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Laura James, Posing in Old San Juan, acrylic on canvas, 2008
Collection of Warren Stein

Laura James is a self-taught painter living and

working in Brooklyn, New York. Posing in Old

San Juan is typical of her style—incorporating

bright colors, intricate patterns, and sometimes

surreal objects to display her unique vision.

Ms. James is a member of the Jamaica Artist

Alliance, the Bridgeman Art Library in London,

and the National Conference of Black Artists.

Her paintings are widely exhibited and have

reached as far as Japan, Africa, Canada, and

the Caribbean.


David G. Myers
Hope College
Holland, Michigan USA


Credits for timeline photos, inside front and back covers (by date): 1637, Corbis-Bettmann; 1808, Hulton Archive/Getty
Images; 1859, Granger Collection; 1878, 1879, 1890, Brown Brothers; 1893, 1894, Wellesley College Archives; 1898,
Yale University Library; 1905, Sovfoto; 1913, 1920, 1933, 1939, Archives of the History of American Psychology,
University of Akron; 1924, Larsen/Watson Papers, Archives of the History of American Psychology, University of Akron;
1938, Bettmann/Corbis; 1945, Corbis; 1951, Courtesy of Carl Rogers Memorial Library; 1954, Ted Polumbaum/Life
magazine, © 1968 TimeWarner, Inc.; 1959, Chris Felver/Archive Images; 1963, Courtesy of CUNY Graduate School
and University Center; 1966 (Johnson), Bettmann/Corbis; 1966, Courtesy of John Garcia; 1969, Courtesy of Albert
Bandura, Stanford University; 1974, Russell Fernald, Courtesy of the Stanford University News Service; 1979,
Courtesy of Elizabeth Loftus, University of California, Irvine; 1981, Courtesy of the Archives, California Institute of
Technology; 1987: Courtesy of Laurel Furumoto; 1993, Chet Snedden/American Airlines Corporate Communications.

Grateful acknowledgment is given for permission to reprint the following photos: p. xviii: James Lauritz/Corbis; p. 34:
Gabe Palmer/Corbis; p. 64: moodboard/Corbis; p. 104: Bob Jacobson/Corbis; p. 136: Ariel Skelley/Corbis; p. 178:
Royalty-Free/Corbis/Jupiter Images; p. 224: Laura Doss/Jupiter Images; p. 256: Sam Diephuis/Corbis; p. 290:
Manchan/Jupiter Images; p. 338: AP/Wide World Photos; p. 374: Nick Laham/Getty Images; p. 418: Paul Barton/Corbis;
p. 452: Photo Network/Alamy; p. 492: Andrea Morini/Jupiter Images; p. 524: AP/Wide World Photos

Senior Publisher: Catherine Woods
Senior Acquisitions Editor: Kevin Feyen
Development Editors: Nancy Fleming, Christine Brune, Betty Probert
Executive Marketing Manager: Katherine Nurre
Media and Supplements Editor: Sharon Prevost
Associate Managing Editor: Tracey Kuehn
Project Editor: Leigh Renhard
Production Manager: Sarah Segal
Photo Editor: Bianca Moscatelli
Photo Researcher: Julie Tesser
Art Director, Cover Designer: Babs Reingold
Interior Designer: Lissi Sigillo
Layout Designers: Paul Lacy, Lee Ann McKevitt
Illustration Coordinator: Bill Page
Illustrations: TSI Graphics, Keith Kasnot
Cover Painting: Laura James, Posing in Old San Juan, acrylic on canvas, 2008, 22'' × 35''
Composition: TSI Graphics
Printing and Binding: RR Donnelley

Library of Congress Control Number: 2009934370

ISBN-13: 978-1-4292-3826-7 (paperback)
ISBN-10: 1-4292-3826-7 (paperback)

ISBN-13: 978-1-4292-1635-7 (hardcover)
ISBN-10: 1-4292-1635-2 (hardcover)

ISBN-13: 978-1-4292-3828-1 (NASTA-spec version)
ISBN-10: 1-4292-3828-3 (NASTA-spec version)

© 2011, 2008, 2004, 2001 by Worth Publishers
All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America

First printing 2009

All royalties from the sale of this book are assigned to the David and Carol Myers Foundation, which exists to receive
and distribute funds to other charitable organizations.

Worth Publishers
41 Madison Avenue
New York, NY 10010

For Frank Vattano,
master teacher, mentor to teachers,
wellspring of creative resources, and
encouraging friend


received his psychology Ph.D. from the University of Iowa. He has spent his career at Hope
College, Michigan, where he has taught dozens of introductory psychology sections. Hope
College students have invited him to be their commencement speaker and voted him “out-
standing professor.”

Myers’ scientific articles have, with support from National Science Foundation grants,
appeared in more than two dozen scientific periodicals, including Science, American
Scientist, Psychological Science, and the American Psychologist. In addition to his scholarly
writing and his textbooks for introductory and social psychology, he also digests psycholog-
ical science for the general public. His writings have appeared in three dozen magazines,
from Today’s Education to Scientific American. He also has authored five general audience
books, including The Pursuit of Happiness and Intuition: Its Powers and Perils.

David Myers has chaired his city’s Human Relations Commission, helped found a thriving
assistance center for families in poverty, and spoken to hundreds of college and community
groups. Drawing on his experience, he also has written articles and a book (A Quiet World)
about hearing loss, and he is advocating a transformation in American assistive listening
technology (see

He bikes to work year-round and plays daily pick-up basketball. David and Carol Myers
have raised two sons and a daughter.



Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv

CHAPTER 1 Thinking Critically With Psychological Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

CHAPTER 2 The Biology of Mind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

CHAPTER 3 Consciousness and the Two–Track Mind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

CHAPTER 4 Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

CHAPTER 5 Developing Through the Life Span . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

CHAPTER 6 Sensation and Perception. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

CHAPTER 7 Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

CHAPTER 8 Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

CHAPTER 9 Thinking, Language, and Intelligence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

CHAPTER 10 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339

CHAPTER 11 Emotions, Stress, and Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375

CHAPTER 12 Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419

CHAPTER 13 Psychological Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453

CHAPTER 14 Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493

CHAPTER 15 Social Psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525

APPENDIX A Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1

APPENDIX B Psychology at Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1

APPENDIX C Careers in Psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1

APPENDIX D Answers to Test for Success: Critical Thinking Exercises . . . . . . D-1

Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-1

References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-1

Name Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NI-1

Subject Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SI-1


Preface xv The Nervous System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
The Peripheral Nervous System 39

The Central Nervous System 40
The Endocrine System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
The Brain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
CHAPTER 1 Older Brain Structures 44

Thinking Critically CLOSE-UP: The Tools of Discovery—Having Our Head
Examined 45
With The Cerebral Cortex 50

Psychological Our Divided Brain 57
Right-Left Differences in the Intact Brain 60
What Is Psychology?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Psychology’s Roots 2
Contemporary Psychology 5
Why Do Psychology? .................................9

What About Intuition and Common Sense? 10 Consciousness
The Scientific Attitude 11 and the Two-Track
Critical Thinking 13
How Do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions? . . . 14
The Scientific Method 14
Description 15
Correlation 18 The Brain and Consciousness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Experimentation 21 Dual Processing 66
Frequently Asked Questions About Psychology . . . . . . . 25 Selective Attention 68

Tips for Studying Psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Sleep and Dreams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Biological Rhythms and Sleep 70

Why Do We Sleep? 75
Sleep Disorders 78
Dreams 80
Hypnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Facts and Falsehoods 84
The Biology of Explaining the Hypnotized State 86
Mind Drugs and Consciousness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Dependence and Addiction 88
Psychoactive Drugs 89
Influences on Drug Use 97

Neural Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Neurons 35
How Neurons Communicate 36
How Neurotransmitters Influence Us 38

Nature, Nurture, Developing
and Human Through the Life
Diversity Span

Behavior Genetics: Predicting Individual Differences 105 Prenatal Development and the Newborn . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Genes: Our Codes for Life 106 Conception 137
Twin and Adoption Studies 106 Prenatal Development 138
Temperament, Personality, and Heredity 110 The Competent Newborn 139
Gene-Environment Interactions 111 Infancy and Childhood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Evolutionary Psychology: Physical Development 140
Understanding Human Nature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Cognitive Development 142
Natural Selection and Adaptation 113 CLOSE-UP: Autism and “Mind-Blindness” 146
Evolutionary Success Helps Explain Similarities 114 Social Development 149
An Evolutionary Explanation of Human Sexuality 115 Adolescence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: The Evolutionary Perspective Physical Development 155
on Human Sexuality 117
Cognitive Development 157
Parents and Peers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Social Development 159
Parents and Early Experiences 118 Emerging Adulthood 162
Peer Influence 120
Adulthood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Cultural Influences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Physical Development 163
Variation Across Cultures 122 Cognitive Development 166
Variation Over Time 123 Social Development 168
Culture and the Self 123
Reflections on Two Major Developmental Issues . . . . . 173
Culture and Child-Rearing 125
Continuity and Stages 173
Developmental Similarities Across Groups 125
Stability and Change 174
Gender Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Gender Similarities and Differences 126
The Nature of Gender 129
The Nurture of Gender 130
Reflections on Nature and Nurture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131


Sensation and Learning

Sensing the World: Some Basic Principles . . . . . . . . . . . 180 How Do We Learn? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Thresholds 181 Classical Conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Sensory Adaptation 183 Pavlov’s Experiments 228
Vision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Extending Pavlov’s Understanding 232
The Stimulus Input: Light Energy 185 Pavlov’s Legacy 234
The Eye 186 Operant Conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Visual Information Processing 188 Skinner’s Experiments 236
Color Vision 191 Extending Skinner’s Understanding 243
Other Important Senses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Skinner’s Legacy 244
Hearing 193 CLOSE-UP: Training Our Mates 246
Touch 196 Contrasting Classical and Operant Conditioning 246
Pain 198 Learning by Observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Taste 201 Mirrors in the Brain 248
Smell 202 Bandura’s Experiments 249
Perceptual Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Applications of Observational Learning 250
Form Perception 205

Depth Perception 207
Perceptual Constancy 210
Perceptual Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Sensory Deprivation and Restored Vision 213 CHAPTER 8
Perceptual Adaptation 214
Perceptual Set 215
THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Extrasensory Perception 218

The Phenomenon of Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Studying Memory: Information-Processing Models . . . 258
Encoding: Getting Information In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
How We Encode: Levels of Processing 259
What We Encode 262


Storage: Retaining Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Assessing Intelligence 319
Sensory Memory 265 CLOSE-UP: Extremes of Intelligence 322
Working/Short-Term Memory 266 Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence 324
Long-Term Memory 267 Group Differences in Intelligence Test Scores 328
Storing Information in the Brain 267

Retrieval: Getting Information Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Retrieval Cues 273
Forgetting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Encoding Failure 277 CHAPTER 10
Storage Decay 277 Motivation
Retrieval Failure 278
CLOSE-UP: Retrieving Passwords 280
Memory Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
Misinformation and Imagination Effects 282
Source Amnesia 283
Children’s Eyewitness Recall 284
Motivational Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Repressed or Constructed Memories of Abuse? 285
Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology 340
Improving Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Drives and Incentives 340
Optimum Arousal 341

A Hierarchy of Motives 342
Hunger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
The Physiology of Hunger 344
CHAPTER 9 The Psychology of Hunger 346

Thinking, Obesity and Weight Control 347
CLOSE-UP: Eating Disorders 348
Language, and CLOSE-UP: Waist Management 356

Intelligence Sexual Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
The Physiology of Sex 357
The Psychology of Sex 359
Adolescent Sexuality 361
Thinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 Sexual Orientation 363
Concepts 291 Sex and Human Values 368
Solving Problems 292
The Need to Belong . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Making Decisions and Forming Judgments 294
the Right Things? 298
Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
Language Development 302
Thinking and Language 306
Animal Thinking and Language 309
Intelligence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
What Is Intelligence? 313


Emotions, Stress, Personality
and Health

Theories of Emotion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376 The Psychoanalytic Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
Embodied Emotion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 Exploring the Unconscious 420
Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous System 378 The Neo-Freudian and Psychodynamic Theorists 423
Brain and Other Physiological Indicators of Emotions 379 Assessing Unconscious Processes 424
Cognition and Emotion 379 Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective 426
THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Lie Detection 380 The Humanistic Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
Expressed Emotion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Abraham Maslow’s Self-Actualizing Person 429
Detecting Emotion 383 Carl Rogers’ Person-Centered Perspective 430
Gender, Emotion, and Nonverbal Behavior 385 Assessing the Self 431
Culture and Emotional Expression 386 Evaluating the Humanistic Perspective 431
The Effects of Facial Expressions 388 The Trait Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
Experienced Emotion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 Exploring Traits 432
Anger 389 Assessing Traits 433
Happiness 391 THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: How to Be a “Successful”
Astrologer or Palm Reader 434
CLOSE-UP: How to Be Happier 397
The Big Five Factors 436
Stress and Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
Evaluating the Trait Perspective 437
Stress and Illness 398
Stress and the Heart 402
The Social-Cognitive Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
Reciprocal Influences 439
Stress and Susceptibility to Disease 403
Personal Control 440
Alternative Medicine 406 CLOSE-UP: Toward a More Positive Psychology 443
Assessing Behavior in Situations 445
Promoting Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
Evaluating the Social-Cognitive Perspective 445
Coping With Stress 408
CLOSE-UP: Pets Are Friends, Too 410 Exploring the Self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
Managing Stress 411 The Benefits of Self-Esteem 447
CLOSE-UP: The Relaxation Response 413 Self-Serving Bias 447


Personality Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486
Antisocial Personality Disorder 486
Understanding Antisocial Personality Disorder 487
CHAPTER 13 Rates of Psychological Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488


Perspectives on Psychological Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . 454 Therapy
Defining Psychological Disorders 454
Genuine Disorder? 455
Understanding Psychological Disorders 455
Classifying Psychological Disorders 457
CLOSE-UP: The “un-DSM”: A Diagnostic Manual of Human The Psychological Therapies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494
Strengths 459 Psychoanalysis 494
Labeling Psychological Disorders 459 Humanistic Therapies 495
THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Insanity and Responsibility Behavior Therapies 497
Cognitive Therapies 501
Anxiety Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461 Group and Family Therapies 503
Generalized Anxiety Disorder 462
Evaluating Psychotherapies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504
Panic Disorder 462
Is Psychotherapy Effective? 505
Phobias 462
The Relative Effectiveness of Different Therapies 506
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 463
Evaluating Alternative Therapies 507
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder 464
Commonalities Among Psychotherapies 509
Understanding Anxiety Disorders 465
Culture and Values in Psychotherapy 511
Somatoform Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468 CLOSE-UP: A Consumer’s Guide to Psychotherapists 512
Dissociative Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468 The Biomedical Therapies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512
Dissociative Identity Disorder 469 Drug Therapies 513
Understanding Dissociative Identity Disorder 469 Brain Stimulation 516
Mood Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470 Psychosurgery 519
Major Depressive Disorder 470 Preventing Psychological Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520
Bipolar Disorder 471
Understanding Mood Disorders 472
CLOSE-UP: Suicide 474
Schizophrenia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
Symptoms of Schizophrenia 480
Onset and Development of Schizophrenia 481
Understanding Schizophrenia 482


A-1 References R-1 Measures of Central Tendency A-1 Name Index NI-1 Measures of Variation A-3 Correlation: A Measure of Relationships A-4 Subject Index SI-1 xiv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542 Preparing for a Career in Psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1 Prejudice 542 The Bachelor’s Degree C-1 CLOSE-UP: Automatic Prejudice 543 Postgraduate Degrees C-3 Aggression 548 The Master’s Degree C-4 THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Do Video Games Teach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-12 Group Influence 537 The Power of Individuals 541 Appendix C: Careers in Psychology Social Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531 Managing Well B-9 Conformity and Obedience 532 Human Factors Psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-9 Attraction 555 For More Information . . . . . or Doctoral Degrees C-4 Release. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-7 Attitudes and Actions 527 Satisfaction and Engagement B-7 CLOSE-UP: Abu Ghraib Prison: An “Atrocity-Producing CLOSE-UP: Doing Well While Doing Good: “The Great Situation”? 530 Experiment” B-8 Social Influence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Violence? 552 Subfields of Psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-4 CLOSE-UP: Online Matchmaking 555 Preparing Early for Graduate Study in Psychology. . . . . . . C-10 Altruism 561 Conflict and Peacemaking 563 Appendix D: Answers to Test for Success: Critical Thinking Exercises D-1 Appendix A: Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life Glossary G-1 Describing Data . . . . . . . . . . 525 Making Inferences . . . . . . . . . . . . A-6 When Is an Observed Difference Reliable? A-6 CLOSE-UP: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Studies A-7 CHAPTER 15 When Is a Difference Significant? A-7 Social Appendix B: Psychology at Work Psychology CLOSE-UP: I/O Psychology at Work B-2 Personnel Psychology . . . . . . . . . . . 525 Appraising Performance B-5 Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations 525 Organizational Psychology . . . . . . . . B-3 Harnessing Strengths B-3 CLOSE-UP: Discovering Your Strengths B-3 Social Thinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

This is now my best effort ever. By the time the new edition is ready to come out. PREFACE W ith each new edition. in our efforts to gather accurate and up-to-date information about the field of psychology and the content. the reach of our adaptive unconscious. • a sharp new art program that teaches more effectively. the heavily revised consciousness chapter now follows the neuroscience chapter and is titled Consciousness and the Two-Track Mind to reflect the dual- processing and cognitive neuroscience themes. to gender and cultural diversi- ty. xv . I have second thoughts about the current edition’s seeming perfection. For example. through correspondence and conversations. As my chapter-by-chapter storage cubbies begin fattening with new material. and to the biology underlying our behavior. We look forward to continuing feedback as we strive. and friends. To be entrusted with discerning and communicating psychology’s insights is both an exciting honor and a great responsibility. Much of this has occurred spontaneously. Shortly thereafter. My aim has been to create a state-of-the-art introduction to psychology. I find myself fascinated by today’s psychology. and the shap- ing power of the social and cultural context. What Continues? Throughout its eight editions. I’ve found myself traveling a familiar path. as new research comes out elaborating on concepts that the current edition teach- es. over future editions. When it is first published. we also formally involved over 300 researchers and teaching psychologists. and as thoughtful instructors and students begin writing with suggestions for improvement. supported by the input and creative ideas of hundreds of contributing instructors. and I am thrilled—sure that it is my best effort yet. For this edition. The thousands of instructors and millions of students who have worked with this book have contributed immensely to its development. • continually improving coverage of cultural and gender diversity issues. and then when commissioned reviews and survey results start com- ing in. I am relieved after many months of intense effort. and supplements needs of instructors and students in the introductory course. (See TABLES 1 and 2 on the next page. along with many students. my eagerness for the next edition grows. pedagogy. Psychological science is increasingly attuned to the relative effects of nature and nurture. • fine-tuned writing with countless small and large improvements in the way concepts are presented. which once seemed so perfect! This eighth edition of Exploring Psychology is no exception. • organizational changes based on changes in the field.) I am grateful for the privilege of assisting with the teaching of this mind-expanding discipline to so many students. my vision for Exploring Psychology has not wavered: to merge rigorous science with a broad human perspective in a book that engages both mind and heart. I grimace when reminded of people using the old edition. to create an ever-better book and supplements. much improved over the previous work! Among the many changes I am delighted to offer are • hundreds of new research citations representing the most exciting and important new discoveries in our field. to our conscious and unconscious information processing. students. with its studies of the neuroscience of our moods and memories.

129. pp. Perceptual adaptation. transmission of. 467. 402–404 Feature detection. pp. intergenerational Psychological disorders: Attraction. p. transduction. pp. 77. 344–346 Prejudice (automatic) and the emotion. p. 358–359 pp. 155–157 deep-brain stimulation. 190 and physical storage of. 197 pp. 341 pp. pp. p. p. 404 Hearing. biomedical therapy and: compulsive disorder. p. smell. 412 Sleep: damage. 268–269 aging. 156. 548–549 sleep. p. p. pp. pp. p. 347 pp. 205–212 Autism. 386 child abuse. 267–268 Smell and emotion. p. pp. p. 7 Sensory adaptation. infancy and childhood. pp. 185. p. 298–299 Sexuality. the evolutionary In addition to the coverage found in Chapter 4. pp. 243–244 Math and spatial ability. 7 visual information processing. pp. 519 sexual behavior. pp. pp. 302. 86–87 Psychosurgery: lobotomy. Sensation. pp. p. 376–377 magnetic stimulation. p. 77 Fear-learning. p. p. 467 Perception: pp. 243–244 AIDS. 165–166. 98 Optimum arousal: rewards. pp. p. pp. 482. p. 39 twins. 340–341 pp. p. Drug dependence. 202–204 pp. p. 514 PET scans and obsessive- sex. pp. 353 pp. 476. brain. p. 146–147 gender. p. p. defined. p. 220 memory and. 476 Language. drugs. 98 mood disorders. p. p. p. pp. pp. 185 Aging: physical exercise and the Hormones and: p. pp. Taste. 166 abuse. 77 p. p. 140 depression. p. 138 190 pp. pp. 455 Biological predispositions 331–332 Aggression. 44 pp. development. p. pp. defined. 193–195 p. 65 Mating preferences. p. p. pp. p. 198–199 brain scans. pp. p. and implicit/explicit memories. 248–249 feature detection. p. 366 Motor development. p. 188–189. 325 body position and movement. p. pp. 387 Obesity. in operant conditioning. 307–309 taste. pp. p. 197 sexual differentiation in utero. 346–347 Sexual orientation. 66 schizophrenia. 268 depression. 474–476 Brainstem. p. p. 520 Menopause. 482–483. p. p. 71. 317 Sensation: experience and. 167–168. 340 Abuse. 269–272 Hallucinations and: color vision. 188–189 Aggression. pp. 116–117 Eating disorders. 518 Perceptual organization. p. 304–305 p. neuroscience can be found on the following pages: ADHD and the brain. 213 psychoneuroimmunology. p. schizophrenia. Consciousness. 348 pp. pp. 464–465 dreams. 153 Hypnotized brain. 405 p. 517–519 Personality and brain-imaging. 514–515 Post-traumatic stress disorder and stress. 556 Intelligence. behavior genetics perspective is covered on the following pages: is covered on the following pages: Anxiety disorders. 207 biopsychosocial approach. 370 Hunger and taste preference. 344–346 amygdala. pp. 193 Smell. pp. 88. 433–436 Traits. 272. 268–269. pp. 455 near-death experiences. hearing. p. 169 Emotional expression. p. 191–192 and sleep. 381–382 Pain. 314. 89–95 and statistical learning. 322–323 Smell. p. p. 271 anxiety disorders. 304 Stress: Evolutionary perspective. 318 Memory: Parallel vs. Brain activity and: Neurotransmitters and: p. 199 Meditation. 483. Intelligence and: abnormalities. 436 Hunger and taste preference. 162 Language. 399. ESP and fMRI testing. 519 sleep. pp. 70–74 cognitive-behavior therapy for Insight. 487 emotion. pp. 357 Obesity and weight control. 232–234 Language. 232–234. p. pp. 95–97 xvi . 366 effects of facial expressions. 485 adolescence. pp. 180 Learning. 251 ADHD. pp. 95–96 Mirror neurons. 77 Perception. 129 pp. 433. 514 Hunger. Fear. Romantic love. 297 Intelligence. 188–189 Sleep. pp. p. 164 Happiness. 484–485 and light exposure therapy. pp. 273 cancer. pp. 516–517 weight control. pp. 202–204 Drug dependence. p. TABLE 1 Evolutionary Psychology and Behavior Genetics In addition to the coverage found in Chapter 4. serial processing. 403–404. 411–412 pp. p. 116–117. p. pp. 396–397 schizophrenia. p. p. p. pp. p. p. pp. Unconscious mind. 204 Personality traits. 329–330 Drug use. 169 Drives and incentives. p. onset of. 366–367 Emotional intelligence and brain phantom limb pain. pp. p. 80–83 ECT. 319. 378. 304–305 sensory adaptation. 186–191 Antisocial personality disorder. 544 381–382. 293 Schizophrenia and brain Brain development: obsessive-compulsive disorder. 357 Emotion-detecting ability. pp. 379. 141 personality and illness. pp. pp. pp. 456–457 pp. pp. 357 Light exposure therapy: touch. Love. 509 Sexual orientation. 184 Cognitive neuroscience. p. pp. 548 anxiety disorders. pp. pp. p. pp. pp. p. pp. 4. pp. 405 Exercise. 201 pp. 304 Depth perception. 118–119 curare. p. 201–202 Emotion and cognition. 214–215 Down syndrome. p. pp. pp. 509 Need to belong. 328–329 Puberty. 183–184 Memory. 388 Overconfidence. pp. pp. 412 Sexual orientation. Orgasm. 204 Fetal alcohol syndrome and brain brain damage and. p. p. 153 Neurostimulation therapy and: pp. 324–325 Sexuality. recuperation during. pp. 409 the limbic system. 129 exercise. pp. 346–347 TABLE 2 Neuroscience In addition to the coverage found in Chapter 2. p. 485 and thinking in images. 433 memory. p. p. 82 Neuroscience perspective. 487–488 Depression. p. pp. 427 abnormalities. pp. 503 creativity. 156–157 p. 466–467 Instincts. 82 hallucinogens. 97–98 personality disorders. 164 dementia and Alzheimer’s. pp. 466–467 in learning. p.

outlines the historical story of research on the brain’s processing of language. question. they will become involved in. and chapter. analytical mind-set. Exploring Psychology has retained its popular system of study aids. Test for Success: Critical Thinking Exercises at the end of each chapter In the margins of this book. suggesting how students can survey. and see the rewards of. I believe. religion. Successful SQ3R Study Aids 1: Exploring Psychology’s complete system of learning aids includes numbered Preview Questions. The study of psychology. All key terms are defined in the margins for ready reference key terms Look for complete definitions while students are being introduced to the new term in the narrative (see sample at of important terms in the margin near their right). history. The Tips for Studying Psychology section at the end of Chapter 1 explains quotes from researchers and others that will the SQ3R-based system of study aids. and popular culture. The chap- ter-ending Review is structured as a set of answers to the numbered Preview Questions. but how the research process works. apply what they are learning. And I love to provoke thought. and review the material for maximum retention. alternative therapies. they will discover how an empiri- cal approach can help them evaluate competing ideas and claims for highly publicized phenomena—ranging from subliminal persuasion. Throughout. enhances our abilities to restrain intuition with crit- ical thinking. ESP. to play with words. this new edition retains its prede- cessor’s voice and much of its content and organization. which appear in this format throughout the book. Each chapter opens with a chapter outline that enables students to quickly survey its major top- ics. I hope to tell psychology’s story in a way that is warmly personal as well as rigorously scientific. Several chapters introduce research stories as mysteries that progressively unravel as one clue after anoth- er falls into place. for example. encourage them to be active learners and read. Numbered Preview Questions at the start of new major topics define the learn- ing objectives that will guide students as they read. These test items offer students an opportunity to review key ideas and to practice the multi- ple-choice test format. and to laugh. Moreover. It also retains the goals— the guiding principles—that have animated the previous seven editions: 1. I love to reflect on connections between psychology and other realms. PREFACE | xvii written with sensitivity to students’ needs and interests. cognition. Writing as a solo author. Rehearse It! quizzes at the end of major sections will stimulate students to rehearse what they have learned. (Chapter 2. the book tries to excite the reader’s curiosity. I aspire to help students understand and appreciate the wonder of important phenomena of their lives. Goals for the Eighth Edition Although supplemented by added story telling. To exemplify the process of inquiry I strive to show students not just the outcome of research.” I seek to communicate psychology’s scholarship with crisp narrative and vivid storytelling. Believing with Henry David Thoreau that “Anything living is easily and natural- ly expressed in popular language. Periodic Thinking Critically About and Close-Up boxes encourage develop.) 2. and hypno- sis to astrology. politics. I also want to convey the inquisitive spirit with which psychologists do psychology. introduction in the narrative. To teach critical thinking By presenting research as intellectual detective work. such as liter- ature. or statistics. and illusion with understanding. philosophy. sports. It invites readers to imagine them- selves as participants in classic experiments. critical reasoning. integrated into an SQ3R structure that augments the narrative without disrupting it. students will find challenge students to think scientifically while reviewing the key concepts of the interesting and informative review notes. rehearse. . I exemplify an inquiring. Whether students are study- ing development. and repressed and recovered memories. judgmentalism with compassion. ment of critical thinking skills as well as application of the new concepts.

I also present the discipline’s most important recent developments. and life priorities. What’s New? Despite the overarching continuity. A marginal glossary helps students master important terminology. students learn that much of our information pro- cessing occurs outside of our conscious awareness. in later chapters. and understanding of. temperament and personality.” 4. To reinforce learning at every step Everyday examples and rhetorical questions encourage students to process the material actively. and Human Diversity. 7. Ensuing chapters reinforce this concept. and students hear a consistent voice. but also throughout the book. Nurture. such as behavior genetics and cultural diversity. The SQ3R system of pedagogical aids augments learning without interrupting the text narrative. and thereby reinforced. “The uniformity of a work. Nature. other threads.xviii | PREFACE 3. lov- ing and hating. The Psychological Disorders chapter conveys empathy for. To be as up to date as possible Few things dampen students’ interest as quickly as the sense that they are reading stale news.” Because the book has a single author. The Learning chapter conveys the idea that bold thinkers can serve as intellectual pioneers. case histories.” observed Edward Gibbon. Nearly 482 references in this edition are dated 2007 or later. And the end-of-chapter Test for Success: Critical Thinking Exercises invite students to review and apply key concepts in thought-provoking ways. To put facts in the service of concepts My intention is not to fill students’ intellectual file drawers with facts. read- ers will see evidence of our human kinship—our shared biological heritage. but not simpler. While retaining psycholo- gy’s classic studies and concepts. in Chapter 3. I have introduced the following major changes to Exploring Psychology. but to reveal psychology’s major concepts— to teach students how to think. and our cultural diversity in attitudes and expressive styles. and to offer psychological ideas worth thinking about. our common mechanisms of seeing and learning. 5. Language. hungering and feeling. health and happiness. Eighth Edition: . weave throughout the whole book. To integrate principles and applications Throughout—by means of anec- dotes. and Intelligence chap- ter raises the issue of human rationality and irrationality. 8. For instance. and disorders and health. The Thinking. there is change and updating on every page. To convey respect for human unity and diversity Especially in Chapter 4. Always. Major sections begin with numbered Preview Questions and end with Rehearse It sections for self-testing on key concepts. In each chapter I place emphasis on those concepts I hope students will carry with them long after they complete the course. forming a thread that ties the chapter together. End-of-chapter reviews repeat the Preview Questions and answer them. They will also better understand the dimensions of our diver- sity—our individual diversity in development and aptitudes. “denotes the hand of a single artist. troubled lives. To enhance comprehension by providing continuity Many chapters have a significant issue or theme that links subtopics. and the posing of hypothetical situations—I relate the findings of basic research to their applications and implications. child-rearing and care for the elderly. 6. I try to follow Albert Einstein’s dictum that “everything should be made as simple as possi- ble. Where psy- chology can illuminate pressing human issues—be they racism and sexism. or violence and war—I have not hesitated to shine its light. Concepts pre- sented earlier are frequently applied.

151–152 nutrition and. thanks to increased migration and the grow- ing global economy. 159 pp. 125–126 Leaving the nest. p. and live periodically in the U. 56. 123–124 Identity. 169 dissociative personality disorder. Testing bias. 217 Human diversity/kinship. 323 Need to belong. pp. pp. 342 suicide. pp. 122. p. 162 Corporal punishment practices. 456 p. 390 pp. the broader the scope of studies presented. pp. 88 use of. 409 Self-esteem. p. I am working to offer a world-based psy- chology for our worldwide student readership. 473. 488 Drugs: Life-span and well-being. attachment. 469 Anger. 538 Deaf culture. 114–115 definition. 116 Flynn effect. p. p. 122. 347–350. 560 Enemy perceptions. 525–570 psychological effects of. 148 306–307 Prejudice. 17. 303. 25–26. 39 taijin-kyofusho. p. pp. p. p. 453 Attraction: expressing. 395–396 Optimism and health. p. Happiness. 542–547 Taste preferences. 511 Complementary/alternative roles. 483–484 love and marriage. pp. American students. p. 313. p. pp. p. We are all citizens of a shrinking world. 218 Similarities. And if psychology seeks to explain human behavior (not just American or Canadian or Australian behav- ior). pp. 414–415 Development: 331–332 cooperation. I continually search the world for research findings and text and photo examples. 125 Language. p. pp. p. 488–489 schizophrenia. 99 . p. 158 monolingual/bilingual. Sheffield. p. In addition. somatoform. p. pp. 454 See also Chapter 15. 130. 123–124 conciliation. 23. p. 251 p. 7 shock. pp. Thus. Thus. 10 Organ donation. p. p. 122 Sex drive. 311 Intelligence. North American and European examples come easily. 383–384 Meditation. p. pp. 353–354 Psychotherapy: Body ideal. p. coverage of culture and multicultural experience can be found on the following pages: Aggression. p. 346–347 moral development. 172 and aggression. pp. p. p. 532. p. 478 Psychology. p. pp. pp. p. 456 Attribution. p. 401 Individualism/collectivism. 440 racism and. given that I reside in the United States. p. 155 bias. 121 pp. 300. 551 Emotion: Marriage. 60. 566 Stress: adolescence. 242 Hindsight bias. 333–334 social development. pp. pp. 301 Self-serving bias. 526 Obesity. 28. Social pp. 200 Sexual orientation. pp. cultural norms. pp. p. AIDS. 534 Grief. p. 329–330. culture and values in. pp. 331–332 Personal space. the more accurate is our picture TABLE 3 Culture and Multicultural Experience From Chapter 1 to Chapter 15. 565 Motivation: hierarchy of needs. p. p. or Nairobi. too. 121–123 Parent and peer relationships. p. and Australian and New Zealand examples. conscious that readers may be in Melbourne. pp. 302. 401 child-rearing. 299 p. Fundamental attribution error. 162 antisocial personality disorder. 127 Observational learning: television Puberty and adult independence. p. 456. 264 rates of. 406 social power. 348. pp. Social clock. Conformity. 16 Pain. pp. p. pp. 307 Psychological disorders: Teen sexuality. pp. contact. expressing. forming a social. 390 Memory encoding. 412–413 eating disorders. p. p. Neurotransmitters: curare. 565 communities. political effects of. 555 Fear. 527 p.K. 386–388 Mental illness rate. p. maintain contact with friends and colleagues in Canada. 26–27 experiencing. 385. This edition. pp. Parapsychology. 566–567 Spirituality: Israeli kibbutz 304–305. 361–362 similarities. 456 Animal research ethics. 401 cognitive development. p. 120 adjusting to a new culture. pp. 350 EMDR training. 448 Cultural norms. Peacemaking and: Social loafing. 152 Life satisfaction. p. 130 p. PREFACE | xix Increased Coverage of Cultural and Gender Diversity This edition presents an even more thoroughly cross-cultural perspective on psy- chology (TABLE 3)—reflected in research findings and in text and photo examples. pp. 393–395 p. 348 Gender: Obesity guidance/counseling. offers many dozens of Canadian. p. pp. 160–161 Social-cultural perspective. 1–4 Pace of life. British. p. 468 speed-dating. 116 p. 168–169 and the self. p. pp. pp. 132 History of psychology. 115 Culture: Homosexuality. 122 p. p. pp. pp. p. pp. p. 369–371 susto. p. 121. p. pp. benefit from information and examples that internationalize their world-consciousness. Vancouver. p. Personality. 170–171 depression. p. 333–334 Peer influence. 363–364 context effects. 404–405 emotion-detecting ability. perception of. for example. p. 508 medicine. 303. p. views on. Coverage of the psychology of women and men is thoroughly integrated (see TABLE 4 on the next page). 474 Attractiveness. 396 p. p. Mating preferences. p. pp. subscribe to several European periodicals.

422 Menopause. pp. 164 adolescent. 115–117 Attraction. pp. Greater Sensitivity to the Clinical Perspective With helpful guidance from clinical psychologist colleagues. In addition to significant cross-cultural examples and research presented within the narrative. p. 481–482 and pornography. pp. 155–157 Sexual orientation. p. 129. p. A significant section in Chapter 1 intro- duces the levels-of-analysis approach. p. p. 358–359 p. 328–329. 99 of this world’s people. p. p. pp. 131. 489 biological influences. 465 472–473. p. 350 Sleep. 315 Aggression. p. 409–410 Sexual fantasies. 486 Gender: Obesity and: pp. 172 Pornography. p. 234 roles. Emotion-detecting ability. 542–543 ingested calories. p. 26 development. Psychological Disorders. p. 251 response. p. p. 168 evolutionary explanation. 348–349 testosterone-replacement REM sleep. which has sensi- tized and improved the Personality. 360. and the prejudice. pp. 359 Romantic love. penis envy. 361–362 Antisocial personality disorder. pp. 322 Sexual abuse. 75 Behavioral effects of gender. p. 353 external stimuli. Many new photos showcase the diversity of cultures within North America. Religious involvement and: life psychological/social-cultural 155–157 expectancy. 477 Hormones and: Prejudice. p. 403 Color vision. 555–558 and anxiety. 426 Losing weight. pp. 402 Bipolar disorder. and Human Diversity. 155 Sexuality. Nature. 474 Dating. p. p. rates of. 170 bias. p. pp. pp. p. pp. 129 similarities/differences. pp. Emphasis on the Biological-Psychological-Social/Cultural Levels of Analysis Approach in Psychology This edition systematically includes coverage of the biological. and social-cultural influences on our behavior. pp. and to consider the interplay of nature and nurture. and depression.xx | PREFACE TABLE 4 The Psychology of Men and Women Coverage of the psychology of men and women can be found on the following pages: ADHD. 542–545 See also Chapter 15. 217 Biological predispositions. pp. 115 and rape. Marriage. p. 350–351 and heart disease. p. pp. 539 Post-traumatic stress disorder: Women in psychology. pp. 555 Group polarization. as well as across the globe. pp. p. pp. 151–152. 74 Adulthood: physical changes. pp. 126–127 Sexual attraction. p. 470–471. I continue to welcome input and suggestions from all readers. psychological. p. setting the stage for future chapters. pp. p. p. 358 Alcohol: identification/gender identity. 397 development of. pp. Nurture. p. 91 Oedipus/Electra complexes. 403 Biological sex/gender. p. 350 Stereotyping. 462 genetic factors. 307 TV’s influence. 169–170. p. 333 Schizophrenia. Thus. p. Chapter 4. 129. pp. p. 2–3 Depression. pp. 362 low extreme. 80 aggression. p. p. 360 addiction and. pp. I have become more mindful of the clinical angle on various concepts within psychology. 422 Maturation. 549 Psychological disorders. 535 Grief. 348 guidance/counseling. 360 Suicide. therapy. 549–553 Empty nest. Social Dream content. 146 and child-rearing. 349 Gendered brain. and Therapy chapters. arousal in. 354 Stress: color red. these new photos and their informative cap- tions freshen each chapter and broaden students’ perspectives in applying psycho- logical science to their own world and to the worlds across the globe. p. p. 424 Midlife crisis. p. . p. p. p. 98 sexual development. p. p. and levels-of-analysis figures in many chapters help students understand concepts in the biopsychosocial context. 360 Autism. 90 p. encourages students to appreciate cultural and gender differences and commonalities. p. 355 Sexual disorders. 385–386 Intelligence. 90–91 p. p. pp. 126–128 Observational learning: and HIV. Happiness. p. pp. 363–368 sexual aggression and. 399 Conformity: obedience. 525–570 Drug use: sexual behavior. 164–166 pp. p. My aim is to expose all students to the world beyond their own culture. Menarche. p. 191 Generic pronoun “he”. p. 551–553 Father care. p. 130 weight discrimination. 472 pp. pp. Psychology. 414 influences. pp. p. 455 Eating disorders. 126–131 health risks. p. 253 and the immune system. 357–362 use. pp. 368 sexually violent media. pp. 559–560 pp. p. p. p. p. 328–331 Savant syndrome. 552–553 Freud’s views: Life expectancy. 115–117 and spousal abuse. 405 Body image. 549–550 evaluating. p.

Enhanced Critical Thinking Coverage I aim to introduce students to critical thinking in a natural way throughout the book. Eighth Edition. and Health chapter now covers problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies. has an updated box. See www. the powerful Online Study Center. . • “Thinking Critically About . Psychology departments in many schools have since used these goals and outcomes to help them establish their own benchmarks. and the Thinking.” boxes are found throughout the book. a suite of interactive components. See TABLE 5 for a complete list of this text’s coverage of critical thinking topics and Thinking Critically About boxes. Thinking Critically About: The Fear Factor—Do We Fear the Right Things? • Detective-style stories throughout the narrative get students thinking critical- ly about psychology’s key research questions. Critical thinking is introduced as a key term in this chapter. Stress. • Appendix A: Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life encourages students to focus on thinking smarter by applying simple statistical principles to every- day reasoning. offer students an excellent opportunity to check their understanding of key concepts in the chapter. Eighth Edition.apa. PsychPortal also enables instructors to monitor their students’ engagement with its learning tools. The eighth edition includes the following opportunities for stu- dents to learn or practice their critical thinking skills. Exploring Psychology. thus. for a detailed guide to how Exploring Psychology. . Eighth Edition. emphasizing the fallacies of our everyday intuition and common sense and. • “Apply this” and “Think about it” style discussions keep students active in their study of each chapter. abundance. contributed by Amy Himsel (El Camino College) and appearing at the end of each chapter. the need for psychological science. the Video Tool Kit for Introductory Psychology. • NEW Test for Success: Critical Thinking Exercises. raises the bar even higher with PsychPortal. critical thinking approach to introducing students to psychology’s research methods. Chapter 11. which includes an interactive eBook. • Chapter 1 takes a unique. while learning and practicing critical thinking.worthpublishers. The package available for Exploring Psychology. for example. • Critical examinations of pop psychology spark interest and provide impor- tant lessons in thinking critically about everyday topics. will work nicely to help you begin to address these goals in your department.html). . an American Psychological Association (APA) Task Force created a set of Learning Goals and Outcomes for students graduating with psychology majors from four-year schools (www. and accuracy. New Teaching and Learning Resources Our supplements and media have been celebrated for their quality. mod- eling for students a critical approach to some key issues in psychology. Some instructors are eager to know whether a given text for the intro- ductory course helps students get a good start at achieving these goals. For example. PREFACE | xxi among others. corresponds to the APA Learning Goals and Outcomes. with even more in the narrative that encourages active learning of psycholo- gy’s key concepts. and the Scientific American News Feed. the Emotions. See page xxii for details. APA Learning Goals and Outcomes for Psychology Majors In March 2002. and Intelligence chapter describes some possible uses of intelligence-test results in clinical settings.

pp. pp. The scientific method. 142–148 Alleviate pain?. 426–428 orientation?. formula?. pp. pp. 298–299 parents deserve?. 507–509 contribute to heart disease?. pp. 75–78 Psychology: violence?. and why?. 505–507 happy. pp. can be found on the following pages: Thinking Critically About . . 218–220 Statistical reasoning. 20–21 Psychological Science: bias. pp. The following interactive learning materials contained within PsychPortal make it truly unique: • An interactive eBook allows students to highlight. 19–20 pp. pp. pp. pp. pp. How to Be a “Successful” pp. 14–15 pp. p. 402–403 Why do we sleep?. pp. 281–286 Lie Detection. increase risk of schizophrenia?. pp. 406 How valid is the Rorschach test?. pp. 552 How and why is social support Why do we dream?. pp. 167–168 been stretched too far?. 119–120 Independent and dependent pp. 472–480 brains?. PsychPortal conveniently offers all the functionality you need to support your online or hybrid course. 426–427 Making inferences. pp. Has the concept of “addiction” Is psychotherapy effective?. 13 Aging and intelligence. pp. 364–368 ADHD—Normal High Energy or Is psychotherapy effective?. 191–192 Innovative Multimedia Supplements Package Exploring Psychology boasts impressive electronic and print supplements titles. p. pp. pp. 483–484 key term. 409–410 Why do psychology?. p. Appendix A. Coerce action? Be therapeutic? “Critical thinking” introduced as a pp. 22–23 How are memories constructed?. pp. . pp. 434–435 Is Freud credible?. 505–506 Correlation and pp. Complementary and Alternative pp. 311–313 Medicine. PsychPortal Integrating the best online material that Worth has to offer. Twin and adoption studies. PsychPortal is an inno- vative learning space that combines a powerful quizzing engine with unparalleled media resources (see FIGURE 1). Right Things?. 344–346 Astrologer or Palm Reader. and tutorials that will help them succeed in mastering the concepts.0 and the new Concepts in Action—bring key concepts to life. How do we store memories in our boxes: perspective. 21–23 Why—and in whom—does stress pp. pp. p. 11–13 Do prenatal viral infections How a child’s mind develops. and make their own notes just as they would with a printed textbook. 53 common sense. 21–22 brains?. and in-depth stories of psychology’s scientific research process. p. pp. pp. Based on their quiz results. pp. pp. 84–86 pp. variables. pp. 57–60 Critical Examinations of Pop Do video games teach or release pp. pp. Parallel processing. links. and simple enough to enhance your traditional course—and it enables you to track your students’ engagement. 425–426 Describing data. 95–96 emergencies?. 190–191 pp. 10–11 pp. pp. students receive Personalized Study Plans directing them to sections in the book and also to simulations. 117 pp. p. visit Worth Publishers’ online catalog at worthpublishers. A-1–A-6 pp. For more information about any of these titles. Our divided brains. bookmark. Instructors can access reports indicating their students’ strengths and weaknesses (based on . 561–563 Illusory correlation. 267–272 The Fear Factor—Do We Fear the How much credit (or blame) do Random assignment.xxii | PREFACE TABLE 5 Critical Thinking and Research Emphasis Critical thinking coverage. animations. Scientific Detective Stories: The pursuit of happiness: Who is Genuine Disorder?. pp. 18–19 How do we see in color?. 380 Is there extrasensory perception?. 461 Evaluating alternative therapies. 86–87 Do we use only 10 percent of our The limits of intuition and What causes mood disorders?. A-6–A-7 What determines sexual pp. Yet it is flexible. Critiquing the evolutionary Exploring cause and effect. 455 pp. • Tom Ludwig’s (Hope College) suite of interactive media—PsychSim 5. 23–24 Do animals exhibit language?. Near–death experiences. 106–110 Can hypnosis enhance recall? The scientific attitude. p. 81–83 linked with health?. Thinking Critically With consciousness or an altered pp. A-1–A-7 Why do we feel hunger?. p. • The Online Study Center combines PsychPortal’s powerful assessment engine with Worth’s unparalleled collection of interactive study resources. 88–89 Why do people fail to help in pp. customizable. 391–397 Is breast milk better than Insanity and Responsibility. 447–449 state?. 9–13 Is hypnosis an extension of normal Self-esteem versus self-serving Perceiving order in random events. Is repression a myth?.

assess. FIGURE 2 Sample from our Video Tool Kit . and customize for their students (FIGURE 2). all of which are sure to spark discussion and encourage critical thinking. current news footage. • Scientific American News Feed highlights current behavioral research. • Video Tool Kit includes more than 100 engaging video modules that instruc- tors can easily assign. Videos cover classic experiments. and cutting-edge research. PREFACE | xxiii FIGURE 1 class quiz results) and browse suggestions for helpful presentation materials PsychPortal opening page (from Worth’s renowned videos and demonstrations) to focus their teaching efforts accordingly.

Second Edition • The Mind Video Teaching Modules. Second Edition • The Brain Video Teaching Modules. Assessment • Printed Test Bank. and Scientific American Frontiers Video Video Resources • Instructor’s Video Tool Kit • Moving Images: Exploring Psychology Through Film • Worth Digital Media Archive • Psychology: The Human Experience Teaching Modules • The Many Faces of Psychology Video • Scientific American Frontiers Video Collection. Volumes 1 and 2 • Diploma Computerized Test Bank • i•Clicker Radio Frequency Classroom Response System Presentation • ActivePsych: Classroom Activities Project and Video Teaching Modules (including Worth’s Digital Media Archive. Third Edition) • Instructor’s Resources CD-ROM • Worth’s Image and Lecture Gallery at worthpublishers.xxiv | PREFACE Additional Student Media • Book Companion Site • Worth eBook for Exploring Psychology • The Online Study Center • 60-Second Psych (Scientific American podcasts) • Psych2Go (audio downloads for study and review) • PsychSim 5.0 (on CD-ROM) • Video Tool Kit (online) Course Management • Enhanced Course Management Solutions for users of WebCT. Second Edition. Second Edition Print Resources • Instructor’s Resources and Lecture Guides • Instructor’s Media Guide for Introductory Psychology • Study Guide • Pursuing Human Strengths: A Positive Psychology Guide • Critical Thinking Companion. Blackboard. Second Edition Scientific American Resources • Scientific American Mind • Scientific American Reader to Accompany Myers • Improving the Mind and Brain: A Scientific American Special Issue • Scientific American Explores the Hidden Mind: A Collector’s Edition . Desire2Learn. and Angel.

Felsenthal. Kim D. C. Fertig. Aided by nearly a thou- sand consultants and reviewers over the last two decades. Los Angeles Grace Austin. For their expertise and encouragement. Sarah E. Patricia A. Giacomini. this has become a bet- ter. Charles J. Jerwen Jou. Wartburg College San Juan College Arthur L. Edward’s University Daniel Collison. Diane M. Hall. and the gifts of their time to the teaching of psychology. Sacramento City College California State University. at least) could write. Moorhead Milwaukee School of Engineering Joan Warmbold Boggs. Scott Community College Virginia State University Perry Collins. Dominik Guess. and also to the innumerable researchers who have been so willing to share their time and talent to help me accu- rately report their research. Jessica Michelle Dennis. Matthew I. NW Campus Ray Brogan. PREFACE | xxv In Appreciation If it is true that “whoever walks with the wise becomes wise” then I am wiser for all the wisdom and advice received from expert colleagues. Oakton Community College Waubonsee Community College Megan E. and format of this new edition and its supplements package. Franz Klutschkowski. Min Ju. Jay Green. Arlington University of Louisiana at Lafayette Damien Cronin. Isaak. Pan American Patricia Crowe. Wayland Baptist University St. Leonard. Jan L. University of Texas. Toni Harris. more accurate book than one author alone (this author. Frostburg State University Springfield College/Benedictine University Gregory Braswell. corrections. I thank Kerm Almos. Hawkeye Community College SUNY New Paltz Alice Davidson. Rollins College North Central Texas College Mark W. Bakersfield Cynthia Bane. Lake Superior College University of Texas. As my editors and I keep reminding ourselves. Beaman. Lisa Fozio-Thielk. University of Kentucky Berkeley College Rochelle Bergstrom. and creative ideas related to the content. Andrea Ericksen. Anne Duran. Northwestern Oklahoma State University University of Louisville . Bradley. Henseler. pedagogy. Minnesota State University. My indebtedness continues to each of the teacher-scholars whose influence I acknowledged in the seven previous editions. Huffman. Northern Virginia Community College University of North Florida Kelly Charlton. Illinois State University Tarrant County College. Capital University California State University. University of North Carolina at Pembroke Bay Path College Kathy Coiner. My gratitude extends to the colleagues who contributed criticism. Muskegon Community College James Madison University Verne C. all of us together are smarter than any one of us. Melinda A. Davis. Cox.

