations? C Diocletian A Both created large and powerful empires. Chavín. D Diocletian split the empire into two parts.S. D Olmec towns served as religious and (Chapter 6. 2 The shift from republic to empire in Rome (Chapter 7. government in that stone head monuments.3) example of the Romans’ skill in A military conquest. cOUNTDOWN TO TESTING CT5 .5) D maintain a powerful military. Hopewell. B The Visigoths sacked the city of Rome. 7.3) 4 Which of the following identifies Mesoamer- ican civilizations from earliest to latest? A Anasazi. C Emperors minted new coins that were not as valuable as they previously had been.4) C Slaves made up the lowest social class in both civilizations. A build an extensive system of roads. A the Olmec were skilled hunters. Inca D Maya. Week 5 Week 6 (Chapter 6.2) C Christianity spread more rapidly throughout the empire.3) B the creation of a 365-day calendar C the use of chinampas D the development of the concept of zero (Chapter 7. Olmec settlements most likely led scholars to B both appoint powerful dictators in times of believe that emergency. 7.2.2) 1 The government of the Roman Republic 1 The discovery of elaborate tombs. Aztec 4 The structure in the photo above is an (Chapter 7. (Chapter 6.2.1. and pyramids in A both give veto power to legislative leaders. their large empire was to C law. C develop a uniform system of writing. Aztec. B demand a labor tax from all citizens. Aztec C Zapotec. B introduce Christianity to non-Jews. Inca B Olmec. (Chapter 7. Maya. Countdown to Testing D both use a system of check and balances. B Olmec society was highly organized. 3 Which of the following is an example of D strengthen the Roman Empire. (Chapter 6. Aztec. 3 Emperor Constantine’s conversion to D Both civilizations were located in what is Christianity helped now Central Mexico. 5 Which of the following was a key cause of the economic troubles that led to Rome’s collapse? A A new capital at was constructed at Constantinople. C both are made up of only two branches.

D in his efforts to spread Buddhism. or Medina? might Confucianism have appealed to Wudi? A to avoid a war between the two cities A It encouraged the use of strict laws and harsh B his teachings had angered many people punishments. FEJUFS A Han—created the civil-service system SBOFBO4FB *3"2 *3"/ B Gupta—built the Great Wall C Maurya—invented the wheelbarrow &(:15 4"6%* */%*" "3"#*" D Qin— invented paper "SBCJBO 4FB (Chapter 8. D Each believes that Muhammad is the last D helped to protect northern China from of God’s prophets.1.JMMFSQSPKFDUJPO helped link A the Mediterranean world and China.2) 2 Which of the following is a similarity 2 The Silk Roads played an important role between Islam. C They did not participate in global trade.4)    . Confucianism became 1 Why did Muhammad leave Mecca for the official government philosophy. (Chapter 9. and Christianity? during the Han dynasty because they A Each religion originated in Arabia. B Each teaches followers to fast during its B helped bring silk production to China. D north India and south India. D They were the first to use coins in trade. invaders. (Chapter 9. D to relocate his trade business D It stressed the importance of trade. Ashoka contributed to following areas except Indian society through all of the following A Spain ways except B Egypt A by improving roads and transportation. holy month. the country with the B rich and poor. A Iran.JMFT    .2) (Chapter 8. C Saudi Arabia. D Iraq. most Shia Muslims is C Hindus and Buddhists.4) $B 4VOOJ #MBDL4FB 4 Which of the following correctly identifies TQJ BO4 4IJB an empire or dynasty with its achievement?  563. in Mecca B It promoted the unification of the empire. D Russia C in the construction of stone pillars.3. Week 7 Week 8 (Chapter 8. 8. 8. 4 According to the map.1) (Chapter 9. 8.2) Sunni and Shia Distribution (Chapter 8. (Chapter 9. Judaism. B They connected traders in the East and the West. C allowed China to export goods and ideas C Each is a monotheistic religion. A brought China into a global trade network. B Turkey.1) (Chapter 8.&: FB  .3) 5 What role did Muslims play in global trade? A They traded gold to the rest of the world.2. CT6 COUNTDOWN TO TESTING .3) 3 The Muslim Empire expanded to all of the 3 During his rule. C he believed Medina was a holy city Countdown to Testing C It emphasized obedience and loyalty. C Persia B through his policy of taxation.1) 1 Under Emperor Wudi. (Chapter 9. to Japan.JMPNFUFST 5 During the Gupta period Indian trade . Why Yathrib.

