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BIOMES (Tundra, Coral reefs

Kittikhom W. (Pong)
Napatsorn S. (Maple)
Tundra Tundra
Tundra is the coldest of all
biomes., with extreamly low
- cover Arctic(20% of Earth’s
land surface)
- High wind and low
temperature produce
plant called alpine tundra
- In Arctic tundra, precipitation average from 20 to 60 cm. per year.
- In Alpine tundra, precipitation average more than 100 cm. per year.
- Winter > below -30C
- Summer > less than 10C
- Mostly : herbaceous
- compose of Mosses,
grasses, forbs, lichens,
and also some dwarf
shrups and trees
- Permanently frozen layer
of soil called “permafrost”,
limit the growth of plant
- Large number of oxen
that eat glasses
- Caribou and raindeer
> impermanent
- Bears, wolves, foxes
- Bird > migrate here for
summer nesting
Human Impact
- mineral and oil extraction in recent year.
Coral Reefs
Physical Environment
- formed by calcium carbonate
skeletons of corals.
- live in Photic zone near Island
and the edge of continents
- sensitive to temperature
below 18-20C and above 30C
- deeper sea (200-1,500m.) =
same diversity as the shallow
Chemical Environment
- need high amount of oxygen
- get high amount of clear water and nutrient
Geologic Features
- Need solid object to attach
- Three major types

fringing reef > barrier reef > coralatoll
Photosynthetic Organism
- Unicellular algae live in tissue in coral by mutualistic relationship, give
organic molecule to coral
- Multicellular algae have red green grow on reef and do photosynthesis
- very diversity > animal in Phylum Cnidaria, corals, fishes, and
- coral reef in marine can be compare as tropical forest on land.
Human impact
- collecting of coral skeleton, overfishing
- Global warming, pollution
- growing of tree near shore like
mangroves for aquaculture, raise aquatic
animals. It reduce place for many species
of reef fishes to lay their eggs.