Tyler Junior College Lee University Roy H. chief editor. Susan L. among other things. Tracey Kuehn. Lone Star College. Senior Psychology Acquisitions Editor Kevin Feyen has become a valued team leader. Betty Probert. Sharon Prevost and Andrea Musick coordinated production of the huge supplements package for this edition. Rich Rosenlof. University of Mary Washington Clark State Community College Nancy Smuckler. and Brendan Baruth. Development editor Nancy Fleming is one of those rare editors who is gifted both at “thinking big” about a chapter while also applying her sensitive. Publisher Catherine Woods helped construct and execute the plan for this text and its supplements. and me from the author team. This happy and creative gathering included John Brink. Randall. Walker. Tom Kling. the formal planning began as the author-publisher team gathered for a two-day retreat in June 2007. Levin. editors Christine Brune. Roberta Paley. Randall Russac. Milwaukee Red Rocks Community College Gail Stewart.xxvi | PREFACE Bernard H. She offers just the right mix of encouragement. attention to detail. Betty Probert efficiently edited and pro- duced the print supplements and. Jeanne A. Blue Ridge Community College University of North Florida Miriam Liss. and sensitivity. artistic director Babs Reingold. Mark Prokosch. also helped fine-tune the whole . Martin Bolt. San Diego State University Missouri State University Michael A. Borough of Manhattan Community College. An author could not ask for more. Midwestern State University Philadelphia University Gail Vivian. Thomas Ludwig. Richard Straub. Puyallup George Fox University Kevin W. thanks to his dedication. Smith. University of Wisconsin. Kevin Feyen. J. Jim Previte. graceful. Trevor Milliron. Elizabeth Widdicombe. Fawn Oates. Sandy Manly. John Pierce. Fabian Novello. Phelps. University of Mary Washington Frostburg State University Peter Marcus. Pierce College. Vandehey. gentle admonition. to the thoroughly revised Chapter 3. is a wonder worker. Walters State Community College CUNY Christopher L. and Catherine Woods. Sumrall. Mount Ida College/Queens University Elon University Christopher K. Nancy Fleming. creativity. O’Donnell. Christine Brune. in the process. Guy Geraghty. Patricia Santoro. Virginia State University Victor Valley College Teresa Watters. Aubrey Shoemaker. Holyoke Community College Eastern Michigan University Katrina L. Consciousness and the Two-Track Mind. Amy Shefferd. We were joined by Worth Publishers executives Tom Scotty. Matthew A. The input and brainstorming during this meeting of minds gave birth. and Peter Twickler. line-by-line touches. Although the information gathering is never-ending. Kennesaw State University At Worth Publishers a host of people played key roles in creating this eighth edition. Poinsett. along with my assistants Kathryn Brownson and Sara Neevel. and sales and marketing colleagues Kate Nurre. Smith. Montgomery Fashion Institute of Technology Jean Twenge. and passion for excellence.

and Richard Straub (Study Guide). He. poet Jack Ridl. We are especially grateful to Executive Marketing Manager Kate Nurre. John Brink (Test Bank). with help from Greg Bennetts. but also made available to teachers of psychology. For their remarkable talents. mailing informa- tion to professors. Michigan 49422-9000 USA davidmyers. and Sara Neevel has become our high-tech manuscript developer. Kathryn has become a knowledgeable and sensitive adviser on many matters. The day this book went to press was the day I started gathering information and ideas for the ninth edition. par excellence. I reflect on how fortunate I am to be a part of a team in which everyone has produced on-time work marked by the highest profes- sional standards. that I have done my best to introduce the field I love. along with supplements production editor Jenny Chiu. PREFACE | xxvii book. our author team is grateful to Worth Publishers’ professional sales and marketing team. Lee Ann McKevitt and Paul Lacy did a splendid job of laying out each page. and their friendship. Bianca Moscatelli and Donna Ranieri worked together to locate the myriad photos. edited. Hope College Holland. and updated all the cross-reference tables in this Preface. Project Editor Leigh Renhard and Production Manager Sarah Segal masterfully kept the book to its tight schedule. cultivated my delight in dancing with the language. please. Your input will again influence how this book continues to evolve. and those about to begin their study of psychology. did their usual excellent work of pro- ducing the many supplements. Thomas Ludwig (PsychPortal. Production Manager Stacey Alexander. etc. At Hope College. To achieve our goal of supporting the teaching of psychology. and handling numerous other daily tasks related to the book’s development and production. For their exceptional success in doing that. or just an encouraging word. reviewed. Lorraine Klimowich. the supporting team members for this edition included Kathryn Brownson. I gratefully acknowledge the influence and editing assistance of my writ- ing coach. and taught me to approach writing as a craft that shades into art. Finally. and produced. After hearing countless dozens of people say that this book’s supplements have taken their teaching to a new level. and impressive organization in leading Worth’s gifted artistic production team and coordinating editorial input throughout the production process. their long-term dedication. Associate Managing Editor Tracey Kuehn displayed tireless tenacity. do share your thoughts. provided invaluable sup- port in commissioning and organizing the multitude of reviews. and National Psychology and Economics Consultant Tom Kling both for their tireless efforts to inform our teaching colleagues of our efforts to assist their teaching. I thank Martin Bolt (Instructor’s Resources). proofed hun- dreds of pages. this teaching pack- age not only must be . It is for them. my gratitude extends to the many students and instructors who have written to offer suggestions. more than anyone. commit- ment. Again. Marketing Manager Amy Shefferd. and for the joy of working with them. whose influence resides in the voice you will be hearing in the pages that follow. So. and Babs Reingold skillfully directed creation of the beautiful new design and art program. who researched countless bits of information.).

Chapter Outline • What Is Psychology? Psychology’s Roots Contemporary Psychology • Why Do Psychology? What About Intuition and Common Sense? The Scientific Attitude Critical Thinking • How Do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions? The Scientific Method Description Correlation Experimentation • Frequently Asked Questions About Psychology • Tips for Studying Psychology .

with a wave of relief. wonder: Do mothers and infants bond in the first hours after birth? Megapress/Alamy Should we trust childhood sexual abuse memories that get “re- covered” in adulthood—and prosecute the alleged predators? Are first-born children more driven to achieve? Does psy- chotherapy heal? A smile is a smile the world For many people.1: Thinking Critically With Psychological Science Hoping to satisfy their curiosity about people and to remedy their own woes. popular books. read articles on psychic powers. around Throughout this book. or relate more sensitively? • Have you ever become depressed or anxious. • Have you ever found yourself reacting to something as one People in different cultures vary in when and how often they of your biological parents would—perhaps in a way you Ariadne Van Zandb/Lonely Planet Images vowed you never would—and then wondered how much of smile. they consult self-help Web sites. wondered why you had such a crazy dream? How often. psychologists are folks who analyze per. or gender? In what ways are we alike as members of the human family? How do we differ? • Have you ever awakened from a nightmare and. the path to ecstatic love. Consider some of psychology’s but also of the similarities that questions that from time to time you may wonder about: define our shared human nature. 1677 1 . Such questions provide grist for psychology’s mill. do we dream? • Have you ever played peekaboo with a 6-month-old and wondered why the baby finds the game so delightful? The infant reacts as though. offer counseling. but to understand them. not to bewail.” They listen to talk-radio counseling. A Political Treatise. intrigued by claims of psychological truth. feel. think more creatively. perhaps over a lost job during the “I have made a ceaseless effort recent economic crash. and dispense child-rearing advice. and the roots of John Lund/Sam Diephuis/Blend Images/Corbis personal happiness. and much more. because psychology is a sci. race.” ence that seeks to answer all sorts of questions about us all—how and why we think. magazines. Searching for the meaning of dreams. sonality. when you momentarily move behind a door. but a naturally happy smile means the same thing anywhere your personality you inherited? To what extent are person-to- in the world. Others. you will see examples not only of our cultural and gender diversity Do they? Yes. and act as we do. and why. person differences in personality predisposed by our genes? To what extent by our home and community environments? • Have you ever worried about how to act among people of a different culture. you actually disappear—only to reappear later out of thin air. What do babies actually perceive and think? • Have you ever wondered what leads to school and work success? Are some people just born smarter? Does sheer intelligence explain why some people get richer. and wondered whether you’ll ever feel “normal”? What not to ridicule. —Benedict Spinoza. millions turn to “psychology. and attend stop-smoking hypnosis seminars. and TV. triggers our bad moods—and our good ones? not to scorn human actions.

these creatures became intensely interested in them- selves and in one another: “Who are we? What produces our thoughts? Our feelings? Our actions? And how are we to understand and manage those around us?” Psychological Science Is Born To be human is to be curious about ourselves and the world around us.C. author of an important 1890 textbook. This list of pioneering psychologists—“Magellans of the mind. was a Swiss biologist. the Greek naturalist and philosopher Aristotle (384 –322 B. on a December day in 1879. the early pioneers of most fields. Thus began what many consider psychology’s first experiment. (To be aware of one’s awareness takes a little longer. Before 300 B. launching the first psychological laboratory. the heart. you can check your understanding by taking a Rehearse It! quiz and by reading the numbered Chapter Review at the end of the chapter. Their machine meas- ured the time lag between people’s hearing a ball hit a platform and their pressing a Information sources are cited in parentheses. like his suggestion that a meal makes us sleepy by causing gas and heat to collect around the source of our personality. 1993). This young science of psychology developed from the more established fields of philosophy and biology. was a Russian physiologist. Although Calkins resisted the unequal treatment and refused the degree. third-floor room at Germany’s University of Leipzig. Soon thereafter. and. Harvard denied her the degree she had earned.E. who developed an influential theory of personality.D. Philosophers’ thinking about thinking continued until the birth of psychology as we know it. telegraph key (Hunt. motivation and emotion. Sigmund Freud. were predominantly men. in 1921. there came to be people. on a planet in this neighborhood of the universe.D. middle-aged professor. was an Austrian physi- cian.E. offering her instead a degree from Radcliffe College. Curiously. staffed by Wundt and psychology’s first graduate students. she went on to become the American Psychological Association’s (APA’s) first female president in 1905.” as Morton Hunt (1993) has called them—illustrates psychology’s origins in many disciplines and countries. two young men were helping an austere. Margaret Floy Washburn became the first woman to receive a psychology Ph.C. When James’ student Mary Calkins completed all the re- quirements for a Harvard Ph. outscoring all the male students on their exams. Wundt was seeking to measure “atoms of the mind”—the fastest and simplest men- tal processes. Today we chuckle at some of his guesses. Later. its undergraduate sister school for women. 1 A Preview Question appears at the beginning of major chapter sections. There. Search actively for the answer to the question as you read through the section. the second to be elected an APA president. with two-tenths of a second when asked to press the key as soon as they were consciously complete documentation that follows aware of perceiving the sound. including psychology.) theo- rized about learning and memory.2 | CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE What Is Psychology? 1: What are some important milestones in the development of the science of psychology?1 Psychology’s Roots Once upon a time. Wilhelm Wundt. was an American philosopher. perception and person- ality. create an experimental apparatus. Ivan Pavlov. in a small. Wundt was both a philosopher and a physiologist. William James. But credit Aristotle with asking the right questions. As these names illustrate.. Every citation can be second when asked to press the key as soon as the sound occurred—and in about found in the end-of-book References. ..) American Psychological Association style. people responded in about one-tenth of a with name and date. who pioneered the study of learning. Jean Piaget. the last century’s most influential observer of children.

D. Monika Suteski Monika Suteski William James and Mary Whiton Calkins James. who became a pio. In psychology’s early days. Margaret Floy Washburn The first woman to receive a endary teacher-writer. psychology is not easily defined.” . psychology Ph. With activities ranging from the study of nerve cell activity to the study of in- ternational conflicts. Freud emphasized the ways emotional responses to childhood experiences and our unconscious thought processes affect our behavior. Wundt used this approach. Washburn synthesized animal behavior neering memory researcher and the first woman to be research in The Animal Mind. Germany. psychology was defined as “the science of mental life. mentored Calkins. Thus. Sigmund Freud The controversial ideas of this famed per- chology laboratory at the University of Leipzig. leg. president of the American Psychological Association. CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE | 3 Monika Suteski Monika Suteski Wilhelm Wundt Wundt (far left) established the first psy.. introspection—focusing on inner sensations. images. The rest of the story of psychology—the subject of this book—develops at many levels. and feelings—was common. as did James in his exami- nation of the stream of consciousness and of emotion. sonality theorist and therapist have influenced many people’s self-understanding. until the 1920s.

and the importance of having our needs for love and acceptance satisfied. can think smarter when describing and explaining the events of our nature and nurture. F. is less a set of findings than a way of asking and answer- controversy over the relative contributions ing questions. American psychologists. such as the importance of how our mind processes humanistic psychology historically sig. beliefs. F. Mental processes are subjective expe- mental processes. initially led by flamboy- ant and provocative John B. thinking. oped by earlier psychologists. As you study. (2) studies behavior without reference to In the 1960s. Most research psycholo- initial interest in mental processes. The key word in psychology’s definition is science. whether scientists or simply behaviors arising from the interaction of curious people. blinking.4 | CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE From the 1920s into the 1960s. Skinner. important concepts are able behavior. we can observe and record. boldfaced. and ques- psychology the science of behavior and tionnaire marking are all observable behaviors. Together. dismissed introspection and redefined psychology as “the scientific study of observ- Throughout the text. My aim. another movement emerged as psychology began to recapture its mental processes. then. as I will empha- nature-nurture issue the longstanding size throughout this book. and retains information. today we define psychology as the science of behavior and nary study of the brain activity linked with mental processes. dreams. a feeling. To encompass psychology’s concern with observable behavior and with inner cognitive neuroscience the interdiscipli. is not merely to report results but also to show you that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and how psychologists play their game. Skinner A leading behaviorist. Today’s science sees traits and opinions and ideas. Skinner rejected intro- Rayner. And rather than focusing on the meaning of early childhood memories. Pioneers Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow found behaviorism’s focus on learned behaviors too mechanistic. they demonstrated conditioned responses on a baby who became famous as “Little Albert. Watson championed psychology as the science of spection and studied how consequences shape behavior.” After all. the humanistic psychologists behaviorism the view that psychology emphasized the importance of current environmental influences on our growth po- (1) should be an objective science that tential. lives. science is rooted in observation. Let’s unpack this definition. Yelling. but you can observe and terms with their definitions in a nearby margin record people’s behavior as they respond to different situations. This cognitive revolution supported ideas devel- gists today agree with (1) but not with (2). thoughts. Watson and later by the equally provocative B. Psychology. individual’s potential for personal growth.” . You will see how researchers evaluate conflicting behaviors. Humanistic psychology rebelled against both behaviorism and Freudian psy- chology. you can find these You cannot observe a sensation. Monika Suteski Monika Suteski John B. riences: sensations. perceptions. cognition (including perception. Cognitive psychology and more recently cognitive neu- nificant perspective that emphasized the roscience (the study of brain activity linked with mental activity) have also sug- growth potential of healthy people and the gested new ways to understand and treat psychological disorders. And you will learn how all of us. or a thought. said these behaviorists. talking. Watson and Rosalie Rayner Working with B. and feelings. sweating. and in the Glossary at the end of the book. and language). behavior. smiling. Behavior is anything an organism does—any action memory. as a psychoanalyst might. thoughts and feelings.

C. Philosopher Plato (428–348 B. and do research. personality. In are largely inherited and that certain ideas are inborn. Today’s psychologists are human traits develop through experience. CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE | 5 Contemporary Psychology Like its pioneers. disorders of thought. Fraternal twins (right) usually share the same environment but not the same genes. and other traits. the same environment. Aristotle countered that there China. Mitch Diamond/Alamy A nature-made nature-nurture experiment Identical twins (left) share the same genes and. or are we born with them? citizens of many lands—69 lands. Psychology’s Biggest Question 2: AP Photo/Ashwini Bhatia What is psychology’s historic big issue? Psychology’s biggest and most persistent issue (and the focus of Chapter 3) has been the nature-nurture issue—the controversy over the relative contri- butions of biology and experience to the development of our traits and behaviors: Do our Global psychology Psychology is growing and it is globalizing. viewing behavior from the differing perspectives offered by the subfields in which they teach. for example. “We are moving • How are differences in intelligence and personality influenced by heredity and rapidly toward a single world of psychological science. depression can be both a brain disorder and a the front and back covers. for example: tury’s end. Our species is biologically endowed with an enormous capacity to learn and adapt. work. as hap- female) biologically predisposed or socially constructed? pened in 2007 at this international psycholo- • Is children’s grammar mostly innate or formed by experience? gy conference in India.E. there were 40 (Zhang & Xu. . psychologists have wrestled with many issues. every psychological event (every thought. The International Union of Psychological Science has 69 member nations.) assumed that character and intelligence Science. 2006). Today’s psychologists explore the issue by asking. every emotion) is simultane. • Are gender differences (the characteristics people associate with male and And worldwide. Gary Parker/Photo Researchers Inc. These differences make twins ideal participants in studies of hereditary and environmental influences on intelligence.” reported Robert Bjork (2000). thought disorder. Twin studies provide a rich array of findings— described in later chapters—that underscore the importance of both nature and nurture. from Albania to Zimbabwe. Yet over and over again we will see that in contemporary science the nature-nurture tension dissolves: Nurture works on what nature endows. by environment? • Are sexual behaviors more “pushed” by inner biology or “pulled” by external incentives? • Should we treat psychological disorders—depression. for example—as disor- ders of the brain. 5 universities had psy- is nothing in the mind that does not first come in from the external world through chology departments in 1985. by the last cen- the senses. psychology’s history. Across the world. according The nature-nurture debate weaves a thread from the ancient Greeks’ time to our to the International Union of Psychological own. Their number is mushrooming. see the Timeline inside ously a biological event. For more of the important developments in Moreover. usually. Thus. or both? Such debates continue. today’s psychologists are citizens of many lands. ideas are working their way across borders now more than ever.

different levels of analysis form an integrated biopsycho- social approach. for analyzing any given phenomenon. mentary outlooks. societal. psy. psychological. 1996). but the different perspectives described in TABLE 1. for exam- ple. chological. Biological influences: Psychological influences: • natural selection of adaptive • learned fears and other learned traits expectations • genetic predispositions responding • emotional responses to environment • cognitive processing and • brain mechanisms perceptual interpretations • hormonal influences Behavior or mental process Social-cultural influences: • presence of others FIGURE 1. yet each by itself is incomplete. • Someone working from the psychodynamic perspective might view an outburst as an outlet for unconscious hostility. 3: What are psychology’s levels of analysis and related perspectives? Each of us is a complex system that is part of a larger social system. psychology’s varied perspectives ask different questions and have their own limits. . molecules. It’s like explaining why grizzly bears hibernate. from biological to psycho- logical to social-cultural. and family expectations This integrated viewpoint incorporates various • peer and other group influences levels of analysis and offers a more complete • compelling models (such as in the media) picture of any given behavior or mental process. which offer comple- analysis.” on here? • Someone working from the evolutionary perspective might analyze how anger facilitated the survival of our ancestors’ genes. 6 | CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE levels of analysis the differing comple. Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis mentary views. • Someone working from the behavior genetics perspective might study how heredi- ty and experience influence our individual differences in temperament. • Someone working from the cognitive perspective might study how our interpreta- tion of a situation affects our anger and how our anger affects our thinking. Each level provides a valuable vantage point for looking at behavior. such as our nervous system and body organs. approach that incorporates biological. how they shed light on anger. and atoms. or David Madison/Corbis social-cultural level more than another. Views of anger How would each of psychol- ogy’s levels of analysis explain what’s going • Someone working from a neuroscience perspective might study brain circuits that cause us to be “red in the face” and “hot under the collar. and social-cultural levels of These tiered systems suggest different levels of analysis. Like different academic disciplines. • Someone working from the behavioral perspective might attempt to determine which external stimuli trigger angry responses or aggressive acts.1 complement one another. which are composed of still smaller systems—cells. which considers the influences of biological. One perspective may stress the biological. psychological. and social-cultural factors (FIGURE 1. • Someone working from the social-cultural perspective might explore how expres- sions of anger vary across cultural contexts. Is it because hi- bernation helped their ancestors to survive and reproduce? Because their inner physiology drives them to do so? Because cold environments hinder food gathering during winter? Such perspectives are complementary because “everything is related to everything else” (Brewer. But each of us biopsychosocial approach an integrated is also composed of smaller systems.1). Consider. To- gether.1 Biopsychosocial approach • cultural.

to lose weight or stop smoking? Cognitive How we encode. • an executive evaluating a new “healthy life-styles” training program for employees. the tribe but if you ever want to know about people of psychology is united by a common quest: describing and explaining behavior and I’m your man. • someone at a computer keyboard analyzing data on whether adopted teens’ © The New Yorker Collection. • a therapist listening carefully to a client’s depressed thoughts. each of psychology’s perspectives is helpful. store. That means ciplines. Michael.” the mind underlying it. personality. • an intelligence researcher measuring how quickly an infant shows boredom by looking away from a familiar picture. • a traveler visiting another culture and collecting data on variations in human values and behaviors. • a teacher or writer sharing the joy of psychology with others. and act as they do. feel. verse activities. expect that psychology will help you understand why people think. you probably envision a white-coated scientist sur- rounded by glassware and high-tech equipment. The cluster of subfields we call psychology is a meeting ground for different dis- “I’m a social I can’t explain electricity or anything like that. So bear in mind psychology’s limits. 1986. how do we differ? The point to remember: Like two-dimensional views of a three-dimensional object. Don’t expect it to answer the ultimate ques- tions. influence our individual differences sexual orientation. Psychology’s Subfields 4: What are some of psychology’s subfields? Picturing a chemist at work. Then you should find the study of psychology fascinating and useful. and sensory experiences linked with moods and motives? Evolutionary How the natural selection of traits promoted How does evolution influence behavior tendencies? the survival of genes Behavior genetics How much our genes and our environment To what extent are psychological traits such as intelligence. How are we humans alike as members of one human family? As products of ations and cultures different environmental contexts. B. and vulnerability to depression attributable to our genes? To our environment? Psychodynamic How behavior springs from unconscious How can someone’s personality traits and disorders be explained in terms drives and conflicts of sexual and aggressive drives or as the disguised effects of unfulfilled wishes and childhood traumas? Behavioral How we learn observable responses How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations? What is the most effective way to alter our behavior. and retrieve How do we use information in remembering? Reasoning? Solving problems? information Social-cultural How behavior and thinking vary across situ. such as those posed by Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy (1904): “Why should I live? Why should I do anything? Is there in life any purpose which the inevitable death that awaits me does not undo and destroy?” Instead. CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE | 7 TABLE 1. Thus. Handelsman temperaments more closely resemble those of their adoptive parents or their from cartoonbank. . process. In their di. How are messages transmitted within the body? How is blood chemistry memories. it’s a perfect home for those with wide-ranging interests. say. But each by itself fails to reveal the whole picture. from biological experimentation to cultural comparisons. All Rights Reserved. Picture a psychologist at work and you would be right to envision • a white-coated scientist probing a rat’s brain. biological parents. J.1 Psychology’s Current Perspectives Perspective Focus Sample Questions Neuroscience How the body and brain enable emotions.

assesses. Counseling psychologists help people to cope with challenges and might see it as a demonstration of the baby’s crises (including academic. who complementary views of behavior. vocational. and how to raise thriving chil- view this child’s delighted response as evidence dren. develop- mental psychologists studying our changing abilities from womb to tomb. physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example. these and other perspectives offer sometimes conduct basic and applied research. drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy. and treats people and treat behavior. practiced by face therapy. design products. and marital issues) and to improve their growing knowledge of his surroundings. or marriage) and in achieving greater well- being. and solve problems. experiment with. work. for example. measuring emotion-related psychiatry a branch of medicine dealing physiology. also often provide psychotherapy. gy that studies. boost morale and productivity. and behavior disorders (APA.) Michael Newman/Photo Edit basic research pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base. think. the role of grand. Ferrell/Congressional Quarterly/Getty Images clinical psychology a branch of psycholo. and in 2002 and 2004 New Mexico and Louisiana became the first states to grant that right to specially trained and licensed psychologists. A cognitive psychologist effectiveness. psychology at its best bases such interventions on evidence of of brain maturation. Clinical psychologists assess and treat mental. emotional. provide counseling and therapy. and so- cial psychologists exploring how we view and affect one another. cognitive psychologists experimenting with how we perceive. Psychology: A science and a profession Psychologists Scott J. psychiatrists. in- cluding biological psychologists exploring the links between brain and mind. In the pages that follow we will meet a wide variety of such researchers. Both counseling and clinical parents in different societies might be the psychologists administer and interpret tests. By contrast. how to overcome anxiety or depression. use psychol- ogy’s concepts and methods in the workplace to help organizations and companies select and train employees. test. psychology is also a helping profession devoted to such practical issues as how to have a happy I see you! A biological psychologist might marriage. cross-cultural psychologist. Laura Dwight Although most psychology textbooks focus on psychological science. As you will see throughout this book. counseling psychology a branch of psy. (Some clinical psy- chologists have lobbied for a similar right to prescribe mental-health–related drugs. and issue of interest. applied research scientific study that aims to solve practical problems. and doing face-to- with psychological disorders. As a science. ©2007 John Kish IV chology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school. These and other psychologists also may conduct applied research that tackles practical problems. and im- plement systems. For a personal and social functioning. observe. are medical doctors licensed to prescribe drugs and otherwise treat physical causes of psychological disorders. 8 | CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Some psychologists conduct basic research that builds psychology’s knowledge base. Industrial-organizational psychologists. . 2003). psychologists testing a child. Here we see with psychological disorders.

and theological seminaries. b. As we familiarize ourselves with its strategies and incorporate its underlying principles into our daily thinking. puter operators’ eyes after a day’s d. behavior. Learning about the solar system and the germ theory of disease alters the way people think and act. Carl Rogers. science restrains error. their abilities. In the history of psychology. 4. b. willful beasts in need of taming. In 1879. in psychology’s first experiment. 4. William James. and with settings Want to learn more? See Appendix C. c. Jean Piaget c. psychiatrist. d. information about psychology’s subfields and porate offices. and. “Once expanded to the dimensions through them. Psychologists use the science of behavior and mental processes to better understand why people think. REHEARSE IT! 1. A psychologist using the behavioral per. intelligence is to biology. They less often regard and treat women as men’s mental inferiors. behavioral perspective. Its author was a. treat older people who are overcome redefined psychology as a.” room behaviors. Abraham Maslow themes and drawings. Knowledge transforms us. c. work. William James c. A psychologist treating emotionally trou- and his students measured from culture to culture is the bled adolescents at a local mental health the time lag between hearing a ball hit a. by depression. psychological traits are to behaviors. a. 206). b. neuroscience perspective. social-cultural perspective. With its procedures for gathering and sifting evidence. Watson b. differ from situation to situation and 7. we can think smarter. [the mind] never how body and mind connect. a. 6. Sigmund Freud algebra. the age at which children can learn d. a.” ceptions. cognitive perspective. d. They engage in interdisciplinary studies. at the end of this book for more schools. such as psychohistory (the to learn about the many interesting options available to those with bachelor’s. Wilhelm Wundt. spective would be most likely to study b. 2. feel. d. A psychologist conducting basic research 2. CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE | 9 With perspectives ranging from the biological to the social. clinical psychologist. c. a. c. 7. and psychoceramics (the study of crackpots). factories. a. d.” Once aware of psychology’s well-researched ideas—about of a larger idea. and cor. how we remember (and misremember) our experiences. glare and assess the effect on com- c. Wilhelm Wundt has been the relative influence of nature 8. psycholinguistics (the study of lan- and doctoral degrees in psychology. psychological analysis of historical characters). . master’s. p. 3. how a child’s mind grows. A prominent psychology text was pub. c. research psychologist. personality is to intelligence.and 6-year-olds solving a. treatable by punishment and ostracism.2 Psychology also influences modern culture. They less often view and rear children as ignorant. our intuition often goes awry. law in Psychology. 6. agency is most likely to be a(n) a platform and pressing a key. 2 Confession: I wrote the last part of this sentence on April Fools’ Day. c.” noted Morton Hunt (1990. 1809–1894 the world differ (and are alike)—your mind may never again be quite the same. 3. Sigmund Freud 5. b. Mary Whiton Calkins. Careers from the laboratory to the clinic. 8. how we construct our per. returns to its original size. William James d. and they work in hospitals. The perspective in psychology that d. design a computer screen with limited b. c. guage and thinking). Nature is to nurture as to expand psychology’s knowledge base lished in 1890. d. “the science of observable behavior. To err is human. Learning psychology’s findings also changes people: They less often judge psychological disorders as moral failings. “In each case. “knowledge has modified attitudes. would be most likely to a. the effect of school uniforms on class. and nurture. a major topic d. observe 3. Answers: 1. b. psychologists teach in medical schools. how people across —Oliver Wendell Holmes. the hidden meaning in children’s puzzles and analyze differences in b. Why Do Psychology? Although in some ways we outsmart the smartest computers. and act as they do. whether certain mathematical abilities focuses on how behavior and thought appear to be inherited. biology is to experience. In the early twentieth century. 5. John B. Enter psychological science. problems and suggest treatments. industrial-organizational psychologist. interview children with behavioral d.

So. we fly feelings about job applicants. Some 100 studies have observed it in 1813–1855 various countries and among both children and adults (Balmut et al. and nearly all will then regard this true finding once explained.’” Ask them to imagine why “Anything seems commonplace. This much seems certain. .”) Because we’re all behavior watch- I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon. when both a supposed finding and its opposite seem like common sense. listen to the whis- dence stems partly from their recalling cases pers of our inner wisdom and trust “the force within”? Or should we more often be where their favorable impression proved right.” hindsight bias the tendency to believe. As Madeleine L’Engle observed. “Psychologists have found that separation weakens romantic at- traction. that Rome is south of New York. occupation of Iraq led to a bloody civil war rather than a peaceful democracy. Did We Know It All Along? Hindsight Bias How easy it is to seem astute when drawing the bull’s eye after the arrow has struck. “The naked intellect is an extraordi- is a fool. and they over- whelmingly see it as unsurprising common sense. senators did not anticipate the chaos that would seem so pre- “Life is lived forward.” inevitable. As the saying goes. “Psychologists have found that separation strengthens romantic attraction. commentators saw the result as inevitable.” as unsurprising.) ers.’” People given this untrue result can also easily imagine it. Most people can. Before the invasion was launched. and give the other half an opposite result. Watson to Sherlock Holmes Tell the second group the opposite. a tendency we call hindsight bias (also known as the I-knew-it-all-along —Philosopher Søren Kierkegaard. —Dr. and attitudes operate on two levels—conscious and unconscious— viewers tend to be overconfident of their gut with the larger part operating automatically. Their confi. My geographical intuition tells me that Reno is east of Los Angeles. such as have foreseen it. ing. memory. Obviously.. that Atlanta is east of Detroit.S. “Prediction is very difficult. Just asking people how and why they felt or acted as they did can sometimes be misleading—not because common sense is usually wrong. there is a problem. Intuition is important. ‘Out of sight. Nevertheless. 2007). After the U. Hindsight bias is widespread. especially about the future. But I am wrong. mostly on autopilot. most U. The phenomenon is easy to demonstrate: Give half the members of a group some purported psychological finding.S. but dictable in hindsight. Like jumbo jets. Former President George W. phenomenon). these results seemed anything but obvious: In voting to allow the Iraq in- vasion. As Yogi Berra once said. Bush described the feeling to Bob Woodward (2002) in explaining his decision to launch the Iraq war: “I’m a gut player.” narily inaccurate instrument” (1972). it would be surprising if many of psychology’s findings had not been foreseen. I rely on my instincts. that we would can observe a lot by watching. “You after learning an outcome. Tell the first group. Grandma’s intuition is often right. off-screen. As we will see throughout this text. our think- The limits of intuition Personnel inter. As the saying goes. “He who trusts in his own heart and wrong. but be- cause common sense more easily describes what has happened than what will hap- pen. but we often underestimate its perils. Finding that something has happened makes it seem understood backward. Such errors in our recollections and explanations show why we need psychologi- cal research. wrong. should we. out of mind.” (We have Berra to thank for other gems. like former President Bush. ‘Absence makes the heart grow fonder. subjecting our intuitive hunches to skeptical scrutiny? and partly from their ignorance about rejected applicants who succeeded elsewhere. this might be true. Two phenomena—hindsight bias and judg- —Proverbs 28:2 mental overconfidence—illustrate why we cannot rely solely on intuition and common sense.” Today’s psychological science does document a vast intuitive mind. 10 | CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE What About Intuition and Common Sense? 5: Why are the answers that flow from the scientific approach more reliable than those based on intuition and common sense? Some people suppose that psychology merely documents and dresses in jargon what people already know: “So what else is new—you get paid for using fancy Chris Ryan/Ojo Images/Getty Images methods to prove what my grandmother knew?” Others place their faith in human intuition. (Also known as the “Nobody ever comes here—it’s too crowded. As physicist Neils Bohr reportedly said.

a hard-headed curiosity. Some questions (Is there life after ask any question. and Dou. the —Decca Records. given a similar ana.” more than twice a month.3 Or consider these three anagrams. Brett Pelham. When put to the test. . To answer them in any way requires a leap of faith. they seem obvious. and what does it mean to think critically? Underlying all science is. In reality. “The scientist . We will also see how it has surprised us with discoveries about how the brain’s chemical messen- gers control our moods and memories. Even when students were 100 percent sure of themselves.” Good ideas are like good inventions. to doubt any death?) are beyond science. Groups of of these? Did hindsight influence you? Knowing the answers tends to make us guitars are on their way out. CHAOS. many other ideas (Can some people demonstrate ESP?). informed by With 20/20 hindsight. “good ideas in psychology usually the 2007 Virginia Tech have an oddly familiar quality. 1949 3 Boston is south of Paris. and the moment we en. With assertion. as you also might. and about the effects of stress on our capacity to fight disease. contract with the Beatles in 1962 gram without a solution: OCHSA. Later quizzes about their actual behavior killed during a U. timate our intuition. countless casual observations. to correct any errors. 1864 showed their predictions were only 71 percent correct. massacre of 32 people.) Are we any better at predicting our social behavior? To find out. Life.” No matter how sensible or crazy an idea sounds. “Does it work?” —Physicist Goranson (1978) asked people to unscramble: Elvis = lives Dormitory = dirty room WREAT → WATER Slot machines = cash lost in ’em ETRYN → ENTRY GRABE → BARGE About how many seconds do you think it would have taken you to unscramble each “We don’t like their sound.S. school (despite its having once created. vote in an upcoming election. the students felt 84 percent —General John Sedgwick just before being confident in making these self-predictions. Overconfidence We humans tend to think we know more than we do. Robert Vallone and his associates (1990) had students predict at the beginning of the school year “They couldn’t hit an elephant at whether they would drop a course. Matt Gentry the population of a small long for someone to invent suitcases on wheels and city) after the first two Post-it Notes?) people were murdered. must be free to derstand without misleading or being misled. But sometimes Grandma’s intuition. (See the solution below. call their parents this distance. note Daniel Gilbert. Hindsight bias After glas Krull (2003). Robert Oppenheimer. Asked how sure we are of our answers to factual questions (Is Boston north or south of Paris?). has it wrong. But scientific inquiry can help us sift reality from illusion. (Why did it take so AP Photo/The Roanoke Times. that dreams predict the future. it counter them we feel certain that we once came close seemed obvious that school officials should to thinking the same thing ourselves and simply failed have locked down the to write it down. in turning down a recording average problem solver spends 3 minutes. scientists ask. . chapters we will see how research has overturned popu- lar ideas—that familiarity breeds contempt. and so forth. CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE | 11 Indeed. can its predictions be confirmed? October 10. to seek for any evidence. a passion to explore and un. On average. the proof is in the pudding. we tend to be more confident than correct. their self-predictions erred 15 percent of the time. first. Civil War battle. which Richard Fun anagram solutions from Wordsmith. The point to remember: Hindsight bias and overconfidence often lead us to overes. about other animals’ abilities. and that most of use only 10 percent of our brain. In later everything seems obvious. in the margin. .” overconfident—surely the solution would take only 10 seconds or so. Solution to anagram on previous page: The Scientific Attitude 6: What attitudes characterize scientific inquiry.

you could deter- mine my location from the aura visible above my head.b). . our curiosity and intelligence cal science. Randi: Can you still see the aura if I put this magazine in front of my face? Aura-seer: Of course. As ancient a figure as Moses used such an approach. More often. If people or other animals don’t behave as our ideas predict. notes sociologist Rodney Stark (2003a. Many of its founders.” then so much the worse for the prophet (Deuteronomy 18:22).” Historians of science tell us that these three attitudes—curiosity. open but not gullible. as a threat.” Putting a scientific attitude into practice requires not only curiosity and skepti- —Philosopher Paul Kurtz. . Some deeply religious people today may view science. . Broca’s Brain. 1972. 1994 ness to surprises and new perspectives. Randi: Then if I were to step behind a wall barely taller than I am. He has tested When subjected to such scrutiny.” —Carl Sagan. How do you evaluate a self-proclaimed prophet? His answer: Put the prophet to the test. and out-of-body travels into centuries past. 1979 Non Sequitur Reprinted by permission of Universal Press Syndicate. Today’s presumed “truths” sometimes become tomorrow’s fallacies. if we suppressed our passion to explore the universe and ourselves. therefore requires a scientific attitude: being skeptical but not cynical. and humility—helped make modern science possible. indeed. god anything like the traditional sort 1938). atop previous claims of perpetual motion machines. sense from non- sense. asking for As scientists. were people whose religious convictions made them hum- “My deeply held belief is that if a ble before nature and skeptical of mere human authority (Hooykaas.” question any truth claim. 12 | CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE This scientific approach has a long history. psychologists approach the world of behavior with a curious skepticism. right? The Amazing Randi The magician James Randi once told me that no aura-seer he asked would agree to take this simple test. In the last analysis. miracle cancer cures. and adequacy of evidence. including Copernicus and Newton. then so much the worse for our ideas. “A skeptic is one who is willing to “To believe with certainty. Moses was using what we now call an empirical approach. clarity in definition. Ma- gician James Randi uses this approach when testing those claiming to see auras around people’s bodies: Courtesy of the James Randi Education Foundation Randi: Do you see an aura around my head? Aura-seer: Yes. This humble attitude was expressed in one of psychology’s early mot- tos: “The rat is always right. To sift reality from fantasy. If the predicted event “does not take place or prove true. including psychologi- exists. the scientific are provided by such a god. crazy-sounding ideas sometimes find support. Yet. Merton. © 1997 Wiley. skepticism. what matters is not my opinion or yours. Randi exemplifies skepticism. and debunked a variety of psychic phenomena. consistency in persistently asking two questions: What do you mean? How do you know? logic. “we must begin by doubting. cism but also humility—an awareness of our own vulnerability to error and an open- The Skeptical Inquirer. but the truths nature reveals in response to our questioning. science becomes society’s garbage disposal by sending crazy-sounding ideas to the waste heap.” says a Polish proverb. We would revolution was led mostly by deeply religious people acting on the idea that “in be unappreciative of those gifts . By letting the facts speak for themselves.

humble scrutiny of competing ideas. b. CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE | 13 order to love and honor God. . blindly accept arguments and conclusions. . newborns can recognize their mother’s odor and voice (see Chapter 5). . A newspaper article describes how a a. a. psychologists view theories 11. skepticism. by research. critical thinkers ask questions. How do they know that? What is this person’s agenda? Is the conclusion based on anecdote and gut feelings. and assesses conclusions. • massive losses of brain tissue early in life may have minimal long-term effects (see Chapter 2). and humility. • brain damage can leave a person able to learn new skills yet unaware of such learning (see Chapter 8). or on evi- dence? Does the evidence justify a cause-effect conclusion? What alternative expla- nations are possible? Has psychology’s critical inquiry been open to surprising findings? The answer. scientists method is to make sure Nature check and recheck one another’s findings and conclusions. hasn’t misled you into thinking you know something you don’t actually know. • our past experiences are not all recorded verbatim in our brains (see Chapter 8). Whether reading a news report or listening to a conversation. Nevertheless. 10. make judgments that fly in the face c.” Of course. Smart thinking. d. c. called critical Motorcycle Maintenance. it is necessary to fully appreciate the wonders of his handiwork. is plainly yes. evaluate the evi- d. future. And has critical inquiry convincingly debunked popular presumptions? The an- swer. accept the information as a wonderful c. examines assumptions. REHEARSE IT! 9. • within days. • electroconvulsive therapy (delivering an electric shock to the brain) is often a very effective treatment for severe depression (see Chapter 14). This means that they A critical thinker probably will b. “cure for cancer has been found. discerns hidden values. of common sense. the ideal that unifies psychologists with all scientists is the curi. Answers: 9. evaluates evidence. assesses conclusions. reputable journal must be true. . As a community. d. . evaluates evidence. “The real purpose of the scientific ous. overestimate our ability to predict the b. question can be studied scientifically. They wonder. believe that every important human dence. scientists. what has been learned is not what is widely hidden values. discerns In each of these instances and more. perceive events as obvious or with curiosity. and high self- esteem is not all good (see Chapter 12). as ensuing chapters also illustrate. it examines assumptions. question the article. and assess the conclusions.” Critical Thinking —Robert M. question the article but quickly accept d. approach research with a negative a. skeptical. are willing to ask questions and to it as true if the author has an excel- reject claims that cannot be verified lent reputation. Hindsight bias refers to our tendency to 10. 11. As scientists. The evidence indicates that . dismiss the article as untrue. estimating distances. cynicism. Pirsig. Believe it or not . Rather. We all view nature through the spectacles of our preconceived ideas. • sleepwalkers are not acting out their dreams (see Chapter 3). assume that an article published in a breakthrough. can have big egos and may cling to their preconceptions. Zen and the Art of The scientific attitude prepares us to think smarter. like anyone else. as ensuing chapters illustrate. is again yes. and believed. critical thinking thinking that does not • opposites do not generally attract (see Chapter 15). c. be more confident than correct in a. • most people do not suffer from unrealistically low self-esteem.” inevitable after the fact. 1974 thinking.

As we connect the observed dots. human much the better for that theory. psychological science welcomes competing ideas and plausible-sounding theories. A good theory produces testable predictions.2 The scientific method A self- lead to correcting process for asking questions and observing nature’s answers. A scientific theory explains through an which one person is studied in depth in the integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or hope of revealing universal principles. such predictions give direction to research. In testing our theory. reject. we might assess people’s self-esteem by having them respond to statements such as “I have good (1) Theories ideas” and “I am fun to be with. we should be or revise aware that it can bias our observa- tions: We may see what we expect. called hypotheses. We might therefore theorize that at the heart of depression lies low self-esteem. The (3) Research and observations Example: Administer tests of self-esteem and depression. Answer Questions? hypothesis a testable prediction. By organizing isolated facts. theory is linked with observation. And it puts them to the test. To test our self-esteem theory of depression. a theory simplifies. Yet no matter how reasonable a theory may sound—and low self-esteem seems a reasonable explanation of depression—we must put it to the test. events. Imagine that we observe over and over that people with depression describe their past. By linking facts and bridging them to deeper principles. usually with different par. with careful observa- operational definition a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define tion and rigorous analysis. people who report poorer self-images also score higher on a depression scale (FIGURE 1. There are too many facts about behavior to remember them all. present. the theory will be revised or intelligence may be operationally defined as rejected.” replication repeating the essence of a research study. confirm.” Example: Low self-esteem Then we could see whether. to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances. (2) Hypotheses Example: People with low self-esteem will score higher on a depression scale. They specify what results would support the theory and what results would dis- confirm it. By enabling us to test and to reject or revise the theory. FIGURE 1. and future in gloomy terms. a theory offers a useful summary. .14 | CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE theory an explanation using an integrated How Do Psychologists Ask and set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events. helps us organize countless depression- related observations into a short list of principles. for example. describe and explain human nature.2). often Psychologists arm their scientific attitude with the scientific method. case study an observation technique in however. Having theorized that depression lead to springs from low self-esteem. For example. If a theory works—if the data support its predictions—so research variables. So far so good: Our self-esteem principle neatly summarizes a long list of facts about people with depression. The Scientific Method ticipants in different situations. See if a low score on one predicts a high score on the other. hypothesized. 7: How do psychologists use the scientific method to construct theories? In everyday conversation. we may perceive depressed people’s neutral comments as self-disparaging.” In science. “what an intelligence test measures. If the predictions fail. A good theory of depression. we often use theory to mean “mere hunch. a coherent picture emerges. as we feeds depression. In its attempt to implied by a theory.

for example. psycholo- very revealing. the unrepresentative information can lead to mistaken judgments and false the puppet Ernie.” (2) “My friend dreamed his sister was in a car ac. and they are easily remembered. implying hypotheses that offer testable pre- esteem. younger: 95 percent of men over 85 are nonsmokers”) someone is sure to offer a contradictory anecdote (“Well. In the end.” Using these carefully worded statements. and experimental methods (which manipulate factors to discover their effects). If the individual being studied is trainer. correlational methods (which associate different factors). and this theory-driven conclusion then led to the preemptive U. often using case studies. Intensive case studies can be The case of the conversational chimpan- zee In case studies of chimpanzees. psychologist Herbert Terrace. after many successful replications with differing people and questions. 1954 cident. materials. and circumstances. Susan Kuklin/Photo Researchers The Case Study Among the oldest research methods. The Nature of Prejudice. organizing and linking observed facts. though more objectively and systematically. only 5 percent correctly envisioned the child as —Psychologist Gordon Allport. and (2) implies clear predictions that anyone can use to 1. but the plural of anecdote is not evidence. I have an uncle who smoked two packs a day and lived to be 89”). invasion of Iraq. for example. In everyday life. Much of our early knowledge about the brain. psychologists report their research with precise oper- ational definitions of procedures and concepts. CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE | 15 urge to see what we expect is an ever-present temptation. According to the bipartisan U. the case study examines one individual in depth in the hope of revealing things true of us all. might be de- fined as “hours without eating. often drawing conclusions about why they behave as they do. If they get similar results. came from case studies of individuals who suffered a particular impairment after damage to a certain brain region. in the laboratory and outside of it. tions as large as a tub. (If we boost people’s self. we need to recognize these meth- ods and know what conclusions they allow. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (2004). They show us what can happen. But is Nim really using lan- conclusions. As we will see next. sometimes. shows him atypical. what we know about depression.S. Here Nim Chimpsky signs hug as his But sometimes individual cases may mislead us.S. Description 8: How do psychologists observe and describe behavior? The starting point of any science is description. Dramatic stories and personal experiences (even psychological “Given a thimbleful of [dramatic] case examples) command our attention. Which of facts we rush to make generaliza- the following do you find more memorable? (1) “In one study of 1300 dream re. surveys. we can test our hypotheses and refine our theories using descriptive methods (which describe behaviors. preconceived expectations that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction led intelligence analysts to wrongly interpret ambiguous observations as confirming that theory. human. our research will probably lead to a dictions and. will their depression lift?) Eventually. confidence in the finding’s reliability grows. our theory will be useful if it (1) effectively organizes a range of self. The first study of hind- sight bias aroused psychologists’ curiosity. Good theories explain by reports and observations. To think critically about popular psychology claims. Now. and they often suggest directions for gists have asked whether language is uniquely further study.” generosity as “money contributed. 2.” ports concerning a kidnapped child. anytime a researcher mentions a finding (“Smokers die guage? We’ll explore that issue in Chapter 9. practical applica- revised theory (such as the one in Chapter 13) that better organizes and predicts tions. . check the theory or to derive practical applications. and two days later she died in a head-on collision!” Numbers can be numb- ing. we feel sure of the phenomenon’s power. dead (Murray & Wheeler. Indeed. other researchers can replicate (repeat) the original observations with different participants. Professional psychologists do much the same. or naturalistic observations). Hunger. 1937). As a check on their biases. all of us observe and describe people.

WORDING EFFECTS Even subtle changes in the order or wording of questions can have major effects. Should cigarette ads or pornography be allowed on television? People are much more likely to approve “not allowing” such things than “forbid- ding” or “censoring” them. about the same percentage oppose it (a generation gap found in many Western naturalistic observation observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring countries).to 29-year-olds support gay marriage. (Note: Except for national studies. in only 1500 randomly sampled people. But asking questions is tricky. they can fact. A survey asks people to re- drawn. we must answer questions with other research methods.” and of “revenue enhancers” than of “taxes. In Britain.141 letters in provide a remarkably accurate snapshot of the nation’s opinions. 1997 ).1 percent of the 3. Using percent of the letters in written English. port their behavior or opinions. quite reliable. only 27 percent of Americans approved of “government censorship” of media sex and violence. that 80 percent said the faltering economy was a significant source of stress. from which samples may be The survey method looks at many cases in less depth. control the situation. . is 12. Harris and Gallup polls have revealed that population. Given (a) a statistical summary of a professor’s student evaluations and (b) the vivid comments of two irate students.16 | CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE survey a technique for ascertaining the The point to remember: Individual cases can suggest fruitful ideas.901.3 percent of the 925. educational scribe? Usually. unhappy students as by the many favorable evaluations in the statistical summary. In one national survey. But to discern the general truths that particular group. think critically: Consider News. What’s true of self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a all of us can be glimpsed in any one of us. Without random Melville’s Moby Dick. E is estimated to represent 12. the temptation to generalize from a few memorable anecdotes or unrepresentative personal experiences is nearly irresistible. an adminis- trator’s impression of the professor may be influenced as much by the two Drawing by D. E. of the students at your college or university? How could you choose a smaller group that would represent “How would you like me to answer that question? the total student population. usually by questioning a cover individual cases. So how do you obtain a representative sample—say. Large representative samples are better than small ones. among those over 50. Inc. but a small representative sample of 100 is bet- With very large samples. there’s only one game in town—a representative sample. Fradon. you would choose a random sample. People are similarly much more approving of “affirmative action” than of “preferential treatment. © 1969 The New Yorker Magazine.747 letters in Dickens’ A Tale of Two polls—often merely give misleading results. though 66 percent approved of “more restrictions on what is shown on television” (Lacayo. The point to remember: For an accurate picture of a whole population’s attitudes and experience. population all the cases in a group being The Survey studied. random sample of the group. the whole group you want to study and de- As a member of my ethnic group. and 12. estimates become ter than an unrepresentative sample of 500. You cannot compensate for an unrepresentative sample by simply adding more people. income group. the sample. 12. has an equal chance of inclusion. RANDOM SAMPLING In everyday thinking. But it’s not always possible to survey everyone in a group. Cities. drawn from all areas of a country. that random sample a sample that fairly repre. 1995).” Because wording is such a delicate matter. You might number the names in the general student listing and then use a random number generator to pick the participants for your survey.4 percent of the sampling. in which every per- class. critical thinkers will reflect on how the phrasing of a question might affect people’s expressed opinions. and in late sents a population because each member 2008.) 89 percent of Americans favor equal job opportunities for homosexual people.021 letters in 12 of Mark Twain’s works (Chance The point to remember: Before accepting survey findings. seven in ten 18.7 Political pollsters sample voters in national election surveys just this way. Questions about everything from sexual practices to this does not refer to a country’s whole political opinions are put to the public. and the answers often depend on the ways situations without trying to manipulate and questions are worded and respondents are chosen. or religious category?” son in the entire group has an equal chance of participating. representative. 96 percent would like to change something about their appearance. large samples—including call-in phone samples and TV or Web site 586.

thus enabling the researchers to eavesdrop on more than 10. . picking a seat in a restaurant ing. Psychologists Andrew the wall of an ape colony came naturally to me. These natu- ralistic observations range from watching chimpanzee societies in the jungle. . “Observations. Here are three you might enjoy. Psychologists Matthias Mehl and James Pennebaker have used Electronically Activated Naturalistic observation offers interesting snapshots of everyday life.” Whiten and Richard Byrne (1988) re- peatedly saw one young baboon pretending to have been attacked by another as a tactic to get its mother to drive the other baboon away from its food. and emotion. People in colder climates An EAR for natural observation also tend to live at a faster pace (and are more prone to die from heart disease). . becoming a fly on using deception. (Their operational definition of pace of life included walking speed. antipathy— the natural habitat. I want to face as many tables ther expanded our understanding of our as possible. for ex- ample. really. the EARs captured 30 seconds of the students’ waking hours every 12. and we emit a series of 75-millisecond vowel-like sounds that are spaced about one-fifth of a second apart (Provine. (What percentage of your waking hours are spent in these activities?) • Culture. Since keeping track of Goodall (1998). On what percentage of the slices do you suppose they found the students talking with someone? What percentage captured the students at a computer keyboard? The answers: 28 and 9 percent. and the pace of life.5 min- utes. and slower paced in economically less-developed countries. It’s one thing ring slices of daily life. Then naturalistic observation revealed that chimpanzees sometimes insert a stick in A natural observer a termite mound and withdraw it. but it does Recorders (EARs) to sample naturally occur- so without controlling for all the factors that may influence behavior. tension. which I consider more far more complex than previously sup. and the accuracy of public clocks. Naturalistic observations also illuminate human behavior. When the way for later studies of animal think. 2001). • A funny finding.” noted chimpanzee observer Jane word. the speed with which postal clerks completed a simple request. 2004). eating Chimpanzee researcher Frans the stick’s load of termites. Nevertheless. For example. others is something I do auto- panzees and baboons have been observed matically. • Sounding out students. We humans laugh 30 times more often in social situations than in solitary situations. the more likely it is that the animals will display deceptive behaviors (Byrne & Corp. are introductory psychology students saying and doing during their everyday lives? To find out. chim. Naturalistic observation also enabled Robert Courtesy of Matthias Mehl Levine and Ara Norenzayan (1999) to compare the pace of life in 31 countries. 17 muscles contort our mouth and squeeze our eyes.) Their conclusion: Life is fastest paced in Japan and Western Europe. to unobtrusively videotaping (and later systematically analyzing) parent-child interac- tions in different cultures. Such unob. that only humans use tools. informative than the spoken posed. boredom. de Waal (2005) reports that “I Photo by Jack Kearse. Like case studies and surveys. . It describes it. language. We once thought. to recording racial differences in self-seating patterns in a student lunchroom. naturalistic observation does not explain behavior. Matthias Mehl and James Pennebaker (2003) equipped 52 such students from the University of Texas with belt-worn Electronically Activated Recorders (EARs). which fur. The more de- veloped a primate species’ brain. What. Emory University for Yerkes National Primate Research Center trusive naturalistic observations paved am a born observer.000 half- minute life slices by the end of the study. For up to four days. I enjoy following fellow animals. climate. made in the social dynamics—love. descriptions can be revealing. (Have you noticed how seldom you laugh when alone?) As we laugh. CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE | 17 Naturalistic Observation A third descriptive method records behavior in natural environments. helped to show that around me based on body lan- the societies and behavior of animals are guage.