C brought great riches to the people of Mali. D powerful armies in Aksum and Ethiopia B social classes. C control of the salt and gold trades. (Chapter 10.3) A valuable trade items such as silk and glass B its location on the Indian Ocean 5 China influenced the development of Japan’s C large cities with walls for protection A military. cOUNTDOWN TO TESTING CT7 . C kings and queens C reforming the bureaucracy. D the family D encouraging new farming techniques to Countdown to Testing increase rice production.6-6 */%*"/ #BOUVNJHSBUJPOSPVUFT A an increase in international trade ¡& D#$o"% 405)0 0$&"/ .JMPNFUFST 50/(" CJR "[JNVUIBMFRVBMBSFBQSPKFDUJPO /B EBH [BN 3 Which of the following was an effect of NJ ¡4 #"/56 .1) 1 Which of the following played the most 1 The Tang and Sui dynasties strengthened important role in early African society? the power of the central government by A village priests A outlawing the production of weapons. OH -BLF $P 48")*-* 0$&"/ 5BOHBOZJLB #"/56 D the increased importance of trade.JMFT /ZBTB 07*.BMBXJ BOO    . B the individual B banning the export of silk. C written language. D location along major trade routes. . 4 The power of West African kingdoms such as Ghana and Mali was largely based on their A use of camels for transportation.1) (Chapter 11.1) Bantu Migrations  &UIJPQJBO 2 The compass and paper money were Chi-   / )JHIMBOET JHF 3 nese innovations that resulted from S  (VMGPG(VJOFB A the introduction of advanced warfare.2) D Heian 3 What made the East African coast a center of world trade? (Chapter 11. JWFS ¡ ("/%" -BLF7JDUPSJB #"/56 ¡ P3 "5-"/5*$ C the creation of the civil-service system.1) (Chapter 11.3) B southwest C northeast 4 The chief religion in early Japan was A Buddhism D northwest B Shinto C Confucianism (Chapter 10. B caused the price of gold to rise.B .""4"* B contact with Japan and Korea.2) S VF BTDB    .BMBIBSJ 4)0/" Mongol rule in China? FTFS %FTFSU #BOUVIPNFMBOE 548"/" U 0SBOHF3JWFS .#6/%6 $I (Chapter 11.3) 5 Mansa Musa’s pilgrimage to Mecca was significant because it A brought Mali’s great wealth to the attention of other kingdoms.P C% . D introduced camels to Arabia and Europe. B conversion to Islam.6-6 #BOUVTQFBLJOHQFPQMF 9)04" B the spread of Mongol culture and religion C the invention of gunpowder 2 In what general direction did the Bantu D the introduction of horses to China migration routes travel? A southeast (Chapter 11.3) D geography. Week 9 Week 10 (Chapter 10. #&. (Chapter 10. (Chapter 10.#" -BLF FM .

3) 1 The Byzantine Empire emerged from “I . B Rus settlements along the Baltic Sea. and A the eastern portion of the Roman Empire. I hold of you.1) (Chapter 13. A France C Russia. B the Americas.5) anity into Eastern Europe and Russia? A the Byzantines’ conquest of Kiev 3 Which of the following explains the great power of medieval popes? B Alexander Nevski’s defeat of the Teutonic A Popes controlled the religious lives of almost Knights everyone in Asia. the culture of the Byzantine Empire was increasingly influenced by 2 Christians in what country defeated the A China.2) 4 What led to the spread of Orthodox Christi.” Countdown to Testing (Chapter 12. C Italy. C the development of the Cyrillic alphabet B Popes developed the feudal system. for the Land that C the union of the Angles and the Saxons. Muslims and drove them from power in the Reconquista? B Greece.1) —from The Manner of Doing Homage and Fealty 2 Why was Justinian’s law code significant? A It outlawed slavery in the empire. and Services.4) 3 Over time.2) 5 Which of the following is an example of (Chapter 14. B It gave Justinian the title of emperor. . 1 This quote most likely reflects the attitudes C It established Christianity as the official of what members of the feudal system? religion of the Byzantine Empire. and lawfully shall do such Customs D barbarian tribes in Italy. at the times assigned. (Chapter 13. as my Duty is to you. C Norway D Italy (Chapter 12.1) (Chapter 13. . (Chapter 12. D the split between the Catholic Church and the C Popes had the power to name kings and Orthodox Eastern Church emperors. Week 11 Week 12 (Chapter 12. CT8 COUNTDOWN TO TESTING . B Spain D Western Europe. D Northern Europe.4) 5 Historians believe the Black Death originated in A Central Asia.1) Byzantine influence on Russia? A the founding of Kiev 4 What effect did the Crusades have on the economy of Europe? B the rise of the Golden Horde A led to an increase in trade between East and C the establishment of the Russian Orthodox West Church B ended the feudal system in Europe D the development of canon law C led to the decline of towns and cities D introduced Islam to Europe (Chapter 14. D lords (Chapter 12. shall owe my Fidelity unto you. shall be to you both faithful and true. A kings B vassals D It collected Roman laws into a simple and C peasants clear system of law. D Popes held influence over politics and religion.

D Persia. population D no exchange of land between lords and vassals. Reformation? B moved the Chinese capital to Beijing. D Martin Luther’s (Chapter 17.2) 2 By the 1500s Muslim empires controlled all of the following regions except A the Byzantine Empire.1) (Chapter 17. D Native empires were overthrown in the search for gold. cOUNTDOWN TO TESTING CT9 .   (Chapter 17. Week 13 Week 14 (Chapter 15. B India. B Population in the Americas boomed as a result of the introduction of new foods.1) (Chapter 17. and education 1 In the 1300s what Muslim empire expanded were greatly influenced by into Europe? A the invention of the compass.3) 5 How did the Columbian Exchange impact life in the Americas? A Thousands of farmers in the Americas were left without lands to farm. B the need for more land for Europe’s growing C a class of strong professional warriors. C European diseases devastated the Native American population. C the Mughal Empire D a renewed emphasis on religion. C John Calvin’s D led several voyages of exploration and trade. C Japan. A Michelangelo’s C led the rebellion that overthrew the Yuan B Lorenzo de Medici’s dynasty. C the lack of resources in Europe D the drive to compete with Chinese explorers (Chapter 16. B the Safavid Empire C the love of beauty. A the desire to spread Christianity B a shogun as a powerful central authority.3) 3 Under what dynasty did China expand to its 2 What Renaissance technique is illustrated largest size? by this painting? A Ming A humanism B Qing B movable type C Tokugawa C perspective D Yuan D predestination (Chapter 17. literature. D the Ming Empire Countdown to Testing (Chapter 15.3) 4 China’s Zheng He is significant because he 3 Whose actions helped spark the Protestant A created laws to limit contact with foreigners.1) 4 Which of the following was a reason for