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2/ Finance

3/ Environmental and health and safety
5/ Time
6/Design change
7. consent
8. access
buildability

1. The Project Specification

The specification defines the physical attributes of a project. With a
road, for example, given levels of forecast traffic will lead to
specification of the required length, depth and width of the road
pavement, the material to be used for surfacing, the number of
lanes, bridges and junctions etc. For buildings, the required function
and expected occupancy rate will lead to a specification of total
floor space and floorplate size, height, internal and external
appearance, floor loadings, heating and lighting requirements etc.
Generally, the more detailed the specification and the larger the
project, the more expensive it will be and the design is more difficult

2. Site characteristic
A site can be affected by soil and drainage conditions and access
restrictions which can affect the original cost estimates. The amount
of excavation, piling and foundation activities required are
particularly affected by poor ground conditions. Where there is
uncertainty about ground conditions, accurate project costing
cannot be achieved unless a soil survey is undertaken. This may
require the sinking of boreholes to obtain soil samples at different
levels beneath the surface.

3. Financial
Every project will have a budget whether it's a small loft extension
or a site of national importance such as the Olympic Stadium, the
money for materials and labour has to come from somewhere and
when it runs out the project will run into difficulties and work may
cease until new funds are raised.

This makes it important that accurate estimates are put in place for
every project, the architect will produce a design and should be able
to give a rough estimate of price based on the square meter of the
site and experience of previous builds.

As the designs get more detailed a Quantity Surveyor will get more
accurate estimates of the final project.

4. Time Scale
Every project will have a time scale, this may be based on other
factors and essential that it is hot such as the Olympic stadium
being built in time for the olympic games, or the time scale may be
based around what the client wants.

The Architect and the principle contractor should provide the client
with a realistic timescale for the project delivery. There will be key
milestones that will normally release a payment to the contractors,
this might be the completion of a floor in a high rise development of
apartments or a building being made weather proof.

5. Design Change
Changes in the design greatly affect the process, if the client wants
to change part of the design it will cost a high amount of money to
change as they would have to restart the whole design process, this
will also cause the design process to take a lot longer that it would
without a change. This may involve hiring more people or the
architect refusing to change the plans if the change is small.

6. Sustainability
The sustainability of the design is also a large factor that affects the
design process. If the building is not environmentally friendly or if
the building will not last very long, then the design would need to be
changed prolong the buildings lifespan and also to make the
building better for the environment. This affects the design process
because in long term it may cost the owners more to repair and
improve the building as it deteriorates.