Negative correlations could go as low as –1. the other decreases. coefficient is the mathematical expression of the relationship. 1998). which negative? (See the margin on the next page to check your answers. The more young children watch TV. the more likely they are to have sex (Collins et al. as in many others. 2008).. psychology’s correlations usually leave most of the varia- tion among individuals unpredicted. the less they read (Kaiser. Low self-esteem correlates with (or that balding men make better (and therefore predicts) depression. The point to remember: A correlation coefficient helps us see the world more clearly by revealing the extent to which two things relate. A negative correlation (between 0 and −1. like surveys.00. one set of scores goes down precisely as the other goes up. the lower their body mass index (Timlin et al. ranging from −1 to +1. mean- ing that two things increase together or decrease together. Does this mean that mar. some derived from surveys or natural observations. Surveys and naturalistic ob- servations often show us that one trait or behavior is related to another. But this does not mean that most abused children be- come abusive. but another to explain why some people vary together. Our earlier findings on self-esteem and de- pression illustrate a negative correlation: People who score low on self-esteem tend to score high on depression. 2004).) So. A statistical measure (the correlation coefficient) helps us figure how closely two things vary together. 4. and thus how well either one predicts the other. Knowing how much aptitude test scores correlate with school suc- cess tells us how well the scores predict school success. and why do they enable prediction but not cause-effect explanation? Describing behavior is a first step toward predicting it. Can you spot which are reporting positive correlations. but nonabused children are even less likely to become abusive. a third factor obvi- tion might be indicated by a correlation coefficient. The more sexual content teens see on TV. Yet naturalistic observation. 2003). depression rate. Correlations point us toward predictions. The more often adolescents eat breakfast.00) indicates a direct relationship. As we will see. A positive correlation (between 0 and +1.. 2. there is a positive correlation between parents’ abusiveness and their children’s later abusiveness when they become parents. ously explains the correlation: or just by a finding that people who score on the Golden anniversaries and baldness lower half of a self-esteem scale have an elevated both accompany aging. which means that. the greater their later academic achieve- ment (Horwood & Fergusson. The correlation simply indicates a statistical relationship: Most abused children do not grow into abusers. In such cases. 9: What are positive and negative correlations. 3. can provide data factor predicts the other. but usu- riage causes men to lose their hair ally imperfect ones. Here are four news reports of correlational research. Though informative.18 | CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE correlation the extent to which two factors to observe the pace of life in various places. illusory correlation the perception of a Correlation relationship where none exists. does low self-esteem cause de- .00) indicates an inverse relationship: As one thing increases.) 1. The correlation for correlational research. Correlation need not mean causation Length of marriage correlates positively with hair loss Correlation and Causation in men. (This correla- Big Cheese Photo LLC/Alamy husbands)? In this case. The longer children are breast-fed. we say the two correlate. and thus of how well either walk faster than others. like people on the opposite ends of a teeter-totter.

that getting chilled and wet causes us to Answers to correlation questions: 1. the less likely they are to behave in unhealthy ways—having early sex. we are less likely to note and remember the nonevent.3 Three possible cause-effect Low self-esteem (3) relationships People low in self-esteem are Distressing events could cause more likely to report depression than are those or biological and high in self-esteem. 1991). that sugar makes children hyperactive.” sive survey showing that “adolescents whose The point to remember: Correlation indicates the possibility of a cause-effect rela. parents smoked were 50 percent more likely tionship. a premonition of an unlikely phone call followed by the call. A nearly irresistible thinking error is assuming that an association proves causation.000 adolescents found that the more teens feel loved by their parents. “Well-behaved teens feel their parents’ love and ap. 1986). positive. 1997). association does not prove causation. “Adults have a powerful effect on their children’s behavior right through the high school years. negative. based on the correlational evidence. One possible explanation predisposition of this negative correlation is that a bad self- Depression image causes depressed feelings. Said differently (turn the volume up here). you assume that it does. We are especially likely to notice and re- member the occurrence of two dramatic or unusual events in sequence—say. A New York Times writer reported a mas- proval. pression? If. Illusory correlations help explain many superstitious beliefs.” gushed an Associated Press (AP) story report- ing the finding. A survey of over 12. But. the AP could as well have reported. This point is so important—so basic to thinking smarter with psychology—that it merits one more example. CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE | 19 (1) could cause Depression Low self-esteem or (2) could cause Low self-esteem Depression or FIGURE 1. positive. Thus. such as the pre- sumption that infertile couples who adopt become more likely to conceive (Gilovich. out-of-bounds teens more often think their parents are disapproving jerks. Knowing that two events are associated need than children of nonsmokers to report having had sex. you have much company. 2002).. abusing alcohol and drugs. But no matter how strong the relationship. other cause-effect relationships are possible. smoking. it does not prove any- thing! As options 2 and 3 in FIGURE 1. or if some third factor—such as heredity or brain chemistry—caused both low self-esteem and depression. Illusory thinking also helps explain why so many people believe 2.” He concluded (would you agree?) not tell us anything about causation. exhibiting violence (Resnick et al. Correlation coefficients make visible the relationships we might otherwise miss. They also restrain our “seeing” relationships that actually do not exist. we are likely to notice and recall instances that con- firm our belief (Trolier & Hamilton. that “to reduce the chances that their children will become sexually active at an early age” Illusory Correlations parents might “quit smoking” (O’Neil. . as the diagram indicates. When we believe there is a relationship between two things.3 show. negative. When the call does not follow the premonition. But this correlation comes with no built-in cause-effect arrow. Remember this principle and you will be wiser that the survey indicated a causal effect— as you read and hear news of scientific studies. we’d get the same negative correlation be- tween low self-esteem and depression if depression caused people to be down on themselves. but it does not prove causation. 4. 3. A perceived but nonexistent correlation is an illusory correlation.

and mutual fund stock Gallina were the beneficiaries of one of those pickers’ selections (Gilovich et al. T 27. with these results: 1. H 8. 20 | CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE catch a cold. Actually. Similar patterns Given enough random events.960.598. We are. which of the following sequences of heads (H) and tails (T) would be most likely: HHHTTT or HTTHTH or HHHHHH? Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky (1972) found that most people believe HTTHTH would be the most likely random sequence. H 23. H 29. A bridge or poker hand of 10 Bizarre-looking. you’re hot!”). and that changes in the weather trigger arthritis pain. Consider a random coin flip: If someone flipped a coin six times. it would be no more unlikely than any other number sequence. equally unlikely). some- thing weird will happen Angelo and Maria and streaks happen in basketball shooting. T 42. I flipped a coin 51 times. find it. H 37. whether they’re there or not. T 50. FIGURE 1. T 2. T Looking over the sequence. T 25. 2002). H 16. T 28. . H 33. But my fortunes immediately re- versed with a “hot hand”—seven heads out of the next nine tosses. The point to remember: When we notice random coincidences. T 31. T 21. H 49. Thus. Myers. H 22. T 18. H 17.” with only one head in eight tosses. T 35. T 36. perhaps. two California lottery games on the same day. H 11. H 51. actually. H 15. H 26. H 7. would seem extraordinary. patterns jump out: Tosses 10 to 22 provided an almost perfect pattern of pairs of tails followed by pairs of heads. Malkiel. T 40. we can easily deceive ourselves by seeing what is not there. But actually no more through ace. On tosses 30 to 38 I had a “cold hand. H 3. T 12. T 47. or less likely than any other specific hand of cards (FIGURE 1. T 13. T 14. because—here’s a curious fact of life—random sequences often don’t look ran- dom. H 39. all of hearts. H 5. 1985. patterns and streaks (such as repeating digits) occur more often than people expect. all three are equally likely (or.4 Two random sequences Your chances of being dealt either of these hands are precisely the same: 1 in 2. you might say. T 20. These extraordinary chance events when they won sequences often don’t look random and so are overinterpreted (“When you’re hot. T 41. T 48. T 24. T Jerry Telfer/San Francisco Chronicle 10. In actual random sequences. 1989. T 6. T 45. T 38. To demonstrate this phenomenon for myself (as you can do). H 30. prone to perceiving patterns.4). H 4. T 32. H 46. we may forget that they are random and instead see them as correlated. baseball hitting. 1995. T 9. T 34. T 19. And we usually © 1990 by Sidney Harris/American Scientist magazine. T 44. T 43. Perceiving Order in Random Events In our natural eagerness to make sense of our world—what poet Wallace Stevens called our “rage for order”—we look for order even in random data. it seems..

But the “breast is best” intelligence effect shrinks when researchers compare breast-fed and bottle-fed children from the same families (Der et al. said fellow statisticians Persi Diaconis and Frederick Mosteller one where nothing unusual (1989). newspapers reported Carey gained three new grandchildren when the odds of her feat as 1 in 17 trillion. Bizarre? Actually. 15. we struggle to conceive an ordinary. A phone survey a(n) a. For example. 14. and describe behavior? 15. Which of the following is NOT one of the d. some happenings seem so extraordinary that. 1 in 17 trillion are indeed three of their daughters gave birth—on the the odds that a given person who buys a single ticket for two New Jersey lotteries same day ( Los Angeles Times. the less 17. The predictions implied by a theory population. Mortensen et al. negative a. illusory certain country by questioning people c. d.” An happens. You wish to take an accurate poll in a b. Naturalistic observation pain medication they require during dreams predict future events. Therefore. This is an c. 2000 times a year. a basis for prediction. 17. “The really unusual day would be pot twice. Experimentation 10: How do experiments. reported statisticians Stephen Samuels and George McCabe (1989). a. someone would hit a state jack. any outrageous thing is likely to happen. cent females. operational definitions. Answers: 12. positive correlation. Comparing each toss to the next.” To isolate cause and effect. it was “practically a sure thing” that someday.” event that happens to but 1 in 1 billion people every day occurs about six times a —Statistician Persi Diaconis (2002) day.. d. a random sample of the population. remarked the Roman poet Virgil. Knowing that two events are correlated are called ensure that you question provides a. d. you need to 16. b. b. c. for these are the sorts of streaks found in any random data. replications. 2006). cause-effect relationship. And given the millions of people who buy U. b. naturalistic who truly represent the country’s adult d. a.. However. a very large sample of the population. Quinn et al. Correlational research childbirth. at least 50 percent males and 50 per. c. a. 2002. Utah’s Ernie and Lynn When Evelyn Marie Adams won the New Jersey lottery twice. d. an explanation of why the events are c.S. 2001.. 16. clarify cause and effect? Happy are they. 13. Statisticians are less mystified. proof that as one increases. Some people wrongly perceive that their b. mystified. c. 2001). an indication that an underlying third techniques psychologists use to observe factor is at work. A study finds that the more childbirth a. the outcome of one toss gives no clue to the outcome of the next. state lottery tickets. negative correlation. REHEARSE IT! 12. illusory correlation. b. Despite seem- ing patterns. 24 of the 50 comparisons yielded a changed result—just the sort of near 50-50 result we expect from coin tossing. also increases. . 2007). somewhere. c. the other c. will win both times. c. They have also found that breast-fed British babies have been more likely than their bottle-fed counterparts to eventually move into a higher social class (Martin et al. powered by random assignment. Indeed. “who have been able to perceive the causes of things.. 1998). hypotheses. A case study training classes women attend. chance-related explanation. CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE | 21 What explains these streaky patterns? Was I exercising some sort of paranormal control over my coin? Did I snap out of my tails funk and get in a heads groove? No such explanations are needed. correlations. On March 11. positive 14. b. population. psychologists can eliminate (or screen out) the influence of other factors that may account for the results they ob- serve. researchers have found that breast-fed infants grow up with somewhat higher intelligence scores than do infants bottle-fed with cow’s milk (Angelsen et al.. 1998. a small but intelligent sample of the related. 13. d. This finding can be stated as example of a(n) correlation. “with a large enough sample.

Similarly. the more “real” it seems: A fake pill that costs U. such as maternal age.. Experiments enable a to experimental and control groups by researcher to focus on the possible effects of one or more factors by (1) manipulat- chance. to know how effective a ther- apy really is. then we infer that the factor is having an (blind) about whether the research partici. And they have found dom assignment of participants. mother’s milk correlates modestly but positively with later menter aims to control other relevant factors. P. will it still work?” better than one costing 10 cents (Waber et al. blood-letting seemed effective: substance or condition. they are receiving. Our tendency to seek new remedies when we are ill or emotionally down can please”] effect experimental results caused produce misleading testimonies. an experiment manipulates a factor to determine its effect. curring relationships. a British research team randomly assigned 424 hospital ent groups. of course. Participants are often blind (uninformed) about what treatment. the The New Yorker Collection. now know that usually blood-letting is a bad treatment. neither the participants nor the research assistants collecting the data will know which group is receiving the treatment. nourished with breast milk had significantly higher intelligence scores than their that is. as some researchers believe. re- ceives a treatment (such as medication or other therapy). Researchers take these measures because. pants have received the treatment or a The point to remember: Unlike correlational studies. Latin for “I shall tion. This eliminated alternative explanations and supported the con- clusion that breast is indeed best for developing intelligence (at least for preterm double-blind procedure an experimental infants). effect. education. con- trasts with the experimental group and No single experiment is conclusive. All Rights Reserved. ing the factors of interest and (2) holding constant (controlling) other factors. inferred the disease was just too advanced to be reversed. And the more ex- pensive the placebo. On intelligence tests taken at age 8. how we might use this method to assess a therapeutic interven- placebo [pluh-SEE-bo. depression. they must control for a possible placebo effect—results created by the participants’ belief in a treatment’s healing powers or the staff’s enthusiasm for its potential. variable. the experi- that in infant nutrition. any effect on behav. milk feedings (Lucas et al. does this mean that smarter mothers (who in modern countries more often an investigator manipulates one or more breast-feed) have smarter children? Or. preterm infants either to standard infant formula feedings or to donated breast- experimental group in an experiment. intelligence. and anxiety (Kirsch & Sapirstein. Vey from cartoonbank. we must experiment. The other group. By ran. . evaluation studies. do the nutri- factors (independent variables) to observe ents of mother’s milk contribute to brain development? To help answer this ques- the effect on some behavior or mental tion. 1992). 2008). tablets and find our cold symptoms lessening. But by randomly assigning infants serves as a comparison for evaluating the to one feeding group or the other. researchers have controlled for (statistically removed differences in) certain process (the dependent variable). researchers were able to hold constant all factors effect of the treatment. Consider. Correlational research cannot control for all possible influences on a result. Just thinking you are getting a treatment can boost your spirits. And that is precisely how investigators evaluate new drug treatments and new methods of psychological therapy (Chapter 14). and relieve your symptoms. if any.S. enthusiastic users will probably endorse it. the experimental group. we may credit the pills rather than ior caused by the administration of an inert the cold naturally subsiding. then. control group in an experiment. (We. Participants in these studies are randomly assigned to research groups. 22 | CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE experiment a research method in which So. receives a pseudotreatment—an inert placebo (perhaps a pill with no drug in it). If a behavior (such as test performance) changes when we vary an experi- procedure in which both the research par- ticipants and the research staff are ignorant mental factor (such as infant nutrition). If three days into a cold we start taking vitamin C by expectations alone. in the Whether a remedy is truly effective or not. But random assignment assigning participants researchers can isolate cause and effect with an experiment. When they didn’t. C. relax your body. of course. To find out whether it actually is effective. The placebo effect is well documented in reducing pain.50 works “If I don’t think it’s going to work. control group. Commonly used in drug.$2. the practitioner assumes is an active agent. thus minimizing preexisting differ. 2007. the children the group that is exposed to the treatment. If the study is using a double-blind procedure. except nutrition. and income. which uncover naturally oc- placebo. the group Random Assignment that is not exposed to the treatment. One group. 1998).. which the recipient People sometimes improved after the treatment. other factors. With ences between those assigned to the differ- parental permission. to one version of the independent formula-fed counterparts.

A variable is anything that can vary (infant nutrition. Experiments whose effect is being studied. dom assignment in experiments (depicted in acteristic. TV factor that is manipulated. 1998). aim to manipulate an independent variable. Viagra worked. One trial was an experiment in which researchers randomly assigned 329 men with erectile dysfunction to either an experimental group (Viagra takers) or a control group (placebo takers). We call this experimental factor the independent variable because we can vary it independently of other factors. Experiments examine the ef- fect of one or more independent variables on some measurable behavior. An experiment has at the variable that may change in response to least two different groups: an experimental group and a comparison or control group. The result: At peak doses. “Patrick McDougall. The dependent variable. was the positive response rate.. we can experiment: If an inter- vention is welcomed but resources are scarce. Independent and Dependent Variables 11: What are independent and dependent variables. Random pling in surveys (discussed earlier) and ran- assignment roughly equalizes the two groups in age. CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE | 23 By randomly assigning people to the experimental and control conditions. 89 percent. respectively. compared with 22 percent for men receiving the placebo (Goldstein et al. which the (See the answers in margin to the right) Experiments can also help us evaluate social programs. neither the men nor the person who gave them the pills knew which drug they were receiving. which Jackson” received. which helps us infer cause and effect. Instead. and how do they differ? Here is an even more potent example of a double-blind experiment: The drug Viagra was approved for use after 21 clinical trials. Adrian Carpusor and William Loges (2006) sent identically worded e-mail inquiries to 1115 Los Angeles-area landlords. independent variable the experimental Let’s recap. manipulations of the independent variable. Note the distinction between random sam- searchers can be fairly certain the two groups are otherwise identical. and control (minimize the possible effects of) all other variables. extraneous influences. If later the two groups differ.5 on the next page).” “Said Al-Rahman. was the ethnicity- In this experiment. Random assignment controls experimental and control groups will usually be the result of the treatment. however. For example. such as the men’s age. measure changes in the dependent variable. 1993). 69 percent of Viagra-assisted attempts at intercourse were successful. we could use a lottery to randomly assign some people (or regions) to experience the new program and others to a con- trol group. Random sampling helps us generalize to a larger pop- experiment. and every other char. what was the independent variable? The dependent variable? The independent variable. we cannot randomly assign children to be raised by spanking or non- spanking parents. as occurred with the infants in the breast-milk Figure 1. Let’s pause to check your understanding using a simple psychology experiment: To test the effect of perceived ethnicity on the availability of a rental house. . experiments are not feasible or ethical. intelligence. The researchers varied the ethnic connotation of the sender’s name and tracked the percentage of positive replies (invitations to view they measured. weight. This simple experiment manipulated just one factor: the drug dosage (none ver- sus peak dose). we correlate parental spanking amounts with children’s behavior. the apartment in person). which specify the procedures that manipulate the independent variable (the precise drug dosage and timing in this study) or measure the dependent variable (the questions that assessed the men’s responses). 66 percent. researchers manipulated. Both variables are given precise operational definitions. Do early childhood edu- cation programs boost impoverished children’s chances for success? What are the effects of different anti-smoking campaigns? Do school sex-education programs re- duce teen pregnancies? To answer such questions. These definitions answer the “What do you mean?” question with a level of precision that enables others to repeat the study. and 56 percent invitations. the variable exposure—anything within the bounds of what is feasible and ethical). With random assignment. dependent variable the outcome factor. called the dependent variable because it can vary depending on what takes place during the experiment. the intervention’s effect will be confirmed (Passell.” and “Tyrell related names. we also can conclude that any later differences between people in the ulation. and per- sonality (which random assignment should control). re. In this double-blind procedure. Sometimes. attitudes.

In one group she varies d. Descriptive and correlational studies b. take a placebo. placebo. In the level of noise in the environment 19. Intelligence ©Mochael Wertz Control Formula score. surveys. independent variable. ation. A double-blind procedure is often used to noise level affects the blood pressure of c. c.2 Comparing Research Methods Research Method Basic Purpose How Conducted What Is Manipulated Weaknesses Descriptive To observe and record Do case studies. the level of noise to control and experimental groups. sometimes among effect to assess how well one survey responses variable predicts another Experimental To explore cause and Manipulate one or more The independent Sometimes not feasible. Participants in the experimental group group. age 8 TABLE 1. income. 19. 20. single behavior or naturalistic observations cases may be misleading Correlational To detect naturally Compute statistical associ. not ethical to manipulate certain variables REHEARSE IT! 18. case studies. psychologists may randomly assign Group variable variable some participants to an experimental group. b. 21. 21. they are in the control group or the is the Those in the experimental group take a experimental group. we randomly assign people a. mental group or control group. experimental and control group mem. age 8 childhood) will determine the effect of the independent variable (type of milk). c. someone separate from the researcher describe behavior. statement is true? c. Nothing Does not specify cause and occurring relationships.2 compares the features of psychology’s research methods. those in the control group take a pink bers will be carefully matched for age. TABLE 1. ing the outcome of an experiment. depression. 20. Participants in the control group take will ask people to volunteer for the and predict behavior.5 illustrates the breast-milk experiment’s design. The medication is the dependent researchers know who is in the experi- variable. detect relationships. prevent researchers’ biases from influenc. effect factors. only the participants know whether In this experiment. naturalistic observation. Random assignment (controlling for other variables such as parental intelligence and environment) FIGURE 1. To test the effect of a new drug on this procedure. Depression is the independent variable. But to explain a placebo.) In this way. c. a.5 Experimentation To discern Independent Dependent causation. psychologists use d. c. pink pill containing the new medication. d. Nothing No control of variables. d. (FIGURE 1. and records participants’ blood pressure. an experiment tests the effect of at least one independent variable (what we manipulate) on at least one dependent variable (the outcome we measure). control condition. b. dependent variable.24 | CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Random assignment works to equate the groups before any treatment effects. Which sex. elderly people. d. neither the participants nor the a. a. b. experimental group or the control behaviors. use random variable(s) results may not generalize to assignment other contexts. Measuring the Intelligence Experimental Breast milk dependent variable (intelligence score in later score. experiments. and education level. pill that contains no medication. A researcher wants to determine whether b. Answers: 18. surveys. . others to a control group.

sexually explicit film. And ers everywhere typically greet them with many investigations show that principles derived in the laboratory do typically gen. tion to the next. Supporters of newly elected lead- in the dark). does an aroused man’s increased willingness to push buttons that he thinks will electrically shock a woman really say anything about whether violent pornography makes a man more likely to abuse a woman? Before you answer. It is the resulting principles—not the specific findings—that help explain everyday behaviors. much more. We have seen people and transmitted from one genera- how case studies. 13: Does behavior depend on one’s culture and gender? What can psychological studies done in one time and place. our tendency to be casual or formal. 1999). Given the growing mixing and clashing of cultures. A cultured greeting Because culture When psychologists apply laboratory research on aggression to actual violence. Our culture shapes our behavior. which indicates how well one thing predicts another. actions that seem ordinary to us refined through many experiments. that we apply to more complex behaviors such as night flying. and much. We have examined the logic that underlies experiments. principles they have behavior. do you ever wonder whether people’s behavior in the lab will predict their behavior in real life? For example. Here The point to remember: Psychologists’ concerns lie less with particular behaviors influential and popular politician Sonia than with the general principles that help explain many behaviors. really tell us about peo- ple in general? As we will see time and again. our conversational distance. . culture—shared ideas and behaviors that one generation passes on to the next—matters. as in India. does detecting the blink of a faint red light in a dark room have anything useful to say about flying a plane at night? After viewing a violent. We have also noted that correlational studies assess the association between two fac- tors. 12: Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life? When you see or hear about psychological research. 1983). our need for such awareness is urgent. developed from experiments in artificial settings (such as looking at red lights similarities. though not necessarily eralize to the everyday world (Anderson et al. Just as a wind tunnel lets airplane designers re-create airflow forces under controlled conditions. let’s entertain some frequently asked questions. with bows and folded hands.. deciding whether to push a button that delivers a shock may not be the same as slapping someone in the face. Similarly. but the principle is the same. and naturalistic observations help us describe behavior. In aggression studies. Yet underlying these differences are powerful tem. Being aware of such differences. CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE | 25 Frequently Asked Questions About Psychology culture the enduring behaviors. Gandhi greeted some of her constituents shortly after her election. pleased deference. and traditions shared by a group of We have reflected on how a scientific approach can restrain biases. may seem quite odd to visitors from far away. we can restrain our as- Ami Vitale/Getty Images sumptions that others will think and act as we do. it is the principles of the visual sys. which use control conditions and random assign- ment of participants to isolate the effects of an independent variable on a depend- ent variable. often with White Europeans or North Americans. It influences our standards of promptness and frankness. you may still be approaching psychology with a mixture of curiosity and apprehension. surveys. shapes people’s understanding of social they are applying theoretical principles of aggressive behavior. our attitudes toward premarital sex and varying body shapes. even knowing this much. So before we plunge in. Yet. An experiment’s purpose is not to re-create the exact behaviors of everyday life but to test theoretical principles (Mook. our will- ingness to make eye contact. consider: The experimenter intends the laboratory environ- ment to be a simplified reality—one that simulates and controls important features of everyday life. a laboratory experiment lets psychologists re-create psychological forces under controlled conditions. atti- tudes. ideas.

—Confucius. We experience the same sensations of light and sound. in how we express and detect emotions. that our shared biological heritage unites us as a univer- sal human family. and eating disorders. For example.C. low self-esteem. The same underlying processes guide people everywhere: • People diagnosed with dyslexia. and immoral. But re- searchers remind us that the animals used worldwide each year in research are but a fraction of 1 percent of the billions of animals killed annually for food. But across cultures. The simplicity of the sea slug’s nervous system is precisely what makes it so revealing of the neural mechanisms of learning. and fear. Whether female or male. 14: Why do psychologists study animals. Researchers report gender differences in what we dream. that can relieve animal and human Some animal protection organizations want to replace experiments on animals suffering is profoundly inhuman. psychologically as well as biologically.. our human kinship and our diversity. women and men are over- whelmingly similar. Rokach et al. think.” of hunger. and studying them is potentially beneficial. depression. Many animal researchers respond that this is not a cruel. and medical research. “I believe that to prevent. And yearly. or for every dog or cat used in an experiment and cared for under humane regulations. We feel the same pangs habits differ.. But again. Yet all lan- guages share deep principles of grammar. and like no other. 2001). We are each in certain respects like all others. but the same processes by which we learn are present in rats. and people from opposite hemi- spheres can communicate with a smile or a frown. loneliness is magnified by shyness. then should we not respect them? “We cannot defend our scientific work with animals on the basis of the simi- larities between them and ourselves and then defend it morally on the basis of dif- ferences. biological. We exhibit similar overall intelligence and well-being.” question of good versus evil but of compassion for animals versus compassion for —Psychologist Neal Miller. and even sea slugs. we are animals and our physiology resembles that except that they are not stupid of many other species. 2002 plants to replace defective organs. The animal protection movement protests the use of animals in psychological. trans- —Dave Barry. as they often do. monkeys. French. If we share important similarities with other animals. cripple. 551–479 B.E. exhibit the same brain mal- function whether they are Italian. 2002). and being unmarried (Jones et al. • Variation in languages may impede communication across cultures. by doing experiments permissible only with animals. and in our risk for alcohol dependence. only their age. 1983 people. Studying people of all races and cultures helps us discern our similarities and our differences. or British (Paulesu et al. and behave. 1999). 1985. Humans are complex.. needlessly complicate the research 50 others are killed in humane animal shelters (Goodwin & Morrison. too. 1990). July 2. desire. Gender differ- ences fascinate us.26 | CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE It is also true. The point to remember: Even when specific attitudes and behaviors vary by gender or across cultures. vaccines to prevent polio and rabies. . • People in different cultures vary in feelings of loneliness. You will see throughout this book that gender matters. and is it ethical to experiment on animals? Many psychologists study animals because they find them fascinating. They want to understand how different species learn. “Rats are very similar to humans We humans are not like animals. with naturalistic observation. Knowing this difference can help us prevent conflicts and misunderstandings in everyday relationships. Psychologists also study animals to learn about people.” human diseases—insulin for diabetes. we learn to walk at about the same “All people are the same. many researchers believe that women carry on conversations more readily to build rela- tionships. however. Animal experiments have therefore led to treatments for enough to purchase lottery tickets.” noted Roger Ulrich (1991). and that men talk more to give information and advice (Tannen. the underlying processes are much the same. like some others. a reading disorder.

By revealing our behavioral kinship with animals and the re- markable intelligence of chimpanzees. The basic one is whether it is right “Please do not forget those of us to place the well-being of humans above that of animals. which caused some dogs to suffer but led to a vaccine that spared not only millions of people but also millions of dogs from an agonizing death. a psychology concerned for humans and sensitive to animals serves the welfare of both. and cats. the second issue is. these goril- controlling violent behavior or studying mood swings.” primates. by measuring stress hormone levels in samples of millions of dogs brought each year to animal shelters. 2000). For example. British Psy- chological Society guidelines call for housing animals under reasonably natural living conditions. and other animals. treated. and 74 percent in favor of regulations providing for the —Proverbs 12:10 humane care of rats and mice (Plous & Herzog. illness. but Thanks partly to research on the benefits of only when they believe it is essential to a justifiable end. 2004) have developed ethical principles to guide investigators. they now work for their supper (Stewart. gorillas. and pain. because pain and stress would judged by the way its animals are distort the animals’ behavior during experiments. predictions. such as understanding and novelty. about 60 percent of adults deem medical testing on animals “morally acceptable. Many professional associa- tions and funding agencies already have such guidelines. . you may be relieved to know that in most psychological studies. most universities today screen re- search proposals through an ethics committee that safeguards the well-being of every participant. the British Psychological So- ciety (1993). CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE | 27 Out of this heated debate. The American Psychological Association (1992). (3) keeping information about individual participants confidential. American Psy- chological Association (2002) guidelines mandate ensuring the “comfort. New York’s Bronx Zoo. (2) protecting participants from harm and discomfort. If we give human life first priority. es- pecially those with human participants. and humane treatment” of animals and minimizing “infection. re- searchers devised handling and stroking methods that reduce stress and ease the dogs’ transition to adoptive homes (Tuber et al. Animal research benefiting animals Occasionally. One famous example —Mahatma Gandhi. More recently. dogs. In Gallup surveys in Canada and the United States.” “The greatness of a nation can be Humane care also leads to more effective science. is it right that mice get tumors in the hope that people might not? or disabilities who hope for a cure Should some monkeys be exposed to an HIV-like virus in the search for an AIDS through research that requires the vaccine? Is our use and consumption of other animals as natural as the behavior of use of animals. Moreover. They include (1) obtaining potential partici- pants’ informed consent.” carnivorous hawks. 2000). Wanting to be helpful. At its best. flashing words. —Psychologist Dennis Feeney (1987) ture. 1869–1948 was Louis Pasteur’s experiments with rabies. control. researchers do temporarily stress or deceive people. and whales? The answers to such questions vary by cul.” Animals have themselves benefited from animal research. with 98 percent or more in favor of government regulations protecting their animals. 15: Is it ethical to experiment on people? Ami Vitale/Getty Images If the image of researchers delivering supposed electric shocks troubles you. health. though. Other studies have helped improve care and management in animals’ natural habitats. two issues emerge. Such experiments wouldn’t las are enjoying an improved quality of life in work if the participants knew all there was to know about the experiment before. and (4) fully explaining the research afterward. with companions for social animals (Lea. As they would in the hand. 2003). What safeguards should protect the well-being of animals in research? One survey of animal researchers gave “The righteous know the needs of an answer. exper- iments have also led to increased empathy and protection for them. 2002). and stimulation. only 37 percent do (Mason. and pleasant social interactions are more common.. In experiments on stress who suffer from incurable diseases and cancer.” In Britain. 1999). cats. blinking lights. and psychologists internationally (Pettifor. the participants might try to confirm the researcher’s wild.

Should we study worker productivity or worker morale? Sex discrimination or gender differences? Conformity or independence? Values can also color “the facts. mighty important ones. variations”? In psychology or in everyday (From Shepard. Every day. 1998). Psychology speaks to many of our world’s great problems— Psychology speaks In making its historic 1954 school desegre- war. say psychology’s defenders. Psychology is value-laden. one of the newer developments in this that. Did you see a duck or a (FIGURE 1. how to achieve mind free from bias.6 What do you see? People interpret ambiguous earlier. If you defer to approach any human problem with a “professional” guidance about how to live—how to raise children. Our labeling someone as firm or stubborn. Researchers’ values influence their choice of top- ics. Is it also dangerously powerful. Although psychology does indeed have the power to deceive. One person’s faith is another’s fanati- cism. and how we interpret results. but it speaks to some Black prejudice. 16: Is psychology free of value judgments? Psychology is definitely not value-free.28 | CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE The ideal is for a researcher to be sufficiently informative and considerate that participants will leave feeling at least as good about themselves as when they came in. family gation decision. overpopulation. bias our observations and interpretations ceptions. Might psychology. Kimmel. careful or picky. Indeed. 1990. One person’s rigidity is another’s consistency. how we study it. cre- ativity. as some people worry? Is it an accident that astronomy is the oldest science and psychology the youngest? To some people. they should be repaid by having learned something. most participants enjoy or accept their engagement (Epley & Huff. how to get ahead at work—you are —Simone de Beauvoir. most African-American children ploring and promoting human strengths. Are the sex acts © Roger Shepard they can see the duck lying on its we do not practice “perversions” or “sexual back (or the bunny in the grass). be used to manipulate people? Knowledge. And as you will Clark (1947). but it cannot decide what those goals should be. Nuclear power has been used to light up cities—and to demolish them. Psychology also speaks to and research of psychologists our deepest longings—for nourishment. and compassion. chose the White doll. Office of Public Affairs at Columbia University Kenneth Clark and Mamie Phipps for love. when given a choice field—positive psychology—has as its goal ex- between Black and White dolls. what we want or expect to see can information to fit their precon. A science of behavior and mental processes can cer- tainly help us reach our goals. can be used for good or evil. what to do with sexual feelings. 1998. rabbit? Before showing some Even the words we use to describe some- friends this image.” As we noted FIGURE 1. Persuasive power has been used to educate people—and to deceive them. discreet or secretive reveals our feelings. Values affect what we study. which seem. The Second Sex. The Clarks reported see.6). the U. prejudice. If treated respect- fully.” self-fulfillment. for happiness.) speech. 1953 accepting value-laden advice. crime—all of which involve attitudes Court cited the expert testimony and behaviors. Supreme crises. Psychology cannot address all of life’s ingly indicated internalized anti. exploring the external universe seems far safer than exploring our own inner universe. psychologists are exploring ways to enhance learning. labels describe and labels evaluate. its purpose is to enlighten.S. “It is doubtless impossible to Popular applications of psychology also contain hidden values. like all power. Better yet. they ask. professors provoke much greater anxiety by giving and returning course exams than do researchers in the typical experiment. great questions. . ask them if thing can reflect our values.

then glancing back over what you can’t recall. 24. a. read only as much of the chapter (usually a single main section) as you can absorb without tiring. d. all of these statements are correct. Both similarities and differences b. • As you prepare to read each section. 1970). weigh any similarities. psychologists have noted day life. you might have asked. and then review and rehearse it again. As you will see in Chapter 8. Which of the following is true regarding is difficult to make meaningful com. Despite some gender differences. Gender differences are so numerous. Rehearse. Question. psychologists have gained insights into brain and mind. Although many of life’s significant questions are beyond psy- chology. re-create psychological forces under underlying processes of human behav. c. exactly re-create the events of every. facilitate your use of the SQ3R study system. Take notes. Countless ex- periments reveal that people learn and remember best when they put material in their own words. animals’ physiology and behavior can controlled conditions. Your mind is not like your stomach. CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE | 29 REHEARSE IT! 22. b. Your study of psychology can also help teach you how to ask and answer important questions—how to think critically as you evaluate compet- ing ideas and claims. rehearse in your own words what you have read. • To study a chapter. b. rehearse. “How can I most effectively and efficiently master the infor- mation in this book?” • Then read. gender differences and similarities? parisons. advancing the well-being of humans humans in psychological research. create opportunities for naturalistic c. something to be filled passively. by renewing our sense of mystery about “things too wonderful” for us yet to understand. Read. to master information you must actively process it. and quickly review the whole chapter. the that b. depression and joy. Answers : 22. Rehearse. use its heading or numbered Preview Question to form your own question to answer as you read. Read actively and critically. Scan the headings. SQ3R a study method incorporating five Survey. Test yourself by trying to answer your question. d. In defending their experimental research a. The SQ3R study method incorporates these principles (Robinson. c. 23. animal experimentation sometimes observation. rehearse it. Ask questions. 24. tell us much about our own. it justifies animal experimentation. • Finally. read. Through painstaking research. At each sitting. Review. Consider implications: How does what you’ve read relate to your own life? Does it support or challenge your assumptions? How convincing is the evidence? • Having read a section. I have organized this book’s chapters to steps: Survey. review. review: Read over any notes you have taken. between the genders depend more on helps animals as well as humans. minimize the use of animals and biology than on environment. d. Read. rehearsing what you can recall. The laboratory environment is designed to a. again with an eye on the chapter’s organization. dreams and memories. taking a bird’s-eye view. Each chapter begins with a chapter Review. some very important ones are illuminated by even a first psychology course. Differences between the genders out. Question. SQ3R is an acronym for its five steps: Survey. actively searching for the answer to your question. and notice how the chapter is organized. For this section. first survey. Even the unanswered ques- tions can enrich us. question. ior are the same. . with animals. b. d Tips for Studying Psychology 17: How can psychological principles help you as a student? The investment you are making in studying psychology should enrich your life and enlarge your vision. Having your life enriched and your vision enlarged (and getting a decent grade) requires effective study. it is more like a muscle that grows stronger with exercise. 23.

30 | CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE outline that aids your survey. recalling what you know to complete the sentence. If a test contains both multiple-choice questions and an essay question. Read the question carefully.” Overlearn. (As you do so. you will retain your new knowledge long into the future. Then read the answers on the test and find the alternative that best matches your own answer. rather than try- ing to read an entire chapter in a single sitting. and the list of key terms helps you check your mastery of important concepts. Whether you are reading or in class. For example. In class. and act. proofread your answer to eliminate spelling and grammat- ical errors that make you look less competent than you are. you will learn much more than effective study tech- niques. but by devoting extra study time to testing yourself and reviewing what you think you know. Straub explains time management in the helpful Study Guide that accompanies this text. . We are prone to overestimating how much we know. and the most patient of teachers. Is it anecdotal? Correlational? Experimental? Assess conclusions. pencil in a list of points you’d like to make and then organize them. Write them down. Instead. One of psychology’s oldest findings is that spaced practice—perhaps one hour a day. Five additional study tips may further boost your learning: Distribute your study time. rethink your answer. feel. The material is organized into sections of readable length. process the information actively and you will understand and retain it better. First cover the answers and form a sentence in your mind. As educator Charles Eliot said a century ago: “Books are the quietest and most constant of friends. Headings and numbered Preview Questions suggest is- sues and concepts you should consider as you read. there are Rehearse It ques- tions that help you test and rehearse what you’ve learned before moving on. noting exactly what the instructor is asking. What perspective or bias underlies an argument? Evaluate evi- dence. . Sometimes the objective questions will bring pertinent thoughts to mind. think. . Be a smart test-taker. six days a week—promotes better retention than massed practice—cramming it into one long study blitz.) Then reread the essay question. The answers to the Pre- view Questions help you review the chapter’s essentials. By so doing it can indeed enrich our lives and enlarge our vision. and more Test for Success exercises follow at the chapter’s end.) Learn to think critically. as in your private study. turn first to the essay. As psychologist William James urged a century ago. Ask questions during and after class. listen actively. Are there alternative explanations? (Use the Test for Success: Critical Thinking Exercises at the end of each chapter to build your critical thinking skills as you check your un- derstanding of the chapter’s main concepts. On the back of a page. . While exploring psychology. note people’s as- sumptions and values. try to answer each question as if it were a fill-in-the- blank question. your mind may continue to mull over the essay question.” . read just one main section and then turn to something else. no impression without . don’t confuse yourself by trying to imagine how each choice might be the right one. Spacing your study sessions requires a disciplined approach to managing your time. Through this book I hope to help guide you toward that end. At the end of main sections. You may under- stand a chapter as you read it. When you finish. (Richard O. Listen for the main ideas and subideas of a lecture. Before writing. and start writing. put aside the essay and work through the multiple-choice questions. “No reception without reaction. Psychology deepens our appreciation for how we humans perceive. expression. question. Survey. When reading multiple- choice questions. read .) In class.

Random assignment minimizes preexisting ly to our bias to seek information that confirms them. and social-cultural levels of analysis. but we are prone to hindsight clarify cause and effect? bias (the “I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon”).” In the 1920s. cognitive. personality. Patterns or sequences occur naturally in sets of random data. Illusory correlations are random events that we notice and falsely assume are related. bility of a cause-effect relationship. and. validate and refine the interaction of genes and experiences in specific environments. samples are a better guide than vivid anecdotes. everyday life as critical thinking. and natura- tionary. Today’s science emphasizes procedures. The biopsychosocial approach integrates information from the bio- logical. for example. The field’s early open-minded humility before nature. trolling other factors. we can then place greater con- perspectives? fidence in the conclusion. 4 What are some of psychology’s subfields? 9 What are positive and negative correlations. sometimes. In generalizing from observations. manipulating one or more factors of interest and con- We also are routinely overconfident of our judgments. cerns hidden values. but as medical doctors. relation (ranging from 0 to −1. do applied research. experiments. Counseling psychologists and clini. the theory. Common sense often serves us well. thanks part. they may tion of the influence. listic observations. a tendency to To discover cause-effect relationships. scientific inquiry ment) and the control group (given a placebo or different version of can help us sift reality from illusion and restrain the biases of our the treatment). Our tendency to interpret these patterns as meaningful connections may be an attempt to Why Do Psychology? make sense of the world around us.00) indicates a direct social psychology).” How Do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions? 7 How do psychologists use the scientific method 2 What is psychology’s historic big issue? to construct theories? Psychology’s biggest and most enduring concern has been the Psychological theories organize observations and imply predictive nature-nurture issue. which examines assumptions. but it does not prove the direc- and treat people with disorders. Psychiatrists also study. explain the correlation. assess. After constructing precise operational definitions of their the influences of genes and experience. surveys among random samples of a population. powered by random assignment. A negative cor- psychologists. indicates an inverse relation- cal psychologists practice psychology as a helping profession. or whether an underlying third factor may prescribe drugs in addition to psychotherapy. and A positive correlation (ranging from 0 to +1. to the test helps us win- ic study of observable behavior. Putting ideas. and treat (with psychotherapy) (sometimes stated as a correlation coefficient) indicates the possi- people with psychological disorders. evolu. Although differences between the experimental group (exposed to the treat- limited by the testable questions it can address. ship: As one item increases. the controversy over the relative contributions of hypotheses. the other decreases. Studies may use a double-blind procedure to avoid a unaided intuition. and assesses outcomes. behavior genetics. psychology has been widely defined as the “science of behavior and mental processes. placebo effect and researchers’ bias.00). researchers test their hypotheses. assess. eagerness to (2) skeptically scrutinize competing ideas and (3) an launched by Wilhelm Wundt and his students. the 1960s. and why do they enable prediction but not cause-effect explanation? Some psychologists specialize in basic research (often in the sub- fields of biological. psychodynamic. studies. industrial-organizational relationship: Two factors rise or decrease together. after learning an outcome. 8 How do psychologists observe and describe behavior? Psychologists study human behaviors and mental processes from Psychologists observe and describe behavior using individual case many different perspectives (including the neuroscience. behavioral. 5 Why are the answers that flow from the scientific approach more reliable than those based on intuition and common sense? 10 How do experiments. An association Clinical psychologists study.CHAPTER REVIEW Thinking Critically With Psychological Science What Is Psychology? 6 What attitudes characterize scientific inquiry. even crazy-sounding ideas. developmental. 31 . and what 1 What are some important milestones in the development of does it mean to think critically? the science of psychology? The three components of the scientific attitude are (1) a curious Psychological science’s first laboratory appeared in 1879. cognitive. Others. representative and social-cultural). that we would have foreseen it. under the influence of the behaviorists.” After the cognitive revolution in now sense from nonsense. it evolved into the “scientif. If other researchers obtain similar results by replicating the study with dif- 3 What are psychology’s levels of analysis and related ferent participants and conditions. suggest practical applications. evaluates evidence. psychological. dis- Psychology began as a “science of mental life. psychologists conduct believe. This attitude carries into scholars came from several disciplines and many countries.

22 biopsychosocial approach. 4 critical thinking. p. Tips for Studying Psychology 14 Why do psychologists study animals. Applications of psychology’s principles have been principles vary much less because of our human kinship. p. Alcohol use is associated with violence. but the underlying fessional advice. 16 culture.32 | CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 11 What are independent and dependent variables. p. and their pro- Attitudes and behaviors vary across cultures. p. p. 8 naturalistic observation. p. active study. artificial environment in the participants. 18 Test for Success: Critical Thinking Exercises By Amy Himsel. p. p.) . 6 replication. tations drawn by journalists. 16 dependent variable. Professional ethical standards provide 12 Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life? guidelines concerning the treatment of both human and animal By intentionally creating a controlled. p. (One interpreta- tion: Drinking triggers or unleashes aggressive behavior. p. their labels for behavior. p. Here are some recently reported correlations. p. gender differences tend to capture attention. has clarified cause and effect in each case. p. 14 experimental group. p. with interpre- means. 8 population. p. 25 clinical psychology. 8 survey. Under ethical and legal research. 22 levels of analysis. 16 independent variable. p. The SQ3R study method—survey. p. question. 15 double-blind procedure. 29 psychiatry. Although used mainly in the service of humanity. Terms and Concepts to Remember behaviorism. p. p. p. 16 Is psychology free of value judgments? Psychologists’ values influence their choice of research topics. their 13 Does behavior depend on one’s culture and gender? theories and observations. and review—applies the principles derived from this psychological processes shared by humans. p. p. p. 19 humanistic psychology. 6 case study. 22 basic research. can you come up with other help you evaluate claims in the media. p. 15 placebo effect. 8 correlation. 15 control group. 2. 17 SQ3R. 5 operational definition. p. 22 psychology. and is it ethical to 17 How can psychological principles help you as a student? experiment on animals? Research has shown that learning and memory are enhanced by Some psychologists are primarily interested in animal behavior. These general principles help explain everyday behaviors. researchers aim to test theoretical principles. Others study animals to better understand the physiological and rehearse. even if you’re not a possible explanations for each of these? scientific expert on the issue? a. animals used in experiments rarely experience pain. p. animal rights groups raise an important issue: Even if it leads to the relief of human suffering. 23 counseling psychology. 22 nature-nurture issue. it is important to remember our greater gender similarities. p. often includ- ing experiments. 4 theory. 22 applied research. p. p. 10 illusory correlation. p. 4 hindsight bias. p. “Nurture works on what nature endows. How can you use your knowledge of the scientific attitude to Knowing just these correlations. Further research. read. 13 experiment. 22 cognitive neuroscience. 14 random assignment. using your own words. p. A dependent variable is the factor you measure to discover any changes that occur in response to these manipulations. p. p. El Camino College 1. p. 8 random sample. lab.” Describe what this 3. 4 hypothesis. 15 Is it ethical to experiment on people? Researchers may temporarily stress or deceive people in order to Frequently Asked Questions About Psychology learn something important. and how do guidelines. is an animal’s temporary An independent variable is the factor you manipulate to study its suffering justified? effect. they differ? Nevertheless.

toward illusory thinking. Teens engaged in team sports are less likely to use As you watch an Orlando Magic basketball game with your thinking skills to aspects of the material you have just read. foot pads remove toxins from the body and also help alleviate pretation: Team sports encourage healthy living. how should you respond? ens life and enhances health. (One interpretation: Education length. (One interpretation: Movie stars’ effective? behavior influences impressionable teens.) The Test for Success exercises offer you a chance to apply your critical 4. Adolescents who frequently see smoking in movies are aches.) a variety of health problems. on average. Educated people live longer. including fatigue and back- d. 5. soon as possible. Suggestions friend.) c. have sex. Testimonials suggest that are teens who do not engage in team sports. CHAPTER 1 | THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE | 33 b.  Multiple-choice self-tests and more may be found at www. he says that Dwight Howard really has a hot hand for answering these questions can be found in Appendix D at the back right now and the other players should give him the ball as of the book. and eat junk food than sleep have become popular lately. Foot pads purported to draw toxins out of the body during smoke. .worthpublishers. Based on your knowledge of our tendency educated people. carry weapons. than less. (One inter. How can we determine whether foot pads are actually more likely to smoke.

Chapter Outline • Neural Communication Neurons How Neurons Communicate How Neurotransmitters Influence Us • The Nervous System The Peripheral Nervous System The Central Nervous System • The Endocrine System • The Brain Older Brain Structures CLOSE-UP: The Tools of Discovery—Having Our Head Examined The Cerebral Cortex Our Divided Brain Right-Left Differences in the Intact Brain .

and then at how neurons work together. organize. of the links between biological (genetic.” Biological psychologists study the links between our biology and our behavior. processes. the basic building block of the nervous system. In this chapter. researchers are unlocking the mysteries of how our brain uses biological psychology the scientific study electrical and chemical processes to take in. Neural Communication The human body is complexity built from simplicity. An acquaintance of mine received a new heart donated by a woman who in turn had received a matching heart-lung © The New Yorker Collection. Dendrites listen. or biopsychologists. Neurons physiological psychologists. In this chapter we start small and build from the bottom up—from nerve cells up to the brain. every mood. The bushy dendrite fibers receive information and con. the donor intro- from cartoonbank. Neurons differ. Part of this complexity is our amazing internal communication system. and use infor. axons can be very long. branching duct it toward the cell body. which makes the Internet look simple. interpret. store. No principle is more central to today’s psychology. muscles. has a cell fibers that form junctions with other body and axon roughly on the scale of a basketball attached to a rope 4 miles long. To whose home should the recovered patient return? If you answered that the patient should return to your home. Axons speak. (Some biological psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists. The story begins with the system’s basic building block. Across the world. feel. or neural. axon the neuron’s extension that passes Unlike the short dendrites. Gahan Wilson. every urge—is simultane- ously biological. and how do they transmit information? neuron a nerve cell. the cell’s axon (sometimes covered with a extensions that receive messages and con- myelin sheath) passes the message along to other neurons or to muscles or glands. hormonal) and psychological nerve cell. We may talk separately of biological and psychological influences. behavior geneticists. or act without a body would be like running without legs. duced herself: “I think you have my heart. When the two chanced to meet in their hospital ward. dendrite the neuron’s bushy.” But only her heart. her self. still resided in her skull. we explore the biology of the mind—the links between our brain and our behavior. for example. A neuron carrying orders to a leg muscle. From there. you illustrated what most of us believe—that we reside in our head. she as- sumed. duct impulses toward the cell body. but all are variations on the same theme. All rights reserved. We’ll look first at its structure. the neuron. transplant. “You’re certainly a lot less fun since the operation. or glands. 1992. Would you still be in there? Further imagine that your still-living brain has been transplanted into the body of a person whose own brain was severely dam- aged.) 1: What are neurons. than this: Everything psychological—every idea. 35 .2: The Biology of Mind Imagine that just moments before your death. or to this book. neurons. Each consists of a cell body and its branching fibers. someone removed your brain from your body and kept it alive by floating it in a tank of fluid while feeding it enriched blood. mation. but to think. projecting several feet messages through its branching terminal through the body.

Axon (passes messages away synapse [SIN-aps] the junction between from the cell body to other neurons. unlike the nearly instantaneous reac- tions of a high-speed computer. Most “What one neuron tells another of these signals are excitatory. your reaction to a sudden event. How Neurons Communicate 2: How do nerve cells communicate with other nerve cells? © Tom Swick Neurons interweave so intricately that even with a microscope you would have trou- “The body is made up of millions ble seeing where one neuron ends and another begins. Cell body Neural impulse (action potential) of some neurons ron. the axon tip of the sending neuron and the muscles. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft. thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse. then. The neuron’s reaction is an all-or-none response: Like guns. neurotransmitters travel across the (the cell’s life. (Think of it this way: If the excitatory party animals out- Hypothesis. If excitatory signals minus inhibitory sig- excited. (electrical signal traveling and helps speed synapse and bind to receptor sites on the support center) down the axon) neural impulses) receiving neuron. of other neurons. Squeezing a trigger harder won’t make a bullet go faster. Each neuron is a miniature decision-making device performing complex calcula- tions as it receives signals from hundreds.” nals exceed a minimum level of stimulation. How. a neural impulse travels at speeds ranging from a sluggish 2 miles per hour to a breakneck 200 or more miles per hour. may take a quarter-second or more. which branches into junctions with hundreds or thousands of other neurons and with the body’s muscles and glands. the combined signals —Francis Crick. The Astonishing trigger an action potential. Scientists once believed that and millions of crumbs. . do we detect the intensity of a stimulus? How do we distinguish a gentle touch from a big hug? A strong stimulus—a slap rather than a tap—can trigger more neurons to fire. but slower at executing simple responses. FIGURE 2.1).) The action potential then travels down the axon. more like pushing its brake. Depending on the type of fiber. We meas- ure brain activity in milliseconds (thousandths of a second) and computer activity in nanoseconds (billionths of a second). somewhat like pushing a neuron’s accelerator. But even this top speed is 3 million times slower than that of electricity through a wire. At such times. When released by the sending neu. (covers the axon rons.” the axon of one cell fused with the dendrites of another in an uninterrupted fabric. the party’s on. or glands) dendrite or cell body of the receiving neu- ron. neurotransmitters chemical messengers Myelin sheath that cross the synaptic gaps between neu. 36 | CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND Dendrites Terminal branches of axon action potential a neural impulse. such as a child darting in front of your car.1 A motor neuron Neurons transmit messages when stimulated by signals from our senses or when triggered by chemical signals from neighboring neurons. even thousands. a brief (receive messages (form junctions with other cells) electrical charge that travels down an axon. But it does not affect the action potential’s strength or speed. or threshold. 1994 vote the inhibitory party poopers. Thus. Increasing the level of stimulation above the threshold will not increase the neural impulse’s intensity. from other cells) threshold the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse. a neuron fires an impulse. and to fire more often. called the action potential—a brief electrical charge that travels down its axon (FIGURE 2. Others neuron is simply how much it is are inhibitory. Your brain is vastly more complex than a computer. neu- rons either fire or they don’t.

sending information across the tiny synaptic gap? The answer is one of the im.” “All information processing in the notes poet Diane Ackerman (2004). the neurotransmitter molecules cross the synaptic gap and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron—as precisely as a key fits a lock. Within 1/10. calling them “protoplasmic kisses. neurotransmitter molecules.” “Like elegant ladies air- kissing so as not to muss their makeup. Electrical impulses (action potentials) travel down a neuron’s axon until reaching a tiny junction known as a synapse.2). it triggers the release of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters (FIGURE 2. Infer- ring that there must be a brief interruption in the transmission. Snyder (1984) When an action potential reaches the knoblike terminals at an axon’s end. When an action potential 3. Sherrington called the meeting point between neurons a synapse. each other at synapses. Synaptic gap Axon terminal These molecules cross the synaptic gap and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron. the neurotransmitter unlocks tiny channels at the receiving site. and electrically charged atoms flow in. How do the neurons execute this protoplasmic brain involves neurons ‘talking to’ kiss.” portant scientific discoveries of our age. FIGURE 2. Spanish anatomist Santiago Ramon y Cajal (1852–1934) marveled at these near-unions of neurons. dendrites and axons don’t quite touch. Neurotransmitter Receptor sites on receiving neuron . —Neuroscientist Solomon H. Then. the sending neuron reabsorbs the excess neurotransmitters. We now know that the axon terminal of one neuron is in fact separated from the receiving neuron by a synaptic gap (or synaptic cleft) less than a millionth of an inch wide. This allows electrically charged atoms to enter the receiving neuron and excite or inhibit a new action potential. Sending neuron Action potenti Receiving neuron al Synapse Sending neuron Action potential Reuptake 2. excess neurotransmitter molecules. it stimulates the release of a process called reuptake. exciting or inhibiting the receiving neuron’s readiness to fire. The sending neuron normally reabsorbs reaches an axon terminal. in a process called reuptake.2 How neurons communicate 1.000th of a second. For an instant. CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND | 37 Then British physiologist Sir Charles Sherrington (1857–1952) noticed that neural impulses were taking an unexpectedly long time to travel a neural pathway.

Undersupply is linked to depression.” transmitters influence our motions and our emotions. causing intense discomfort. Rita Carter.1 Some Neurotransmitters and Their Functions Neurotransmitter Function Examples of Malfunctions Acetylcholine (ACh) Enables muscle action. When ACh is released to our muscle cell receptors. ACh-producing learning. arousal Endorphins Lessen pain and boost If flooded with articifial opiates. hunger. Prozac sleep. Norepinephrine Helps control alertness and Undersupply can depress mood. cal lock. follow the pression and euphoria. . Excess dopamine receptor activity is linked learning. and the indifference to pain in some severely injured people. showing where it was taken up in an animal’s brain. Researchers soon confirmed that the brain does indeed produce its own natu- ates. ACh is the messenger at every junction between a motor neuron (which carries infor- Both photos from Mapping the Mind. TABLE 2. researchers have discovered dozens of different neurotransmitters and raised new questions: Are certain neuro- transmitters found only in specific places? How do they affect our moods. 1998). an opiate drug that elevates mood and eases pain. bound to re- ceptors in areas linked with mood and pain sen- Seratonin pathways Dopamine pathways sations.” the painkilling effects of acupuncture. if you Later chapters explore neurotransmitter influences on hunger and thinking. as happens during some kinds of anesthesia.3 Neurotransmitter pathways Each of the brain’s differing chemical messen. and to schizophrenia. Acetylcholine (ACh) is one of the best-understood neurotransmitters. let’s glimpse how neuro- neurotransmitters. opiatelike neurotransmit- ters linked to pain control and to pleasure. In addition to its role in learning and memory. the emotion brain produces the tremors and decreased mobility of Parkinson’s disease. Starved of dopamine. The morphine. unless it also had a natural key to open it? gers has designated pathways where it oper. and mental abilities? Can we boost or diminish these effects through drugs or diet? “When it comes to the brain. and memory neurons deteriorate. Our body releases several types of neurotransmitter mole- serotonin and dopamine (Carter. addictions and therapy. Candace Pert and Solomon Snyder (1973) made an exciting discovery about neurotrans- mitters when they attached a radioactive tracer to morphine. and particular neuro- transmitters may have particular effects on behavior and emotions (TABLE 2. How do neurotransmitters influence behavior? In their quest to understand neural communication.1 offers examples). memories. and arousal and some other antidepressant drugs raise serotonin levels. as we now call them. the muscles cannot contract and we are paralyzed. If ACh transmission is blocked. de- want to see the action. But why would the brain have these “opiate receptors”? Why would it have a chemi- FIGURE 2. A particular pathway in the —Neuroscientist Floyd Bloom (1993) brain may use only one or two neurotransmitters (FIGURE 2. With Alzheimer’s disease. attention. Dopamine Influences movement. the brain mood may stop producing endorphins. For now. the mus- cle contracts. © 1989 University of California Press mation from the brain and spinal cord to the body’s tissues) and skeletal muscles. cules similar to morphine in response to pain and vigorous exercise. Shown here are the pathways for rally occurring opiates. 38 | CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND endorphins [en-DOR-fins] “morphine How Neurotransmitters Influence Us 3: within”—natural. help explain good feelings such as the “runner’s high.3). Serotonin Affects mood. These endorphins (short for endogenous [produced within] morphine).

Answers: 1. neural impulses. I drugs are agonists and produce a temporary “high” by amplifying normal sensa.” ACh receptor sites on muscles. 3. Our the peripheral nervous system that controls somatic nervous system enables voluntary control of our skeletal muscles. dendrites. producing paralysis in animals struck by the —The Youngest Science. elec- trochemical communication network. body of a receiving neuron is called the inhibitory. electrical cables formed of bun- dles of axons. ed. d. 2. . 4. for example. ting CNS decisions to other body parts. whether or not an impulse is generat. Our nervous system has a cord to the muscles and glands. a. meaning that a. interneurons process information within the CNS. the all-or-none response. whether the stimulus is excitatory or a. a. cisions. your somatic nervous system will report to your skeletal nervous system. except to say that tions of arousal or pleasure. Antagonists also bind to receptors but their effect is I would have put it in had I been instead to block a neurotransmitter’s functioning. myelin. 5. Endorphins are released in the brain in 2. and glands. all of these answers are correct. Information travels in the nervous system through three types of neurons. Sensory sensory neurons neurons that carry neurons carry messages from the body’s tissues and sensory receptors inward to the incoming information from the sensory brain and spinal cord. the release of chemical messengers d. As you the body’s skeletal muscles. cell body. cannot explain it. axon terminal. The central nervous system then sends instruc. Nerves. a. REHEARSE IT! 1. a few million motor neurons. b. synapses. and spinal cord. link the CNS with the body’s sensory receptors. tions out to the body’s tissues via the motor neurons. central nervous system (CNS) the brain To live is to take in information from the world and the body’s tissues. All this hap- pens thanks to our body’s nervous system. sitting receiving neuron and block the neurotransmitter’s effects. b. glands. They may occupy sites on the around at the very beginning. and to send back information and orders to the body’s tissues. occupies and blocks committee. morphine or heroin. the intensity of the stimulus determines b. branching fiber. When an action potential reaches the c. a poison some as a member of a planning South American Indians have applied to hunting-dart tips. d. a. synaptic gap. c. dendrite. pain or vigorous exercise. b. c. a to a neurotransmitter to bind to its receptor and mimic its effects. 1991). Some opiate biologically universal act of mercy. it triggers d. Our ing information from the brain and spinal complexity resides mostly in our interneuron systems. 5. c. muscles. of the body. Also called the now reach the bottom of this page. CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND | 39 Drugs and other chemicals affect brain chemistry at synapses. axon. 4. d. and billions and billions of interneurons. the messages each eye sends to the brain (Mason & Kandel. The brain and spinal cord form the peripheral nervous system (PNS) the sen- sory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS). Agonist molecules may be similar enough endorphins: “There it is. Curare. few million sensory neurons. response to sending neuron and the dendrite or cell d. The Peripheral Nervous System somatic nervous system the division of Our peripheral nervous system has two components—somatic and autonomic. bundles a million axons into a single cable carrying “cables” connecting the central nervous sys- tem with muscles. receptors to the brain and spinal cord. interneurons neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internal- ly and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs. for processing. neurotransmitters. c. how fast an impulse is transmitted. con- The Nervous System sisting of all the nerve cells of the 4: What are the functional divisions of the nervous system? peripheral and central nervous systems. how intense an impulse will be. nervous system the body’s speedy. nerves bundled axons that form neural The optic nerve. The tiny space between the axon of a c. b. on the exciting or inhibiting neurons’ firing. b. The neuron’s response to stimulation is called to other neurons is the an all-or-none response. The neuron fiber that carries messages 3. b. 1983 dart. The peripheral central nervous system (CNS) to the rest nervous system (PNS) is responsible for gathering information and for transmit. to make de. and sense organs. axon terminal of a neuron. the body’s decision maker. threshold. often by either Physician Lewis Thomas. In between the sensory motor neurons neurons that carry outgo- input and motor output.

It conserves energy as it calms you by decreasing your heartbeat. FIGURE 2. basic functions (FIGURE 2. It is the brain that enables our humanity—our thinking. Stephen Kosslyn and Olivier Koenig (1992. raise your blood sugar.000 contacts with other neurons. why don’t people distribute themselves more evenly patterns.” across the countryside?” Like people networking with people. p. trigger- ing your hand to turn the page. Like an automatic pilot. 2007 nearby neurons with which they can have short. Tens of billions of neurons. With some 40 billion neurons.000 neurons and one billion “talking” synapses (Ramachandran & Blakeslee. and cool you with perspiration. To under- brain work? Five words or less. February 8. making you alert and ready for action. Stephen Colbert: “How does the The brain’s neurons cluster into work groups called neural networks. and diges- tion. raise your blood pressure. Our autonomic nervous system controls our glands and the muscles of our in- ternal organs. but usually it operates on its own (autonomously). fast connections. neurons network with —The Colbert Report. the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems work together to keep you in a steady internal state. we end up with perhaps 400 trillion synapses—places where neurons meet and greet their neighbors (de Courten-Myers.4 outlines the nervous system. each having roughly 10. and acting. 12) have invited us to Steven Pinker: “Brain cells fire in “think about why cities exist. each communicating with thousands of other neurons. The sympathetic nervous system arouses and expends energy. enrages.4 The functional divisions of the human nervous system Peripheral nervous system Central nervous system Nervous system Central Peripheral (brain and spinal cord) Autonomic (controls Somatic self-regulated action (controls voluntary of internal organs movements of and glands) skeletal muscles) Sympathetic Parasympathetic (arousing) (calming) brain the current state of your skeletal muscles and carry instructions back. The Central Nervous System From the simplicity of neurons “talking” to other neurons arises the complexity of the central nervous system’s brain and spinal cord. or challenges you. A grain-of-sand–sized speck of your brain contains some 100.” stand why. When the stress subsides. heartbeat. slow your digestion. your sympathetic system will accelerate your heartbeat. In everyday situations. your parasympathetic nervous system produces opposite effects. yield an ever-changing wiring diagram that dwarfs a powerful computer. feeling. If something alarms. lowering your blood sugar. . influencing such functions as glandular activity. this system may be consciously overridden.5). The autonomic nervous system serves two important. 2005). 1998). and so forth.40 | CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND FIGURE 2.

automatic response to a of your spinal cord severed. but on its own. parasympathetic division calms. parasympathetic nervous system the mation that causes you to feel pain. That’s why it feels as if your hand jerks away division of the autonomic nervous system not by your choice. whereas parasympathetic stimulation slows it. The muscles of the internal organs (such as the knee-jerk response. sympathetic stim- pupil ulation accelerates heartbeat. A headless heart). For example. Ascending neural fibers send up sensory information. CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND | 41 FIGURE 2. Its parasympathetic division calms and Contracts conserves energy. and de- scending fibers send back motor-control information. Another such pathway enables the pain reflex (see FIGURE 2.6 on the next page). The neural pathways governing our reflexes. neural activity excited by the heat travels via sen. its warm body could do it. our automatic responses to stimuli. that calms the body. illustrate the spinal autonomic [aw-tuh-NAHM-ik] nervous cord’s work. such as the knee-jerk would you feel pleasure. When your finger touches a flame. conserving its energy.5 The dual functions of the SYMPATHETIC PARASYMPATHETIC autonomic nervous system The autonomic NERVOUS SYSTEM Brain NERVOUS SYSTEM nervous system controls the more autonomous (arousing) (calming) (or self-regulating) internal functions. you response. Information travels to and from the brain by way of the spinal cord. involves one such simple pathway. These interneurons respond by arouses the body. sympathetic nervous system the division of the autonomic nervous system that sory neurons to interneurons in your spinal cord. Because the simple stressful situations. for example. These often communicate through an interneuron. Nor sensory stimulus. Its sympathetic division arouses. Heart Slows Accelerates heartbeat heartbeat Spinal cord Stomach Inhibits digestion Stimulates digestion Pancreas Stimulates glucose Liver release by liver Stimulates Adrenal Stimulates gallbladder gland secretion of Kidney epinephrine. your hand jerks from the candle’s flame before your brain receives and responds to the infor. . you would not feel pain from your body below. Were the top reflex a simple. A simple spinal reflex pathway is composed of a single sensory neuron system the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the and a single motor neuron. allowing routine mainte- Dilates pupil nance activity. Its sympathetic division arouses and expends energy. pain reflex pathway runs through the spinal cord and right back out. norepinephrine Contracts bladder Relaxes bladder Stimulates Allows blood ejaculation flow to in male sex organs The spinal cord is an information highway connecting the peripheral nervous sys- tem to the brain. mobilizing its energy in activating motor neurons leading to the muscles in your arm. With your brain literally out of touch with your body.

somatic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system controls 7. Together. FIGURE 2. Muscle Spinal cord Motor neuron Skin (outgoing information) receptors 2. autonomic nervous system. a. c. To produce bodily pain or pleasure. central nervous system. Sipski & Alexander. central nervous system. which travel through the bloodstream and affect other . Women similarly paralyzed may respond with vaginal lubrication. nervous system calms us down. In this simple hand-withdrawal reflex. Because this reflex involves only the spinal cord. The neurons of the spinal cord are part internal functions. b. 1990. the hand jerks away from the candle flame even before information about the event has reached the brain. somatic nervous system. b. d. Answers: 6. they may be genitally unresponsive to erotic images and have no genital feeling (Kennedy & Over. You would exhibit the knee-jerk without feeling the tap. hormones chemical messengers that are So far we have focused on the body’s speedy electrochemical information system.42 | CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND Brain Sensory neuron (incoming information) Interneuron 1. the travel through the bloodstream. the sensory information must reach the brain. b. c. 1999). nomic means the two systems make up the b. a. c. endocrine [EN-duh-krin] system the The Endocrine System body’s “slow” chemical communication system. autonomic nervous system. arousing. From here it is passed via interneurons to motor neurons that lead to muscles in the hand and arm (blue arrow). 2000). voluntary. When the brain center keeping the brakes on erec- tions is severed. peripheral nervous system. manufactured by the endocrine glands. d. and affect endocrine system. depending on where and how completely the spinal cord is severed. The word auto. But. Interconnected with the nervous system is a second communication system. c. 5: How does the endocrine system—the body’s slower information system— transmit its messages? mones into the bloodstream. hormones. such as heart rate us for action and the parasympathetic of the and glandular activity. peripheral nervous system. a. The sympathetic nervous system arouses 8. information is carried from skin receptors along a sensory neuron to the spinal cord (shown by the red arrow). self-regulating. a set of glands that secrete hor. a. cal messengers. 7. calming. 8. The endocrine system’s glands secrete another form of chemi- other tissues. men paralyzed below the waist may be capable of an erection (a simple reflex) if their genitals are stimulated (Goldstein.6 A simple reflex would lose all sensation and voluntary movement in body regions with sensory and motor connections to the spinal cord below its point of injury. REHEARSE IT! 6. d. causing the experience of pain.

The hypothalamus known as the master gland. Answers: 9. a pea-sized struc- ture located in the core of the brain. then. body in times of stress. The endocrine system’s hormones influence many aspects of our lives—growth. (affects metabolism. Like many relatives. and norepinephrine) that help arouse the ence your brain and behavior. adrenal. some of which functions of glands in the endocrine system. For example. The most influential endocrine gland is the pituitary gland. That helps (secretes female hormones) explain why upset feelings may linger. they also differ.7 The endocrine system (also called adrenaline and noradrenaline). The pituitary. In a mo- ment of danger. b. and Pituitary gland Hypothalamus aggression. b.7 illustrates the locations and (brain region controlling (secretes many different hormones. Adrenal glands c. If the nervous system’s communication de- livers messages rather like e-mail. These in turn influ. ous system are therefore close relatives: Both pro. . CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND | 43 tissues. the pituitary gland) affect other glands) Some hormones are chemically identical to neu- rotransmitters (those chemical messengers that dif. REHEARSE IT! 9. secrete(s) epinephrine and c. FIGURE 2. Under the influence system directs endocrine secretions. the hypothalamus (which you will hear more about shortly). providing us with a surge of energy. the autonomic nerv- ous system orders the adrenal glands on top of the kidneys to release epinephrine and norepinephrine FIGURE 2. When they act on the brain. The nervous most influential gland. Its secretions also influence the release of hor. for example. among other things) duce molecules that act on receptors elsewhere. The speedy Adrenal glands (inner part helps nervous system zips messages from eyes to brain to trigger the hand in a fraction of a second. the hormones—and the feelings of excitement—linger a while. metabolism. 10. hypothalamus. kidney. exertion. they influence our interest in sex. The pituitary releases hormones that influence growth. and blood sugar. Endocrine messages “fight-or-flight” trudge along in the bloodstream. helping to arouse the d. adrenal [ah-DREEN-el] glands a pair of mones by other endocrine glands. re- production. including the brain. Endocrine messages tend Testis (secretes male sex Ovary to outlast the effects of neural messages. a. But slow and steady sometimes wins the race. a. where it is controlled by an adjacent brain area. Neurotransmitters a. kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine the pituitary triggers your sex glands to release sex hormones. The most influential endocrine gland. These hormones increase heart rate. The pituitary gland d. under the brain’s influence. 10. is a sort of master gland endocrine glands that sit just above the (whose own master is the hypothalamus). food. is the norepinephrine. response) Pancreas (regulates the level of onds or more to travel from the gland to the target sugar in the blood) tissue. of the hypothalamus. Con. body during times of stress. Parathyroids fuse across a synapse and excite or inhibit an (help regulate the level Thyroid gland of calcium in the blood) adjacent neuron). the endocrine sys- tem is the body’s snail mail. a. mood—and work with our nervous system to keep every- thing in balance while we respond to stress. which then affect the nervous system. pituitary. glands. When the emergency passes. This feedback system (brain  pituitary  other glands  hormones  brain) pituitary gland the endocrine system’s reveals the intimate connection of the nervous and endocrine systems. and our own thoughts. blood pressure. taking several sec. The endocrine system and nerv. sometimes sex hormones) beyond our thinking about what upset us. the pituitary regulates ducting and coordinating this whole electrochemical orchestra is that maestro we growth and controls other endocrine call the brain.

brain work up to the newer systems. 2006). As she imagined playing tennis. a not-so-complex brain primarily regulates basic survival func- goes while the brain performs a given task. Let’s start with the brain’s basement and revealing bloodflow and. Close-Up: The Tools of Discovery—Having Our Head Examined looks at some of the techniques that enable neuroscientists to study the working brain. eavesdrop on the chatter of billions of neurons. that damage to one side of the brain often caused numbness or paralysis on the body’s opposite side. It begins where the brainstem. Clinical observations had unveiled some Tom Landers/Boston Globe brain-mind connections. covers the fossil remnants of the past—brainstem components performing for us fMRI (functional MRI) a technique for much as they did for our distant ancestors. Others noticed that damage to the back of the brain disrupted vision. beginning where the spinal representations of the brain’s energy-consuming activity. such nique that uses magnetic fields and radio as humans. the whole brain-mapping process has changed. images of soft tissue. the brain—and mind—may. be active. in some cases. and feeding. and vice versa. sees the collec. A century ago. PET (positron emission tomography) scan 7: What are the functions of important lower-level brain structures? a visual display of brain activity that Indicators of an animal’s capacities come from its brain structures. In lower mammals. For example. an area of her brain controlling arm and leg movements became active. the mind is what the brain does. these early McLean Hospital’s Brain Bank. Digging down. 44 | CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND The Brain 6: How do neuroscientists study the brain’s connections to behavior and mind? When you think about your brain. The known universe’s most amazing organ is being probed and mapped by a new gener- ation of neural mapmakers. tions: breathing. suggest- ing that the body’s right side is wired to the brain’s left side. can also electrically. say neuroscientists. This slight swelling is the . In primitive ani- detects where a radioactive form of glucose mals. for example. Even in a motionless body. These techniques for peering into the thinking. controls heartbeat and breathing. you’re thinking with your brain—sending billions of neurotransmitter molecules across countless millions of synapses. therefore. Physicians noted. scientists had no tools high-powered yet gentle enough to reveal such activity in a living human brain. a brain that processes more information enables foresight as well. or magnetically stimulate various parts of the brain and note the effects. waves to produce computer-generated This increasing complexity arises from new brain systems built on top of the old. Gradually. leav- ing the surrounding tissue unharmed. within a lifetime. The Brainstem medulla [muh-DUL-uh] the base of the The brain’s oldest and innermost region is the brainstem. Whether in the interests of science or medicine. brain scans revealed activity like that of healthy volun- teers (Owen et al. Nevertheless. and see color brainstem the oldest part and central core of the brain. spinal cord swells slightly after entering the skull. Now. chemically. such as rodents. A tect the electrical pulse in a single neuron. electroencephalogram (EEG) an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain’s surface. MRI scans show much as the Earth’s landscape covers the old with the new. In advanced mammals. explorers were mapping the brain. for example. they can selectively lesion (destroy) tiny clusters of normal or defective brain cells. when researchers asked her to imagine playing tennis or moving around her home. These waves are measured by electrodes placed Older Brain Structures on the scalp. and that damage to Banking brains Francine Benes. activity by comparing successive MRI scans. a more MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) a tech- complex brain enables emotion and greater memory. Today’s scientists can snoop on the messages of individual neurons. cord swells as it enters the skull. One 23-year-old woman showed no outward signs of conscious awareness after a traffic accident. using modern microelectrodes with tips so small they can de- lesion [LEE-zhuhn] tissue destruction. fMRI scans show brain function. tion as a valuable database. the brain. Indeed. such as sharks. resting.. director of the left-front part of the brain produced speech difficulties. one dis- brain anatomy. functions. They caused destruction of brain tissue. we can now detect exactly brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally where the information goes in a cat’s brain when someone strokes its whisker. feeling brain are doing for psy- stem is responsible for automatic survival chology what the microscope did for biology and the telescope did for astronomy.

In MRI brain scans. detailed picture of the brain’s soft tis- netic signals that neuroscientists could sues. But cut off from the brain’s higher re- gions. looks at a scene. researchers inject volunteers with a low second apart. CBDB. For than-average neural area in the left example. Then a radio wave pulse while Magellan was exploring the seas. They waves across its surface. arrows in FIGURE 2. AJ Photo/Photo Researchers. depicts FIGURE 2. it won’t purposefully run or climb to get food. 1990). Both photos from Daniel Weinberger.10 MRI scan of a healthy individual (left) and a person with FIGURE 2. the animal will still breathe and live—and even run. 1746 letter to his son. your mental activity is giving they release signals that provide a off telltale electrical. One functioning as well as its structure.9 The PET Scan To obtain a PET By comparing MRI scans taken less than a brain activity by showing each brain scan. fluid-filled brain areas (marked by the red Courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratories fied read-out of such waves (FIGURE 2. MRI scans have revealed a larger- trap to observe your brain at work. Such snap- “hot spots” show which brain areas are MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) shots of the brain’s changing activity are most active as the person does mathe.” advised Lord Chesterfield in a logical disorder. . different mental functions. which aligns the spinning atoms of now is like studying world geography brain molecules. momentarily disorients the atoms. CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND | 45 Close-Up: The Tools of Discovery—Having Our Head Examined Right now. Newer windows A special application of MRI—fMRI into the brain give us that Supermanlike (functional MRI)—can reveal the brain’s ability to see inside a living brain. the image on the right. climb. the fMRI scan can track the gamma rays released A computer then processes and translates machine detects blood rushing to the by this “food for thought” as the person these signals into a map of the brain at work. science. 1995). Active neurons are glu. If a cat’s brainstem is sev- ered from the rest of the brain above it. which processes visual performs a given task. Just above the medulla sits the pons. metabolic. of electrical activity in the brain Here it the fluid-filled brain region is displaying the brain activity of this 4-year. and groom (Klemm. or daydreams. the PET which has concentrated in active brain areas. medulla.. and harmless dose of a short-lived radioactive brain “light up” (with increased oxygen- the sugar glucose. Detectors around the person’s head pick laden bloodflow) as a person performs cose hogs. in the dis- er radar showing rain activity. When This truly is the golden age of brain the atoms return to their normal spin. Rather like weath. PET scan cussion of cortex functions). and after a person receives up the release of gamma rays from the sugar. researchers can watch the area’s consumption of its chemical fuel. have also revealed enlarged ventricles— cephalogram (EEG) will give an ampli. electrical activity in your brain’s hemisphere of musicians who display per- billions of neurons sweeps in regular fect pitch (Schlaug et al.NIMH FIGURE 2. Where such tool. Inc.9). person’s head is put in a strong magnetic To be learning about the neurosciences field. a disabling psycho- at them. M.D. Here lie the controls for your heartbeat and breathing. for example. which helps coordinate movements. An electroen. back of the brain. As the person temporarily radioactive glucose.8 An electroencephalograph schizophrenia (right) providing amplified tracings of waves Note the enlarged ventricle. at the tip of the arrow in old who has epilepsy..21. and mag. blood goes. the PET (positron emission the brain is especially active. the divides its labor. faces. as well as with schizophrenia. information (see Figure 2. can also be used to scan the brain or providing new insights into how the brain matical calculations. looks at images of other body parts.8). sugar. tomography) scan (FIGURE 2.10)—in some patients “You must look into people.

Extending from the rear of the brainstem is the baseball-sized cerebellum. The thalamus is attached to the top of the brainstem. It also coordinates voluntary movement. As you hippocampus. The reticular formation passes through both structures. where most nerves to and from each side of the brain connect with the body’s opposite side. Think of the thalamus as being to sensory input what London is to England’s trains: a hub through which traffic passes en route to various destinations. located on top of the through the thalamus. Giuseppe Moruzzi and Horace Magoun discovered that electrically stimulating the reticular formation of a sleeping cat almost instantly produced an reticular formation a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in awake. it directs messages to the senso. without damaging the nearby sensory pathways.” which is what its two wrinkled halves resemble (FIGURE 2. which filters incoming stimuli ry receiving areas in the cortex and trans. brainstem. hearing. modulate our emotions. process- ing sensory input. brain regions. a finger-shaped network of neurons that extends from the spinal cord right up thalamus [THAL-uh-muss] the brain’s sensory switchboard. The cerebellum [sehr-uh-BELL-um] the “little reticular formation affects arousal. This joined pair of egg-shaped structures acts as the brain’s sensory switchboard. between your ears. including Thalamus the pons and medulla.11 The brainstem and thalamus The brainstem. When Magoun severed a cat’s reticular formation from higher controlling arousal. meaning limbic system neural system (including the “little brain. amygdala. and relays important information to other areas of the brain. Reticular formation Pons Brainstem Medulla The brainstem is a crossover point. and coordinating move. As the spinal cord’s sensory input travels up to the thalamus. alert animal. functions include some nonverbal learning. which it then directs to the medulla and to the cerebellum. . and hypothalamus) will see in Chapter 8. some of it travels through the reticular formation. In 1949. The thalamus also receives some of the higher brain’s replies. lies the reticular (“netlike”) formation. the effect was equally dramatic: The cat lapsed into a coma from which it never awakened.12). tasting. It helps us judge time. It receives informa- tion from all the senses except smell and routes it to the higher brain regions that deal with seeing. The Thalamus Sitting at the top of the brainstem is the thalamus (FIGURE 2.11). 2003). is an extension of the spinal cord. mits replies to the cerebellum and medulla. This peculiar cross-wiring is but one of the brain’s many surprises. The Cerebellum ment output and balance. memory. brain” at the rear of the brainstem. the cerebellum enables one type of nonverbal learning and located below the cerebral hemispheres. and textures (Bower & Parsons. and touching.46 | CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND FIGURE 2. The Reticular Formation Inside the brainstem. and discriminate sounds associated with emotions and drives.

talk. REHEARSE IT! 11. reticular formation. b. cerebellum. We will see in Chapter 8 how one limbic system component. memory bank. balance center. in are asleep or awake. or shaking hands. or savor a memory. If you injured your cerebellum. spinal cord. let’s look at the limbic system’s links to emotions (such as fear and anger) and to basic motives (such as those for food and sex). 14. voluntary movement is the a. The thalamus receives information from a. you would have difficulty walking. d. 14. d. thalamus. We are aware of the results of our brain’s labor (say. c. switchboard. thalamus. dream. the hippocampus. Under alcohol’s influence on the cerebellum. Lluis Gene/AFP/Getty Images Cerebellum Spinal cord When soccer great David Beckham fires the ball into the net with a perfectly timed kick. The thalamus functions like a d. CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND | 47 FIGURE 2. the sensory neurons and routes it to the b. our current vi. (If animals or humans lose their hippocampus to surgery or injury. 12. whether we —Neuroscientist Joseph LeDoux. cerebellum. the cerebellum coordinates our voluntary movements. c. The part of the brain that coordinates breathing is the b. b. give his cerebellum some credit.” sual experience) but not of how we construct the visual image. a. brainstem that controls heartbeat and a. 12. medulla. medulla. they become unable to process new memories of facts and episodes. b.” 2006 newer brain regions to think. . a. The brainstem is the oldest and inner. medulla. The Limbic System At the border (“limbus”) between the brain’s older parts and the cerebral hemispheres— the two halves of the brain—is the limbic system (FIGURE 2. arousal is the d. cerebellum. 13. our brainstem manages its life-sustaining functions. walking may lack coordination.13 on the next page). The part of the senses. breathing regulator.12 The brain’s organ of agility Hanging at the back of the brain. higher brain regions that control the c.) For now. Answers: 11. freeing our “Mastery of Emotions. c. This il- lustrates another of our recurring themes: Our brain processes most information outside “Consciousness is a small part of of our awareness. reticular formation. cortex. Likewise. what the brain does. as when David Beckham directs the ball precisely. keeping your balance. as many a driver has learned after being pulled over and given a roadside test. Your movements would be jerky and exaggerated. The lower brain structure that governs c. processes memory. most region of the brain. d. 13. Note: These older brain functions all occur without any conscious effort.

Boston (FIGURE 2. Poke it. Aggressive and fearful behavior involves neural activity in many brain levels. Yet the battery is merely one link in an integrated system that makes a car go. small but important In a meticulous series of experiments.14 The amygdala placid. The brain is not neatly organized into structures that correspond to our categories of behavior. its pupils dilated. Poremba & Gabriel. and they aren’t telling. Electrical stimulation of trigger the adjacent “master gland.”) When allowed to steady state.13). small mouse. hissing with its back arched. Curiously. What then might happen if we electrically stimulated the amygdala in FIGURE 2. keep the body’s inter. and sexual behavior. 2001). The result? The for- merly ill-tempered monkey turned into Moonrunner Design Ltd. colored yel- to locate other “pleasure centers. the amygdala. this fierce can stimulate your hypothalamus to secrete hormones. we see the interplay between the the one shown here. and still the animal remained Amygdala Hippocampus FIGURE 2.15). Hypothalamus pinch it. as if seeking more stimulation. do virtually anything that nor- mally would trigger a ferocious Pituitary gland response. 2000. others regulate thirst. These hormones in turn cat is ready to attack. Rather than attribute human feelings to rats. body temperature. Olds (1958) went on structure. Two young McGill University neuropsychologists. cage the cat with a system’s hypothalamus controls the nearby pituitary gland.16 The their mistake. stimulating structures other than the amygdala can evoke such behavior. and now it cowers in terror.13 The limbic system This a normally placid domestic animal. you can activate the engine. influence aggression and fear (FIGURE 2. 1975). two lima-bean–sized neural clusters.15 Aggression as a brain parts of the brain. rats . THE HYPOTHALAMUS Just below (hypo) the thalamus is the hypothalamus Frank Siteman/Stock. The hypothalamus both monitors blood chemistry and takes orders from other FIGURE 2.) autonomic nervous system is activated by such stimulation? A remarkable discovery about the hypothalamus illustrates how progress in sci- nervous system. Some neural clusters in the hypothalamus influence hunger. suggesting its role in nervous and endocrine systems: The brain influences the endocrine system. an important link in the chain of command governing bodily mainte- nance. open-minded investigators make an unexpected The cat would be aroused via its sympathetic observation. For example.. James Olds and Peter Milner (1954). In 1939. Which division of the in turn influences the brain. were trying to implant an electrode in a rat’s reticular forma- tion when they made a magnificent mistake: They incorrectly placed the electrode in what they later discovered was a region of the rat’s hypothalamus (Olds.” the pituitary (see Figure 2. not “pleasure centers. the rat kept returning to the location where it had been stimulated by this misplaced electrode. today’s scientists ISM/Phototake nal environment in a refer to reward centers. UK the most mellow of creatures. we must be careful. ence often occurs—when curious.16). (Once again. (What the low/orange in this MRI scan photograph. including the perception of these emotions and the processing of emotional memories (Anderson & Phelps. helps rats actually experience only they know. such as a cat? Do so in one spot and the cat pre- neural system sits between the brain’s older pares to attack. thinking about sex (in your brain’s cerebral cortex) state Back arched and fur fluffed. Olds and Milner alertly realized they had stum- hypothalamus This bled upon a brain center that provides a pleasurable reward. psychologist Heinrich Klüver and neurosurgeon Paul Bucy surgically lesioned the part of a rhesus monkey’s brain that includ- ed the amygdala. These experiments confirm the amygdala’s role in rage and fear. its hair on end (FIGURE parts and its cerebral hemispheres.” as he called them. Still. The limbic 2. to influence a cat’s amygdala provokes reactions such as hormones released by other glands. 48 | CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND THE AMYGDALA In the limbic system. press pedals to trigger their own stimulation in these areas. Even within the limbic system. Move the electrode only slightly within the amygdala. On discovering FIGURE 2. If you charge your car’s dead battery.14). which emotions like rage.

substance abuse. linked to emotion. including goldfish. Reward centers in nearby brain amygdala [uh-MIG-duh-la] two lima- Stimulation areas were later discovered in many pedal Electrified grid bean–sized neural clusters in the limbic other species. via the pituitary gland. they readily crosses an electrified grid. behavior that ensured the survival of ever provides that missing pleasure or relieves negative feelings (Blum et al. the self or the species—like sex and FIGURE 2. 1986). phins. . Some researchers believe that ad. such as alcohol dependence. Stimulated pa.. 1972.17 Rat with an implanted pace—up to 7000 times per hour— electrode With an electrode implanted in a until they dropped from exhaustion. Hooper & Teresi. and distributed specific centers associated with the thalamus. controls simple reflexes Cerebellum: coordinates voluntary movement and balance Cerebral cortex Limbic system Brainstem and supports memories of such . however. “If you were designing a robot dictive disorders. it directs several maintenance pleasures of eating. activities (eating. animal hypothalamus [hi-po-THAL-uh-muss] a research has revealed both a general reward system that triggers the release of the neural structure lying below (hypo) the neurotransmitter dopamine. you’d wire it up so that natural brain systems for pleasure and well-being that leads people to crave what. drinking. In fact. To calm vio. drinking. . the rat Moreover. accepting the painful shocks. system. eating—would be naturally bral cortex. helps govern endocrine system. to get this stimulation. and is linked to lent patients. it seems.17). helps govern the endocrine system Do we humans also have brain centers for pleasure? Indeed we do.” —Candace Pert (1986) FIGURE 2. CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND | 49 would sometimes do so at a feverish FIGURE 2. . unlike Olds’ rats.18 locates the brain areas discussed in this chapter. come equipped with built. and sex. and binge eating. including the cere. and monkeys. reward center of its hypothalamus. our next topic. Animals. reinforcing. dol. that a starving rat would not cross to reach food (FIGURE 2. they were not driven to a frenzy (Deutsch. vehicle to walk into the future and may stem from a reward deficiency syndrome—a genetically disposed deficiency in the survive. 1996).18 Brain structures and their functions Corpus callosum: Cerebral cortex: axon fibers connecting the ultimate control and two cerebral hemispheres information-processing Right hemisphere center Left hemisphere Thalamus: relays messages between lower brain centers and cerebral cortex Hypothalamus: controls maintenance functions such as eating. tients reported mild pleasure. linked to emotion and reward Pituitary: Amygdala: master endocrine gland linked to emotion Reticular formation: helps control arousal Medulla: controls heartbeat and Hippocampus: breathing linked to memory Spinal cord: pathway for neural fibers traveling to and from brain. emotion and reward. body tempera- in systems that reward activities essential to survival. to press a pedal that would even cross an electrified floor sends electrical impulses to that center. ture). one neurosurgeon implanted electrodes in such areas.

and body c. and memory functions. emotions. The limbic system. The brain’s ballooning left and right hemispheres are filled mainly with axons making plans and judgments. spinal cord. you would see that each hemisphere sory input for touch and body position. It is your brain’s thinking crown. emo.” cerebellum is “little brain. Answers: 15. cerebral [seh-REE-bruhl] cortex the Structure of the Cortex intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres. 16. hypothalamus. Without these wrinkles. As we move up the ladder of animal life. structure at the border of the brain’s brain stimulation would lead you to b. the body’s ultimate control and information. amygdala. Their words are actually attempts spheres that contribute 85 percent of the brain’s weight—form specialized work at graphic description: For example. brain used the language of scholars—Latin and basic drives. Olds and Milner was located in the and the d. Each of the four lobes carries out many functions. hippocampus. pituitary. 17. hippocampus. The larger cortex of mammals offers increased capacities for learning and thinking. Being human takes a lot of nerve. connecting the cortex to the brain’s other regions. the parietal lobes (at the top and to of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the rear). Stepping back to consider the whole cortex. hypothalamus. hippocampus. you find the temporal lobes. The initial reward center discovered by of the limbic system are the amygdala c. includes the auditory areas. and the organism’s adaptability increases. you would see a wrinkled organ. enabling them to be more adaptable. a. there occipital [ahk-SIP-uh-tuhl] lobes portion are the frontal lobes (behind your forehead). Frogs and other am- phibians with a small cortex operate extensively on preprogrammed genetic instructions. b. thinking. The neural structure that most directly b. hypothalamus. is divided into four lobes. includes areas that receive infor- mation from the visual fields. cortex teams that enable our perceiving. or folds (FIGURE 2. motor cortex an area at the rear of the 9: What are the functions of the cerebral cortex? frontal lobes that controls voluntary More than a century ago. cortex lying roughly above the ears. b. frontal lobes portion of the cerebral cor- shaped somewhat like the meat of an oversized walnut. 17.50 | CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND REHEARSE IT! 15. exposing the brain. c. speechless revealed damaged cortical areas. and moving forward. 8: How is the cerebral cortex organized? processing center. each receiving information primarily from the opposite Functions of the Cortex ear. your body’s ultimate control and information-processing center. 2005). involved flattened cerebral cortex would require triple the area—roughly that of a very large in speaking and muscle movements and in pizza. and the occipital lobes (at the back of your head). If you opened a human skull. just above your ears. the cerebral cortex expands. regulates eating. and many functions require the interplay temporal lobes portion of the cerebral of several lobes. tions. amygdala. d. and speaking. endocrine system.19). b. tight ge- netic controls relax. Covering those hemi- means “bark. c. drinking. suppose the electrode had touched the c. a. Two parts b. 18. A cat’s ferocious response to electrical a. a doughnut-shaped 16. temperature is the d. cerebral hemispheres. older parts and the cerebral hemispheres. a thin surface layer of intercon- and thalamus is “inner chamber. Newer neural networks within the cerebrum—the two large hemi- and Greek. of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear. is associated with basic motives. like bark on a tree. geographic subdivisions separated by prominent fissures. brainstem. pituitary. Starting at the front of your brain and moving over the top. 18. autopsies of people who had been partially paralyzed or movements. d. Reversing direction the head. receives sen. thalamus. is the cerebral cortex.” spheres. The cerebral cortex—that thin surface layer—contains some 20 to 23 billion nerve cells and 300 trillion synaptic parietal [puh-RYE-uh-tuhl] lobes portion connections (de Courten-Myers. a tex lying just behind the forehead. The Cerebral Cortex The people who first dissected and labeled the Older brain networks sustain basic life functions and enable memory. hippocampus. a. But this rather crude evidence did not . d.” nected neural cells.

such as the fingers and mouth. 1996). p. damage to almost any area might produce the same effect. In one human patient.19 The cortex and its basic The brain has left and subdivisions right hemispheres Frontal lobe Parietal lobe Temporal lobe Occipital lobe convince researchers that specific parts of the cortex perform specific complex functions. 114). Doctor. Tough. Spanish neuroscientist José Delgado repeatedly demonstrated the mechanics of motor behavior. they made an impor- tant discovery: They could make parts of its body move. stimulating parts of this region in the left or right hemisphere caused Demonstration: Try moving your right movements of specific body parts on the opposite side of the body. where does the cortex receive the incoming messages? Penfield also identified the cortical . when German physicians Gustav Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig applied mild electrical stimulation to parts of a dog’s cortex. table. the Now reverse the foot motion (but not the hand). as if polishing a had discovered what is now called the motor cortex. More recently. Fritsch and Hitzig hand in a circular motion. Moreover. whose fingers closed despite his best efforts. CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND | 51 FIGURE 2. the patient. occupied the greatest amount of cortical space. running roughly ear-to-ear across the top of the brain. so their opposed covered that body areas requiring precise control. They dis. Asked to keep the fingers open during the next stimulation. After all. but we would be fooling ourselves if we thought we had “localized” the picture in the cord. in 1870. if control of speech and movement were diffused across the cor- tex. “I guess. he stimulated a spot on the left motor cortex that triggered the right hand to make a fist. Knowing this. The effects were selective: Stimulation caused movement only when applied to an arch-shaped region at the back of the frontal lobes. 1969. For example. scientists have been able to predict a monkey’s arm motion a tenth of a second before it moves—by repeatedly measuring motor cortex activity preceding specific arm movements (Gibbs. A television with its power cord cut would go dead. re- marked. Now start your right foot doing the same motion synchronized with the hand. that your electricity is stronger than my will” (Delgado. activities interfere less with each other. huh? But easier if you try brain has no sensory receptors. Otfrid Foerster and Wilder Penfield moving the left foot opposite to the right in the 1930s were able to map the motor cortex in hundreds of wide-awake patients hand. MOTOR FUNCTIONS Scientists had better luck in localizing simpler brain functions. by opposite sides of the brain. SENSORY FUNCTIONS If the motor cortex sends messages out to the body. Such findings have opened the door to a new generation of prosthetics (artificial body part replacements). MAPPING THE MOTOR CORTEX Luckily for brain surgeons and their patients. The left and right limbs are controlled by stimulating different cortical areas and observing the body’s responses.

to it. Courtney. Ungerleider. Ma. greater representation in the cortex than does The more sensitive the body region. National Institute of Mental Health A bad enough bash there would make you blind. When the person stops Any sound you now hear is processed by looking.22). (In a sense. the fingers have a some point on the side and the person may feel something on the face. S. K. the region instantly calms down. Haxby. you might see flashes Courtesy of V. Maisog. visual information goes to the brain in action This fMRI (functional other areas that specialize in tasks such as MRI) scan shows the visual cortex in the occipital lobes activated (color representation identifying words.21 New technology shows occipital lobes. (FIGURE 2. and owls to their hearing sensations. At this moment.20 outlines part’s size. both the motor cortex and the sensory cortex. the brain devotes more tis. recognizing faces. of light or dashes of color. This area at the front of the parietal lobes. Stimulated there. pant looks at a photo.21 and 2.) Stimulate a point on the top of this sue to sensitive areas and to areas requiring band of tissue and a person may report being touched on the shoulder. we do have eyes in the back of our head!) From your FIGURE 2. detecting emotions.20 Left-hemisphere tissue devoted to each body part in the motor cortex and the sensory cortex As area that specializes in receiving information from the skin senses and from the you can see from this classic though inexact movement of body parts. P. Clark. the larger the sensory cortex area devoted the upper arm. stimulate precise control. the amount of cortex devoted to a body part is not proportional to that just behind the motor cortex. we now call the sensory cortex. which is one reason we kiss with our lips rather than touch toes. Your supersensitive lips project to a larger brain area than do your toes. Rats have a large brain area devoted to their whisker sensations. Rather. parallel to and representation. V. your auditory cortex in your temporal lobes . you are receiving visual information in the visual cortex in your occipital lobes.52 | CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND Output: Motor cortex Input: Sensory cortex (Left-hemisphere section (Left-hemisphere section receives controls the body’s right side) input from the body’s right side) Trunk Hip Trunk Hip Neck Knee Knee Wrist Arm Hand Arm Leg Fingers Ankle Fingers Thumb Foot Thumb Toes Toes Neck Brow Eye Eye Nose Face Genitals Face Lips Lips Jaw Teeth Tongue Gums Jaw Swallowing Tongue FIGURE 2. Keill. Scientists have identified additional areas where the cortex receives input from senses other than touch. G. and of increased bloodflow) as a research partici. L. J. at the very back of your brain (FIGURES 2. and J. Thus.

soft-spoken Phineas cortex that are not involved in primary Gage was now irritable. and hold it in front of you. Frontal lobe damage also can alter personality. p. CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND | 53 (Figure 2. and act on information ears—receives information from your ears. goes on in this vast region of the brain? Neurons in these cortex association areas (the peach-colored areas in FIGURE 2. Although his mental abilities and motor or sensory functions. 2006). and dishonest. planning. then 25 years old. receives input from your eyes. So.) Most of this auditory information travels a circuitous route from one ear to the auditory re- ceiving area above your opposite ear. What. association area functions cannot be neatly mapped.24 on the next body touch and movement sensations. in your temporal lobes—above your not dormant. If stimulated there. thinking. profane. then. These vast areas of the Sensory areas brain are responsible for integrating and Human Association areas acting on information received and processed by sensory areas. remembering. the cerebral cortex. One afternoon in 1848. was “no involved in higher mental functions such as longer Gage. integrate. they enable judgment. removing a person’s inhibitions. Yet they would not be able to plan ahead to begin baking a cake for a birthday party (Huey et al.. Even the phantom ringing sound experienced by people with hearing loss is—if heard in one ear—associated with activity in the temporal lobe on the brain’s opposite side (Muhlnickel. FIGURE 2. 1998). speaking. To everyone’s amazement. Rather. 1999). Gage.” He eventually lost his job and ended up earning his living as a fair. (If true. said his friends. The auditory sioned animals and brain-damaged humans bear witness that association areas are cortex.23) integrate information. you might hear a sound.. high scores on intelligence tests. This person. learning. cortex Electrically probing the association areas doesn’t trigger any observable re- sponse. Their silence has led to what Donald McBurney (1996. and association areas areas of the cerebral after the wound healed he returned to work. your thumb would roughly correspond to one of your temporal lobes. that leaves a full three- fourths of the thin. and integrating information. Association areas are found in all four lobes. unlike the sensory and motor areas. Visual They link sensory inputs with stored memories—a very important part of thinking. wouldn’t this imply a 90 percent occipital lobes at the rear of your brain chance that a bullet to your brain would land in an unused area?) Surgically le. rather. leaving his frontal lobes massively damaged (FIGURE 2. (If you think of your clenched fist as your brain. 44) FIGURE 2.22). In humans. ground exhibit. his personality was not. they are memories were intact.23 Areas of the cortex in Rat four mammals More intelligent animals Cat have increased “uncommitted” or association Motor areas Chimpanzee areas of the cortex. Consider the classic case of railroad worker Phineas Gage. . these areas interpret.22 The visual cortex and called “one of the hardiest weeds in the garden of psychology”: the claim that we or- auditory cortex The visual cortex of the dinarily use only 10 percent of our brains. But the affable. and great cake- baking skills. page). we have pointed out small areas of the cortex that either receive sensory input or direct muscular output. processed by the sensory areas. People with damaged frontal lobes may have intact memories. ASSOCIATION AREAS So far. MRI scans of people with schizophrenia reveal active auditory areas in the temporal lobes during auditory hallucinations (Lennox et al. A sensory cortex area at the front of the spark ignited the gunpowder. was packing gunpowder into a rock with a tamping iron. In the frontal lobes. shooting the rod up through his left cheek and out the parietal lobes that registers and processes top of his skull. wrinkled layer. and processing of new memories. uncommitted to sensory or Auditory motor activity. he was immediately able to sit up and speak.

or writing and reading. If a stroke or head injury destroyed this area of your brain. or singing and speaking as merely different examples of the same general ability—language. Asked to describe a picture that showed two boys stealing cookies behind a woman’s back. or sing but not speak. the nearby Wernicke’s area. probable path of the rod through Gage’s brain. read numbers but not letters. Not only may they become less in- hibited (without the frontal lobe brakes on their impulses). What does this tell us about the mystery of how we use language. LANGUAGE: SPECIALIZATION AND INTEGRATION We think of speaking and read- ing. but unable to read. a brain area. but those with damage to a brain area behind the eyes often do (Koenigs et al. But consider this curious finding: Aphasia. Clue 2 In 1874. the reception. She’s working another time” (Geschwind. In the parietal lobes. they enable mathematical and spatial reasoning (Witelson et al. an impaired use of language. can result from damage to any one of several cortical areas. German investigator Carl Wernicke discovered that after dam- age to a specific area of the left temporal lobe (Wernicke’s area) people could speak only meaningless words. Similar impairments to moral imaging techniques.54 | CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND FIGURE 2. 1999). which Wernicke’s area uses to derive its meaning. an area of the frontal lobe. An area on the underside of the right temporal lobe enables us to recognize faces. parts of which were large and unusually shaped in Albert Einstein’s normal-weight brain. one patient responded: “Mother is away her working her work to get her better. lobes. (2) are relayed to the angular gyrus. All rights reserved. some people with aphasia can speak fluently but cannot read (despite good vision). which (5) controls the .24 Phineas Gage reconsidered With his frontal lobes ruptured. Norman Geschwind as- movements involved in speech. is involved in reading aloud. the angular gyrus. Association areas also perform other mental functions.. Broca’s area controls language expression. Damage to Broca’s area disrupts speaking.26). usually in the Clue 4 Nerve fibers interconnect these brain areas. but when she’s looking the two boys looking the other part. When you read aloud. that is involved in language transforms the words into an auditory code that (3) is received and understood in comprehension and expression. Damage to the angular gyrus leaves a person able to speak and understand.. you would still be able to de- scribe facial features and to recognize someone’s gender and approximate age. or even your grand- mother. It Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to receives visual information from the visual area and recodes it into an auditory Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding). 2007). usually in the left words (1) register in the visual area. sembled these and other clues into an explanation of how distinct neural networks Wernicke’s area controls language in our brain enable language (FIGURES 2. while others can comprehend what they read but can- not speak. but their moral judgments seem unrestrained by normal emotions. Would you advocate pushing someone in front of a runaway boxcar to save five oth- ers? Most people do not. 1979). behavior. and how did researchers solve this mystery? Clue 1 In 1865. Jack Black. Still others can write but not read. aphasia impairment of language. and (4) is sent to Broca’s area. form.25 and 2. read but not write. Even more curious. Gage’s Using measurements of his skull (which was moral compass had disconnected from his kept as a medical record) and modern neuro. Damage to Wernicke’s area also disrupts understanding. French physician Paul Broca reported that after damage to a specific area of the left frontal lobe (later called Broca’s area) a person would struggle to speak words while still being able to sing familiar songs and com- prehend speech. which temporal lobe. yet be strangely unable to identify the person as. left hemisphere. that directs the muscle Almost a century after Broca’s and Wernicke’s findings. researcher Hanna Damasio judgment have appeared in more recent and her colleagues (1994) reconstructed the studies of people with damaged frontal © 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society. usually caused by left-hemisphere damage either to Clue 3 A third brain area. say.

Professional courtesy”) in a different brain area than jokes playing on words (“What kind of lights did Noah use on the ark? . Visual cortex (receives written words as visual stimulation) 3. 1992). a different form of aphasia occurs. the brain operates by dividing its mental functions—speaking. thinking. Broca’s area (transforms visual (controls speech representations into muscles via an auditory code) the motor cortex) 1. Motor cortex brain areas involved in language (word is pronounced) processing 2. most of which lies beneath the surface of your awareness. . but your brain is computing each word’s form. These specialized networks help explain a funny finding. sound.26 Brain activity when hear- (auditory cortex and (visual cortex and (Broca’s area and ing. perceiv- ing. . Functional MRI scans show that we process jokes playing on meaning (“Why don’t sharks bite lawyers? . Wernicke’s area (interprets auditory code) motor cortex as it creates the pronounced word. Depending on which link in this chain is damaged. Think about it: What you experience as a continuous. and speaking words PET Wernicke’s area) angular gyrus) the motor cortex) scans such as these detect the activity of dif- ferent areas of the brain. . and meaning using different neural networks (Posner & Carr. Angular gyrus 4. .25 A simplified model of 5. Flood lights”) (Goel & Dolan. Your conscious experience of reading this page seems indivisible. remembering—into subfunctions. CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND | 55 FIGURE 2. The big point to remember is this: In processing language. seeing. . 2001). We will see this division of labor again in Chapter 6. indivisible stream of experience is actually but the visible tip of a subdivided information-processing iceberg. as in other forms of infor- mation processing. (a) (b) (c) Hearing words Seeing words Speaking words FIGURE 2. in the discussion of vision.

If a blind per- son uses one finger to read Braille. process. . the area of the temporal lobe normally dren retain their memory. Toes d. we’ll focus more on how experience molds the brain. The Brain’s Plasticity 10: To what extent can a damaged brain reorganize itself? Our brains are sculpted not only by our genes but also by our experiences. the brain will compensate by put- ting other areas to work. fissures. severed neurons usually do not regenerate (if your spinal cord were severed. Temporarily “knock out” seizures). 1997). Thumb lobes. as in the case of this 6-year-old. 2005). Yet com- wonder—quite awe-inspiring. such as those from the visual system. d. The “uncommitted” areas that make up a. c. comprehending language—all depend on specific neural networks. Forehead 22. Knee c. association areas.. But there is good news: Some neural tissue can reorganize in response to damage. Our brains are most plastic when we are young children (Kolb. even an normally helps people see (Barinaga. move your left leg. use of the opposite hand is compromised. recognizing faces. (Bosworth & Dobkins. not they reported being “awed” by how well chil. c. It happens within all of us. REHEARSE IT! 19. 2004). in people whose native language is signed. One Johns Hopkins the visual cortex with magnetic stimulation. the greater the chance that the remain. d. Judging and planning are enabled by the b. Blindness or deafness makes unused brain areas available for other uses (Amedi et al. 1989. d. frontal has the greatest representation in the a. spoken. Answers: 19. If a neurosurgeon stimulated your right a. occipital lobes. Which of the following body regions tex are called c. and medical team reflected on the child hemi.. ing hemisphere can take over the functions of That helps explain the finding that many deaf the one that was surgically removed (Choi. temporal sensory cortex? b. let’s turn to evidence from studies of the brain’s plasticity. c. and loving involve the coordination of —Simon Conway Morris.27). people have enhanced peripheral vision 2008). as the brain repairs itself after little mishaps. the mind’s subsystems are localized in particular brain regions. b. In Chap- ter 4. Together. 20. 1992a. many brain areas.56 | CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND “It is the way systems interact and To sum up. c. The brain’s plasticity is good news for those blind or deaf. d. motor cortex.. these two principles—specialization and integration— “The Boyle Lecture. see light. 21. the brain FIGURE 2. Wernicke’s area. see also FIGURE 2. yet have a dynamic interdependence that the brain acts as a unified whole. perceiving is—unless one has lost all sense of scenes. a lifelong-blind person will make more errors on spherectomies they had performed.” plex functions such as listening. Similarly. entire hemisphere (removed to eliminate Sadato et al. occipital d. it looks for other signals to sphere (Vining et al. Finally. Although a language task (Amedi et al. Moving your hand. but for now. its ability to modify itself after some types of damage. you would probably be permanently paralyzed).. 1999). about three-fourths of the cerebral cor..” 2005 describe the brain’s functioning. personality. One newborn who suf- fered damage to the facial recognition areas on both temporal lobes never regained a normal ability to recognize faces (Farah et al. feel a touch on the right arm. you would most likely b. 21. And some very spe- cific brain functions seem preassigned to particular areas. 1996). hear a sound. and dedicated to hearing waits in vain for stimula- Joe McNally/Joe McNally Photography humor after removal of either brain hemi- tion. Unlike cut skin.27 Brain plasticity If surgery or area dedicated to that finger expands as the an injury destroys one part of a child’s brain sense of touch invades the visual cortex that or. 22. a. 2000). parietal 20. learning. The younger the child.

and tumors in the left hemisphere can impair reading. 1984). sleep. speaking. Then researchers found that the “minor” right hemisphere was not so limited after all. Lost fingers also feature in another mysterious phenomenon. If so. too. evidence suggests that. and nonstressful but stimulating environments (Iso et al. carrying messages between them. If a slow-growing tumor in plasticity the brain’s ability to change. The story of this discovery is a fasci- nating chapter in psychology’s history. Master stem cells that can develop into any type of brain cell have also been discovered in the human embryo. Pereira et al. and understanding. and its silent companion to the right is the “subordinate” or “minor” hemisphere. adult mice and humans can also generate new brain cells (Jessberger et al. Stranahan et al. 2007. ways based on experience.. 2003). Note. strokes. So what do you suppose was the sexual intercourse experience of another Ramachandran patient whose lower leg had been amputated? “I actually experience my orgasm in my foot. many interpreted these differences as evidence that the left hemisphere is the “dominant” or “major” hemisphere. which then become more sensitive (Fox. 2008). As Figure 2. S. by reorganiz- et al. could they put an end to this biological tennis game by severing the corpus callosum (see FIGURE 2. the hand is between the sensory cortex’s face and arm regions. that the toes region is adjacent to the genitals. And there it’s much bigger than it used to be because it’s no longer just confined to my genitals” (Ramachandran & Blakeslee. Lose a finger and the sensory cortex that received its input will begin ing after damage or by building new path- to receive input from the adjacent fingers. Ronald Myers.28 on the next page). Accidents. and Michael Gazzaniga had divided the brains of cats and monkeys in this manner. In the meantime.20 neurogenesis the formation of new shows.. might neural stem cells turn themselves into replace- ments for lost brain cells? Might we someday be able to rebuild damaged brains. V. 36). specu- lated that major epileptic seizures were caused by an amplification of abnormal brain activity bouncing back and forth between the two cerebral hemispheres. with . arithmetic reasoning. contrary to long-held belief. Sensory fibers that terminate on adjacent sum] the large band of neural fibers con- necting the two brain hemispheres and areas had invaded the brain area vacated by the hand. 1998. These baby neurons originate deep in the brain and may then migrate elsewhere and form connections with neighboring neurons (Gould. the left hemisphere disrupts language. CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND | 57 Plasticity is especially evident after serious damage. 2007. If mass-produced in a lab and injected into a damaged brain. Monkey brains illustrate neurogenesis by forming thousands of new neurons each day. they wondered. When neurons. 2006). such as exercise. two Los Angeles neurosurgeons.. stroking the arm of someone whose hand had been amputated. the right hemisphere may compensate (Thiel especially during childhood. we can all benefit from other natural pro- moters of neurogenesis.. Philip Vogel and Joseph Bogen. 2007). clinical evidence has shown that the brain’s two sides serve differing functions. 2006). This hemispheric specialization (or lateralization) is appar- ent after brain damage. Similar lesions in the right hemisphere seldom have such dramatic effects. Today’s biotech companies are hard at work on such possi- bilities (Gage. Splitting the Brain In 1961. By 1960. much as we reseed damaged lawns? Might new drugs spur the production of new nerve cells? Stay tuned.. Although brain modification often takes the form of reorganization. writing. Ramachandran found that the person felt the sensations not only on the area stroked but also on corpus callosum [KOR-pus kah-LOW- the nonexistent (“phantom”) fingers. Our Divided Brain 11: What do split brains reveal about the functions of our two brain hemispheres? For more than a century. p. the wide band of axon fibers connecting the two hemispheres and carrying messages between them? Vogel and Bogen knew that psychologists Roger Sperry.

they flashed a stimulus to its right or left. (controlled by the right hemisphere) ry information from both the right and left pointed to HE. too. Sperry and Gazzaniga’s studies of people with split brains provide a key to under- Left Right standing the two hemispheres’ complemen- visual field visual field tary functions. the hemi- sphere receiving the information would in- stantly pass the news to its partner across the valley. no serious ill effects. nerves In an early experiment. The right hemisphere across the corpus callosum. The result? The seizures were all but gery that isolates the brain’s two hemi. As FIGURE 2. the patients with these split brains were surprisingly nor- spheres by cutting the fibers (mainly those mal. what it could not verbally report.29 explains. As the per- son stared at a spot. So the surgeons operated. Given an opportunity to visual fields. joked that he had a “splitting headache” (Gazzaniga. In a person with of left callosum of right a severed corpus callosum. each hemisphere reported Visual area Corpus Visual area what it had seen. hemisphere.28 The corpus callosum This Corpus callosum large band of neural fibers connects the two brain hemispheres. the patients said they had seen half of your visual field goes to your left ART. University of Iowa on the right. Thus. This enabled the researchers to quiz each hemi- Optic sphere separately. To photograph the half brain shown at left. eliminated. which usually controls speech. 1967). When he then asked what they hemisphere. and information from the right had seen. Waking from surgery. but in your intact brain.58 | CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND FIGURE 2. Rother split brain a condition resulting from sur. they were startled when their left hand (Note. their personality and intellect hardly affected. Moreover. Martin M. this information hemisphere hemisphere (controlling the left hand) intuitively knew sharing does not take place.) Data received by either hemi- sphere are quickly transmitted to the other express itself. Not so in patients who had un- dergone split-brain surgery. They could do this with you. In the view Courtesy of Terence Williams. . a surgeon separated the hemispheres by cutting through the corpus callosum and lower brain regions. Their corpus callosum—the phone cables responsible for transmitting messages from one hemi- sphere to the other—had been severed. brain tissue has been cut back to expose the corpus callosum and bundles of fibers coming out from it. HE appeared in their Optic left visual field (which transmits to the chiasm right hemisphere) and ART in the right FIGURE 2. But when asked to point to the word. however. that each eye receives senso. one even of the corpus callosum) connecting them. the peculiar nature of our visual wiring enabled the researchers to send information to a pa- tient’s left or right hemisphere. Gazzaniga (1967) asked these patients to stare at a dot as he flashed HE·ART on a screen (FIGURE 2.30).29 The information highway Speech from eye to brain Information from the left field (which transmits to the left hemi- half of your field of vision goes to your right sphere).

scissors”—left versus right hand. (Reading these reports. they read. or put grocery store items back on the shelf after the right hand put them in the cart.) “Look at the dot. It was as if each hemisphere was think- ing “I’ve half a mind to wear my green (blue) shirt today. she points to the portion of the word transmitted to her right hemisphere. However. (From Gazzaniga.) When the “two minds” are at odds. see also FIGURE 2. of course. be- wildered by what the nonverbal right hemisphere knows. can simultaneously draw “What? Right? How could I possibly pick out the right object when I don’t know two different shapes.” Instead. 1983. the patient doesn’t say “I don’t know. BBC . split-brain surgery. paper. 2000. FIGURE 2.” Two words separated by a dot are momentarily projected. A few people who have had split-brain surgery have been for a time bothered by the unruly independence of their left hand. But when asked to identify what they had viewed by feeling an assortment of hidden objects with their left hand. Un- aware of the order. who has had ily selected the spoon. “Right!” the patient might reply. the patients —Matthew 6:3 could not say what they had viewed. CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND | 59 FIGURE 2. Yet.. what I saw?” It is.” When a picture of a spoon was flashed to their right hemisphere. a woman with a split brain reports seeing the portion of the word transmitted to her left hemisphere. If a patient follows an order sent to the right hemisphere (“Walk”).” (c) “Do not let your left hand know what your right hand is doing.31). I fantasize a person enjoying a solitary game of “rock. said Sperry (1964). when asked why. the left hemisphere doesn’t know why the patient begins walking.” With a split brain.” Indeed.31 Try this! Joe. both hemispheres can comprehend and follow an instruction to copy— simultaneously—different figures with the left and right hands (Franz et al. If the experimenter said. split-brain surgery leaves people “with two separate minds. (a) (b) “What word did you see?” or “Point with your left hand to the word you saw. a strange thing happens. the left hemisphere doing the talking here. if asked to indicate with her left hand what she saw. which might unbutton a shirt while the right hand buttoned it. the left hemisphere does mental gym- nastics to rationalize reactions it does not understand.30 Testing the divided brain When an experimenter flashes the word HEART across the visual field.

The right hemisphere also helps orchestrate our sense of self. People who suffer partial paralysis will sometimes obstinately deny their impairment—strangely claiming they can move a paralyzed limb—if the damage is to the right hemisphere (Berti et al. the right hemisphere will more quickly recognize another word distantly related to all three (cut). the left hemisphere will be especially quick to recognize the closely asso- ciated word heel. a head?” (Heller. And if given an insightlike problem—“What word goes with boot. To check the location of language centers.. As one patient explained after a right-hemisphere stroke. whether spoken or signed. Others fail to recognize themselves in a mirror. but the person can still speak. because of its visual-spatial superiority? Or the left. brain waves. much as it would disrupt a hearing person’s speaking. 2005).” The right hemisphere performs other tasks as well. No. A dramatic demonstration of hemispheric specialization happens before some types of brain surgery. The patient also usually becomes speechless until the drug wears off. they had difficulty recogniz- ing themselves in the morphed photos (Uddin et al. Gazzaniga (1988).. Bowden & Beeman. the person’s right arm falls limp. the patient is lying down. 1998. 2005). 1998. “I understand words. would each observe its own color? press agent that instantly constructs theories to explain our behavior. A stroke in the left hemisphere will disrupt a deaf person’s signing. To the brain.. the left arm falls limp. But when magnetic stimulation disrupted their normal right-brain activity. as in the case of a man who saw medical caretakers as family (Feinberg & Keenan. deaf people use the left hemisphere to process sign lan- guage (Corina et al. because it typically processes language? Studies reveal that. activity increases in the left hemisphere. summer.60 | CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND Question: If we flashed a red light to the the interpretive left hemisphere improvises—“I’m going into the house to get a right hemisphere of a person with a split Coke.” Thus. for example. Hickok et al. When the person speaks or calculates. As people recognized them- selves.99+ percent of us with undivided brains? Does each of our hemispheres also perform distinct functions? Several different types of studies indi- cate they do. It helps us modulate our speech to make meaning clear. as when we ask “What’s that in the road ahead?” in- stead of “What’s that in the road. But if primed with foot. parts of their right brain displayed sudden activity. Which hemisphere would you suppose enables sign language among deaf people? The right. 1992. but I’m missing the subtleties. Although the left hemisphere is adept at making quick. . When a person performs a perceptual task. and glucose consumption reveal increased activity in the right hemisphere. Would the person be aware that the colors dif- fer? What would the person verbally report seeing? Answers:Yes. The same brain area is similarly involved in both spoken and signed speech produc- tion (Corina. arms in the air. With right-brain damage. Right-Left Differences in the Intact Brain So. Can you predict what happens when the drug flows into the artery going to the left hemi- sphere? Within seconds. When the drug enters the artery to the right hemisphere. who considers these patients “The most fascinating brain and flashed a green light to the left people on earth. and ground?”—the right hemisphere more quickly than the left recognizes the solution (camp).. Mason & Just. some patients have difficulty perceiv- ing who other people are in relation to themselves. and glass. 2005. the surgeon injects a sedative into the neck artery feeding blood to the left hemisphere. literal interpretations of language. Before the in- jection. 2006). what about the 99. 2001). cry. or they assign ownership of a limb to someone else (“that’s my husband’s arm”).” concluded that the conscious left hemisphere is an “interpreter” or hemisphere. bloodflow. the right hemisphere excels in making inferences (Beeman & Chiarello. 1990). chatting with the doctor. 1998). just as hearing people usually use the left hemisphere to process speech. Green. The power of the right brain appeared in an experiment in which people with normal brains viewed a series of images that progressively mor- phed from the face of a co-worker into their own face. Primed with the flashed word foot. language is language. 2004).

b. recite the alphabet rapidly. An experimenter flashes the word HERON brain scans of those with undivided b. understand verbal instructions. cord. CHAPTER REVIEW The Biology of Mind Neural Communication The Nervous System 1 What are neurons. c. the The PNS has two main divisions. Answers: 23. To paraphrase cosmologist John Bar- row. c. enables voluntary control of the skeletal muscles. and motor neurons carry information from the brain and spinal nals). Plasticity—the brain’s ability to reorgan. Endorphins are natu. and receives signals through its which connects the CNS to the rest of the body by means of nerves. If the combined signals are strong enough. Sensory neurons carry 2 How do nerve cells communicate with other nerve cells? incoming information from sense receptors to the brain and spinal When action potentials reach the end of an axon (the axon termi. Damage to the brain’s right hemisphere b. branching dendrites. d. who would suppose they contribute uniquely to the harmony of the whole? Yet a variety of ob- servations—of people with split brains and people with normal brains—converge beautifully. . Neurons cluster into working neural networks. neurons. The Endocrine System ing neuron. where they travel through the body and affect other Each neurotransmitter travels a designated path in the brain and tissues. The endocrine system is a set of glands that secrete hormones into the 3 How do neurotransmitters influence behavior? bloodstream. says he saw ON but points to HER. is most likely to reduce a person’s ability c. b. neurogenesis. 24. evident in the brains of a. to d. A neuron the brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). and memory. so alike to the naked eye. And so it will always be. says he saw HER but points to ON. b. across the visual field of a man whose brains indicate that the left hemisphere c. says he saw HERON but points to ON. sends signals through its axons. 26. is transmitted to his right hemisphere a. split-brain patients. 25. and ON to his left hemisphere. which in turn influence the brain. nervous system. in a process called reuptake. and how do they transmit information? 4 What are the functional divisions of the nervous system? Neurons are the elementary components of the nervous system. sions. The autonomic tial) down its axon by means of a chemistry-to-electricity process. learning. right-handed people. Neurons are the basic building blocks of the nervous system. solve arithmetic problems. the The nervous system is divided into the central nervous system (CNS— body’s speedy electrochemical information system. 25. Interneurons communicate cal messengers carry a message from the sending neuron across a within the brain and spinal cord and between sensory and motor synapse to receptor sites on a receiving neuron. a. When b. if the signals from that neuron and others are strong enough. HER excels in d. The mind seeking to understand the brain—that is indeed among the ultimate scientific challenges. Studies of people with split brains and a. young children. visual perceptions. 26. making inferences. ize itself after damage—is especially asked to indicate what he saw. Acetylcholine brain’s hypothalamus influences the pituitary gland (the endocrine affects muscle action. a brain simple enough to be understood is too simple to produce a mind able to understand it. adrenals) to release hormones. through its sympathetic and parasympathetic divi- The neuron’s reaction is an all-or-none process. ron. the has a particular effect on behavior and emotions. The somatic nervous system neuron fires. The sending neu. young adults. transmitting an electrical impulse (the action poten. processing language. they stimulate the release of neurotransmitters. These chemi. a. REHEARSE IT! 23. leaving little doubt that we have unified brains with specialized parts. including the brain. In an intricate feedback system. The receiv. corpus callosum has been severed. controls involuntary muscles and glands. 24. then normally reabsorbs the excess neurotransmitter molecules in the synaptic gap. CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND | 61 Simply looking at the two hemispheres. d. generates its own action potential and relays the message 5 How does the endocrine system—the body’s slower information system—transmit its messages? to other cells. system’s master gland) which influences other glands (such as the ral opiates released in response to pain and exercise. cord out to the muscles and glands. the man c. says he saw HERON but points to HER. make inferences.

43 parietal [puh-RYE-uh-tuhl] lobes. 53 peripheral nervous system (PNS). Studies of healthy people with 8 How is the cerebral cortex organized? intact brains confirm that each hemisphere makes unique contri- The cerebral cortex is the thin layer of interconnected neurons cov. 54 nerves. Some nates muscle movement. 42 cerebral [seh-REE-bruhl] cortex. the other will pick up enables some types of nonverbal learning and memory. and other higher-level functions. the brain’s sensory switchboard. p. 51 nervous system. 46 neurogenesis. and the reticular formation (which affects arous- al). 47 sum]. p. p. p. maintenance functions. the pons (which helps coordi. 50 synapse [SIN-aps]. p. p. p. 56 interneurons. p. 45 sensory cortex. is responsible for auto. p. 45 association areas. aphasia. p. p. 38 electroencephalogram (EEG). 45 motor cortex. p. p. thinking. MRI scans now reveal brain structures. 41 p. 40 hypothalamus [hi-po-THAL-uh-muss]. p. and EEG. Its components are the medulla (which Damage to any of these regions may cause one of several types of controls heartbeat and breathing). brain hemispheres? amus (involved in various drives. p. 37 brainstem. 39 imaging). p. p. 58 sympathetic nervous system. 39 MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). and the angular gyrus. p. 44 temporal lobes. 39 cerebellum [sehr-uh-BELL-um]. neuron. 36 pituitary gland. 37 lesion [LEE-zhuhn]. p. butions to the integrated functioning of the brain. p. p. particularly Broca’s area. p. If one hemisphere is damaged early in life. 57 somatic nervous system. 50 endorphins [en-DOR-fins]. p. 45 Wernicke’s area. the more verbal. attached to the rear of the brainstem. 45 Broca’s area. p. 44 occipital [ahk-SIP-uh-tuhl] lobes. and helps process sensory information. 35 reflex. p. and the hypothal. the oldest part of the brain. 46 plasticity. 43 frontal lobes. 39 thalamus [THAL-uh-muss]. axon. Split-brain research (experiments on people with a severed corpus urable rewards). 39 fMRI (functional magnetic resonance aphasia. 40 . The motor cortex (at behavior and mind? the rear of the frontal lobes) controls muscle movement. the left hemisphere is which influences other glands to release hormones. p. the amygdala 11 What do split brains reveal about the functions of our two (involved in emotions such as aggression and fear). The sen- Clinical observations and lesioning have revealed the general effects sory cortex (at the front of the parietal lobes) receives information of brain damage. p. 39 reticular formation. p. Most of the cortex is devoted to uncommitted PET. 35 endocrine [EN-duh-krin] system. parietal. p.62 | CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND The Brain 9 What are the functions of the cerebral cortex? 6 How do neuroscientists study the brain’s connections to Some brain regions serve specific functions. 35 parasympathetic nervous system. 57 system. p. The hypothalamus also controls the pituitary. coordi. remembering. 54 sensory neurons. The cerebellum. p. 42 p. The thalamus. This plasticity diminishes later in life. Prominent folds divide each hemi- sphere into four lobes—the frontal. p. p. p. ering the brain’s hemispheres. p. callosum) has confirmed that in most people. 50 action potential. 48 dendrite. 48 split brain. brain areas are capable of neurogenesis (forming new neurons). 39 PET (positron emission tomography) scan. p. p. 50 neurotransmitters. p. 54 motor neurons. which integrate information involved in learning. p. and that the right hemisphere excels in visual per- ception and making inferences. p. p. p. 40 amygdala [uh-MIG-duh-la]. and temporal. The limbic system’s neural centers include the hippocampus (which processes memories of facts and episodes). many of its functions. nate movements). matic survival functions. and pleas. p. from our senses. 50 threshold. p. Terms and Concepts to Remember biological psychology. The brainstem. 39 medulla [muh-DUL-uh]. association areas. p. p. 7 What are the functions of important lower-level brain structures? Language depends on a chain of events in several brain regions. 36 adrenal [ah-DREEN-el] glands. p. 46 corpus callosum [KOR-pus kah-LOW- autonomic [aw-tuh-NAHM-ik] nervous limbic system. p. Wernicke’s area. occipital. sits above the 10 To what extent can a damaged brain reorganize itself? brainstem. 52 central nervous system (CNS). p. p. 35 hormones. and fMRI (functional MRI) recordings reveal brain activity. p.

Neurons bunch together in networks. 49). In The Astonishing Hypothesis (1994. . Yet your brain somehow integrates the neural communication when we are (a) tapped gently on information transmitted from distant regions. Sir Francis Crick 4. just as people tend to noted. ent neural networks communicate with one another to let you. Suggestions lobe association areas? What would you hear? What would for answering these questions can be found in Appendix D at the back you understand? of the book. and (b) slapped across the face.  Multiple-choice self-tests and more may be found at www. To appreciate how much is going on out. compare efficient communication. you in a coma? Without the very breath and heartbeat of life? side of our awareness. El Camino College 1. CHAPTER 2 | THE BIOLOGY OF MIND | 63 Test for Success: Critical Thinking Exercises By Amy Himsel. How do differ- the arm.worthpublishers. sounds? In what brain region would damage perhaps leave ate our experiences. Which area of the human brain is most similar to that of party? primitive animals? Which part of the human brain distin- guishes us the most from primitive animals? 5. we can imagine functioning without certain brain areas. respond when a friend greets you at a 2. for example. In what brain region would damage be most likely to disrupt your ability to skip rope? Your ability to sense tastes and 3. “What one neuron tells another neuron is simply how congregate in cities—in each what would it be like to talk The Test for Success exercises offer you a chance to apply your critical on the phone with your mother if you didn't have temporal thinking skills to aspects of the material you have just read.” Using terms from this chapter. For example. p. shorter distances enable much it is excited. We are not conscious of many brain processes that help cre.

Chapter Outline • The Brain and Consciousness Dual Processing Selective Attention • Sleep and Dreams Biological Rhythms and Sleep Why Do We Sleep? Sleep Disorders Dreams • Hypnosis Facts and Falsehoods Explaining the Hypnotized State • Drugs and Consciousness Dependence and Addiction Psychoactive Drugs Influences on Drug Use .

By the 1960s. At its beginning. Psychology was regaining consciousness. like those that we have when our mind goes elsewhere while reading or typing. In physics. 24). and sometimes it leaves us wondering who is really in control. 1887). psychology had nearly lost consciousness and was defining itself as “the science of behavior. For most psycholo- gists today. my dentist tells me to turn my head to the left. And then there are those times when consciousness seems to split. The difficulty of scientifically studying consciousness is apparent in psychology’s history. my obliging mouth could say the words while my mind wandered elsewhere. and our environment. Was my drug-induced dental experience akin to people’s experiences with other psychoactive drugs (mood. many psychologists—including those in the emerging school of behaviorism (Chap- ter 7)—turned instead to direct observations of behavior. mental concepts began to reemerge. as when enter- ing sleep or leaving a dream. we flit between various states of con- sciousness. Reading Green Eggs and Ham to my preschooler for the umpteenth time. ignoring my conscious mind. consciousness is similarly a fundamental yet slippery concept. Over the course of a day. After putting me under the influence of nitrous oxide. psychology was “the description and explanation of states of consciousness” (Ladd.1 on consciousness our awareness of ourselves the next page). My conscious mind resists: “No way. But during the first half of the twentieth century. including sleeping. Biologists agree on what is alive but not on precisely what life is. dreaming. waking.” Consciousness was likened to a car’s speedometer: “It doesn’t make the car go. It offers us weird experiences. 65 . To psychologists. explain people’s behavior while under hypnosis? And during sleep. and other mental states. my fingers can complete it as I strike up a conversation.3: Consciousness and the Two-Track Mind Consciousness can be a funny thing. p. a week. Psychologists of all persuasions were affirming the importance of cognition. or mental processes. After 1960. That wandering half-mind helps me again if someone drops by my office while I’m typing this sentence.and perception-altering substances)? Was my automatic obedience to my dentist like people’s responses to a hypnotist? Or does a split in consciousness. It’s not a problem. consciousness is our awareness of ourselves and our environment. a month. when and why do those weird dream experiences occur? But first questions first: What is consciousness? Every science has concepts so fundamental they are nearly impossible to define. 1991. it just reflects what’s happening” (Seligman. and various altered states (see FIGURE 3. “You can’t boss me around!” Whereupon my robotic head. matter and energy elude simple definition.” I silently say. turns obligingly under the dentist’s control. Advances in neuroscience made it possible to relate brain activity to sleeping.

for example. be embodied. emotions. you and I are aware of little more than what’s on the screen of our consciousness. (If everything psy- chological is simultaneously biological. We saw this in Chapter 2’s dis- cussion of the conscious “left brain” and more intuitive “right brain” revealed by studies of people following split-brain surgery. drill. so to speak.. Even so. Food or oxygen logically induced Hallucinations Orgasm starvation Some are psycho. and drug-induced hallucinating. read your mind. Daydreaming Drowsiness Dreaming spontaneously including daydreaming. Some states occur consciousness comes to us in altered states. two minds. neuroscientists can now. Dual Processing At any moment. Some are physio. 287). in the words of neuroscientist Marvin Minsky (1986. Perhaps consciousness helps us act in our long-term inter- ests (by considering consequences and helping us read others’ intentions). meditating. tell which of 10 similar objects (hammer.1 States of consciousness In addition to normal. that “the mind is what the brain does. sleeping. 2006). then our ideas. p. Discovering which brain region becomes active with a particular conscious expe- rience strikes many people as interesting but not mind-blowing. and so forth) you are viewing (Shinkareva et al. But one of the grand ideas of recent cognitive neuroscience is that much of our brain work occurs off stage. the pain of a toothache. waking awareness.) What is mind-blowing to many of us is the grow- ing evidence that we have. 2008). each supported by its own neural equipment. Based on your brain-activation patterns.66 | CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND Stuart Franklin/Magnum Photos Maria Teijeiro/Getty Images AP Photo/Ricardo Mazalan Christine Brune FIGURE 3. Later chapters will explore our hid- .” Some psychologists speculate that consciousness must offer an evolutionary ad- vantage (Barash. Scientists now assume. Sensory logically induced deprivation Hypnosis Meditation The Brain and Consciousness 1: What is the “dual processing” being revealed by today’s cognitive neuroscience? In today’s science. and spirituality must all. in some limited ways. They can. one of the most hotly pursued research quests is to understand the biology of consciousness. the feeling of fright? Such questions are at the heart of cognitive neuroscience—the interdisciplinary study of brain activity linked with our mental processes—that is today relating specific brain states to conscious experiences. somehow. that leaves us with the so-called “hard problem”: How do brain cells jabbering to one another create our awareness of the taste of a taco. out of sight.

F. scious. F. I came to know cognitive neuroscientists Melvyn Goodale and David Milner (2004. automatic “low road. as in the box at upper If time is nature’s way of keeping everything from happening at once. but damage in the area concerned with consciously recognizing objects. Shown the hollow face illusion (FIGURE 3. unconscious information processing occurs simultaneously on many parallel tracks. (If you are musically inclined. there is much. Serial conscious processing.. people will mistakenly perceive the inside of a mask as a protruding face. Sight Unseen.” Today’s researchers call this dual processing. During my sojourns at Scotland’s University of St.2 The hollow face illusion a steady beat three times with your left hand while tapping four times with your What you see (an illusory protruding face right hand. This big idea—that much of our everyday thinking. Beneath the surface. Per. And. How could this be? Don’t we have one visual system? Goodale and Milner knew from animal research that the eye sends information simultaneously to different brain areas. was overcome by carbon monoxide one day while showering. deliberate “high road” and an unconscious. which require our focused attention. science is stranger than science fiction.’s brain activity revealed normal activity in the area concerned with reaching for and grasping ob- jects. What their mind doesn’t know. on separate conscious and unconscious ception. and on mation is often simultaneously processed the out-of-sight processing that enables sudden insights and creative moments. Sometimes. Unconscious parallel processing frees your conscious mind to deal with new chal- lenges.” observed New York University psychologists John Bargh and Tanya Chartrand (1999). on conscious (explicit) and dual processing the principle that infor- unconscious (implicit) memories. M. We are Adapted from: Milner. feeling. language. the two conflict. On rare occasions. A local woman. from a reverse mask. on conscious versus automatic prejudices. and acting operates outside our conscious awareness—“is a difficult one for people to accept. tracks. much more to being human. consciousness enables us to exert voluntary control and to communicate our mental states to others. which can be in only one place at a time. you can move your right foot in a smooth counterclockwise circle. Try this: If you are University Press right-handed. 2006). Sure enough. Yet she was only partly blind. (2006). How strangely intricate is this thing we call vision. The Visual Brain in Action: 2nd Edition/Oxford understandably biased to believe that our own intentions and deliberate choices rule our lives. A. she could grasp it with the correct finger-thumb distance. & Goodale. Asked to slip a postcard into a vertical or horizontal mail slot. their hand does. though slower than parallel processing. indeed. which have different tasks. right) may differ from what you do (reach for sciousness is nature’s way of keeping us from thinking and doing everything at once. while many assistants automatically take care of routine business. try something equally difficult: Tap FIGURE 3. whom they call D. is skilled at solving new problems. for she would act as if she could see. Yet they will unhesitatingly and accurately reach into the inverted mask to flick off a buglike target stuck on the face. a speck on the face inside the mask). A visual action track guides our moment-to-moment actions. We may think of our vision as one system that controls our visually guided actions. thinking. and attitudes all operate on two levels—a con. Although unable to report the width of a block in front of her. But in the mind’s downstairs. and you can write the number 3 repeatedly with your right hand—but probably not at the same time. Running on automatic pilot allows your consciousness—your mind’s CEO—to monitor the whole system and react to prob- lems. concluded Goodale and Milner in their aptly titled book. . CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND | 67 den mind at work in research on unconscious priming. A. then con. Traveling by car on a familiar route. Andrews. but it is actually a dual-processing system. your hands and feet do the driving while your mind rehearses your upcoming day.) Both tasks require attention.2). The Two-Track Mind A scientific story illustrates the mind’s two levels. We know more than we know we know. she could do so without error. a scan of D. memory. A visual perception track enables us “to create the mental furniture that allows us to think about the world”—to recognize things and to plan future actions. D. The resulting brain damage left her unable to recognize and discrimi- nate objects visually. as this story illus- trates.

you won’t perceive what is said in your right. and so forth). students conversing on cell phones were slower to detect and respond to traffic signals. attending to a phone call (or a GPS navigation sys- Cell-phone inattention Just before this tem or a DVD player) causes inattention to other things. 2003).. will instantly bring that voice into consciousness. like a flashlight beam. and being asked to repeat the message in your left ear while it is spoken. But you can change that. 68 | CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND selective attention the focusing of con. But this process of switching attentional gears. your attentional spotlight shifts. your desktop. such as by crossing when a car was approaching.000. Walking while talking can also pose dangers. on only a very limited aspect of all that you experience. killing 25 Sydney researchers (McEvoy et al. 2: How much information do we consciously attend to at once? Through selective attention. who can see the driving demands and pause the conversation. of which you con- sciously process about 40 (Wilson. National Highway Traffic Safety Board (2006) estimates that almost 80 percent of vehicle crashes involve driver distraction.000 bits of information per second. When paying attention to what is being said in your left ear. In University of Utah driving-simulation experiments. While attending to these words. 88 percent pulled off. 50 percent drove on by (Strayer & Drews. the cocktail party effect.. Yet your mind’s unconscious track intu- itively makes great use of the other 10.6 times. Half the peo- ple on cell phones and only a quarter without this distraction exhibited unsafe road-crossing behavior. especially when shifting to com- plex tasks. This difference in risk also appeared in an experiment that asked drivers to pull off at a freeway rest stop 8 miles ahead. . By one estimate. Imagine hearing two conversations over a headset. 2007). you may draw a blank (though you could report the speaker’s gender and loudness). your five senses take in 11. SELECTIVE ATTENTION AND ACCIDENTS Trying to talk on the phone while driving requires your selective attention to shift back and forth from the road to the phone. for example. Until reading this sentence. as Alex Koester/The New York Times one naturalistic observation of Ohio State University pedestrians found (Nasar et al. is your ability to attend to only one voice among many. suddenly. (Let another voice speak your name and your cognitive radar. you’ll probably stop talk- ing. can entail a slight and sometimes fatal delay in coping (Rubenstein et al. 2001. Strayer et al. Now. were four times more at risk. your nose stubbornly intrudes on the page before you. 2002). Selective Attention scious awareness on a particular stimulus. one in each ear. Even hands-free cell-phone talking is more distract- ing than a conversation with passengers. you’ve also been blocking from awareness information com- ing from your peripheral vision. your conscious awareness focuses. they found that cell-phone users (even with hands-free sets) receiving and sending text messages.. notice what surrounds the book (the edges of the page. Having a passenger increased risk only 1. operating on the mind’s other track. 2008). 2001). As you stare at the X below. billboards.. When a demanding situation requires your full attention. Of drivers conversing with a passenger.S.960 bits.999. The U. Thus. Your feet feel encased. 2007) analyzed phone records for the mo- people. Of those talking on a cell phone.) This focused listening comes at a cost. Asked later what lan- guage your right ear heard. you have been unaware that your shoes are pressing against your feet or that your nose is in your line of vision. Because attention is selective. and other cars (Strayer & Johnston. when University of 2008 Los Angeles train crashed. the train engineer reportedly was ments before a car crash. X Another example of selective attention. 2005.

Most people failed to notice that the worker had been re. © 1998 Psychonomic Society. Inc. . Most people. the original worker switches places with another person wearing different placed by someone else (FIGURE 3. called change blindness. colored clothing.3 Gorillas in our midst When attending to one task (counting basketball passes by one of the three-person teams) about half the viewers displayed inatten- tional blindness by failing to notice a clearly visible gorilla passing through. Most focused their attention so completely on the game that they failed to notice a young woman carrying an umbrella saunter across the screen midway through the video. In other experiments. Daniel Simons. two experimenters rudely pass blindness. 1979) have demonstrated this dra. FIGURE 3. matically by showing people a one-minute video in which images of three black- change blindness failing to notice changes shirted men tossing a basketball were superimposed over the images of three in the environment. 1996. interruption. CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND | 69 SELECTIVE INATTENTION At the level of conscious awareness. During this construction worker. a railing may rise. people have also exhibited a blindness to change. viewers were astonished at their inattentional blindness (Mack & Rock. focused on their direction giving. the gorilla paused to thump its chest. Image provided courtesy of Daniel J. 2005). Neisser. Simons. During its 5. 1997. elsewhere. but. Simons. 2000). half the conscientious pass-counting participants failed to see it. cloth.3). Simons & Ambinder. out of mind. a big Coke bottle may disappear. smart-aleck researchers Daniel Simons and Christopher Chabris (1999) sent a gorilla-suited assistant through the swirl of players (FIGURE 3. Still. more often than not.. The viewers’ supposed task was to press a key every time a black-shirted player passed the ball. ble objects when our attention is directed Researchers (Becklen & Cervone. After a brief visual interruption. FIGURE 3. viewers won’t notice (Resnick (white hair) provides directions to a construc- et al.4 Change blindness While a man ing color may change. Seeing a replay of the video. do not notice the switch.4). In a repeat of the experiment. Out of sight. white-shirted 9-second cameo appearance. occurred among people giving directions to a between them carrying a door. 1983. University of Illinois Magicians exploit our change blindness by selectively riveting our attention on one hand’s dramatic act with inattention to the change accomplished by the other hand. This form of inattentional tion worker. we are “blind” to all inattentional blindness failing to see visi- but a tiny sliver of the immense array of visual stimuli constantly before us.

Failure to see visible objects when our processing. and whales sleep with glimpsing things that a thousand years of common sense never told us. their limbs often move in concert with the dream. from cartoonbank. 70 | CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND Some stimuli. 2. So does the sound of your name. serial c. our minds. Biological Rhythms and Sleep 3: How do our biological rhythms influence our daily functioning and our sleep and dreams? Like the processing. that we experience pop-out. as when you are awake. We don’t choose to attend to these stimuli. 4. parallel. as we will see next. attached to recording devices. you process most informa- tion outside your conscious awareness. REHEARSE IT! 1. your perceptual window is not completely shut. and by observing and occasionally waking sleepers. complete. researchers are Dolphins. Sleep—sweet. a. parallel d. our bodies fluctuate. EEG recordings confirm that the brain’s auditory cortex responds to sound stimuli even during sleep (Kutas. are so powerful. Sleep and Dreams “I love to sleep. 3. renewing. Sleep experts recommend treating insomnia with an occasional sleeping pill. subconscious processing. serial. porpoises. while others observe. complete 2. and with them. selective of our awareness by means of Answers: 1. By recording brain waves and muscle movements. Some people dream every night. 2008). Charles Addams. awareness unconsciousness. but you manage not to fall out. We register and react to stimuli outside d. 1993 around on your bed. All rights reserved. When we devote full attention is occupied elsewhere is called conscious attention to stimuli. life has its rhythmic tides. Our selective attention extends even into our sleep. To see why.5 The pop-out phenomenon b. c. so strikingly distinct. Are the following statements true or false? et al. 1983) are false. . And when you are asleep. 2. When most people dream of performing some activity. as with the only smiling face in FIGURE 3. you may feel “dead to the world. 1990). You get to be alive and While sleeping. © The New Yorker Collection. All these statements (adapted from Palladino & Carducci. c. Many of sleep’s mysteries are now being solved as some people sleep. mysterious sleep. others seldom dream. Sleep—the great? It really is the best of both equalizer of presidents and peasants. but a cry from a baby’s nursery quickly interrupts it. b. worlds. read on. a. You move —Comedian Rita Rudner. 1. we use a.” but you are not. Sleepwalkers are acting out their dreams. 5. FIGURE 3. The occasional roar of passing vehicles may leave your deep sleep undisturbed.” you are deeply asleep. Perhaps you one side of their brain asleep at a time (Miller can anticipate some of their discoveries. Do you? Isn’t it Sleep—the irresistible tempter to whom we inevitably succumb. Let’s look more closely at two of those biolog- ical rhythms—our 24-hour biological clock and our 90-minute sleep cycle. Older adults sleep more than young adults.5. inattentional blindness.. parallel processing. however. Over varying time periods. Even when unconscious. selective. they draw our eye and demand our attention.

Most 20- wake-up time arrives. For this. 1986. 20. Artificial light delays sleep. 1998). 1995). Bright light in the morning tweaks the circadian clock by activating light-sensitive Most older adults are larks. But what about North Americans who fly to Europe.. 2005). Eastman et al.M. CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND | 71 Circadian Rhythm circadian [ser-KAY-dee-an] rhythm the The rhythm of the day parallels the rhythm of life—from our waking at a new day’s biological clock.6). They are like New Yorkers whose biology is on California time. 2004). too. 1989. we may energized “owls” to being morning-loving feel groggiest about 4:00 A.. Retirement the brain’s suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)—a pair of grain-of-rice-sized. Body temperature rises as morning approaches. 1999. Bright light at night helps delay sleep.. peaks during the day. with performance improv- ing across the day (May & Hasher. we can thank (or blame) Thomas Edison.000-cell homes are typically quiet by mid-evening. and who need to be up when their circadian rhythm cries “Sleep!”? Studies in the laboratory and with shift workers have found that bright light—spending the next day outdoors— helps reset the biological clock (Czeisler et al. Most animals. But our still-active sleeping brain does not then emit a constant dial tone. 1999).. 1998). we pass through a cycle of five distinct sleep . allowing the pineal gland to release melatonin into the bloodstream.” and diem. thus resetting our biological clock when we stay up late and sleep in on weekends (Oren & Terman. At night. The SCN does its job in part by causing university dorms.6 The biological clock Light Light striking the retina signals the suprachiasmatic w nucleus (SCN) to suppress the pineal gland’s f lo od Blo production of the sleep hormone melatonin. because sleep has its own biological rhythm. These proteins control the circadian clock by triggering signals to declining as the day wears on. consciousness fades (Massimini et al. Curiously—given that our ancestors’ body clocks were attuned to the rising and setting sun of the 24-hour day—many of today’s young adults adopt something closer to a 25-hour day. with performance retinal proteins. until our later years. of temperature and wakeful- ness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle. discipline ourselves to stay up later at night and sleep in longer in the morning? Sleep Stages 4: What is the biological rhythm of our sleep? As sleep overtakes us and different parts of our brain’s cortex stop communicating. when placed under unnatural to a 23-hour cycle. Pulling an all-nighter. would we instead need to constant illumination will exceed a 24-hour day. by staying up too late to get 8 hours of sleep. Suprachiasmatic Pineal nucleus gland Melatonin production suppressed Melatonin produced FIGURE 3. “about. inventor of the light bulb. year-olds are owls.. Thinking is sharpest and memory most accurate we begin to shift from being evening- when we are at our daily peak in circadian arousal. bodies roughly synchronize with the 24-hour cycle of day and night through a bio- logical clock called the circadian rhythm (from the Latin circa. This helps explain why. the brain’s pineal gland to decrease its production of the sleep-inducing hormone melatonin in the morning or increase it in the evening (FIGURE 3. we must discipline ourselves to go to If our natural circadian rhythm were attuned bed and force ourselves to get up. regular bodily rhythms birth to our nightly return to what Shakespeare called “death’s counterfeit. and then we get a second wind after our normal “larks” (Roenneberg et al. Sleep often eludes those who sleep till noon on Sunday and then go to bed just 11 hours later in preparation for the new workweek. and then begins to At about age 20 (slightly earlier for women).. 2004). in clusters in the hypothalamus (Foster. the SCN quiets down.” Our (for example. About every 90 minutes. drop again before we go to sleep. dips for a time in early afternoon (when many people take siestas). the day is far from over. “day”). Dement. Being bathed in light disrupts our 24-hour biological clock (Czeisler et al.

Dement asked this sleep-deprived young man. As you adapt to all this equipment. imagine yourself in their lab. you feel sleepy and you yawn in response to reduced brain such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus. periodically recurred. sleep periodic. Other devices allow the researcher to record your heart rate. awake state. Aserinsky watched the machine go wild.” But there was a flash. natural loss of Armond reported having a dream. As the hour grows late. or hibernation. jerky eye movements were accompanied by energetic brain activity. Seligman & Yellen. Asked why. The transition is marked by the slowed breathing and the irregular brain waves of Stage 1 (FIGURE 3.7 Measuring sleep activity Hank Morgan/Rainbow Sleep researchers measure brain-wave activity. and facial muscles. a stages. (Adapted from To find out if similar cycles occur during adult sleep. in an unremembered moment. to press a button every time a strobe light flashed in his eyes (about every 6 seconds). to your scalp (to detect your brain waves). Also known as Chicago graduate student. you grow tired and. he had missed not only the flash 6 inches from his nose but also the abrupt moment of his entry into sleep. Aserinsky finally realized that the fast. stretches your neck mus- cles and increases your heart rate. eye.000 research participants. 1987). hallucinations false sensory experiences. slip into sleep.8). slow brain waves 2003]). which increases your alertness [Moorcroft. a University of dreams commonly occur. After a few minutes the young man missed one. He missed it because (as his brain activity re- vealed) he had fallen asleep for 2 seconds. To appreciate their methods and findings. This elementary fact apparently was unknown until 8-year-old Armond recurring sleep stage during which vivid Aserinsky went to bed one night in 1952. the researcher in the next room sees on the EEG the relatively slow alpha waves of your awake but relaxed state (FIGURE 3. he said. Could the machine still be broken? As the night proceeded and the activity waves of a relaxed. His father. Eugene. and on your chin (to detect muscle tension) (FIGURE 3. because the muscles are pairing that day (Aserinsky. Placing electrodes near relaxed (except for minor twitches) but Armond’s eyes to record the rolling eye movements then believed to occur during other body systems are active. 1988. metabolism.9). (Yawning. and muscle tension by elec- trodes that pick up weak electrical signals from the brain. delta waves the large. which can be socially contagious. In one of his 15. and your genital arousal. William Dement (1999) observed the moment the brain’s perceptual window to the outside world slammed shut. lying on his back with eyelids taped open. When you are in bed with your eyes closed. your respiration rate. Awakened during one such episode. (From Dement. Nathaniel Kleitman (1960) Dement.7).72 | CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND REM sleep rapid eye movement sleep. Left eye movements Right eye movements EMG (muscle tension) EEG (brain waves) FIGURE 3. 1978.) and Aserinsky pioneered procedures that have now been used with thousands of volunteers. sleep. tracing deep zigzags on the graph alpha waves the relatively slow brain paper. When you are ready for bed. corners of your eyes (to detect eye movements). Unaware that he had done so. the researcher tapes electrodes just outside the associated with deep sleep. “Because there was no flash. Aserinsky had discovered what we now know as consciousness—as distinct from uncon- sciousness resulting from a coma. general REM sleep (rapid eye movement sleep). eye movements.) . 1999. needed to test an electroencephalograph he had been re- paradoxical sleep. anesthesia.

. Although you could still be awakened without too much difficulty. slow delta waves.” . Returning through Stage 3 and Stage 2 (where you spend about half your night). Because anyone watching a sleeper’s eyes all night long. For the next few minutes. “Boy are my eyes tired! I had REM sleep tary bursts of activity behind closed lids. rhythmic brain- wave activity (see Figure 3. Rather than con- tinuing in deep slumber. and increasingly in Stage 4. more like those of the nearly awake Stage 1 sleep. You after going to bed.8 Brain waves and sleep Awake. 1978. during REM sleep your heart rate rises. But unlike Stage 1 sleep. a strange thing happens. REM Sleep About an hour after you first fall asleep. your brain emits large. resembling To catch your own hypnagogic experiences hallucinations—sensory experiences that occur without a sensory stimulus. These two slow-wave stages last for about 30 minutes. 1994). relaxed stages The regular alpha waves of an awake. your brain waves become rapid and saw-toothed. (From Dement. About 20 percent of 3. you go through the transitional Stage 3 to the deep sleep of Stage 4. Curiously. For about 10 minutes. (From Stage 2 sleep Dement.) During this brief Stage 1 sleep you may experience fantastic images. triguing sleep phase—REM sleep.8). some 5 percent have repeated episodes (Giles et al. Although the saw-toothed REM sleep Stage 1 sleep waves resemble the near-waking Stage 1 sleep waves. the body is more aroused during REM sleep than during Stage 1 sleep. Such hypnagogic sensations may later be incorporated into memories. First in Stage 3. of floating weightlessly. you might have a “Snooze” may have a sensation of falling (at which moment your body may suddenly jerk) or alarm awaken you every five minutes. 2005). larger delta waves of deep Stage 4 Alpha waves sleep. charac- terized by the periodic appearance of sleep spindles—bursts of rapid. you enter the most in- © 1994 by Sidney Harris.) Spindle (burst of activity) Stage 3 sleep Stage 4 sleep Delta waves Sleep 1 second REM sleep FIGURE 3. your breathing becomes rapid and irregular. during which you would be hard to awaken. People who claim to have been abducted by aliens—often shortly after getting into bed—commonly recall being floated off or pinned down on their beds ( 12-year-olds have at least one episode of sleepwalking. you ascend from your initial sleep dive. You next relax more deeply and begin about 20 minutes of Stage 2 sleep. it is at the end of the deep sleep of Stage 4 that children may wet the bed or begin sleepwalking. and every half-minute or so your eyes dart around in momen. relaxed state are quite different from the slower. but someone eavesdropping on our brain waves could tell.9 The moment of sleep We Eye movement phase seem unaware of the moment we fall into sleep. usually lasting 2 to 10 minutes. 1999. you are now clearly asleep. CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND | 73 FIGURE 3.

The REM and Stage 2 sleep periods get longer (see Figure 3. suggesting the problem is not between their legs. 20 REM 1 REM REM REM REM FIGURE 3. A typical 25-year-old man therefore has an erection during nearly half his night’s sleep.74 | CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND can notice these REM bursts. (a) (b) Sleep Minutes of 25 Awake REM periods stages Stage 4 and increase as night REM sleep Increasing progresses. Many men troubled by erectile dysfunction (impotence) have sleep-related erections. lasting 30 to 45 minutes on average (Karacan et al. 2004). Except during very scary dreams.10 The stages 15 in a typical night’s sleep Most people pass through 10 the five-stage sleep cycle 2 (graph a) several times. or more than 100. 1992. deep Stage 4 sleep gets progressively briefer and then disappears. Unknown to those people. 2003).. REM sleep is sometimes called paradoxical sleep. Unlike the fleeting images of Stage 1 sleep (“I was thinking about my exam today. a 65-year-old man for one-quarter. regardless of whether the dream’s content is sexual (Karacan et al. Hours asleep 1978. When lifetime—dreams swallowed by the night but never acted out. Men’s common “morning erection” stems from the night’s last REM period. leaving muscles relaxed—so relaxed that. 1983. In young men. The sleep cycle repeats itself about every 90 minutes. 1966). Even those who claim they never dream will. By morning. it is amazing that science was ignorant of REM sleep until 1952. recall a dream after being awakened during REM sleep.” or “I was trying to borrow something from some- one”). and more richly hallucinatory. usually storylike.. Graph b plots this Hours asleep increasing REM sleep and Stage 4 4 occurs early decreasing deep sleep based in the night.10. Moreover. more than 80 percent of the time. As the night wears on. your brainstem blocks its messages. Thus.) . on data from 30 young adults. often just before waking. 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th tion. or facial twitch. you can- standing and can sleep standing. except for an occa- Horses. tective paralysis. Webb. you are essentially paralyzed. thanks to REM’s pro- REM starts. REM sleep dreams are often emotional. your genitals become aroused during REM sleep. The stages in a typical night’s sleep are summarized in FIGURE 3.10b). with Decreasing 5 Stage 4 the periods of Stage 4 sleep and then Stage 3 sleep diminishing and REM sleep 3 0 periods increasing in dura. 20 to 25 percent of our av- erage night’s sleep—some 100 minutes—has been REM sleep. which spend 92 percent of each day sional finger.000 dreams over a typical People rarely snore during dreams. (From Cartwright. with the body internally aroused and externally calm. must lie not easily be awakened. More intriguing than the paradoxical nature of REM sleep is what the rapid eye movements announce: the beginning of a dream. snoring stops. they spend about 600 hours a year experiencing some 1500 dreams. Schiavi & Schreiner- Engel. 1988). toe. and you have an erection or increased vaginal lubrication and clitoral en- gorgement. Thirty-seven percent of people report rarely or never having dreams “that you can remember the next morning” (Moore. sleep-related erections outlast REM peri- ods. Although your brain’s motor cortex is active during REM sleep. down for REM sleep (Morrison.

Newborns spend nearly two-thirds of their day asleep. others regularly rack up 9 hours or more. 64). enough sleep. 1999). and lessens the risk of fatal accidents. with no sleep debt. often going to bed near 2:00 A. (The weeknight sleep of many students and workers falls short of this average [NSF. are now up until 11:00 P. shift work. increases concentration. Age-related dif- ferences in average sleeping time are rivaled by the differences among individuals at any age. they then settled back to 7. moderates hunger and obesity. become terribly drowsy—especially during the hours when your biological clock programs you to sleep. then. But why? It seems an easy question to answer: Just keep people awake for several days and note how they deteriorate. Thomas Edison (1948) was pleased to accept credit for this. Trying to stay awake. just add an hour to your sleep. only the identical twins were strikingly similar (Webb & Campbell. will probably be awake or easily roused in the Obviously. adults average just over 8 hours per night (Hurst. Such sleep patterns may be genetically influenced. Robinson & Martin. With that much sleep. on average. But could the lack of sleep physically dam- age you? Would it noticeably alter your biochemistry or body organs? Would you be- come emotionally disturbed? Mentally disoriented? The Effects of Sleep Loss 5: How does sleep loss affect us? Good news! Psychologists have discovered a treatment that strengthens memory. Teens who .) North Americans are nevertheless sleeping less than their counterparts a century ago. In the tiredness battle. Allowed to sleep unhindered. One yearning for sleep. those who would have gone to bed at 9:00 P.5 to 9 hours nightly and. the supplies are limit- less. how do you think it would affect your body and mind? You would. and so- cial diversions. the treatment is simple: Each night. Sleep commands roughly one-third of our lives— event of a threat. p. For the first few days. many of us are suffering from patterns that not only leave us sleepy but also thwart our having an energized feeling of well-being. of course. 1983). 2005). sustain better moods. 2008. That accomplished. and it’s available free! If you are a typical university-age student. In one Gallup survey (Mason. CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND | 75 Why Do We Sleep? The idea that “everyone needs 8 hours of sleep” is untrue. 63 percent of adults who reported getting the sleep they need also In a 2001 Gallup poll.” observed sleep researcher William Dement (1999. In studies of the pattern and duration of sleep among fraternal and identical twins. it can be self-administered. we awake refreshed. Sleep patterns are also culturally influenced. some not The fluctu- marathon sleep. 2008]. “The brain keeps an accurate count of sleep debt for at least two ating sleep cycle enables safe sleep for these weeks. the volunteers averaged 12 hours or more sleep each day. 2007).M. and dragged out of bed six hours later by the dreaded alarm.M. Navy and the National Institutes of Health have demonstrated the ben- efits of unrestricted sleep in experiments in which volunteers spent 14 hours daily in bed for at least a week. we will begin to feel terrible.M. and perform more efficient and accurate work. benefit of communal sleeping is that someone tually lose. sleep always wins. 1996). Some people thrive with fewer than 6 hours per night. some 25 years. most adults will sleep at least 9 hours a night (Coren. when we accumulate a sleep debt that cannot be paid off by one long Some sleep deeply. If you were a volunteer in such an experiment. or later. Thanks to modern light bulbs. boosts mood. apparently paying off a sleep debt that averaged 25 to 30 hours. be- AP Photo/David Guttenfelder lieving that less sleep meant more productive time and greater opportunities. reported being “very satisfied” with their personal life (as did only 36 percent of but only 47 percent of women.S. felt energized and happier (Dement. 61 percent of men. Unfortunately. Even better news: The treatment feels good. most adults no more than one-third. we need sleep. With our body firefighters battling California wildfires. In the United States and Canada. The U. fortifies the disease-fighting immune system. for example. we will even. Compare that with a succession of 5-hour nights. said they got those needing more sleep).

sleep-manipulation experiment—the “spring forward” to “daylight savings” time Michael’s driving instructor later acknowl- and “fall backward” to “standard” time. productive. 2000). 2008. Reaction times slow and errors increase on visual tasks similar to those in- Sleepless and suffering This fatigued. 2004.” he noted (1999. concentration. In one survey. 2003). Spiegel et al. and communication (Harrison & Horne. tendency to make mistakes. When infections do set in. leptin (more on William Dement. on average. But let’s put all this positively: To manage your life with enough sleep to awaken naturally and well rested is to be more alert. Inc/Corbis mimic aging and are conducive to hypertension and memory impairment (Spiegel et al. 1993.M.” A large sleep debt circuit was that he could now get “makes you stupid. When the going gets boring. “Tiger Woods said that one of the At Stanford University.. 1999. and why older adults who have no difficulty falling or staying asleep tend to live longer than their sleep-deprived age- mates (Dement. and equipment operat- tion. and the 1979 Three Mile Island and 1986 Chernobyl nu- In 1989. and a greater vulnerability to accidents. disaster. Union Carbide’s 1984 Bhopal. healthy. irritability. depressed immune system. and impaired creativity.11). 2005). killing both himself and the other driver. sleep deprivation can sup- press immune cells that fight off viral infections and cancer (Motivala & Irwin. a hunger- —Stanford sleep researcher arousing hormone. In addition to making us more vulnerable to obesity. Yet that teen who staggers glumly out of bed in response to an unwelcome alarm. the students start snoring. 2004).to 29-year-olds wish they could get more sleep on weekdays (Mason. “Sleep deprivation [entails] difficulty studying. boosting our immune cells. Coren found edged never having mentioned sleep depriva- that in both Canada and the United States. And experimental sleep dep- rivation of adults increases appetite and eating (Nixon et al. the time change that shortens sleep (FIGURE 3. 2002) and to some 30 percent of Australian highway deaths (Maas. 2002).. Patel et al. yawns through morning classes. 2008. diminished Stanford for the professional golf productivity. slowed performance. 80 percent of students are “dangerously sleep deprived. impaired concentra. 2007]). 1997 these in Chapter 10). performing surgery. 2006). When while driving home from college. 76 | CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND typically need 8 or 9 hours of sleep now average less than 7 hours—nearly 2 hours less each night than did their counterparts of 80 years ago (Holden. 1999). when operators in charge were likely America’s Safest Driving Teen... 2007. he fell asleep sleepy frontal lobes confront an unexpected situation. to be drowsiest and unresponsive to signals that require an alert response. children and adults who sleep less than normal are fatter than those who sleep more (Chen et al. 1999. students often function below their peak. Chronic sleep debt also alters metabolic and hormonal functioning in ways that Jose Luis Pelaez. piloting. and mindless of the next day’s looming sleepiness (Carskadon. a semi-annual car. Sleep deprivation can be devastating for driving. Sleep deprivation increases ghrelin. misfortune often results.. Dew et al. we typically sleep more. In 1990. and decreases its hunger-suppressing partner. Other effects include irritability. fatigue. 2006. happy. and feels half-depressed much of the day may be energized at 11 P. 231).. Taheri. 2007).” best things about his choice to leave Dement (1997) said. and reading X-rays sleep-deprived person may also experience a (Horowitz et al.. Consider the timing of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. 2003). India. closer to a “first- year 4” [Hull et al. volved in screening airport baggage. 2003. 1999). Sure enough. Even when awake. Sleep deprivation also increases cortisol. enough sleep. 2007). Knutson et al. p.. 2008). Van Cauter et al. This may help explain the common weight gain among sleep-deprived students (although a review of 11 studies reveals that the mythical “freshman 15” is. and safe. a stress hormone that stimulates the body to make fat. .” It can also make you fatter. for many North Americans.. 1999).. Driver fatigue contributes to an estimated 20 percent of American traffic acci- dents (Brody. 28 percent of high school students acknowledged falling asleep in class at least once a week (Sleep Foundation. Michael Doucette was named clear accidents—all occurred after midnight. Maas. at the wheel and collided with an oncoming Stanley Coren capitalized on what is. Searching millions of records. ing. This may help explain why people who sleep 7 to 8 hours a night tend to outlive those who are chronically sleep deprived. Schoenborn & Adams. And they know it: Four in five American teens and three in five 18. accidents increased immediately after tion and drowsy driving (Dement.

2004). dreams have inspired noteworthy literary. sleep protects. Animals with the most need to graze and the least ability to hide tend to sleep less. or a bat and sleep 20?) Second. When darkness precluded our distant ancestors’ hunting and food gather- ing and made travel treacherous. Animals with high waking metabolism (such as bats) burn a lot of calories. than after several hours awake (Walker & Stickgold. and darkness. They can also. (Adapted from Coren.11 Canadian traffic accidents On the Monday after the spring time change. or even after a short nap. Vyazovskiy et al.. More common- place is the boost that a complete night’s sleep gives to our thinking and learning. both of which sleep 20 hours... artistic. then sleep on it. before. 2006). but sleep may have evolved for five reasons: First. It helps restore and repair brain tissue. 2003). for example. ice. while allowing unused connections to weaken (Siegel. better dis- cern connections among different novel pieces of information (Ellenbogen et al. But why do we have this need for sleep? We have very few answers. Elephants and horses sleep 3 to 4 hours a day. Think of it this way: When consciousness leaves your house. But sleep is not just for keeping us safe and for repairing our brain. to live is hardly more than to eat and to sleep (Moorcroft. 2003.” likely to leave descendants. Number of Number of when people lose one hour of sleep. out of harm’s way. go- rillas 12 hours. (Would you rather be like a giraffe and sleep 2 hours a day. and scientific achievements. New research reveals that sleep is for making memories—for restoring and rebuilding our fading memories of the day’s experiences. Those who didn’t try to navigate around rocks and cliffs at night were more “Sleep faster. For bats and eastern chipmunks. solve problems more insightfully than do those who stay awake (Wagner et al. And in both humans and rats. brain construction workers come in for a makeover. 2004. fewer accidents 2600 4000 2500 3800 2400 3600 Spring time change Fall time change (hour of sleep lost) (hour of sleep gained) Monday before time change Monday after time change Sleep Theories 6: Why do we sleep? So. they were better off asleep in a cave. 2006). 1996. Sleep also feeds creative thinking. 2008). traffic accidents normally more accidents increase because of greater snow. we need the pillows. after sleep. sleep helps us recuperate. People trained to perform tasks recall them bet- ter after a night’s sleep. People who work on a task. a dream that clued chemist August Kekulé to the structure of benzene (Ross. Ribeiro et al. but they diminished after the time 2700 4200 change. molecules that are toxic to neurons. This fits a broader principle: A species’ sleep pattern —Yiddish proverb tends to suit its ecological niche. producing a lot of free radicals. and cats 14 hours.. On occasion. .. 2004). neural activity during slow-wave sleep reenacts and promotes recall of prior novel experiences (Peigneux et al. nature charges us for our sleep debt. CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND | 77 FIGURE 3. It was. accidents accidents accidents increased as compared with the Monday 2800 Less sleep. Sleeping a lot gives resting neurons time to repair themselves. In the fall.) More sleep.

) the axiom. In severe cases. as shown in an experiment in which University of Arizona students averaged 7. • Reassure yourself that a temporary loss of sleep causes no great harm. 1992 then. early to • Avoid all caffeine after early afternoon. Being occasionally awak- Love and Death. 1996). to say ‘consistently to bed and • Relax before bedtime. They also underesti- mate by nearly half how long they actually have slept. rise. Power Sleep. settle for less sleep. —Wilse Webb. 1999). 2007). Such discoveries are beginning to solve the ongoing riddle of sleep. Attacks usually last less than 5 minutes but some- times occur at the most inopportune times. insomnia complainers do sleep less than others. Managing your stress levels will enable more restful sleeping. 2006). being vigilant is natural and adaptive. During deep sleep. (Late afternoon is best. Even if we have been awake only an hour or two. a neurotransmitter that facilitates sleep. 2002). not something to fret over or treat with medication. consistently to rise . sleep apnea. “numbness. perhaps just after taking a terrific swing at a softball or when laughing loudly. can aggravate the problem. A personal conflict during the day often means a fitful sleep that night (Åkerstedt et al. Narcolepsy (from narco. And some people do fret unnecessarily about their sleep (Coren. we may think we have had very little sleep because it’s the wak- ing part we remember.. 1996). Finally.5 hours of sleep a night on either a varying or consistent schedule (Manber et al. 1982).. “seizure”) sufferers experience periodic. Those who rely on them may need increasing doses to get an effect. too. 1978. sleep is seldom uninterrupted. 1999 and avoid naps. or having sex (Dement. 2006). Sleep Disorders 7: What are the major sleep disorders? “The lion and the lamb shall lie No matter what their normal need for sleep. either going to bed later or getting up earlier. but persistent problems in falling or staying asleep (Irwin et al. 1 in 10 adults. Instead. better recall relationships among novel words (Gómez et al. we release less of this hormone and spend less time in deep sleep (Pekkanen. People with narcolepsy—1 in .” cited.” (Saul. • Hide the clock face so you aren’t tempted to check it repeatedly. Scientists are searching for natural chemicals that are abundant during sleep. makes a man healthy. ‘Early to bed. • Realize that for any stressed organism. which provides raw materials for the manufacture and wise. As we age. Maas. sleep may play a role in the growth process. Sleep: The Gentle Tyrant. In laboratory studies. 1975 ened becomes the norm. but they typically overesti- mate—by about double—how long it takes them to fall asleep.. try a glass of milk. The most common quick fixes for true insomnia—sleeping pills and alcohol— “Sleep is like love or happiness. Rarer but also more troublesome than insomnia are the sleep disorders nar- colepsy. but the lamb will not complain of insomnia—not an occasional inability to sleep when anxious or ex- be very sleepy.) • If all else fails. ’ ” • Sleep on a regular schedule (rise at the same time even after a restless night) —James B. sales of sleeping pills soared 60 percent from 2000 to 2006 elude you. Brisette & Cohen. (See Chapter 11 for more on stress. down together.” and lepsy. when the drug is discontinued. using dimmer light. Even 15-month-olds. if retested after a nap. it often pays to sleep on it. wealthy. reducing REM sleep and leaving the person with next- If you pursue it too ardently it will day blahs.. with an accompanying loss of muscular tension. sleep experts offer other natural alternatives: “In 1757 Benjamin Franklin gave us • Exercise regularly but not in the late evening. To think smart and see connections. and sleepwalking. . . the person may collapse directly into a brief period of REM sleep. shouting angrily. night terrors. Sticking to a schedule boosts daytime alertness. hoping they might be synthesized as a sleep aid without side effects. 2007. the insomnia can worsen.’ It would be more accurate of serotonin. the pituitary gland releases a growth hormone. In the mean- time. and avoid rich foods before bedtime. and 1 in 4 older adults.78 | CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND 2007). in the movie From middle age on. overwhelming sleepiness. Nevertheless. —Woody Allen.

. overweight./Corbis has increased. If one doesn’t mind looking a little goofy in the dark (imagine a Did Brahms need his own lullabies? snorkeler at a slumber party). like other dreams. a fleeting. terrors occur during Stage 4 sleep.) Occasional childhood sleepwalking occurs for about one-third of sleep apnea a sleep disorder characterized those with a sleepwalking fraternal twin and half of those with a sleepwalking iden. (Sleeptalking—usually garbled or er may lapse directly into REM sleep. so has this disorder. Apnea means “with no breath. As a traffic menace.” says the American Sleep Disorders Association. Johannes associated depressed energy and mood. ing is usually harmless and unrecalled the next morning.. Unlike sleep apnea. often nonsensical—can occur during Stage 2 or any other sleep stage [Mahowald & at inopportune times. sleep and repeated momentary awakenings. 1999). seldom remembered. experience a doubling of heart and breathing rates. Young children.. night terrors usually occur during the first few hours of Stage 4. and as the number of obese Americans Archivo Iconografico. Sleep apnea is associated with obesity.A. 1997. 1989). the treatment can effectively treat both the apnea and Cranky. As we grow older and deep Stage 4 sleep di. within minishes. 2000 of us. “snoozing is second only to in medieval times. Anyone who snores at night. unlike nightmares. occur during early morning REM sleep). by temporary cessations of breathing during tical twin. Although 1 in 20 of us has this disorder. They seldom wake up fully during an episode and recall little or nothing the next morning—at most. and possibly has high blood pressure as well (increasing the risk of a stroke or heart attack) should be checked for apnea (Dement. A physician may pre- scribe a masklike device with an air pump that keeps the sleeper’s airway open and breathing regular. decreased blood oxygen arouses them and they wake up enough to snort in air for a few seconds. typically insomnia recurring problems in falling or staying asleep. Brahms exhibited common symptoms of sleep apnea (Margolis. into REM sleep) have seemed like demon Sleep apnea also puts millions of people at increased risk of traffic accidents possession? (Teran-Santos et al. are the most likely to experience being terrified. people two or three hours of falling asleep. . The same is true for sleeptalking (Hublin et al. 1999). talk incoherently. and more restless sleep. Might such symptoms boozing. feels tired during the day. night both night terrors and sleepwalking. 1998). and irritability or depression during the day—and their mate’s complaints about their loud “snoring”—apnea sufferers often have no recall of these episodes (Peppard et al. 1990]. particularly among overweight men. and those with narcolepsy (especially the instant dreams from dropping are especially at risk (Aldrich. conditions that run in families. Ettinger. 2000). The suffer- and to sleeptalking. Higher stress levels. Sleepwalk. Night terrors are not nightmares (which. narcolepsy a sleep disorder characterized Children also are most prone to sleepwalking—another Stage 4 sleep disorder— by uncontrollable sleep attacks. including some football players (Keller. and nap-prone. frighten- ing image. Sleepwalkers typically night terrors a sleep disorder character- return to bed on their own or are guided there by a family member. 2008). estimates the Stanford University Center for Narcolepsy (2002)—must Imagine observing a person with narcolepsy therefore live with extra caution. so do night terrors and sleepwalking. S. and appear terrified (Hartmann. and are sleep more deeply. depriving them of slow-wave sleep. After an airless minute or so. Apart from complaints of sleepiness and fatigue. in a process that repeats hundreds of times each night. which increases any tendency to sleepwalk (Zadra et al. may Spencer Platt/Getty Images plague those standing in unemployment lines such as this one. After being sleep deprived. 2007). 2006). 1981). who may sit up or walk around. it was un- known before modern sleep research. night terrors target mostly children.. ized by high arousal and an appearance of who have the deepest and lengthiest Stage 4 sleep.” and people with this condition intermittently stop breathing during sleep. CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND | 79 Economic-recession stress can rob sleep A National Sleep Foundation (2009) survey found 27 per- cent of people reporting sleeplessness related to the economy and their personal finances and employment.

Dreams 8: What do we dream? Now playing at an inner theater near you: the premiere showing of a sleeping per- son’s vivid dream. suffers periodic. b. In one study. c. only 1 dream in 10 among young men and 1 in 30 found them dreaming of using their nonvisual among young women had sexual overtones (Domhoff. many of which are anything but sweet. and the United States all you might think. d. They could awaken people during or within 3 minutes after a REM sleep period and hear a vivid account. Sleep has survival value. slow delta waves a. b. hallucinations. overwhelming sleepiness c. tasting story line of our dreams incorporates traces of previous days’ nonsexual experiences (Buquet. experiences a doubling of heart and most likely to experience c. d. night terrors or nightmares. p. touching. five stages. d. c. rapid eye movements. 1972. a person is b. Which of the following is NOT one of the periodic. becomes progressively longer. 1994. sleep spindles. Waking from a troubling dream. Egypt. c. and bizarre—so vivid that we may confuse them with reality. People commonly dream of repeatedly failing in an attempt to do something. brain waves. 6.Vekassy. theories that have been proposed to d. a. or of experiencing Would you suppose that people dream if blind from birth? Studies of blind people in France. 8 in 10 dreams are marked by at least one negative event or emotion (Domhoff. intermittently stops breathing. For both women and men. b.” for a moment which is real.80 | CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND REHEARSE IT! 3. REM sleep. conscious world? In the dreaming. has persistent problems falling sleep. sleep apnea. We spend six years of our life in dreams. Stage 4. the person a. lems falling asleep b. Awakening from a night- mare. emotional. and preoccupations (De Koninck. The brain emits large. Answers: 3. the circadian rhythm. What We Dream Daydreams tend to involve the familiar details of our life—perhaps picturing our- selves explaining to an instructor why a paper will be late. d. breathing rates. Stage 2. the a. a 4-year-old may be sure there is a bear in the house. More commonly. remains about the same. Two sleep disorders are narcolepsy and fall in sync with a biological clock. misfortune (Hall et al. narcolepsy. 8. wrenched by its emotions. the senses—hearing. or replaying in our minds personal encounters we relish or regret. 7. 5. During sleep we pass through a cycle of . yet so intricate and so seemingly real. —Philosopher Bertrand Russell Discovering the link between REM sleep and dreaming opened a new era in dream (1872–1970) research. 2007). REM dreams—“hallucinations of the sleeping mind” (Loftus & Ketcham. intermittently stops breathing 5. a. 67)—are vivid. and completely construct this alternative. d. During Stage 1 light sleep. we may even wonder am not. of being attacked. Sleep helps us recuperate. who among us has not wondered about this weird state of consciousness? How can our brain so cre- “I do not believe that I am now atively. becomes briefer and briefer. each with characteristic . called b. hypnagogic sensations. REM stage experiences a doubling of heart and d. REM sleep. the person which is referred to as 6. As the night progresses. b. breathing rates 4. 4.. researchers could catch dreams as they happened. during the deepest stage of sleep. pursued. This never-before-seen mental movie features captivating charac- ters wrapped in a plot so original and unlikely. 8. smelling. Sleep plays a role in the growth process. suffers 7. 2000): . c. With narcolepsy. 1977). d. paradoxical sleep. has persistent prob- a. overwhelming sleepi- explain why we need sleep? ness. Dreams with sexual imagery occur less often than Hungary. Sleep rests the eyes. that the viewer later marvels at its creation. gradually disappears. colorfully. b. or rejected. 1988. Taha. but I cannot prove that I shadowland between our dreaming and waking consciousness. with sleep apnea. 1996). Our body temperature tends to rise and c. a. Instead of relying on someone’s hazy recall hours or days after having a dream. 1982).

however.. that discharges otherwise unacceptable feelings. except for that were so easy. In —Attributed to Henny Youngman fact. 1990. 3 in 4 people reported experiencing images of the game’s falling blocks (Stickgold et al. • People in hunter-gatherer societies often dream of animals.” shock (and to react to the sound accordingly).E. A particular odor or A popular sleep myth: If you dream you are the telephone’s ringing may be instantly and ingeniously woven into the dream story. To remember a dream. including these: To satisfy our own wishes. the manifest content (the remembered story line) is a censored. Wyatt & Bootzin.” the 9/11 attack (Propper et al.C. It also explains why dreams that momentarily awaken us are mostly forgot- ten by morning. a leaky dreams and are alive to report them. and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind. 2000).) roof.. But we do not remember recorded in- formation played while we are soundly asleep (Eich.. . have had such water treatment. Compared with sleepers who did not get the cold- do so. urban Japanese rarely do (Mestel. focused on internal stimuli. —Menander of Athens (342–292 B. 1994). anything that happens during the 5 minutes just before we fall asleep is typically lost from memory (Roth et al. you die. Even while in REM sleep. dream a sequence of images. One sample of Americans who were recording their dreams these things are seen in visions of during September 2001 reported an increase in threatening dreams following the night.. (Unfortunately. Freud offered what he thought was “the most valuable of all the discov. 2007). and for the dreamer’s delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it. In 1900. 9: Why do we dream? and incongruities. • After playing the computer game “Tetris” for seven hours and then being Fragments awakened repeatedly during their first hour of sleep. Sensory stimuli in our sleeping environment may also intrude. • Compared with nonmusicians. Nielsen. This explains why sleep apnea patients. falling and hit the ground (or if you dream of In a classic experiment. 2006). in his landmark book The Interpretation manifest content according to Freud. Some people. could we learn a foreign language by hearing it played while we sleep? If only it “Follow your dreams. While sleeping we can learn to associate a sound with a mild electric one where you’re naked at work. musicians report twice as many dreams of music (Uga et al. CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND | 81 • After suffering a trauma. According to Freud. the of Dreams. those who could confirm these ideas are not around to cold water on dreamers’ faces. content). remembered story line of a dream (as dis- eries it has been my good fortune to make”: Dreams provide a psychic safety valve tinct from its latent. who re- peatedly awaken with a gasp and then immediately fall back to sleep. symbolic version of underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct its latent content. these people were more likely to dream about a waterfall. do not recall the episodes. William Dement and Edward Wolpert (1958) lightly sprayed dying). get up and stay awake for a few minutes. emotions. we maintain some awareness of changes in our external environment. a dream’s latent content according to Freud. 1988). Dreams are notable for Why We Dream their hallucinatory imagery. MAXINE © 2001 Mariam Henley So. Dream theorists have proposed several explanations of why we dream. or hidden. 2007).). people commonly report nightmares (Levin & “For what one has dwelt on by day. 1997). discontinuities. or even about being sprayed by someone. which consists of unconscious drives and wishes that would be from its manifest content).

Although most dreams have no overt sexual im- agery. 1970. Freud considered dreams the key to understanding our inner conflicts. 1996).” notes dream researcher those interpretations. Brain scans confirm the link between REM sleep and memory. which may explain why our dreams are less inhibited than we are when awake (Maquet et al. Allan Hobson (1995) could be interpreted any way one wished. whose neural networks are fast developing. so can stimulation originating within the brain. this delivers fresh oxygen with REM sleep provides the sleeping brain with periodic stimulation. This much seems true: A night of solid sleep (and dreaming) has an im- portant place in our lives. To develop and preserve neural pathways. Karni & Sagi. in the emotion-related limbic system. which receives raw input from the eyes. 2004).82 | CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND threatening if expressed directly. In contrast.” he warned. Vertes & Siegel. Freud nevertheless believed that most adult dreams can be “traced back by analysis to erotic wishes. Hob- son. Others. However. who loved to smoke cigars. note that memory consolidation may occur during non-REM sleep (Siegel. spend much of their abundant sleep time in REM sleep. and dreams are the brain’s attempt to make sense of it. a cylindrical object such as a gun might be a dis- guised representation of a penis. Add the limbic system’s emotional tone to the brain’s visual bursts and—Voila!—we . or as people learn to perform a visual- discrimination task. “If you don’t get good sleep and enough sleep after you learn new stuff. 2001. People who hear unusual phrases or learn to find hidden visual images before bed- time remember less the next morning if awakened every time they begin REM sleep than they do if awakened during other sleep stages (Empson & Clarke.” William Domhoff (2003). Some researchers speculate that Rapid eye movements also stir the liquid dreams may also serve a physiological function. a cigar is just a cigar. That helps explain why secondary students with high grades have averaged 25 minutes more sleep a night and have gone to bed 40 minutes earlier than their lower-achieving classmates (Wolfson & Carskadon. To sleep. This is important news for students. 2005). which is a scientific “When people interpret [a dream] as nightmare. “there is no reason to believe any of if it were meaningful and then sell Freud’s specific claims about dreams and their purposes. perchance to remember.. Other theories propose that dreams erupt from neural activity spreading upward from the brainstem (Antrobus. This theory to corneal cells. To make sense of neural static. you won’t integrate it effectively into your memories. many of whom. but not the visual cortex area. Much as a neurosurgeon can produce hallucinations by stimulating different parts of a patient’s cortex.. 2003. 2001. PET scans of sleeping people also reveal increased activity during REM sleep in the amygdala. Maquet. 2000. Even after two nights of recovery sleep. So precise are these activity patterns that scientists can tell where in the maze the rat would be if awake. A dream about a gun is a dream about a gun. and fix the day’s experiences in our memory. According to one version—the activation-synthesis theory—this neural activity is random. they —Sleep researcher J. 1991. Others maintain that dreams hide nothing. frontal lobe regions responsible for inhibition and logical thinking seem to idle. stimulating experiences develop and preserve the brain’s neural pathways. 2001). 1998). Perhaps the brain activity associated behind the cornea. Based on the accumulated science. suffer from a kind of sleep bulimia—binge-sleeping on the weekend. 1994). Legend has it that even Freud. those who have been deprived of both slow-wave and REM sleep don’t do as well as those who sleep undisturbed on their new learning (Stickgold et al. observed researcher Robert Stickgold (2000).” Freud’s wish-fulfillment theory of dreams has in large part given way to other theories. As we noted earlier. Infants. unpersuaded by such studies. Researchers who see dreams as information processing believe that dreams may help sift.” Thus. preventing their suffocation. 2001). Some contend that even if dreams are symbolic. it’s quackery. These internal stimuli activate brain areas that process visual images. acknowledged that “sometimes. To file away memories. buzz again during later REM sleep (Louie & Wilson. people tested the next day generally improve on a learned task after a night of memory consolidation. makes developmental sense. his critics say it is time to wake up from Freud’s dream theory. The brain regions that buzz as rats learn to navigate a maze. sort. As you will see in Chapter 4.

Answers: 9. serve as a safety valve for unfulfilled b. Damage either the limbic system or the visual centers active during dream- ing. 10. dream. d. Dreams may be akin to abstract art—open to more than REM rebound the tendency for REM sleep one meaningful interpretation. deep sleep. provide a rest period for overworked referred to as b. dreams may be interpreted unacceptable feelings. To reflect cognitive development. Deprived of it by repeatedly being awakened. c. and a deeper layer of latent content—a hidden meaning. preferring instead to see dreams as part of brain maturation and cognitive development (Domhoff. reflect the dreamer’s level of cognitive d. 2003. b. They draw on our concepts and knowledge. a. tells us something about the dreamer. a. That REM sleep occurs in mammals—and not in animals such as fish. d. to increase following REM sleep deprivation Dreams are a fascinating altered state of consciousness. REM sleep). Some dream researchers dispute both the Freudian and activation-synthesis theories. or story line. Foulkes. paradoxical sleep. suggesting that the causes and functions of REM sleep are deeply biological. . but it does not explain why we experi- and preserve neural pathways. c. TABLE 3. 2003). Dreams overlap with waking cognition and feature coherent speech. prior to age 9. REHEARSE IT! 9. But other influences— (created by repeated awakenings during hypnosis. that dreams development. Freud was most a. they are psychologically meaningless? Not necessarily. they literally sleep like to dream more? babies—with increased REM sleep. but with en more increases your chance of recalling a accompanying nightmares. 2003). and even near-death experiences—can also alter conscious awareness. 11. So does this mean that because dreams serve physiological functions and extend normal cognition.1 compares major dream theories. For example. CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND | 83 TABLE 3. which still memories. and dreaming itself may be impaired (Domhoff. Most other mammals also experience REM rebound. Activation-synthesis REM sleep triggers neural activity that evokes random visual The individual’s brain is weaving the stories. We are once again re- minded of a basic principle: Biological and psychological explanations of behavior are partners. REM rebound. The activation-synthesis theory suggests d. information-processing function. Cognitive development Dream content reflects dreamers’ cognitive development— Does not address the neuroscience of dreams. whose behavior is less influenced by learning—also fits the information-processing theory of dreams. children’s dreams seem more like a slide show and less like an active story in which the dreamer is an actor. drugs. ence meaningful dreams. or hidden meaning. Every psy- chologically meaningful experience involves an active brain. desires. people return more and more quickly to the REM stage after falling Question: Does eating spicy foods cause one back to sleep. which our sleeping brain weaves into stories. a phenomenon called REM rebound. c. Answer: Any food that causes you to awak- drawing REM-suppressing sleeping medications also increases REM sleep. manifest content. contain manifest (remembered) content in many different ways. 10. latent content. dream (Moorcroft. 1999). In interpreting dreams.1 Dream Theories Theory Explanation Critical Considerations Freud’s wish-fulfillment Dreams provide a “psychic safety valve”—expressing otherwise Lacks any scientific support. Information-processing Dreams help us sort out the day’s events and consolidate our But why do we sometimes dream about things we have memories. Although sleep researchers debate dreams’ function—and some are skeptical that dreams serve any function—there is one thing they agree on: We need REM sleep. slow-wave sleep. physiological function. their knowledge and understanding. not competitors. When finally allowed to sleep undisturbed. c. The tendency for REM sleep to increase interested in their of random neural activity. brains. following REM sleep deprivation is a. With. are the brain’s attempt to make sense 11. not experienced? Physiological function Regular brain stimulation from REM sleep may help develop This may be true.

and what powers does a hypnotist have over a hypnotized subject? Imagine you are about to be hypnotized. . . Told to forget the number 6. . oblivious to the people or noise surrounding you. “Your eyes are growing tired.” After a few minutes of this hypnotic induction. Facts and Falsehoods Those who study hypnosis have agreed that its power resides not in the hypnotist but in the subject’s openness to suggestion (Bowers. postural sway is one of the items assessed on the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale. In a quiet voice the hypnotist sug- gests. After giving a brief hypnotic induction. The hypnotist invites you to sit back. But is hypnosis really an altered state of consciousness? Let’s start with some agreed-upon facts and falsehoods. Your eyelids are becoming heavy . you will see a nonexistent person). although you man- age to avoid the chair when walking around (illustrating once again that two-track mind of yours). Invited to smell a sensuous perfume that is actually ammonia. (Perhaps you can recall being riveted by a movie into a trancelike state. . now heavier and heavier. they merely engage people’s ability to focus on certain images or behaviors. Your whole body is beginning to feel like lead. . . Told that you cannot see a certain ob- ject. . Your muscles are be- coming more and more relaxed. In fact. . you may experience hypnosis. Hypnotists have no magical mind-control power. They are beginning to close. . . But how open to suggestions are we? Can Anyone Experience Hypnosis? To some extent. 2004. Silva & Kirsch. such as a chair. “Your eyelids are shutting so tight that you cannot open them even if you try. .” it may indeed seem beyond your control to open your eyelids.) Many researchers refer to hypnotic “susceptibility” as hypnotic ability—the ability to focus attention totally on a task. and relax. When the hypnotist suggests. . to entertain fanciful possibilities. fix your gaze on a spot high on the wall. to become imaginatively absorbed in it. the 20 percent who can carry out a suggestion not to smell or react to a bottle of ammonia held under their nose—are those who easily become deeply absorbed in imaginative activities (Barnier & McConkey. 2001). you may indeed report that it is not there. a hypnotist suggests a series of experi- ences ranging from easy (your outstretched arms will move together) to difficult (with eyes open. In one community survey. People who respond to such suggestions without hypnosis are the same people who respond with hypnosis (Kirsch & Braffman.84 | CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND Hypnosis 10: What is hypnosis. When people stand upright with their eyes closed and are told that they are swaying back and forth. Highly hypnotizable people— say. You are becoming more deeply relaxed. Can Hypnosis Enhance Recall of Forgotten Events? Can hypnotic procedures enable people to recall kindergarten classmates? To re- trieve forgotten or suppressed details of a crime? Should testimony obtained under hypnosis be admissible in court? Most people believe (wrongly. most will indeed sway a little. as Chapter 8 will explain) that our experiences are all “in there. they have rich fantasy lives and become totally engaged in the imaginary events of a novel or movie. . Typically. 3 in 4 people . you may linger delightedly over its pungent odor. . . you may be puzzled when you count 11 fingers on your hands. . .” recorded in our brain and available for recall if only we can break through our own defenses (Loftus. 1980). 1984). Your breathing is now deep and regular. we are all open to suggestion. 1992).

. about it and start again. sun- lit liquids that would cleanse her skin. hypnosis can relieve pain (Druckman & Bjork. “Hypnosis is not a psychological rate memories as far back as birth” (Johnson & Hauck. 2004). no pain. or behaviors will sponta- unhypnotized people put their arm in an ice bath. drug. But facts searcher’s face (Orne & Evans. thus reducing hypersensitivity to pain.” then throwing the “acid” in a re. “It wasn’t what I expected. are facts. 1999). hypnotized. Orne asked other individuals to pretend they were hypnotized. Can Hypnosis Force People to Act Against Their Will? Researchers have induced hypnotized people to perform an apparently dangerous act: plunging one hand briefly into fuming “acid. even light made during a hypnosis session. the average client whose therapy was sup- plemented with hypnosis showed greater improvement than 70 percent of other therapy patients (Kirsch et al. 1995. Interviewed a day later. thoughts.” Had hypnosis given the hypnotist a special power to control others against their —Agatha Christie’s Miss Marple will? To find out. and have undergone hypnosis (Newman & Baumeister. The result? All the unhypnotized participants (perhaps believing that the laboratory context assured safety) performed the same acts as those who were hypnotized. to be hypnosis can reduce fear. these people exhib. Thus. 1996). 1996. In one statistical digest of 18 studies. used by some clinicians to help dergo major surgery without anesthesia. a hypnotist’s hints— mischief. “Hypnotically refreshed” memories combine fact with has been a source of considerable fiction. Such studies illustrate a principle that Chapter 15 emphasizes: An authoritative person in a legitimate context can induce people—hypnotized or not—to perform some un- likely acts. McConkey. Half of us can gain at least some pain relief control undesired symptoms and behaviors. Hypnosis researcher Nicholas Spanos (1982) put it directly: “The overt behaviors of hypnotic subjects are well within normal limits. and British courts generally ban testi- mony from witnesses who have been hypnotized (Druckman & Bjork. But 60 years of re. and if one is proved to be ited no memory of their acts and emphatically denied they would ever follow such wrong. and stress- related skin disorders. Posthypnotic suggestions have helped alleviate headaches. but so do the same positive suggestions given without hyp- nosis (Spanos. hypnosis a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another Can Hypnosis Alleviate Pain? (the subject) that certain perceptions. treated both groups the same. Most such reports have come from people who are predisposed to believe in aliens. When ings. 1995). was asked to imagine herself swimming in shimmering. 1994. and to experience her skin as smooth and un- blemished. truth serum and to regard it as such search disputes such claims. American. 1996). one must just be humble orders. carried out after the subject is no longer Nearly 10 percent of us can become so deeply hypnotized that we can even un. Within three months her sores had disappeared (Bowers. Laboratory assistants. Gib- son. Other striking examples of memories created under hypnosis come from the thousands of people who since 1980 have reported being abducted by UFOs. of how people may construct false memories. they feel intense pain within 25 neously occur. 1996). Without either person being aware of what is going on. and smoking addictions have not re- sponded well to hypnosis (Nash. 1991. seconds. 1987). 1984). alcohol. However. 1994. CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND | 85 agreed with the inaccurate statement that hypnosis enables people to “recover accu. asthma. When hypnotized people do the same after being given suggestions to feel posthypnotic suggestion a suggestion. who for more than 20 years suffered from open sores all over her body. Hypnosis seemed especially helpful for treatment of obesity. Australian.” “Did you hear loud noises?”—can plant ideas that become the subject’s —Researcher Kenneth Bowers (1987) pseudomemory. As some dentists know. 1995. unaware that those in the ex- periment’s control group had not been hypnotized. researchers Martin Orne and Frederich Evans unleashed that enemy of so many illusory beliefs—the control group. hypnosis speeds the disappearance of warts. they indeed report feeling little pain. 1965). Patterson.. are highly hypnotizable. feel- Yes. 2001).” Can Hypnosis Be Therapeutic? Hypnotherapists try to help patients harness their own healing powers (Baker. In controlled studies. One woman. See Chapter 8 for a more detailed discussion Nickell.

86 | CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND from hypnosis. These results would not have surprised famed researcher Ernest Hilgard (1986. even when they believe no one is watching (Perugini et al. When deeply hypnotized people in one experiment were asked to imagine a color. 2007. and a mild sedative (Song. Mere imagi- nation had become—to the hypnotized person’s brain—a compelling hallucination (Kosslyn et al. 1992). Explaining the Hypnotized State 11: Is hypnosis an extension of normal consciousness or an altered state? We have seen that hypnosis involves heightened suggestibility. Spiegel. local anesthesia. 1996). not something unique to hypnosis (Spanos. subjects will likely do so only if they think the experiment is still under way (and scratching is therefore expected). just what is hypnosis? Hypnosis as a Social Phenomenon Some researchers believe that hypnotic phenomena reflect the workings of normal consciousness and the power of social influence (Lynn et al. Hypnosis as Divided Consciousness Most hypnosis researchers grant that normal social and cognitive processes play a part in hypnosis. advocates of the social influence theory contend that hyp- notic phenomena—like the behaviors associated with other supposed altered states.” If told to scratch their ear later when they hear the word psychology. starting a conversation.” For one thing.. who believed hypnosis involves not only social influence but also a special dual-processing state of dissociation—a split between different levels of conscious- dissociation a split in consciousness. 1992). 2007).. 1998). 1990. 2006). Moreover. 1987). recovered sooner. We have also seen that hypnotic procedures do not endow the hypnotist with special powers. 1994. They point out how powerfully our interpretations and attentional spotlight influence our ordinary perceptions. Hilgard felt that when. Spanos & Coe. hypnotized subjects will sometimes carry out suggested behaviors on cue. The surgical use of hypnosis has flourished in Europe.” explained Theodore Barber (2000). but they nevertheless believe hypnosis is more than inducing someone to play the role of “good subject. Hilgard viewed hypnotic dissociation as a vivid form of everyday mind splits— which allows some thoughts and behaviors similar to doodling while listening to a lecture or typing the end of a sentence while to occur simultaneously with others.. In surgical experiments. thanks to the inhibition of pain-related brain activity (Askay & Pat- terson. ness. “The hypnotist’s ideas become the subject’s thoughts. distinctive brain activity accompanies hypnosis. where one Belgian medical team has performed more than 5000 surgeries with a combination of hypnosis. and left the hospital earlier than unhypnotized people in control groups. areas of their brain lit up as if they were really seeing the color. So. the more they allow that person to direct their attention and fantasies (Gfeller et al. Based on such findings. Does this mean that people are consciously faking hypnosis? No—like actors caught up in their roles. 2000). But they can sometimes help people overcome stress-related ailments and cope with pain.. hypnotized people lower . such as dissociative identity disorder (discussed in Chapter 13) and spirit or demon possession—are an extension of everyday social behavior.” The more they like and trust the hypnotist. hypnotized patients have required less med- ication. for example. subjects begin to feel and behave in ways appropriate for “good hypnotic subjects. If an experimenter eliminates their motivation for acting hypnotized—by stating that hypnosis reveals their “gullibility”—subjects become unresponsive. “and the subject’s thoughts produce the hypnotic experiences and behav- iors.

Most experts agree that hypnosis can be 14. b. c. is divided into simultaneous conscious and nonconscious realms. b. c.. a state of divided consciousness. 2003). Support for this view comes from PET scans showing that hypnosis reduces brain activity in a region that processes painful stimuli. Hypnosis does not block sensory input. and social influences interact to affect hypnotic phenomena. this may be split into parts which much seems clear: There is. So. a.” tion. maintain that people responding this way are caught up in playing the role of “good subject. Proponents of social influence theory. Hypnotic pain relief may also result from another form of dual processing we’ve discussed—selective attention—as when an injured athlete. this was evidence Service. which are converging to- ward a unified account of hypnosis: Thus. To Hilgard. In hypnosis —William James. d. c. block sensory input.12 Dissociation or role- Hypnosis has caused a The subject is so caught playing? This hypnotized woman tested by split in awareness. CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND | 87 Attention is diverted from a painful ice bath. she did so. “The total possible consciousness Although the divided-consciousness theory of hypnosis is controversial. Answers: 12. c. how- ever. or typically a. Hilgard believed that hypnosis involves carry out a hypnotic suggestion effectively used to dissociation. are faking their actions. 1997). But asked to Courtesy of News and Publications press a key if some part of her felt the pain. up in the hypnotized role Ernest Hilgard exhibited no pain when her that she ignores the cold. feels little or no pain until the game ends. heightened suggestibility. We have two-track minds. have rich fantasy lives.” their arm into an ice bath. REHEARSE IT! 12. Woody & McConkey. 2003. d. which starts with selective atten. there is also little doubt that social influences do play an important role in hypnosis. an extension of social pressure. elicit testimony about a “forgotten” a. People who are hypnotizable and will 13. attention. conscious enactment of a hypnotic role. d.12. a. relieve pain. The ice water therefore feels cold—very cold—but not painful. re-create childhood experiences. hypnosis can be an extension both of normal principles of social influence and of everyday dissociations between our conscious awareness and our automatic behaviors. arm was placed in an ice bath. How? Divided-consciousness Social influence theory: theory: FIGURE 3. Hypnosis researchers are moving beyond the “hypnosis is social influence” versus “hypnosis is divided consciousness” debate (Killeen & Nash. other. are subject to hallucinations. 13. c. have low self-esteem. much of our behavior occurs on autopilot. without doubt. 14. that hypnosis dissociates the sensation of the pain stimulus (of which the subjects are still aware) from the emotional suf- fering that defines their experience of pain. Stanford University of dissociation. They are instead exploring how brain activity. much more to thinking and acting than co-exist but mutually ignore each we are conscious of. as in FIGURE 3. Our information processing. but not in the sensory cortex. Principles of Psychology. might the two views—social influence and divided consciousness—be bridged? Researchers John Kihlstrom and Kevin McConkey (1990) have argued that there is no contradiction between the two approaches. which receives the raw sensory input (Rainville et al. event. but it may block our attention to those stimuli. or divided consciousness. caught up in the competi- tion. . 1890 Yet. as in life. b.

needs enhancing. 90 million people suffer from such problems related to alcohol and other drugs.” pill-sharing. the user may feel physical pain and intense cravings. it takes bigger doses to Misconceptions About Addiction get the desired effect. In recent pop psychology.13). Drug dose With either physical or psychological dependence. often as a way of relieving negative emotions. Thus. Viagra for middle- aged men. our hypothetical drug user is dismayed by news reports of to take so many drugs. several cigarettes have calmed frazzled nerves before an appointment at the plastic surgeon’s office for wrinkle-smoothing Botox injections. nausea. but there is little dispute that some drugs do. 1990). The odds of getting hooked after trying vari. particularly for stress-relieving drugs. more drug is needed to desirable side effects of withdrawal. Despite the connotations of alcohol “tolerance. 2003). 88 | CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND Drugs and Consciousness There is controversy about whether hypnosis uniquely alters consciousness. and addiction. People can also develop psycho- Little logical dependence. although not physically addictive. Institute of ple given morphine to control pain rarely develop the cravings of the addict who uses Medicine (Brody. excessive amounts of alcohol being “tolerated. the user’s primary focus may be obtaining and using the drug. But some people—perhaps 10 percent—do indeed have a hard time using a psychoactive drug in moderation or . By midday. can become an important Small Large part of the user’s life. reports the World Health Organization (2008).” the person’s brain. there are beta blockers for onstage performers. As the user’s brain adapts its chemistry to offset effect the drug effect (a process called neuroadaptation). and its stimulating effects can later be partially offset with a glass of wine and two Tylenol PMs. the drug’s effect lessens. Let’s imagine a day in the life of a legal-drug user. Before drifting off into “Just tell me where you kids got the idea REM-depressed sleep. and Adderall for students hoping to focus their concentration. morphine as a mood-altering drug (Melzack. hormone-delivering “libido patches” for middle-aged women. indicating physical dependence. and liver suffer damage from the chronic. heart. And if performance © 1992 by Sidney Harris. Psychoactive drugs are chemicals that change perceptions and moods through their actions at the neural synapses (see Chapter 2). the supposedly irresistible seduction of addiction has ous drugs: been extended to cover many behaviors formerly considered bad habits or even Marijuana: 9 percent sins. Do addictive drugs quickly corrupt? For example. and what are some common misconceptions about addiction? Why might a person who rarely drinks alcohol get tipsy on one can of beer. Worldwide. and distress following sudden withdrawal. FIGURE 3. morphine taken to Tobacco: 32 percent control pain is powerfully addictive. An addiction is a compulsive craving for a substance despite adverse consequences and often with physical symptoms such as aches. Has the concept been stretched too far? Are addictions as irresistible as com- Alcohol: 15 percent monly believed? Let’s consider three big questions. the user requires Response to first exposure larger and larger doses to experience the same effect (FIGURE 3. Such effect drugs.” After repeated Users who stop taking psychoactive drugs may experience the un- exposure. but an experienced drinker show few effects until the second Big effect six-pack? Continued use of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs Drug produces tolerance. dependence. It begins with a wake-up latte.13 Drug tolerance With repeat- ed exposure to a psychoactive drug. Dependence and Addiction 12: What are tolerance. Does it often lead to heroin abuse? Peo- Source: National Academy of Science. Heroin: 23 percent 1. pill-popping college students and of celebrity deaths attributed to acci- dental overdoses of lethal drug combinations. As the body responds to the produce same effect drug’s absence. A diet pill before dinner helps stem the appetite.

only some of which become ing the user to take larger and larger doses compulsively addicted to cocaine (Deroche-Garmonet et al. and some addicts do benefit from treatment programs. enliven a drinker. cally (“I’m a science fiction addict”). Siegel. but they “That is not one of the seven habits of highly do so by slowing brain activity that controls judgment and inhibitions. But the recovery rates of treated and untreated groups differ physical dependence a physiological need less than one might suppose. activity and slow body functions. withdrawal the discomfort and distress tions can be powerful. 1988. .” surf the Web half the night to satisfy their “Internet addic. use of illegal drugs virtually ceases. Some Internet users. “About 70 percent of Americans have tion. inhibit. that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug. only 15 to 16 percent of people become addicted within 10 years of first use. and opiates) that reduce neural ping.” ing (Griffiths. without treatment. addiction can become an all-purpose excuse.” be justification for stretching the addiction concept to cover certain social behav. barbiturates (tranquilizers). Even so. there may eventually walk away. addiction compulsive drug craving and 3. the casual the Internet do become compulsive and dysfunctional.” report Terry Robinson and tolerance the diminishing effect with reg- ular use of the same dose of a drug. 1990). it is a stimulant. addic. Much the same is true for rats. for example. treatments. Our cul- turally influenced expectations also play a role in the way drugs affect us (Ward.” or abuse or betray to indulge their “sex addiction” can then explain away tried illicit drugs. even when this their aftereffects. percent have done so in the last Sometimes. stimulants. barbi- has been suggested for a host of driven behaviors. 2005). gambling. . much like abusive drug tak. requir- Kent Berridge (2003). usually after prior failed efforts or negative emotions.” And that. Can addictions be overcome voluntarily. Those who embezzle to feed their “gambling addiction. or surfing month. What are depressants. Can we extend the concept of addiction to cover not just drug depend- use. CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND | 89 stopping altogether. or mimic the activity of the brain’s own chemical messengers. indeed. viewing addiction as a disease. Alco. Low doses of alcohol may. fight. do dis. we may use the term metaphori. and staying on. and opiates that calm neural activity and slow body functions. Alcohol effective people. “Even for a very addictive drug like cocaine. though. So.. occasional users of drugs such as alcohol psychoactive drug a chemical substance and marijuana far outnumber those addicted to these substances (Gazzaniga. and work. and hallu- cinogens—all do their work at the brain’s synapses. (1997) Psychoactive Drugs The three major categories of psychoactive drugs—depressants. controlled. would be unfortunate. encies. only a few their behavior as an illness. exercise. has supported many people in overcoming their alcohol dependence. —Neuropsychologist Michael Gazzaniga iors. Past age 35. 2008). Initially. can undermine drawal symptoms when the drug is discon- self-confidence and the will to change cravings that. the neurotransmitters. that alters perceptions and moods. before experiencing the drug’s effect. Debates over the addiction-as-disease model continue. alcohol is a depressant. marked by unpleasant with- Moreover. but if we begin taking the metaphor as reality. playing video games. holics Anonymous. If one culture assumes that a particular drug produces euphoria (or aggres- sion or sexual arousal) and another does not. Having sampled the pleasures and play an apparent inability to resist logging on. . Hoeft et al. False. without therapy? Helpful as therapy or group support may be. people often recover on their own.. All Rights Reserved. for many people do voluntarily psychological dependence a psychologi- stop using addictive drugs. each culture may find its expectations fulfilled. including too much eating. “most people excessive use impairs their work and relationships (Ko et al. They stimulate. as diabetes is a disease. turates. such as to relieve ex-smokers kicked the habit on their own. and we have. in small amounts. critics say. . Leo Cullum 13: from cartoonbank. 2. pleasure-seeking behaviors? We can. behaviors such as gambling. ALCOHOL True or false? In large amounts. sex. 2001. for example. but a whole spectrum of repetitive. Depressants © The New Yorker Collection 1998.. 1994). . but . Most of America’s 41 million cal need to use a drug. “one cannot tinued. despite adverse consequences.” . 2004). and what are their effects? Depressants are drugs such as alcohol. without any treatment. True. but should we? The addiction-as-disease-needing-treatment idea depressants drugs (such as alcohol. for a drug.

their insisting that they would not do so. REDUCED SELF-AWARENESS AND SELF-CONTROL Alcohol also reduces self- awareness (Hull et al. group (right). skilled performance deteriorates. 1990. such as this one totaled effects. MacDonald et al. as blood-alcohol levels rise and moral judgments falter. MRI scans show another way prolonged and Scan of woman with Scan of woman without alcohol dependence alcohol dependence excessive drinking can affect cognition (FIGURE 3. This may help explain why people who want to sup- press their awareness of failures or shortcomings are more likely to drink than are those who feel good about themselves. slows neural processing. Yet.. 2001). heavy drinkers may not recall people they met the night before or what they said or did while intoxicated. Another survey of 89. 2003). which helps fix the day’s experiences into permanent memories.14 Alcohol dependence gests alcohol (Wuethrich. speech slurs. 90 | CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND lowers our inhibitions. rightly or wrongly. Paired with sleep Dangerous disinhibition Alcohol con. that they have been drinking alcohol. of the male assailants and 70 percent of the female victims had been drinking (Camper. they will behave accordingly (Leigh. NIH. Lynn. MEMORY DISRUPTION Alcohol disrupts the processing of recent experiences into long-term memories. impairs the growth of synaptic connections.) These physical which become especially dangerous behind the wheel of a car. In surveys of rapists. 1997). combined with lowered inhibitions. 80 percent drinking before committing their offense (Seto & Barbaree. By focusing attention on the imme- diate situation and away from any future consequences. 2006. This Colorado quences—several hundred thousand lives claimed worldwide each year in alcohol- University Alcohol Awareness Week exhibit related accidents and violent crime. and reduces self-awareness. binge-drinking diminishes the genesis of nerve cells. and they are at risk for lung. ways. EXPECTANCY EFFECTS As with other psychoactive drugs. These blackouts result partly from the way alcohol suppresses REM sleep. Car accidents occur despite most drinkers’ prompted many students to post their own belief (when sober) that driving under the influence of alcohol is wrong and despite anti-drinking pledges (white flags). and contributes to nerve cell death (Crews et al. alcohol also lessens impulse A University of Illinois campus survey control (Steele & Josephs.. 1995). 1990). In rats. researchers (Abrams & Wilson.. DISINHIBITION Alcohol is an equal-opportunity drug: It increases harmful tendencies—as when angered people become aggressive after drinking. NIAAA. 1988). and believe. alcohol’s behavioral 1990). alcohol is a potent sedative. In a now-classic experiment. 1983) gave Rutgers University men who volunteered for a study .14). disrupts memory formation. 2007). Girls and young women can also become addicted shrinks the brain MRI scans show brain shrinkage in women with alcohol dependence to alcohol more quickly than boys and young men do. alcohol can become a staggering problem: Reactions slow. 1995). more than half acknowledge showed that before sexual assaults.. (left) compared with women in a control brain. 1989). Thus. drinking can put a driver at risk. a game. at a developmental period corresponding to human adoles- cence. their combination is deadlier yet. and liver damage at lower consumption levels (CASA. especially in women. 1986). contribute to alcohol’s worst conse- by a teenage drunk driver. The urges you would feel if sober are the ones you will more likely act upon Ray Ng/Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images when intoxicated. When people believe that alcohol affects social behavior in certain 79 percent of unwanted sexual intercourse experiences (Presley et al. who have less of a stomach enzyme that di- FIGURE 3. deprivation. And it increases helpful tendencies—as when tipsy restaurant patrons leave extravagant tips (M. Virtually all will drive home from a bar. In larger doses. SLOWED NEURAL PROCESSING Low doses of alcohol relax the drinker by slowing sympathetic nervous system activity.874 American effects stem not only from its alteration of brain chemistry but also from the user’s collegians found alcohol or drugs involved in expectations. It can shrink the brain. people’s qualms about drinking and driving lessen. or a roman- tic partner sometimes elicits a drinking binge. Losing a business deal. (Although either sleep deprivation or sumption leads to feelings of invincibility. HHS The effects of heavy drinking on the brain and cognition can be long- term. Daniel Hommer. even if given a breathalyzer test and told they are intox- icated (Denton & Krebs.

the benefits of stimulants come with a (left) and. irritability. and Amytal are sometimes prescribed to induce sleep or reduce anxiety. hypertension. the brain eventually stops producing its own opi- ates. 1992). or tranquilizers. or boost mood or athletic performance. causing speeded-up body functions BARBITURATES The barbiturate drugs. Her decline is to dilate. amphetamines drugs that stimulate neural activity. Methamphetamine triggers the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine. insomnia. and lethargy sets in as blissful pleasure replaces pain and anxiety. and the even more ALCOHOL + SEX = THE PERFECT STORM Alcohol’s effects on self-control and social powerful cocaine. lose weight. When repeatedly flooded with an artificial opiate. Over time. OPIATES The opiates—opium and its derivatives. half the partici. such as were more likely to report having strong sexual fantasies and feeling guilt-free. leaving the user with permanently depressed functioning. and the extreme discomfort of withdrawal. hol. METHAMPHETAMINE Methamphetamine is chemically related to its parent drug. These substances can be addictive and may induce an aftermath crash into age 40 (right). fatigue. This category of drugs also includes amphet- amines. People use these substances to stay awake. with speeded-up body functions after an evening of heavy drinking—the total depressive effect on body functions and associated energy and mood changes. In methamphetamine a powerfully addictive larger doses. morphine and heroin. mimic the effects of alco- and associated energy and mood changes. 2002. temporarily lessening pain and whether they actually had drunk alcohol or not.) In each group. which stimulates brain cells that enhance energy and mood. they depress neural Being able to attribute their sexual responses to alcohol released their inhibitions— activity. And. and energy and self. with “the overwhelming majori. If drug that stimulates the central nervous combined with alcohol—as sometimes happens when people take a sleeping pill system. reducing anx- pants thought they were drinking alcohol and half thought they were not. watching an erotic movie clip. Pupils constrict. 2006). and depression (Silverman et al. over time. After iety but impairing memory and judgment. taken at age 36 confidence to rise. Alcohol’s effect lies partly in that anxiety. and the even more powerful cocaine. social isolation. CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND | 91 on “alcohol and sexual stimulation” either an alcoholic or a nonalcoholic drink.. Because they depress nervous system activity. the mind. Methamphet- amine’s possible aftereffects include irritability. National Pictures/Topham/The Image Works The result can include eight hours or so of heightened energy and euphoria. Seconal. ty” finding the two correlated (Cooper. All strong stimulants increase heart and breathing rates and cause pupils to obvious physical changes. seizures. appears to reduce baseline can be lethal. More than 600 studies have phetamine) that excite neural activity and explored the link between drinking and risky sex. But for this short-term pleasure the user may pay a long-term price: a gnawing craving for another fix. morphine and heroin—also depress neural functioning. and what are their effects? Stimulants such as caffeine and nicotine temporarily excite neural activity and arouse body functions. 2005) but has even greater effects. breathing slows. the brain lacks the nor- mal level of these painkilling neurotransmitters. Stimulants 14: What are stimulants. methamphetamine may reduce baseline dopamine levels. barbiturates such as Nembutal. they can lead to impaired memory and judgment or even death. powerful sex organ. dopamine levels. barbiturates drugs that depress the activity (Both had strong tastes that masked any alcohol. a need for progres- sively larger doses. amphetamine (NIDA. speed up body functions. as with other drugs. after four years of addiction. evident in these two photos. nico- tine. stimulants drugs (such as caffeine. Ecstasy. the men who thought they had consumed alcohol opiates opium and its derivatives. at price. If the artificial opiate is then withdrawn. Those who cannot or choose not to tolerate this state may pay an ultimate price—death by overdose. headaches. and occasional violent outbursts . appetite to diminish (because blood sugar increases). amphetamines. and methamphetamine Dramatic drug-induced decline This woman’s methamphetamine addiction led (“speed”). the endorphins. of the central nervous system. and metham- expectations often converge in sexual situations. depression. Ecstasy.

Not cigarette smoking causes lung such a bad risk of having your head blown off. like The lost lives from these dynamite-loaded cigarettes approximate those from lung cancer. 1999). the death is often agonizing and premature. 1992. Rose et al. I ought to know because a smoker becomes dependent. caffeine used regularly and in heavy doses produces tolerance: Its stim- ulating effects lessen. C. tea. Eliminating smoking would increase life expectancy more than any other preventive measure. And all it takes to relieve this aversive state is a cigarette—a portable nicotine would you start smoking?” more than 85 per. reports the World Health Organization (WHO). I ever did. consumed worldwide. A mild dose of caffeine typically lasts three or four hours. 2007. 1 This analogy. of time you spend smoking it (Discover. 2006). or to project a mature image. 2008). Why. was suggested by mathematician Sam Saunders. A teen-to-the-grave smoker has a 50 percent chance of dying from the habit. insomnia. Each year throughout the world. and irritability. then. as reported by K. who suggest its pleasures. 1999 million of its 1.. 2008). And discontinuing heavy caffeine intake often produces with- drawal symptoms. including fatigue and headache. They may first light repulsive addiction that slowly but up to imitate glamorous celebrities.. let alone tomorrow and every day thereafter. Those addicted to nicotine find it very hard to quit because tobacco products are “To cease smoking is the easiest thing as powerfully and quickly addictive as heroin and cocaine.. or to get the social surely turns you into a gasping. including craving. and gels—and even in soap. Smokers are far more likely have cigarettes banned everywhere. The British government now classifies crystal meth. cigarette companies have effectively modeled smoking hacking up brownish gobs of toxic with themes that appeal to youths: sophistication. heart disease. energy drinks. annual deaths Smoke a cigarette and nature will charge you will increase to 8 million. 2008). do so many people smoke? Humorist Dave Barry (1995) Smoking usually begins during early adolescence.000 packs.’ seeking. tobacco kills nearly 5. cent of adult smokers answer No (Slovic et al.” today’s actual cigarettes. Coffees and teas vary in their caf- feine content. adventure- waste from your one remaining lung. independence. . eventually needing larger —Mark Twain. also see FIGURE 3. 1835–1910 and larger doses to get the same effect. gray-skinned. Mindful of these tendencies. self-conscious and often thinking the world “Arguments against smoking: ‘It’s a is watching their every move. we could expect more than 10.’ Case closed! et al.000 gruesome daily deaths and other serious diseases in (more than three times the 9/11 fatalities each and every day)—surely enough to smokers. 1985. Smokers also develop tolerance. and scientific consensus that an occasional innocent-looking one is filled with dynamite instead of tobacco.) Adolescents.. each year fewer than one of every seven smokers who I’ve done it a thousand times.1 to develop serious diseases. tumor-ridden invalid. As with other addictions. Among teens whose parents and best friends are Let’s light up!” nonsmokers.15).) And by 2030. But with 250 million packs a day cancer. Even attempts to quit within the first weeks of smoking often fail as nicotine cravings set in (DiFranza. alongside cocaine and heroin as one of the most dangerous drugs (BBC. and if by now the cigarette manufacturers haven’t attracted your business. and who offer them cigarettes (Eiser.4 —Philip Morris Companies Inc.” want to quit will do so. Evans teenagers are doing it. bars. (Imagine the outrage if terrorists took down an equivalent of 25 loaded jumbo jets today. teens who start smoking also have friends who Arguments for smoking: ‘Other smoke. Asked “If you had to do it all over again. “There is an overwhelming medical NICOTINE Imagine that cigarettes were harmless—except. social approval. adapted here with world-based numbers. can now be found not only in coffee.. 1988. and soda but also in fruit juices. they cigarette the summer he turned 15: almost surely never will.. the world’s most widely consumed psychoactive substance. 2002).. (If you are in college or univer- recalling why he smoked his first sity. reward of being accepted by other smokers (Cin et al. Tickle et al. anxiety. and teas having less. which—if taken in the evening—may be long enough to impair sleep. Typically. than nonsmokers. That means that 1 billion 12 minutes—ironically. Like other drugs. once in every 25.. mints. just about the length twenty-first-century people may be killed by tobacco (WHO. CAFFEINE Caffeine. emphysema. with a cup of drip coffee surprisingly having more caffeine than a shot of espresso. 2006). the highly addictive crystalized form of methamphetamine.3 billion customers. Quitting causes nicotine-withdrawal symp- toms. the smoking rate is close to zero (Moss et al. according to WHO predictions. are vulnerable to smoking’s allure. dispenser. and 1996).92 | CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND (Homer et al. Cole (1998).

2002).. 4. appealing. CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND | 93 FIGURE 3. 2004). Scott et al.15 Peer influence Kids don’t smoke if their friends don’t (Philip Morris. triggering the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine. socially adept smokers in the hopes that teens will imitate. 1998. Vita et al. Teen smoking went up in the 1990s (Brody. is not only mood-altering. 1994. These nonsmokers may live not only healthier but also happier lives. and 81 per- cent of those who haven’t yet quit wish to (Jones.. the acute craving and withdrawal symptoms gradually dissipate over the ensuing six months (Ward et al. nicotine stimulates the central nervous system to release other neurotransmitters that calm anxiety and re- duce sensitivity to pain. chronic disabili. Within minutes. Nic-A-Teen Aware that virtually all smokers ties. For example. Increases heart rate and blood pressure FIGURE 3. that may reduce stress for carbohydrates twice as fast as intravenous heroin. Suppresses appetite Nicotine reaches the brain within 7 seconds. Percentage of 45% 11. .16). relaxes muscles and triggers the The physiological effects of nicotine release of neurotransmitters 5. Smoking delivers its hit of nicotine within 7 seconds. Healthy living seems start as teenagers—and that sales would to add both years to life and life to years. alertness The Source. plummet if no teens were enticed to smoke— cigarette companies target teens. Reduces circulation to extremities 2.16 Where there’s smoke .to 17-year-olds 2003). At the same time. . coinciding with an increased number 1. For those who endure. 2007). it is also reinforc- ing. a state of increased including a younger Johnny Depp in this film. At high levels. A correlation-causation question: Does who smoked a the close link between teen smoking and cigarette at least 30 friends’ smoking reflect peer influence? Teens once in the past seeking similar friends? Or both? 30 days 15 0 All/Most of my Some of my None of my friends smoke friends smoke friends smoke Nicotine. and divorce (Doherty & Doherty. 1997). which in turn diminish appetite and boost alert- ness and mental efficiency (FIGURE 3. 2001). even when they know they are committing slow-motion suicide (Saad. half of all Americans who have ever smoked have quit. Nevertheless. : 3. . Arouses the brain to of appealing smokers in popular films. nicotine stimulates the release of dopamine © WinStar Cinema/Courtesy: Everett Collection and (like heroin and morphine) natural opioids (Nowak. the amount in the blood soars. like other addictive drugs. 1998). These rewards keep people smoking even when they wish they could stop—indeed. Smoking correlates with higher rates of depression. They have portrayed tough..

cocaine blocks sites on a receiving neuron. In situations that trigger aggression. and norepinephrine (FIGURE 3.17 Cocaine euphoria and crash Sending neuron Action potential Reuptake Synaptic gap Receiving neuron Neurotransmitter Cocaine molecule Receptor sites (a) (b) (c) Neurotransmitters carry a message from a The sending neuron normally reabsorbs By binding to the sites that normally reabsorb sending neuron across a synapse to receptor excess neurotransmitter molecules. cardiac arrest. and norepinephrine (Ray & Ksir. This faster-working. a crystallized form of cocaine.94 | CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND COCAINE Cocaine use offers a fast track from euphoria to crash. and especially when injected or smoked (“free-based”). cocaine’s psychological effects depend not only 1896 and 1905. cocaine users who think they are taking co- caine often have a cocainelike experience (Van Dyke & Byck. cocaine enters the bloodstream quickly. FIGURE 3. and a craving —Comedian George Carlin (1937–2008 for more.17). Many regular cocaine users—animal and human—do become 24-year-olds reported having tried cocaine during the past year (Home “Cocaine makes you a new man. 5 percent of U. humans ingesting high doses of cocaine in laboratory experiments impose higher shock levels on a presumed oppo- nent than do those receiving a placebo (Licata et al.” tions and personality. 1982).S. Likewise.000 times to gain one cocaine injection (Siegel. 2008). The extra neurotransmitter molecules therefore remain in the synapse. high school seniors and 5 percent of British 18. process called reuptake. or respi- an extract of the coca plant. 1990). Cocaine-addicted monkeys have pressed levers more than 12. Caged rats fight when given foot shocks. convulsions. a neurotransmitter molecules. Between As with all psychoactive drugs. Nearly half of the drug-using seniors had the first thing that new man wants smoked crack. In national surveys. When the cocaine level drops. potent form of the is more cocaine. 1993). serotonin. . suspiciousness.. serotonin.” drug produces a briefer but more intense high. 2003. When sniffed (“snorted”).. Within 15 to 30 minutes. Given a placebo. The result: a “rush” of euphoria that depletes the brain’s supply of the neurotransmitters dopamine. and they fight even more when given cocaine and foot shocks. which wanes after several hours only to return several days later (Gawin. Coke was indeed “the real on the dosage and form consumed but also on the situation and the user’s expecta- thing. the absence of these neurotransmitters produces a crash. Cocaine use may also The recipe for Coca-Cola originally included lead to emotional disturbances. 1991). cocaine tonic for tired elderly people. intensifying their normal mood- altering effects and producing a euphoric rush. 1990). ingesting cocaine may heighten reactions. And Office. reuptake of dopamine. a crash of agitated depression follows as the drug’s effect wears off. creating a ratory failure. a more intense crash. Johnston et al.

a replay of old often similar to drug-induced hallucinations. a four-hour period of feelings of emo- tional elevation and. had created—and on one Friday afternoon in April 1943 accidentally ingested—LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide).. McCann et al. produces a euphoric high and feelings of inti- 2005). But its major effect is releasing stored serotonin and blocking its reabsorption. Some. Psychologist serotonin-producing neurons and to mood Ronald Siegel (1982) reported that whether you provoke your brain to hallucinate and cognition. The hug drug MDMA. 1976. As an amphetamine derivative. Ecstasy’s popularity soared as a “club drug” taken at night clubs and all-night raves (Landry. “it will hallucinate in basi- cally the same way. Another is that long-term. or extreme sensory deprivation. that dis- such as a lattice. During the late 1990s. thus prolonging serotonin’s feel-good flood (Braun. impairs mem. it triggers dopamine release. others may be replays of in the absence of sensory input. connectedness with those around them (“I love everyone”). and death. are natural substances. hallucinogens psychedelic (“mind- manifesting”) drugs. 1980. however. 2007). 2006). but the per- health risks and longer-term harm to ceptual distortions and hallucinations have some commonalities. unfathomable reality” (Smith. users enter a three. Produces euphoria and social intimacy. kaleidoscopic play of colors” (Siegel.. Schilt et al. There are. The next phase consists of more meaningful tort perceptions and evoke sensory images images. extraordinary shapes with intense. but with short-term user’s current mood and expectations color the emotional experience. is both a stimulant and a mild hallu- cinogen. These sensations are strikingly similar to the near-death experience. known as acid (lysergic acid diethylamide). which—when combined with pro- longed dancing—can lead to severe overheating. 1987). The result reminded him of a childhood mystical experience that had left him longing for another glimpse of “a miraculous. an al.” The experience typically begins with simple geometric forms. Albert Hofmann reported perceiving “an uninterrupted stream of fantastic pictures. 2001. past emotional experiences. people frequently feel sepa- rated from their body and experience dreamlike scenes so real that they may be. But repeated use destroys serotonin- ory.. LSD and other powerful hallucinogens are chemically similar to (and therefore block the actions of) a subtype of the neurotransmitter serotonin (Jacobs. 2001. Schnaper. in- cluding the mild hallucinogen marijuana.. a street name for MDMA (methylene- dioxymethamphetamine). CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND | 95 ECSTASY Ecstasy. Many experience bright lights or beings of light. meaning “mind- manifesting”). 1984). loss of oxygen. 2007. 2001. by drugs. 1980). leading to decreased output and increased risk of per- manently depressed mood (Croft et al. powerful. or a spiral. Roiser et al. near-death experience an altered state of tered state of consciousness reported by about one-third of those who survive a consciousness reported after a close brush brush with death. reasons not to be ecstatic about Ecstasy. are synthetic. known as Ecstasy. with death (such as through cardiac arrest). macy. and what are their effects? Hallucinogens distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input (which is why these drugs are also called psychedelics. increased AP Photo/Dale Sparks blood pressure. Ecstasy (MDMA) a synthetic stimulant The emotions of an LSD trip vary from euphoria to detachment to panic. As the hallucination peaks. such as LSD. Hofmann. LSD In 1943. Ecstasy delights for the night but dispirits the morrow. The and mild hallucinogen.. repeated leaching of brain serotonin can damage serotonin-producing neurons. deflate mood and impair memory. About a half-hour after taking an Ecstasy pill. . Ecstasy also suppresses the disease-fighting immune system. slows thought. as when revived from cardiac arrest (Moody. Pacifici et al. LSD a powerful hallucinogenic drug. also come panic-stricken or harm themselves. a chemist. and disrupts sleep by interfering with serotonin’s control of the producing neurons and may permanently circadian clock (Laws & Kokkalis. some may be superimposed on a tunnel or funnel. Others. One is its dehydrating effect. Ring. Hallucinogens 15: What are hallucinogens. such as LSD and MDMA (Ecstasy). given a social context. 2002). 2001).

Patton et al. and may produce a euphoric high. triggers a variety of effects. and out-of-body sensations (Siegel. mood. sounds. 1999) and National Institute on Drug Abuse (2004) have identified other marijuana consequences. including Despite their differences. Given that oxygen deprivation and other insults to the brain are known to produce hallucinations. Such uses have motivated legislation in some states to make the drug legally available for medical purposes. If so. Like alcohol. unlike alcohol. “Pigeons wait too long to respond to buzzers or lights that tell them food is available for brief periods. and rats turn the wrong way in mazes. .. 2007). producing a greater effect than does eating the drug. which the body eliminates within hours. so the more recent discovery of cannabinoid receptors has led to a successful hunt for naturally occurring THC-like molecules that bind with cannabinoid receptors. Heavy adult use for over 20 years is associated with a shrinkage of brain areas that process memories and emotions (Yücel et al. depression. 2000). perceptual skills. (Smoking marijuana gets the drug into the brain in about 7 seconds. common feature: They trigger negative aftereffects that offset their immediate positive . which for 5000 years has been cultivated for its fiber. can cause cancer. THC and its by-products ence of hallucinogenic drugs often see “a linger in the body for a month or more. The location of this point of light nomenon. A user’s experience can vary with the situation. Scientists have shed light on marijuana’s cognitive. which causes its peak concen- tration to be reached at a slower. as have solitary sailors and polar explorers while enduring monotony. 2002). 2000). Such cognitive ef- fects outlast the period of smoking (Messinis et al. Thus. isolation.18). Daily use bodes a worse outcome than in- frequent use. it is difficult to resist wondering whether a brain under stress manufactures the near-death experiences. “THC causes animals to misjudge events. 2007. and motor cortex (Iversen. MARIJUANA Marijuana consists of the leaves and flowers of the hemp plant. the psychoactive drugs summarized in TABLE 3.18 Near-death vision or relaxes. To avoid the toxicity of marijuana smoke—which. And (1977) reported that people under the influ. But marijuana is also a mild hallucination? Psychologist Ronald Siegel hallucinogen. this would help explain why marijuana can be therapeutic for those who suffer the pain. . And studies controlling for other drug use and personal traits have found that the more one uses marijuana. p. and cold (Suedfeld & Mocellin.” Marijuana also disrupts memory formation and interferes with immediate recall of information learned only a few minutes before.) Like alcohol. marijua- na’s major active ingredient. unpredictable rate. the greater one’s risk of anxiety. 2007. or possibly schizophrenia (Hall.” occasional users would need to get the same effect. regular users may achieve a high with smaller amounts of the drug than create[s] a tunnel-like perspective. and severe weight loss associated with AIDS (Watson et al. Prenatal exposure through maternal marijuana use also impairs brain development (Berghuis et al.. The National Academy of Sciences (1982. and reaction time necessary for safely operating an automobile or other machine. . THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol). 2006. 1980). and pregnancy complications—the Institute of Medicine recommends medical inhalers to deliver the THC. tastes. 2008). and smells. produces a mix of effects.” reported Ronald Siegel (1990.96 | CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND memories... Murray et al. These molecules may naturally control pain. disinhibits.. marijuana impairs the motor coordination. *** THC the major active ingredient in mari- juana. marijuana FIGURE 3. contrary to the usual tolerance phe- bright light in the center of the field of vision. visions of tunnels (FIGURE 3. As the 1970s discovery of receptors for morphine put researchers on the trail of morphinelike neurotransmit- ters (the endorphins). like cigarette smoke. 163). Patients who have experienced temporal lobe seizures have reported similarly profound mystical experiences. Huizink & Mulder. 1987). limbic system. 2006). and motor effects with the discovery of concentrations of THC-sensitive receptors in the brain’s frontal lobes. amplifying sensitivity to colors. Whether smoked or eaten. lung damage. nausea.2 share a mild hallucinations.. If the person feels anxious or de- pressed. using marijuana may intensify these feelings.

For some adolescents. cancer Ecstasy Stimulant. agonizing withdrawal Caffeine Stimulant Increased alertness and wakefulness Anxiety. fourth century B. weekly. researchers have engaged biological. energy Irritability. After the early 1990s. relaxation psychological disorders.S.S.” —Plato. This in turn creates a need to switch off what is thought to be its opposite. 23 percent report using marijuana monthly. disinhibition Dehydration. . Influences on Drug Use 16: Why do some people become regular users of consciousness-altering drugs? Drug use by North American youth increased during the 1970s. suspiciousness. 2007). 2008). and drugs for a time were again glamorized in some music and drinking alcohol occurs more often than the films. high school sen- iors. CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND | 97 TABLE 3. or daily (Health Canada. alertness. confidence.C. 2002): • Adopted individuals are more susceptible to alcohol dependence if one or both biological parents have a history of it. increased risk of time. Then. Among Canadian 15.E. the other follows up behind. do others become regular drug users? In search of answers. tea. drug use declined sharply. causing the aftereffects to And how curiously it is related to worsen in the drug’s absence (withdrawal). and social-cultural levels of analysis. (MDMA) hallucinogen impaired cognitive and immune functioning Marijuana Mild hallucinogen Enhanced sensation. Phaedo. In TV land. though. For example. overheating. especially those appearing by early adulthood (Crabbe.000 U. energy Cardiovascular stress.2 A Guide to Selected Psychoactive Drugs Drug Type Pleasurable Effects Adverse Effects Alcohol Depressant Initial high followed by relaxation and disinhibition Depression. insomnia. relief from pain Depressed physiology. mild Emotional elevation. then retreated to 55 per- cent in 2007 (Johnston et al. . occasional drug use represents thrill seeking. As the opposing. then rose. sense of well-being Heart disease. Consider these marijuana-related trends: combined drinking of coffee. hypertension. soft drinks. . • After peaking in 1978. distortion of Impaired learning and memory. it takes larger and this thing that men call pleasure! larger doses to produce the desired high (tolerance). depressed mood. depressive crash Nicotine Stimulant Arousal and relaxation. Wherever the one is found. and water ( 24-year-olds. 1990). relief of pain. Biological Influences Some people may be biologically vulnerable to particular drugs. lung damage from smoke effects and grow stronger with repetition. voice softened. pain! .19 on the next page). but has recently been tapering off (see FIGURE 3. and insomnia in high doses. marijuana use by U. • In the University of Michigan’s annual survey of 15. with in- creased drug education and a more realistic and deglamorized media depiction of In the real world. Stimulant Euphoria. organ damage. high school seniors declined through 1992. seizures amine Cocaine Stimulant Rush of euphoria. alcohol accounts for one- taking drugs. psychological. the withdrawal symptoms by taking yet more of the drug. evi- dence accumulates that heredity influences some aspects of alcohol abuse prob- lems.. Why. And that helps explain both tolerance and “How strange would appear to be withdrawal. memory loss. the cultural antidrug sixth or less of beverage use. the proportion who believe there is “great risk” in regular marijuana use rose from 35 percent in 1978 to 79 percent in 1991. negative aftereffects grow stronger. uncomfortable withdrawal Methamphet. impaired reactions Heroin Depressant Rush of euphoria. restlessness.

identical twins more closely resemble each other than do fraternal twins. and cocaine often display other psychological Warning signs of alcohol dependence influences. and fearless (genetically influenced traits) are more likely as teens to smoke. high school seniors who 10 report having used alcohol. impulsive. 1998).20). Psychological and Social-Cultural Influences Psychological and social-cultural influences also contribute to drug use (FIGURE 3.. These culprit genes seemingly produce deficiencies in the brain’s natural dopamine reward system. Logan et al. which is impacted by addictive drugs. (From Johnston et Year al. Mice engineered to overproduce NPY are very sensitive to alcohol’s sedating effect and drink little (Thiele et al. 2007). 2006.S. 1986) is the feeling that life is meaningless and direc- tionless. One such strain has reduced levels of the brain chemical NPY. alcohol may offer a way to . • Researchers have bred rats and mice that prefer alcoholic drinks to water. (In marijuana use also. With repeat- ed use. drink.. and with little hope. or sexual or physical abuse • Feeling low or guilty after drinking are at risk for substance addiction. Nurnberger & Bierut. 2002).. • Drinking binges • Regretting things done or said when drunk Females with a history of depression. By temporarily dulling the pain of self-awareness. 2008. and use other drugs (Masse & Tremblay. too. 2002). and they are seeking genes that contribute to tobacco addiction (NIH.) • Boys who at age 6 are excitable. eating disorders. 1997). when it partially 1975 ’77 ’79 ’81 ’83 ’85 ’87 ’89 ’91 ’93 ’95 ’97 ’99 2001 ’03 ’05 ’07 rebounded for a few years.98 | CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND High school 80% seniors reporting 70 drug use 60 Alcohol 50 40 Marijuana/ hashish 30 20 FIGURE 3. marijuana. the drugs disrupt normal dopamine balance while triggering tempo- rary dopamine-produced pleasure. • Avoiding family or friends when drinking 2002).) • Having an identical rather than fraternal twin with alcohol dependence puts one at increased risk for alcohol problems (Kendler et al. 2003. develop a taste for al- • Drinking to alleviate depression or anxiety cohol when stressed by permanent separation from their mother at birth (Small. Wilson & Kuhn. 2009. 2005). • Researchers have identified genes that are more common among people and animals predisposed to alcohol dependence. marijuana. without privilege. One psychological factor that has appeared in studies of youth and young adults (Newcomb & Harlow. Many have experienced significant stress or failure and are depressed. a common feeling among school dropouts who subsist without job skills. or cocaine during the past 30 days declined from 0 the late 1970s to 1992. Heavy users of alcohol. Studies of how drugs reprogram the brain’s reward systems raise hopes for anti-addiction drugs that might block or blunt the effects of alcohol and other drugs (Miller.19 Trends in drug use The Cocaine percentage of U. Monkeys.. as are those undergoing school or neighborhood • Failing to honor a resolve to drink less transitions (CASA.

from Moore. As Chapter 7 explains. peers influence attitudes about drugs. 1997). 2006. anxiety. and overestimate their fellow students’ enthusiasm for alco. Culture and Alcohol juana use in the prior 30 days ranged from zero to 1 percent in Romania and Percentage drinking weekly or more: Sweden to 20 to 22 percent in Britain. largely because they rarely as- sociate with those who do (Bachman et al. 1994) (TABLE 3. when they marry and have children.000 teens in 35 European countries found that mari. smoking. If the friends do not. United States 30% dependent U. Drug use also has social roots. though only 4 percent Fraternity and sorority members report nearly twice the binge-drinking rate acknowledged doing so (Wren. For ex- ample. In one survey of sixth College and university students drink more alcohol than their nonstudent graders in 22 U. Peer influence. 1987.S. Teens who come from happy families. 1990). Whether in cities or rural areas. friends had smoked marijuana. “cities offer more opportunities” and less supervision. and France (ESPAD. and who do well in school tend not to use drugs. and abuse of prescription opioids. states.. In.. . 1999). dents are not immune to such misperceptions: Drink. Oetting & Beauvais. Mormons. behavior is often controlled more by its immediate consequences than by its later ones. report Lisa Legrand and her colleagues (2005). If an adolescent’s friends use drugs. campus smoking rates have declined. the opportunity may not even arise. 2003).3 Facts About “Higher” Education friends do and say but also of what adolescents believe friends are doing and favoring. the Amish. or insomnia. Social influence also appears in the differing rates of drug use across cultural and ethnic groups. most drinking is done for social reasons. 2007. 2007. Among teenagers. the odds are that he or she will. 1994). alcohol use has been ing dominates social occasions partly because students steady. Self. 2007).5 times the general population’s rate of substance abuse.. Alcohol (Gallup poll. They also throw the parties and provide the drugs.. as has marijuana use. CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND | 99 Biological influences: Psychological influences: • genetic predispositions • lacking sense of purpose • variations in • significant stress neurotransmitter systems • psychological disorders. such as depression Drug use Social-cultural influences: • urban environment • cultural attitude toward FIGURE 3. it decreases (Bachman et al. and cocaine use (Johnston et al. anger. who do not begin drinking before age 14. a 2003 survey of 100. however. When young unmarried adults leave home. Since 1993. government studies of drug use in households nationwide and Canada 40% among high schoolers in all regions reveal that African-American teens have sharply Britain 58% lower rates of drinking.S. tranquilizers. For those whose genetic predispositions nudge them toward substance use. stimulants. sedatives has increased. hol and underestimate their views of its risks (Prentice & Miller. 2006) and other drug addiction rates have also been extremely low in the United States among Orthodox Jews. Switzerland. and Mennonites (Trimble. 14 percent believed their peers and exhibit 2. 1993. Relatively drug-free small towns and rural areas tend to constrain any genetic pre- disposition to drug use. Hingson et al. not as a way to cope with problems (Kuntsche et al.20 Levels of analysis for drug use • peer influences drug use The biopsychosocial approach enables researchers to investigate drug use from complementary perspectives. of nonmembers.3). is not just a matter of what TABLE 3. alco- hol and other drug use increases. 2005). Source: NCASA. avoid coping with depression. too. University stu..

c. activity. Continued use of a psychoactive drug c. and opiates. People rarely abuse drugs if they understand the physical and psychological costs. b. cocaine. dopamine. induce a temporary sense of well. feel good about themselves and the direction their lives are taking.S. the traffic between friends’ drug use and our own may be two-way: Our friends influence us. • Attempt to modify peer associations or to “inoculate” youths against peer © Jason Love pressures by training them in refusal skills. it may make d. a person more helpful or more aggres. the odds of a person’s quitting increased when a spouse. 20. but only 15 percent of college graduates. most soldiers who became drug-addicted while in Viet- nam ceased their drug use after returning home (Robins et al. induce sensory hallucinations. 19. percep- stance. desired effect. heroin. c. c. 22. nicotine. and marijuana. • Help young people find other ways to boost their self-esteem and purpose in life. a. b. the desired effect. caffeine. c. c. and morphine. d. 17. c. 1998). speed up body functions. b. and social-cultural factors may help explain why 42 percent of U. friend. REHEARSE IT! 15. be irreversibly addicted to the sub. 21. Social networks matter. 17.000 adults over 32 years found that smokers tend to quit in clusters (Christakis & Fowler. epinephrine. Similarly. produces hallucinations b. and memory. the feeling that life is meaningless d. overprotective parents. being. cocaine. that the user will 18. activity. a. produces tolerance. a. a. destroys REM sleep Answers: 15. deplete the brain’s supply of contributor to drug use is b. lowers inhibitions c. need to take larger doses to get the c. a. 20. Nicotine and cocaine stimulate neural d. a. This usually means d. lead to heroin use. d. alcohol. b. interfere with memory. Near-death experiences are strikingly sive. similar to the hallucinations evoked by a. But we also se- lect as friends those who share our likes and dislikes. As always with correlations. stimulates brain cell development. d. What do the findings on drug use suggest for drug prevention and treatment pro- grams? Three channels of influence seem possible: • Educate young people about the long-term costs of a drug’s temporary pleasures. b. Because alcohol . and 21. . damage serotonin-producing neurons. c. influence. or co-worker stopped smoking. inhibits people’s emotions. 100 | CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND SNAPSHOTS People whose beginning use of drugs was influenced by their peers are more likely to stop using when friends stop or the social network changes (Kandel & Raveis. and amphetamines. psychological. have reported smoking (Ladd. impairs motor coordination. c. One study that followed 12. Social-cultural explanations for drug use 16. inflated self-esteem. reaction time. tion. depress sympathetic nervous system often focus on the effect of peer barbiturates. be able to take smaller doses to get d. LSD. a. An important psychological a. 16. Long-term use of Ecstasy can 22. and are in a peer group that disapproves of using drugs. 1974). and directionless. 1989). causes alcoholic blackouts a. high school dropouts. 2008). 18. Use of marijuana b. 19. d.. The depressants include alcohol. feel physical pain and intense craving. genetic predispositions. leads to dehydration and overheating. d. Within a social net- work. deplete the brain’s supply of b. These educational.

and slowed memories). with manifest content (or story line) acting and our sleep and dreams? as a censored version of latent content (a hidden meaning that grat- Our internal biological rhythms create periodic physiological fluc. together lasting about 30 minutes. hyperten. gives the social influence and that hypnotized people act out the role of brain time to (2) restore and repair damaged neurons and (3) store “good subject. (3) Brain stim- schedule of sleeping and waking. Sleep also (4) pro. which al Stage 1 sleep. It also can lead to obesity. with its characteristic sleep spindles. nisms underlying consciousness and cognition have discovered a night terrors (high arousal and the appearance of being terrified). 2 How much information do we consciously attend to at once? 8 What do we dream? We selectively attend to. occurs following REM deprivation. During a another that certain perceptions. and under- We cycle through five sleep stages in about 90 minutes. We even display inattentional blindness. Leaving the standing. ing information. and what powers does a hypnotist have over a hypnotized subject? difference: We experience periods of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep. we descend into transition. two-track human mind. Children are most prone to night terrors. REM sleep). slow delta waves. thoughts. or behaviors normal night’s sleep. social influences interact in hypnosis. sleep- explicit. in treating addiction. we retrace our path. like unhypnotized REM sleep lengthens. blocking most involving some anxiety or misfortune. and rebuild memories of the day’s experiences. (4) Activation- retina. Shifts in schedules can reset our biological clock. 9 Why do we dream? Sleep and Dreams There are five major views of the function of dreams. an instance of the dual-track mind in which normal sensations and motes creative problem solving the next day. sleep apnea (the stopping of breathing while asleep). and communication. synthesis: to make sense of the brain’s neural static by weaving it into a story line. 101 . (1) Freudian: 3 How do our biological rhythms influence our daily functioning to provide a safety valve. A unified account of hypnosis melds growth (the pituitary gland secretes a growth hormone in Stage 4 these two views and studies how brain activity. irritability. conscious level and at an implicit. walking. and process. periods of Stages 3 and 4 sleep shorten and will spontaneously occur. 11 Is hypnosis an extension of normal consciousness or an 6 Why do we sleep? altered state? Sleep (1) may have played a protective role in human evolution by Many psychologists believe that hypnosis is a form of normal keeping people safe during potentially dangerous periods. relaxed stage. The belief that REM sleep and its associated dreams alpha waves of the awake. Sleep apnea mainly targets older dual processing affects our perception. and attitudes at an overweight men. cre. and sleep). each with its own neural processing.CHAPTER REVIEW Consciousness and the Two-Track Mind The Brain and Consciousness 7 What are the major sleep disorders? 1 What is the “dual processing” being revealed by today’s The major disorders of sleep include insomnia (recurring wakeful- cognitive neuroscience? ness). performance (with greater vulnerability to accidents).” Other psychologists view hypnosis as a dissociation. Fewer than 10 percent out events and changes in our visual world. Hypnotized people. Then follow Hypnosis Stages 3 and 4. Shifting the spotlight (and less among women) of dreams have any sexual content. ifies our unconscious wishes). attention. and sleeptalking. Most dreaming occurs in this fifth stage (also known as par. unconscious level. not enhance recall of forgotten events (it may even evoke false sion. Stage 2 sleep (in which we spend the most time) follows about 20 minutes later. and (5) encourages conscious awareness are split. those that happen during non- pedestrian accidents. memory. serve an important function is supported by REM rebound. a suppressed immune system. (5) Cognitive-development: Dream content rep- 4 What is the biological rhythm of our sleep? resents the dreamer’s level of development. but it does ativity. This sleepwalking. people. We usually dream of ordinary events and everyday experiences. The circadian rhythm’s 24-hour cycle regulates our daily out the day’s experiences and fix them in memory. narcolepsy (sudden uncontrollable sleepiness or lapsing into Cognitive neuroscientists and others studying the brain mecha. feelings. Posthypnotic suggestions have helped people 5 How does sleep loss affect us? harness their own healing powers but have not been very effective Sleep deprivation causes fatigue and impairs concentration. with large. Hypnosis is a social interaction in which one person suggests to adoxical sleep) of internal arousal but outward paralysis. may perform unlikely acts when told to do so by an authoritative person. REM sleep tend to be vague fleeting images. a very limited aspect of incom. and sleeptalking. Most of our attention from one thing to another contributes to car and dreams occur during REM sleep. knowledge. (2) Information-processing: to sort tuations. Reversing course. Hypnosis can help relieve pain. but with one 10 What is hypnosis. often with the sensation of falling or floating. in part in response to light on the ulation: to preserve neural pathways in the brain.

78 withdrawal. REM sleep. impair motor coordination and harmful or helpful. p. 95 hallucinations. pressure) combine to lead many people to experiment with—and amine may permanently reduce dopamine production. It may also increase increases the likelihood that we will act on our impulses. p. p. p. addictive drugs do not usually quickly corrupt. lucinations and emotions varying from euphoria to panic are ed to other behaviors in addition to chemical dependence. p. p. p. Marijuana’s main ingredient. p. p. p. p. Patients who report a near-death experience often describe profound mystical feelings that may resemble drug- 13 What are depressants. and evoke hallucinations—sensory images in the absence of senso- py is not always required to overcome addiction. some common misconceptions about addiction? permanent damage to mood and memory. disrupt memory formation. 88 hallucinogens. 88 dual processing. a combined stimulant and mild hallucinogen. 69 manifest content. p. p. dependence. Ecstasy. THC. and what are feelings of intimacy. and hopelessness) and social factors (such as peer functions. Despite popular Hallucinogens—such as LSD and marijuana—distort perceptions beliefs. but hal- over whether the concept of addiction can meaningfully be extend. 78 physical dependence. 15 What are hallucinogens. 73 tolerance. and intense sensitivity to sensory stimuli. produces a euphoric high and 12 What are tolerance. 71 REM rebound. p. 85 metamphetamine. Ecstasy. 88 selective attention. Cultural and ethnic effects make smoking a difficult habit to kick. disrupts memory processes by suppressing (because of the inhaled smoke). p. Its users risk immune system suppression. User expectations strong- ly influence alcohol’s behavioral effects. 80 depressants. p. 91 circadian [ser-KAY-dee-an] rhythm. psychological. Cocaine gives biological. barbiturates. euphoria. 79 addiction. p. 88 near-death experience. p. p. p. but the percentage groups have differing rates of drug use. and thera. p. p. p. and methamphetamine—excite neural activity and speed up body depression. 72 posthypnotic suggestion. whether feelings of depression or anxiety. and social-cultural—offers a possible users a 15. 68 dream. Their continued physical activity) dehydration and escalating body temperatures. 91 change blindness. 96 . and what are their effects? induced hallucinations. may Depressants. 72 dissociation. Continued use of methamphet. use produces tolerance (requiring larger doses to achieve the same effect) and may lead to physical or psychological dependence. followed by a crash. the amphetamines. and damage lung tissue impairs judgment. p. 65 sleep apnea.102 | CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND Drugs and Consciousness suspiciousness and cardiovascular stress. p. 95 narcolepsy. and reduces self-awareness. cocaine. and addiction. Its risks include path for drug prevention and treatment programs. relief from neural activity and slow body functions. Terms and Concepts to Remember consciousness. and what are their effects? Addiction is compulsive drug craving and use. Alcohol disinhibits—it pain. 30-minute high. p. Alcohol also slows nervous system activity and reaction time. p. Psychological factors (such as stress. 95 delta waves. 16 Why do some people become regular users of consciousness- altering drugs? 14 What are stimulants. 88 LSD. such as alcohol. and what are their effects? Some people may be biologically more likely to become depend- Stimulants—caffeine. p. Debate continues ry input. p. 67 night terrors. 91 REM sleep. p. 72 hypnosis. All are highly addictive. Mood and expectations influence LSD’s effects. p. common. relaxation. 89 inattentional blindness. p. dampen trigger feelings of disinhibition. p. ent on drugs such as alcohol. 95 insomnia. 88 THC. and the opiates. p. 72 psychoactive drug. p. 81 opiates. 91 sleep. 83 stimulants. 81 barbiturates. p. 91 alpha waves. p. 69 latent content. 79 psychological dependence. 84 amphetamines. 86 Ecstasy (MDMA). Each type of influence— of Americans who smoke is nevertheless decreasing. p. Nicotine’s sometimes become dependent on—drugs. and (if taken during Psychoactive drugs alter perceptions and moods. p.

In the discussion of sleep stages. Fourth-century-B. CHAPTER 3 | CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TW0-TRACK MIND | 103 Test for Success: Critical Thinking Exercises By Amy Himsel. a man in a cartoon states. and activation-synthesis perspectives than we know we these things are seen in for answering these questions can be found in Appendix D at the back visions of the night” (Menander of Athens [342–292 B. Consider this quote from the wish-fulfillment.” Explain how this pleasure-pain description applies to the neurotransmitter activity underlying repeated 3.E. philosopher Plato observed. What are some of the ways sleep deprivation can affect cognitive performance? The Test for Success questions offer you a chance to apply your critical thinking skills to aspects of the material you have just read. strange would appear to be this thing that men call pleasure! “Boy. . Fragments). p. Wherever the one is found. “makes you stupid” (1999. completely conscious of all of our thought processes? 5. “For what one has dwelt on by day. of the book. Suggestions 4. pain! . “How 2. Sleep researcher William Dement said that a large sleep debt use of heroin. El Camino College 1.worthpublishers. Might we function better if we were on dreaming. .C.C. in-  Multiple-choice self-tests and more may be found at www. how tiring is REM sleep.E. and how much time do we opposite. are my eyes tired! I had REM sleep all night long!” In And how curiously it is related to what is thought to be its reality. 231). the other fol- spend in it? lows up behind. .]. Research on the two-track mind shows that we know more formation-processing.

Heredity. and Personality Gene-Environment Interactions • Evolutionary Psychology: Understanding Human Nature Natural Selection and Adaptation Evolutionary Success Helps Explain Similarities An Evolutionary Explanation of Human Sexuality THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: The Evolutionary Perspective on Human Sexuality • Parents and Peers Parents and Early Experiences Peer Influence • Cultural Influences Variation Across Cultures Variation Over Time Culture and the Self Culture and Child-Rearing Developmental Similarities Across Groups • Gender Development Gender Similarities and Differences The Nature of Gender The Nurture of Gender • Reflections Nurture on Nature and .Chapter Outline • Behavior Genetics: Predicting Individual Differences Genes: Our Codes for Life Twin and Adoption Studies Temperament.

punish offenses. Dad. Whether named Wong. ronmental influences on behavior.” 105 . We look different. such universal behaviors define our human nature. singing and worshiping. and what is nurtured—and species. and cultural and family from prenatal nutrition to the people and backgrounds. We have varying personalities. organize hierarchies together shape our development—every step Courtesy Brendan Baruth of sound different. grows up to be a tennis star. © The New Yorker Collection. and feel hunger through identical mechanisms. 1999. laughing and crying. Taken together. interests. Whether we live in the Arctic or the tropics. tive power and limits of genetic and envi- Our shared brain architecture predisposes us to sense the world. we start fearing strangers at about eight months. Nurture. son of tennis stars Andre Agassi and Stephanie Graf. We are also the leaves of one tree. we know how to read one another’s Successful or struggling at every step? What smiles and frowns. tor from outer space could drop in any- where and find humans dancing and feasting. As members of one comes built in. we affiliate. living in families and forming groups. of the way. conform. or Gonzales. return fa. And we feel drawn to behaviors that produce and protect offspring. things around us. “Thanks for almost everything. Smith. from maternal nutrition while in the womb to social support while nearing the tomb? To what extent are we formed by our upbringing? By our culture? By our current circumstances? By people’s reac- tions to our genetic dispositions? This chapter begins to tell the complex story of how our genes (nature) and environments (nurture) define us. who study our differences and weigh the effects and interplay of heredity and environment. Our kinship appears in our social behaviors as well. What causes our striking diversity.4: Nature. Danny Shanahan Behavior Genetics: from cartoonbank. Predicting Individual Differences If Jaden Agassi. develop language. we prefer sweet tastes to sour. playing sports and games. and Human Diversity What makes you you? In important ways. and as adults we prefer the company of those with attitudes and attributes similar to our The nurture of nature Parents everywhere wonder: Will my baby grow up to be peaceful own. We divide the color spectrum into similar col- ors. Nkomo. and grieve a child’s death. Our human family shares not only a common behavior genetics the study of the rela- biological heritage—cut us and we bleed—but also common behavioral tendencies. we are each unique. A visi. and also our shared human nature? How much are human differences shaped by our differing genes? And how much by our environment—by every external influence. should we attribute his superior talent to his Grand Slam genes? To his growing up in a tennis-rich environment? To high expectations? Such questions in- trigue behavior geneticists. how? Research reveals that nature and nurture vors. We environment every nongenetic influence. All rights reserved. Coming from different parts of the or aggressive? Homely or attractive? globe.

rather like banana. we are clearly all part of one genetic master code for your entire body. Thus our genetic predispositions— our genetically influenced traits—help explain both our shared human nature and our human diversity. birth date. AND HUMAN DIVERSITY Genes: Our Codes for Life 1: Our genes predispose our biology. This turns out to be true only for the 90 percent of infants with a gene that assists in breaking down fatty acids present in human milk (Caspi et al. It’s as if every room in the Empire State big worldwide family. leg bones. form the words of those chapters. Human Genome Project plans for your own book of life run to 46 chapters—23 donated by your mother (from director. Indeed..” Building had a book containing the architect’s plans for the entire structure. Chromosome Twin and Adoption Studies 2: How do twin and adoption studies help us understand the relative influences of environment and heredity? Cell Gene To tease apart the influences of environment and heredity. The second would control heredity while varying the home environment. Complex strands of DNA connected in a double helix. you may recall from Chapter 1 that research indicates that breast-feeding boosts later intelligence. Studies of 1037 New Zealand adults and 2232 English 12. NURTURE. . Genes. Most of our traits are influenced by many genes. and aggressiveness are similarly influenced by groups of genes. the building blocks of physical development. FIGURE 4. why one person is short and another tall. for example. code for creating protein molecules. happiness. few would have guessed that every cell nucleus in your body contains the level. vertebrae. why one is outgoing and another shy. small segments of the giant DNA molecules. and so forth—each of which mosomes. All told. 2007). When turned on. you have 30. At the DNA century ago. Environmental events “turn on” genes. Such experiments with human infants would be unethical. Barely more than a percent the same. behavior geneticists would need to design two types of sci- entific experiments. . traits such as intelligence.and 13-year olds found no breast-feeding boost among those not carry- ing the gene. Genes can be ei- “We share half our genes with the ther active (expressed) or inactive.2). and usually the same cultural history.1).1 The human building blocks: The nucleus of every human cell contains chro. Each of these 46 chapters. is composed of a coiled chain of the molecule DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) (FIGURE 4. genes provide the —Evolutionary biologist Robert May. Thus they are genetically identical—nature’s own human clones (FIGURE 4. Slight person-to-person variations from the common pattern give clues to our uniqueness—why one person has a disease that another does not. nature has done this work for us. . 2001 Geneticists and psychologists are interested in the occasional variations found at particular gene sites in human DNA. they are clones who DNA share not only the same genes but the same conception. The first would control the home en- vironment while varying heredity. For example.9 universal human nature and our individual and social diversity.106 | CHAPTER 4 | NATURE. but happily for our purposes.000 or so gene words. Does this mean they determine our behavior? Behind the story of our body and of our brain—surely the most awesome thing on our little planet—is the heredity that interacts with our experience to create both our “Your DNA and mine are 99. How tall you are. . called a chromosome.” hot water enabling a tea bag to express its flavor. The —Francis Collins. 2007 her egg) and 23 by your father (from his sperm). Identical Versus Fraternal Twins Nucleus Identical twins develop from a single (monozygotic) fertil- ized egg. uterus. each of which is made up of two may be influenced by different genes interacting with your environment. reflects the size of your face. president of Britain’s Royal Society.

ACE Stock Limitied/Alamy Peter Arnold. a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein./Alamy In Western countries. CHAPTER 4 | NATURE. but not identical genes. they share no more genes than does any other sibling pair.2 Same fertilized egg. different genes of DNA molecules that contain the genes. Inc. and Australia provide a consistent answer: On both extraversion (outgoingness) and neu- roticism (emotional instability). twinning rates vary by race. creat- ing two genetically identical organisms. did their experience rather than their genes account for their similarity? No. the risk is only 30 percent (Plomin et al. . for example. Having treated less similarly. more than fraternal twins. has a 60 percent risk of getting the disease. 2003. Finland. Identical twins develop from a single fertilized egg. different eggs. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) a complex molecule containing the genetic informa- tion that makes up the chromosomes. twin pairs. credit line to come When John Loehlin and Robert Nichols (1976) gave a battery of questionnaires to 850 U. identical twins twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two. formed from two separate eggs.S. In explaining individual differences. AND HUMAN DIVERSITY | 107 Identical Fraternal FIGURE 4. More twins Curiously. NURTURE. So. Steinhauer. genes matter. 1997). They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters. but they share a fetal environment.. If the affected twin is fraternal. identical twins. Same Same or sex only opposite sex Fraternal twins develop from separate (dizygotic) fertilized eggs. Are identical twins. identical twins are much more similar than fraternal twins. The rate among Caucasians is roughly twice that of Asians and half that of Africans. They share a fetal environment. fraternal twins twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. and fraternal twins are increasing with the use of fertility drugs (Hall. being genetic clones of each other. same chromosomes threadlike structures made twins twins genes. Shared genes can translate into shared experiences. but they are genetically no more similar than ordinary brothers and sisters. most twins are identical. also reported being treated alike. A person whose identical twin has Alzheimer’s disease. Ethel Wolvitz/The ImageWorks In Africa and Asia. identical twins whose parents treated Fraternal twins These siblings share a them alike were not psychologically more alike than identical twins who were birthday. 1999). genes the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes. most twins are frater- nal. fraternal twins from two. said Loehlin and Nichols. also behaviorally more sim- ilar than fraternal twins? Studies of thousands of twin pairs in Sweden.

lending support to the idea that genes influence personality. “In some domains it looks as though One was raised by his grandmother in Germany as a Catholic and a Nazi. Betty. the Jim twins—despite 38 the Minnesota Twins baseball team.000 twins currently being sampled in around the house. Nevertheless. heart rate.1 This other Jim—Jim Springer—just happened. intelligence. they shared are . NURTURE. his son. except for occasional half-day migraine headaches and blood pressure that was a little high. Deter- pairs—which forms part of a massive registry mined that this marriage would work. conducted in Minneapolis. watching stock-car racing. Paul). set out to find him). this description of the two Jims errs in one respect: Jim Lewis named his son James Alan.000 living and dead twin Linda.108 | CHAPTER 4 | NATURE. Thirty-seven days after their birth. Jim was basically healthy. He had become overweight a while back but had shed some of the pounds. while the our identical twins reared apart other was raised by his father in the Caribbean as a Jew. these genetically identical twins were separated. Their voice intonations and inflections were so similar www. and his faithful dog.” Wrong—it was his brother. picture frames. some time after divorcing his first wife. consider a true story: Sweden has the world’s largest national twin On a chilly February morning in 1979. Jim Lewis awoke in his modest home next to his second wife. 38 years earlier. registry—140. where he had put in many happy hours building furniture. Research has shown remarkable similarities in the life choices of separated ©2006 Bob Sacha identical twins. was that at that same mo- ment (I am not making this up) there existed another man—also named Jim—for whom all these things (right down to the dog’s name) were also true. just as similar as identical twins reared together. and drinking Miller Lite beer. Minnesota psychologist Thomas Bouchard and his colleagues (1998). study of separated twins that extends to the present. AND HUMAN DIVERSITY Separated Twins Imagine the following science fiction experiment: A mad scientist decides to sepa- rate identical twins at birth. amazing finding and I can assure Jim Springer named his James Allan. As he lay in bed he thought about others he had loved. Jim was looking forward to spending part of the day in his basement woodwork- ing shop. Having un- dergone a vasectomy. appro. Now that’s an 1 Actually. hearing a playback of an ear- lier interview. One month later. Better yet. Jim also liked to spend free time driving his Chevy. and brain waves. and other items. 2004. Identical twins Oskar Stohr and Jack Yufe presented equally striking similarities.” —Thomas Bouchard (1981) Identical twins are people two Identical twins Jim Lewis and Jim Springer were separated shortly after birth and raised in different homes without aware- ness of each other. you none of us would have expected that degree of similarity. adopted by blue-collar families. . . Jim Springer guessed “That’s me. including a white bench now circling a tree in his front yard. and reared with no contact or knowledge of each other’s whereabouts until the day Jim Lewis received a call from his genetic clone (who. having been told he had a twin. Toy. James Alan. What was extraordinary about Jim Lewis. and home to personality. Given tests measuring their the “Twin City” (with St. however. the brothers became the first twin pair tested by University of Bouchard’s famous twin research was. perhaps related to his chain-smoking habit. Jim had a habit of leaving love notes to Betty of 600. years of separation—were virtually as alike as the same person tested twice. beginning a priately enough. he was done having children. . to have been his womb-mate. then rear them in differing environments. including the world’s largest twin study (Wheelwright.genomeutwin.

within 11 days of each other. for example. 1998. DiLalla et al. do not much resemble one another in personality (McGue & Bouchard. nature’s second type of real-life experiment—adoption— creates two groups: genetic relatives (biological parents and siblings) and environmen- tal relatives (adoptive parents and siblings). Despite these criticisms. Bouchard and his col- leagues (1990. 1941. and named Patricia Ann Even the more impressive data from personality assessments are clouded by the Campbell. CHAPTER 4 | NATURE. Nancy Pedersen and her co-workers (1988) identified 99 separated identical twin pairs and more than 200 separated fraternal twin pairs. Rowe. the last item is a joke. do they also help explain men. Both studied cosmetology. If researchers created a driving to deliver Christmas presents to each control group of biologically unrelated pairs of the same age. Plomin et al. 1999) located and studied 80 pairs of identical twins reared apart. 2009 Biological Versus Adoptive Relatives For behavior geneticists. 1996. or their adoptive parents. and even fears.” They contend that if any two strangers were to spend hours comparing their behaviors and life histories. of the zygote that was first us.. separated twins were more alike if genetically identical than if fraternal. are highly May 2. Seeking Peace: Chronicles of the same genes. They liked spicy foods and sweet liqueurs. Both had fathers over. interests. But as Judith Rich Harris (2006) notes. sex. it is hardly weirder than some other reported similarities. Stories of startling twin similarities do not impress Bouchard’s critics. They continued to find similarities not only of tastes and physical attributes but also of personality (characteristic patterns of thinking. and the responses it evokes. 13. Today’s peaceful Scandina. Ditto aggressiveness. flushed the toilet before using it. While sharing that home environment. they Twins Lorraine and Levinia Christmas. abilities. 1983. a genetically influenced trait. 1997). yet nutritional rather than genetic influences explain why. Patricia DiBiasi of Oregon also reunion of many of the separated twins some years before they were tested. NURTURE. despite carrying many of —Mary Pipher. and ethnicity. More. They are group differences between men and women. attitudes. at age 8) did not amplify their personality differences. Still. Stohr was domineering to- ward women and yelled at his wife.” vians differ from their more aggressive Viking ancestors. worked as bookkeepers. Not necessarily. the Worst Buddhist in the World. who re- mind us that “the plural of anecdote is not data. Twin researcher Nancy Segal (2000) has noted that virtual twins—same-age. 21 and 19. as did Yufe before he and his wife separated. as a group. and named Patricia Ann Campbell. was born March 13.) heritable. stored rubber bands on their wrists. feeling. Both married women named Dorothy Jane Scheckelburger. who other near Flitcham. 2001)? Bouchard replies that separated fra- ternal twins do not exhibit similarities comparable to those of separated identical Coincidences are not unique to twins. twins. the time of this comparison had children ages the striking twin-study results helped shift scientific thinking toward a greater ap. cultural background as are many of the separated twin pairs. and dipped buttered toast in their coffee. fell asleep in front of the television. Okay. but not because human genes have changed in a mere century’s eyeblink of “We carry to our graves the essence time. do adopted siblings also come to share traits? The stunning finding from studies of hundreds of adoptive families is that people who grow up together. wouldn’t these pairs also exhibit striking similarities (Joseph. and at agencies tend to place separated twins in similar homes. England. the separated identical twins had somewhat less identical personalities. Patricia Kern of Colorado was born March biologically unrelated siblings—are also much more dissimilar. In Sweden. whether biologically related or not. we can therefore ask whether adopted children are more like their biological parents. today’s adults are taller and heavier than those of a century ago. AND HUMAN DIVERSITY | 109 traits and habits galore. (From an AP report. Segal. say. who contribute a home environment. And separation shortly after birth (rather than. For any given trait. 1941. Aided by publicity in magazine and newspaper stories. or between people of different races? not genetically related. The two groups dif- fer. collided had not grown up together but who were as similar to one another in economic and (Shepherd. and adoption named Robert. enjoyed preciation of genetic influences. and married military If genetic influences help explain individual differences. identical twins share an appearance. 1998.. would probably discover many coincidental similarities. oil painting as a hobby. . Compared with equivalent samples of identical twins reared together. Individual differences in height and weight. and acting). who contributed their genes.

natural parents are not. but parents do influence their children’s attitudes. have more similar religious beliefs if reared together (Kelley & De Graaf. Williams sisters. Add all this to the similarity of identical twins. in adoptive homes. 2007). 2006. In traits such as extraversion and agreeableness. From when the effect of one factor (such as their first weeks of life. especially when adopted as infants (Loehlin et al. quiet. and Personality 3: What is the relationship between temperament and personality? temperament a person’s characteristic As most parents will tell you after having their second child. rather than foster. nurturing homes—helps van IJzendoorn & Juffer. especially during adolescence. and predictable in feeding and sleeping. when Junior gets a random half of The minimal shared-environment effect does not mean that adoptive parenting each of their cards his poker hand is a fruitless venture. Difficult babies are more irritable. As children of self-giving parents. Heredity shapes other pri- mates’ personalities. Seven in eight report feeling explain the lack of striking differences when strongly attached to one or both adoptive parents. manners. children benefit from adoption. tive homes (Stoolmiller. 2005. some infants are reactive. (Adoptive parents are carefully screened. Regardless of personality differences between parents and their adoptees. and politics (Reifman & Cleveland. dictable. and the effect of Sean Garnsworthy/Getty Images a shared rearing environment seems shockingly modest. 1999). 1993).) So it is not surprising that. Wierzbicki. Parenting matters! Moreover. mothers (Maestripieri. most The greater uniformity of adoptive homes— adopted children thrive. values. Macaque monkeys raised by foster mothers exhibit social behaviors that resemble their biological.. and unpre- (such as heredity). how do The finding is important enough to bear repeating: heredity and environment The environment shared by a family’s children has virtu- together do their work? ally no discernible impact on their personalities.” contends Steven Pinker (2002): Why are children in the same family so different? Why does shared family environment have so little effect on children’s personalities? Is it because each sibling experiences unique peer influences and life events? Because sibling relationships ricochet off each other. A pair of adopted children or iden- tical twins will. as with the than to their caregiving adoptive parents. In one Swedish study. 1996). babies differ even be- emotional reactivity and intensity. 1998). Heredity. Two adopted children reared in the same home are no more likely to share personality traits with each other than with the child down the block. intense. —David Lykken (2001) faith. both? When talent runs adoptees are more similar to their biological parents in families. intense. Many score higher than their biological parents on intelligence tests. 2007. NURTURE. Easy babies are cheerful.. What we have here is perhaps “the most important puzzle in the history of psychology. comparing child outcomes of different adop.110 | CHAPTER 4 | NATURE. they grow up to be more self-giving and altruistic than average (Sharma et al. and placid. 2007). despite a somewhat greater risk of psychological disorder. child neglect and abuse and even parental divorce are rare. AND HUMAN DIVERSITY Nature or nurture or 1990). mostly healthy. 2003). relaxed. fore gulping their first breath. amplifying their differences? Because siblings—despite sharing half their “Mom may be holding a full house genes—have very different combinations of genes and may evoke very different while Dad has a straight flush. yet kinds of parenting? Such questions fuel behavior geneticists’ curiosity. too. Temperament. and most grow into happier and more stable adults. Rohan & Zanna. or emotional excitability (Rothbart. Koenig et al. 1997. and fidgety. . Heredity predisposes one quickly apparent aspect of interaction the interplay that occurs personality—temperament. whether they grow up together or apart.” on personality. Others are environment) depends on another factor easygoing. The genetic leash may limit the family environment’s influence may be a loser. 1990).. infant adoptees grew up with fewer problems than were experienced by children whose bi- ological mothers had initially registered them for adoption but then decided to raise the children themselves (Bohman & Sigvardsson.

As the two children grow older. your shod neighbor will remain a tenderfoot. Analects. But more precisely. Rather than acting as blueprints that lead to the same result no matter the context. 1977). Meanwhile. We could. too. So.E. 2004). An African butterfly that is green in summer turns brown in fall.. Consider: • The most emotionally reactive newborns tend also to be the most reactive from cartoonbank. and also whether person-to- from cartoonbank. AND HUMAN DIVERSITY | 111 Slow-to-warm-up infants tend to resist or withdraw from new people and situations (Chess & Thomas. Anxious. all right. 2007. Barbara Smaller Snidman. Michael Shaw the result of differences in their length or their width. CHAPTER 4 | NATURE. habits that carry them far apart. 9-month-olds (Wilson & Matheny. But other traits are expressed only in particular All rights reserved. he’s about half will become introverted adolescents (Kagan et al. it is their clapping. Such evidence adds to the emerging conclusion that our biologically rooted tem- perament provides building blocks for our enduring personality (McCrae et al. aggressive. genetically identical twins have more similar temperaments. Genes are self-regulating. 2000. of course. “Oh. 2000). such as having two eyes. Some human traits. • The most emotionally intense preschoolers tend to be relatively intense young adults (Larsen & Diener. the more natu- rally outgoing child more often seeks activities and friends that encourage further “The title of my science project is social confidence. • Exceptionally inhibited and fearful 2-year-olds often are still relatively shy as 8-year-olds. Compared with fraternal twins. be- cause genes and environment—nature and nurture—work together like two hands “Men’s natures are alike. develop the same in virtually every environment. 500 B. Gene-Environment Interactions 4: How do genes and environments interact? Can we then assume that our personality is merely a product of our genes? No. the other less so. 1999. Go barefoot for a summer and you will develop toughened. The difference between the two of you is.. The genetic effect appears in one’s physiology. when facing new or strange situations they become more physiologically aroused (Kagan & © The New Yorker Collection.’” . ask whether the differing areas of various fields are more © The New Yorker Collection.” Among our similarities. Imagine two babies. Such temperament differences tend to persist. 1987. they interact. The genes that produce brown in one situation produce green in another. Thomas & Chess. All rights reserved.. In one study of more than 900 New Zealanders. Assume further that the first baby elicits more affectionate and stimulating care than the second and so develops into a warmer and more outgoing person. 1992. 2000). thanks to a temperature-controlled genetic switch. person personality differences are influenced more by nature or nurture. callused feet—a biological adaptation to friction. but he’s got the emotionally reactive and impulsive 3-year-olds developed into somewhat more temperament of a car alarm. however. an effect of environment. 1991). Asking whether our personality is more a product of our genes or our environ- ment is like asking whether the area of a field is more the result of its length or its width. NURTURE. One twin may fall in love with someone quite different from the co- twin’s love. and conflict-prone 21-year-olds (Caspi. and attractive. Our shared biology enables our developed diversity (Buss. 1994). 1987). one genetically predisposed to be easy-going. But it is also the product of a biological mecha- nism—adaptation. 1989). people with identical genes but differing experiences will have similar but not iden- tical minds. ‘My Little Brother: Nature or Nurture. Worobey & Blajda. sociable. To say that genes and experience are both important is true.C. species—is our enormous adaptive capacity. 2003. the most important—the behavioral hallmark of our —Confucius. inhibited in- fants have high and variable heart rates and a reactive nervous system.” impulsive. 1986. genes react. Rothbart et al.

1988. Answers: 1. Neither operates apart from the other. forget nature versus nurture. The threadlike structures made largely of b.” noted Sandra Scarr (1990). And we evoke reactions from “I thought that sperm-bank donors remained anonymous. c. temperament changes significantly c. . Thus. In such cases. our genes affect how people react to and influence us. 4. 1999. depending on their own qualities. Nick Downes from cartoonbank. 4. 30. cells. 5. So. Evocative interactions may help explain why identical twins reared in different families recall their parents’ warmth as remarkably similar—almost as similar as if they had had the same parents (Plomin et al. gene complexes.) Our genetically influenced traits—the other partner in the dance—also evoke significant responses in others. temperament seems to be biologically sperm unite. two eggs are fertilized by a single For example. Bio- logical traits have social consequences. 1994). 112 | CHAPTER 4 | NATURE. 3. 23 chromosomes. personalities more closely resemble d. b. studying the effect of children’s age DNA molecules are called and then splits.” perience dances alone. Parents. c. Fraternal twins © The New Yorker Collection. Jeffrey Mayer/WireImage/Getty Images AP Photo/Dan Steinberg “Heredity deals the cards. another does not. we are the product of a cascade of interactions be- tween our genetic predispositions and our surrounding environments. d. b. As we grow older we select environments well suited to our natures. c. Thus. studying the effect of prior neglect on adopted children. 5. from conception onward. a single egg is fertilized by a single their biological parents. Depending on our traits. evaluating whether adopted children’s during adolescence. REHEARSE IT! 1. a single egg is fertilized by two sperm d. (Scientists are now ex- —Psychologist Charles L. 2. think nature via nurture. Personality tends to be stable over time. a selection effect may be at work.000 chromosomes. one child elicits pun- ishment. Gene and scene dance together. When the mother’s egg and the father’s genetic influences on personality. They b. b. So. too. fraternal twins tend to have more 3. nonadopted children. a. b. temperament is a product of learning d. one chromosome pair.. the child’s nature and the parents’ nurture interact. a child’s impulsivity and aggression may evoke an angry response from a teacher who otherwise reacts warmly to the child’s model class- mates. NURTURE. sperm and then splits. (right). we actively select certain environments. c. have more differing recollections of their early family life—even if reared in the same family! “Children experience us as different parents. Adoption studies seek to understand and can therefore be unlearned. two eggs are fertilized by two sperm. What has caused their resulting personality differences? Neither heredity nor ex- environment plays the hand. 23 chromosome pairs. nuclei. d. at adoption. b. each contributes do this mainly by based and tends to remain stable a. a. sperm. Fraternal twins result when those of their adoptive parents or similar temperaments than do a. b. Brewer (1990) ploring environmental influences on when particular genes generate proteins. All rights reserved. a. chromosomes. 1991. 2. identical twins. comparing adopted children with throughout life. may treat their own children differently. Moreover. Environments trigger gene activity.” our environments. c. AND HUMAN DIVERSITY Gene-environment interaction People respond differently to a Will Ferrell (shown at left) than to fellow actor Zac Efron.

Psychologists. most house pets. and pointers that point. NURTURE. let’s consider a straightforward example in foxes. Before our eyes. Might he. Does natural selection also explain our human tendencies? Nature has indeed se- lected advantageous variations from among the new gene combinations produced at each human conception and the mutations (random errors in gene replication) that sometimes result. Understanding Human Nature using the principles of natural selection. so inclined to whimper to attract attention and to lick people like affectionate dogs. Genes and experience together wire the brain. much alike as humans. they endow us with a great capacity to learn and therefore to adapt to life in varied environments. 5: How do evolutionary psychologists use natural selection to explain behavior tendencies? natural selection the principle that. quick learners or slow. capable of forming strong bonds with people. • Offspring that survive are more likely to pass their genes to ensuing generations. those that lead to increased repro- Behavior geneticists explore the genetic and environmental roots of human differ.” The idea. They use Charles Darwin’s principle of natural selection mutation a random error in gene replica- to understand the roots of behavior and mental processes. too. ‘the Beast’ has turned into ‘beauty. in Trut’s (1999) words. CHAPTER 4 | NATURE. eager to please. and rats whose genes predispose them to be serene or reac- tive. affectionate.” So friendly and eager for human contact are they. are “docile. handle. . as Robert Plomin and his colleagues (1997) remind us. From wary to winsome More than 40 strapped institute seized on a way to raise funds—marketing its foxes to people as years into the fox-breeding experiment. is this: • Organisms’ varied offspring compete for survival. and stroke them. from the tundra to the jungle. Natural Selection and Adaptation A fox is a wild and wary animal. Lyudmila Trut. Our adap- tive flexibility in responding to different environments contributes to our fitness— our ability to survive and reproduce. But the tight genetic leash that predisposes a dog’s retrieving. accomplish a similar feat by transforming the fearful fox into a friendly fox? To find out. . . a cat’s pouncing. mice. that the cash. and unmistakably domesticated. calls natural selection “arguably the most momentous idea ever to occur to a human mind. Dog breeders. trackers that track. Stick your hand in the cage and. population characteristics may change. it may make a snack of your fingers. wondered how our human ancestors had domesticated dogs from their equally wild wolf forebears. Belyaev and his succes- sor. (He measured tameness by the foxes’ responses to attempts to feed. repeated that simple procedure. American Scientist (1999) 87: 160–169 males. The genes selected during our ancestral history provide more than a long leash. dividual or a species—those traits. • Thus. If you capture a fox and try to befriend it. among the range of inherited trait varia- tions. have given us sheepdogs that herd. N. have bred dogs. From their offspring he selected and mated the tamest 5 percent of males and 20 percent of fe- L. duction and survival will most likely be ences. Trut.) Over more than 30 generations of foxes. Dmitry Belyaev. they had a new breed of foxes that. if the timid fox cannot flee. re- trievers that retrieve. within a comparatively short stretch of time. over time. of the Russian Academy of Science’s Institute of Cy- tology and Genetics. be careful. over time. or an ant’s nest building is looser on humans.’ as the aggressive behavior of our herd’s wild [ancestors] en- tirely disappeared. and When certain traits are selected—by conferring a reproductive advantage to an in. To see these principles at work. of the offspring are devoted.000 foxes later. AND HUMAN DIVERSITY | 113 Evolutionary Psychology: evolutionary psychology the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes. will prevail. • Certain biological and behavioral variations increase their reproductive and survival chances in their environment. Belyaev set to work with 30 male and 100 female foxes. Forty years and 45. Richard Dawkins (2007) tion that leads to a change. . Evolutionary psychologists instead focus mostly on what makes us so passed on to succeeding generations. simplified.

Visit the interna- tional arrivals area at Amsterdam’s Schipol Airport. Despite high infant mortality and rampant And how did we develop this shared human genome? At the dawn of human his- disease in past millennia. AND HUMAN DIVERSITY Evolutionary Success Helps Explain Similarities Although human differences grab our attention. biologically prepared for a world that no longer exists. noted geneticist Richard Lewontin (1982). strongly flavored. We are. Similarly successful were those whose mating helped them produce and nurture offspring. fast-food outlets. who my foe? What food countless ancestors died childless. not one of your tory. and reasoning “have a common logic across cultures. 2003). Darwin’s theory lives on in the second tell about an ultimate who and why. For example. our common genetic profile. the genes of individuals not so disposed tended to be lost from the human gene pool. There you will see the same delighted joy in the faces of Indonesian grandmothers. As genes contributing to success continued to be selected. and novel foods. “The Bible teaches how to go to tion. As Darwinian revolution: the application of evolutionary principles to psychology. Some 95 percent of genetic varia- tion exists within populations (Rosenberg et al. Those who are troubled by an apparent con. the sci- entific account attempts to tell us when and time. rooted deep in history. reproduce. in some ways. As Jared Diamond (2001) noted. p. not how the heavens go. With famine now rare in Western cultures. foreseeing “open fields for far more important researches. our lives are remarkably alike. since they are the very foods most often toxic to embryonic development (Schmitt & Pilcher.” .” Our Genetic Legacy Our behavioral and biological similarities arise from our shared human genome.” based on a new foundation. 2004). the human species would suffer only “a trivial reduction” in its genetic diversity. drives. No more than 5 percent of the genetic differences among humans arise from population group differences. our ancestors faced certain questions: Who is my ally. and sweets and fats beckoning us from store shelves. 2002). a world hub where arriving pas- sengers meet their excited loved ones.. if after a worldwide catastrophe only Icelanders or Kenyans survived. For example. should I eat? With whom should I mate? Some individuals answered those ques- tions more successfully than others. As inheritors of this prehistoric genetic legacy. 346) anticipated this revolu- Christina. 73) believes it is no wonder that our emotions.” Today. We love the taste of sweets and fats. Chinese children. p. flict between scientific and religious accounts of human origins may find it helpful to recall Evolutionary Psychology Today (Chapter 1) that different perspectives of life Darwin’s theory of evolution has been an organizing principle for biology for a long can be complementary. “Virtually no contemporary scientists be- how. and vending machines. obesity has become a growing problem. Psychology will be heaven. Those who deemed leopards “nice to pet” often did not. NURTURE. Thus. Evolutionary psychologist Steven Pinker (2002. In Galileo explained to the Grand Duchess concluding On the Origin of Species.114 | CHAPTER 4 | NATURE. behavioral tendencies and thinking and learning capacities emerged that prepared our Stone Age ancestors to survive. Avoiding such foods has survival value. and send their genes into the future. women who experienced nausea in the critical first three months of pregnancy were predisposed to avoid certain bit- ter. And in the big picture. and homecoming Dutch. Our natural dispositions. which once were hard to come by but which prepared our ancestors to survive famines. Over generations. are mismatched with today’s junk-food environment (Colarelli & Dettman.” Our shared human traits “were shaped by natural selection acting over the course of human evolution. religious creation stories usually aim to lieve that Darwin was basically wrong. we are predisposed to behave in ways that promoted our ancestors’ surviving and reproducing. Darwin (1859. The typical genetic difference between two Icelandic villagers or between two Kenyans is much greater than the average difference between the two groups. Early humans disposed to eat nourishing rather than poisonous foods survived to contribute their genes to later generations. our deep similarities also demand explanation.

2005). 1997 . and men. gay men (like straight men) report more interest in uncommitted they are simply men whose male desires bounce off other male desires sex. An Evolutionary Explanation of Human Sexuality 6: How might an evolutionary psychologist explain gender differences in mating preferences? Having faced many similar challenges throughout history. • In surveys. All rights reserved. Schmitt. men.. How the Mind Works. 2003.452 entering U. AND HUMAN DIVERSITY | 115 Evolutionary psychologists have addressed questions such as these: gender in psychology. 2005. they report. Consider: “Not tonight. 1994).” reported cross-cultural psychologist Marshall Segall and his colleagues (1990.000 people in 53 nations. initiates more sex. p. more responsiveness to visual sexual stimuli. hon.” Doyle. learn.. Psychologists Roy Baumeister.S. and heights than about more dangerous threats. No surprise. thinks more about The New Yorker Collection. Kathleen Catanese. 48 percent of the women but only 25 percent of the men cited affection as a reason for first intercourse.” • In a survey of 289. rather than off female desires. and remember similarly. snakes. we eat the same foods. that in one BBC survey of more than 200. “males are more likely than females to initiate sexual activity. and more concern with their partner’s physical attractiveness than do lesbian women (Bailey et al. —Steven Pinker. let’s pause now to explore that last question.” This is among the largest of gender differences in sexuality (Regan & Atkins. masturbates more often. “It’s not that gay men are oversexed. I have a concussion. “with few exceptions anywhere in the world. abuse and murder the children with whom they share a home? • Why do so many more people have phobias about spiders. 2007).” agreed 11 percent of women and 46 percent of men (Fischtein et al. • In another survey of 3432 U.” agreed 48 percent of men and 12 per- cent of women in a survey of 4901 Australians (Bailey et 59-year-olds. it’s all right for them to have sex even if they’ve known each other for a very short time” (Pryor et al. CHAPTER 4 | NATURE. men. 18.. 2007).S. and Kathleen Vohs (2001) invite us to consider who desires more frequent sex.” acknowledged 19 percent of the women and 54 percent of the men (Laumann et al. Michael Crawford sex. and perceive. To see how evolutionary psychol- ogists think and reason. 244).. avoid the same predators. men and women have adapted in similar ways. the biologically and • Why do infants start to fear strangers about the time they become mobile? socially influenced characteristics by which • Why are biological fathers so much less likely than unrelated boyfriends to people define male and female. NURTURE. Whether male or female. Ditto for the sexual thoughts of Canadians: “Several times a day. And how often do they think about sex? “Every day” or “Several times a day. 2000). college students. men everywhere more strongly agreed that “I have a strong sex drive” and “It doesn’t take much to get me sexually excited” (Lippa. are men. 1994. 2007). such as guns and electricity? • Why do humans share some universal moral ideas? • How are men and women alike? How and why do men’s and women’s sexuality differ? We will consider such questions in later chapters.. 58 percent of men but only 34 percent of women agreed that “if two people really like each other. Indeed. answers. and sacrifices more to gain sex? The from cartoonbank. “I can imagine myself being comfortable and enjoy- ing ‘casual’ sex with different partners. It is only in those do- mains where we have faced differing adaptive challenges—most obviously in behav- iors related to reproduction—that we differ. 2008). men. Gender Differences in Sexuality And differ we do. say evolutionary psychologists.


Natural Selection and Mating Preferences
Evolutionary psychologists use natural selection to explain why—worldwide—
women’s approach to sex is usually more relational, and men’s more recreational
(Schmitt, 2005, 2007). Their explanation goes like this: While a woman usually in-
cubates and nurses one infant at a time, a man can spread his genes through other
females. Our natural yearnings are our genes’ way of reproducing themselves. In our
ancestral history, women most often sent their genes into the future by pairing
wisely, men by pairing widely. “Humans are living fossils—collections of mecha-
nisms produced by prior selection pressures,” said evolutionary psychologist David
Buss (1995).
And what do heterosexual men and women find attractive in a mate? Some de-
sired traits, such as a woman’s youthful appearance (FIGURE 4.3), cross place and
time (Buss, 1994). Evolutionary psychologists say that men who were drawn to
healthy, fertile-appearing women—women with smooth skin and a youthful shape
suggesting many childbearing years to come—stood a better chance of sending
© The New Yorker Collection, Matthew Diffee

their genes into the future. Moreover, men are most attracted to women who, in
from All rights reserved.

the ancestral past (when ovulation began later than today), were at ages associated
with peak fertility (Kenrick et al., in press). Thus, teen boys are most excited by a
woman several years older than themselves. Mid-twenties men prefer women
around their own age. And older men prefer younger women. This pattern consis-
tently appears across European singles ads, Indian marital ads, and marriage
records from North and South America, Africa, and the Philippines (Singh, 1993;
“What about you,Walter—how do you feel Singh & Randall, 2007).
about same-age marriage?”
Women, in turn, prefer stick-around dads over likely cads. They are attracted to
men who seem mature, dominant, bold, and affluent, with a potential for long-term
mating and investment in their joint offspring (Gangestad & Simpson, 2000; Singh,
1995). From an evolutionary perspective, such attributes connote a capacity to sup-
port and protect (Buss, 1996, 2000; Geary, 1998).
There is a principle at work here, say evolutionary psychologists: Nature selects
© The New Yorker Collection, 1999, Robert Mankoff from All rights reserved.

behaviors that increase the likelihood of sending one’s genes into the future. As mo-
bile gene machines, we are designed to prefer whatever worked for our ancestors in
their environments. They were predisposed to act in ways that would leave grand-
children—had they not been, we wouldn’t be here. And as carriers of their genetic
legacy, we are similarly predisposed.
Without disputing nature’s selection of traits that enhance gene survival, critics
see problems with this explanation of human sexuality. They believe that the evolu-
tionary perspective overlooks some important influences on human sexuality (see
Thinking Critically About: The Evolutionary Perspective on Human Sexuality).

“I had a nice time, Steve.Would you like to come
in, settle down, and raise a family?”

FIGURE 4.3 Worldwide mating prefer-
ences In a wide range of cultures studied
(indicated by the red dots), men more than
women preferred physical features suggesting
youth and health—and reproductive potential.
Women more than men preferred mates with
resources and social status. Researchers credit
(or blame) natural selection (Buss, 1994).


Thinking Critically About:
The Evolutionary Perspective on Human Sexuality
Some also worry about the social con- more alike than different, and that
7: What are the key criticisms of
the evolutionary perspective on
sequences of evolutionary psychology.
Does it suggest a genetic determinism
humans have a great capacity for learning
and social progress. (We come equipped
that strikes at the heart of progressive to adapt and survive, whether living in
human sexuality? efforts to remake society (Rose, 1999)? igloos or tree houses.) Further, they agree
Evolutionary psychology, say some critics, Does it undercut moral responsibility? that what’s considered attractive does
starts with an effect (such as the gender Could it be used to rationalize “high- vary somewhat with time and place. The
sexuality difference) and works backward status men marrying a series of young, voluptuous Marilyn Monroe ideal of the
to propose an explanation. They invite us fertile women” (Looy, 2001)? 1950s has been replaced by a leaner (yet
to imagine a different result and reason Others argue that evolutionary explana- still curvy) athletic image in the twenty-
backward. If men were uniformly loyal to tions blur the line between genetic legacy first–century. Cultural expectations can
their mates, might we not reason that the and social-cultural traditions relating to bend the genders. If socialized to value
children of these committed, supportive mate preferences. Show Wendy Wood and lifelong commitment, men may sexually
fathers would more often survive to per- Alice Eagly (2002, 2007) a culture with bond with one partner; if socialized to
petuate their genes? Might not men also gender inequality—where men are accept casual sex, women may willingly
be better off bonded to one woman— providers and women are homemakers— have sex with many partners.
both to increase their odds of impregna- and they will show you a culture where Even granting all that, the evolutionary
tion and to keep her from the advances of men strongly desire youth and domestic psychologists point to the coherence and
competing men? Might not a ritualized skill in their potential mates, and where explanatory power of evolutionary princi-
bond—a marriage—also spare women women seek status and earning potential ples, especially those offering testable
from chronic male harassment? Such sug- in their mates. Show Wood and Eagly a predictions (for example, that we will
gestions are, in fact, evolutionary expla- culture with gender equality, and they will favor others to the extent that they share
nations for why humans tend to pair off show you a culture with smaller gender our genes or can later reciprocate our
monogamously. One can hardly lose at differences in mate preferences. favors). Moreover, they remind us that the
hindsight explanation, which is, said Much of who we are is not hard-wired, study of how we came to be need not dic-
paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould (1997), agree evolutionary psychologists. They tate how we ought to be. Understanding
mere “speculation [and] guesswork in the reassure us that men and women, having our propensities sometimes helps us over-
cocktail party mode.” faced similar adaptive problems, are far come them.

6. Evolutionary psychologists are most c. natural selection of the fittest
likely to focus on adaptations.
a. how we differ from one another. d. random assignment of genes over
b. the links between social expectations several generations.
and behavior. Answer: 6, c.

Parents and Peers
8: To what extent are our lives shaped by early stimulation, by parents,
and by peers?
We have seen how our genes, as expressed in specific environments, influence our
developmental differences. We are not “blank slates,” note Douglas Kenrick and his
colleagues (in press). We are more like coloring books, with certain lines predis-
posed and experience filling in our picture. We are formed by nature and nurture.
But what are the most influential components of our nurture? How do our early ex-
periences, our family and peer relationships, and all our other experiences guide
our development and contribute to our diversity?


Parents and Early Experiences
The formative nurture that conspires with nature begins at conception, with the
prenatal environment in the womb, as embryos receive differing nutrition and vary-
ing levels of exposure to toxic agents (more on this in Chapter 5). Nurture then
continues outside the womb, where our early experiences foster brain development.

Experience and Brain Development
Our genes dictate our overall brain architecture, but experience fills in the details,
developing neural connections and preparing our brain for thought and language
and other later experiences. So how do early experiences leave their “marks” in the
brain? Mark Rosenzweig and David Krech opened a window on that process when
they raised some young rats in solitary confinement and others in a communal play-
ground. When they later analyzed the rats’ brains, those who died with the most
toys had won. The rats living in the enriched environment, which simulated a natu-
ral environment, usually developed a heavier and thicker brain cortex (FIGURE 4.4).
Rosenzweig was so surprised by this discovery that he repeated the experiment
several times before publishing his findings (Renner & Rosenzweig, 1987; Rosen-
zweig, 1984). So great are the effects that, shown brief video clips of rats, you could
tell from their activity and curiosity whether their environment had been impover-
ished or enriched (Renner & Renner, 1993). Bryan Kolb and Ian Whishaw (1998)
noted extraordinary changes after 60 days in the enriched environment; the rats’
brain weights increased 7 to 10 percent and the number of synapses mushroomed
by about 20 percent.
Such results have motivated improvements in environments for laboratory, farm,
and zoo animals—and for children in institutions. Stimulation by touch or massage
also benefits infant rats and premature babies (Field et al., 2007). “Handled” in-
fants of both species develop faster neurologically and gain weight more rapidly. By
giving preemies massage therapy, neonatal intensive care units now help them to go
Courtesy of C. Brune

home sooner (Field et al., 2006).
Both nature and nurture sculpt our synapses. After brain maturation provides us
with an abundance of neural connections, our experiences trigger a pruning process.
Stringing the circuits young String musi- Sights and smells, touches and tugs activate connections and strengthen them. Un-
cians who started playing before age 12 have used neural pathways weaken and degenerate. Similar to pathways through a forest,
larger and more complex neural circuits con- popular paths are broadened and less-traveled paths gradually disappear. The result
trolling the note-making left-hand fingers by puberty is a massive loss of unemployed connections.
than do string musicians whose training start- Here at the juncture of nurture and nature is the biological reality of early child-
ed later (Elbert et al., 1995). hood learning. During early childhood—while excess connections are still on call—
youngsters can most easily master such skills as the grammar and accent of another
language. Lacking any exposure to language before adolescence, a person will never
master any language (see Chapter 9).

FIGURE 4.4 Experience affects brain
Copyright © 1972 Scientific American, Inc. All rights reserved.)

development Mark Rosenzweig and David
by M. R. Rosenzweig, E. L. Bennett, and M. C. Diamond.

Krech raised rats either alone in an environ-
(From “Brain changes in response to experience”

ment without playthings, or with other rats in
an environment enriched with playthings
changed daily. In 14 of 16 repetitions of this
basic experiment, rats in the enriched envi-
ronment developed significantly more cerebral
cortex (relative to the rest of the brain’s Impoverished Impoverished Enriched Enriched
tissue) than did those in the impoverished environment rat brain cell environment rat brain cell


Both photos courtesy of Avi Karni and Leslie Ungerleider, National Institute of Mental Health

FIGURE 4.5 A trained brain A well-
learned finger-tapping task activates more
motor cortex neurons (orange area, right)
than were active in the same brain before
training (left). (From Karni et al., 1998.)

Likewise, lacking visual experience during the early years, people whose vision is
later restored by cataract removal never achieve normal perceptions (see Chapter 6).
The brain cells normally assigned to vision have died or been diverted to other uses. “Genes and experiences are just two
The brain’s rule: Use it or lose it. ways of doing the same thing—
Although normal stimulation during the early years is critical, our brain’s devel- wiring synapses.”
opment does not end with childhood. As we saw in Chapter 2’s discussion of brain —Joseph LeDoux, The Synaptic Self, 2002
plasticity, our neural tissue is ever changing. If a monkey is trained to push a lever
with a finger several thousand times a day, the brain tissue controlling that finger
will change to reflect the experience. Human brains work similarly (FIGURE 4.5).
Whether learning to keyboard or skateboard, we perform with increasing skill as
our brain incorporates the learning.

How Much Credit (or Blame) Do Parents Deserve?
In procreation, a woman and a man shuffle their gene decks and deal a life-forming
hand to their child-to-be, who is then subjected to countless influences beyond their
control. Parents, nonetheless, feel enormous satisfaction in their children’s suc-
cesses, and feel guilt or shame over their failures. They beam over the child who
wins an award. They wonder where they went wrong with the child who is repeat-
edly called into the principal’s office. Freudian psychiatry and psychology have
been among the sources of such ideas, by blaming problems from asthma to schizo-
phrenia on “bad mothering.” Society reinforces such parent-blaming: Believing that
parents shape their offspring as a potter molds clay, people readily praise parents for
their children’s virtues and blame them for their children’s vices. Popular culture Even among chimpanzees, when one infant is
endlessly proclaims the psychological harm toxic parenting inflicts on fragile chil- hurt by another, the victim’s mother will often
dren. No wonder having and raising children can seem so risky. attack the offender’s mother (Goodall, 1968).
But do parents really produce future adults with an inner wounded child by
being (take your pick from the toxic-parenting lists) overbearing—or uninvolved?
Pushy—or ineffectual? Overprotective—or distant? Are children really so easily
wounded? If so, should we then blame our parents for our failings, and ourselves for
our children’s failings? Or does all the talk of wounding fragile children through
normal parental mistakes trivialize the brutality of real abuse?
© The New Yorker Collection, 2001, Barbara Smaller

Parents do matter. The power of parenting to shape our differences is clearest at
from All rights reserved.

the extremes. Chapter 5 will provide the sharpest examples—the abused who be-
come abusive, the neglected who become neglectful, the loved but firmly handled
children who become self-confident and socially competent. And, as we saw earlier
in the discussion of adoptive parenting, the power of the family environment fre-
quently shows up in children’s political attitudes, religious beliefs, and personal
manners. It appears in the remarkable academic and vocational successes of chil-
dren of the refugee “boat people” fleeing Vietnam and Cambodia—successes attrib- “So I blame you for everything—
uted to close-knit, supportive, even demanding families (Caplan et al., 1992). whose fault is that?”


Yet in personality measures, shared environmental influences—including, as we
have seen, the home influences siblings share—typically account for less than 10
percent of children’s differences. In the words of behavior geneticists Robert
Plomin and Denise Daniels (1987), “Two children in the same family [are on aver-
age] as different from one another as are pairs of children selected randomly from
“If you want to blame your parents the population.” To developmental psychologist Sandra Scarr (1993), this implied
for your own adult problems, you are that “parents should be given less credit for kids who turn out great and blamed less
entitled to blame the genes they for kids who don’t.” Knowing children are not easily sculpted by parental nurture,
gave you, but you are not entitled— perhaps parents can relax a bit more and love their children for who they are.
by any facts I know—to blame the
way they treated you. . . . We are not
prisoners of our past.” Peer Influence
—Martin Seligman, What You Can Change As children mature, what other experiences do the work of nurturing? At all ages,
and What You Can’t, 1994 but especially during childhood and adolescence, we seek to fit in with groups and
are subject to group influences.
Consider the power of peers (Harris, 1998, 2000):
• Preschoolers who disdain a certain food often will eat that food if put at a table
with a group of children who like it.
• Children who hear English spoken with one accent at home and another in the
neighborhood and at school will invariably adopt the accent of their peers, not
their parents. Accents (and slang) reflect culture, “and children get their cul-
ture from their peers,” notes Judith Rich Harris (2007).
“Men resemble the times more than • Teens who start smoking typically have friends who model smoking, suggest its
they resemble their fathers.” pleasures, and offer cigarettes (Rose et al., 1999, 2003). Part of this peer simi-
—Ancient Arab proverb larity may result from a selection effect, as kids seek out peers with similar atti-
tudes and interests. Those who smoke (or don’t) may select as friends those
who also smoke (or don’t).
Howard Gardner (1998) has concluded that parents and peers are complementary:
Parents are more important when it comes to education, discipline, responsibility, order-
liness, charitableness, and ways of interacting with authority figures. Peers are more
important for learning cooperation, for finding the road to popularity, for inventing styles
of interaction among people of the same age. Youngsters may find their peers more inter-
esting, but they will look to their parents when contemplating their own futures.
Moreover, parents [often] choose the neighborhoods and schools that supply the peers.

As Gardner points out, parents can influence the culture that shapes the peer
group, by helping to select their children’s neighborhood and schools. And because

Peer power As we
develop, we play, mate,
and partner with peers.
No wonder children and
Ole Graf/zefa/Corbis

youths are so sensitive
and responsive to peer


neighborhood influences matter, parents may want to become involved in youth in- “It takes a village to raise a child.”
tervention programs aiming at a whole school or neighborhood. If the vapors of a —African proverb
toxic climate are seeping into a child’s life, that climate—not just the child—needs
reforming. Even so, peers are but one medium of cultural influence.

7. Normal levels of stimulation are impor- c. experience activates and preserves 8. Children and youth are particularly
tant during infancy and early childhood neural connections that might other- responsive to influences of their
because during these years, wise die from disuse. a. peers.
a. a rich environment can override a d. experience triggers the rapid develop- b. fathers.
child’s genetic limits. ment and production of human growth c. teachers and caretakers.
b. experience stimulates the growth of hormones. d. mothers.
billions of new brain cells.
Answers: 7. c, 8. a.

Cultural Influences
9: How do cultural norms affect our behavior?
Compared with the narrow path taken by flies, fish, and foxes, the road along which
environment drives us is wider. The mark of our species—nature’s great gift to us—
is our ability to learn and adapt. We come equipped with a huge cerebral hard drive
ready to receive many gigabytes of cultural software.
Culture is the behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a
group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next (Brislin, 1988).
Human nature, notes Roy Baumeister (2005), seems designed for culture. We are
social animals, but more. Wolves are social animals; they live and hunt in packs.
Ants are incessantly social, never alone. But “culture is a better way of being social,”
notes Baumeister. Wolves function pretty much as they did 10,000 years ago. You
and I enjoy things unknown to most of our century-ago ancestors, including elec-
tricity, indoor plumbing, antibiotics, and the Internet. Culture works.
As we will see in Chapter 9, primates exhibit the rudiments of culture, with local
customs of tool use, grooming, and courtship. Younger chimpanzees and macaque
monkeys sometimes invent local customs (potato washing, in one famous example)
and pass them on to their peers and offspring. But human culture does more. It
supports our species’ survival and reproduction by enabling social, educational, and
economic systems that give us an edge. Having learned economic lessons from the
1930s Great Depression, governments worked to avoid another in 2009.
Thanks to our mastery of language, we humans enjoy the preservation of innova-
tion. Within the span of this day, I have, thanks to my culture, made good use of
Post-it Notes, Google, and a single-shot skinny latte. On a grander scale, we have
culture’s accumulated knowledge to thank for the last century’s 30-year extension
of the average life expectancy in most countries where this book is being read.
Moreover, culture enables an efficient division of labor. Although one lucky person
gets his name on this book’s cover, the product actually results from the coordina-
tion and commitment of a team of women and men, no one of whom could pro-
duce it alone.
Across cultures, we differ in our language, our monetary systems, our sports,
which fork—if any—we eat with, even which side of the road we drive on. But be- culture the enduring behaviors, ideas,
neath these differences is our great similarity—our capacity for culture. Culture attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a
provides the shared and transmitted customs and beliefs that enable us to commu- group of people and transmitted from one
nicate, to exchange money for things, to play, to eat, and to drive with agreed-upon generation to the next.


rules and without crashing into one another. This shared capacity for culture en-
ables our striking group differences. Human nature manifests human diversity.
If we all lived in homogeneous ethnic groups in separate regions of the world, as
some people still do, cultural diversity would be less relevant. In Japan, almost 99
percent of the country’s 127 million people are of Japanese descent. Internal cul-
tural differences are therefore minimal compared with those found in Los Angeles,
where the public schools recently taught 82 different languages, or in Toronto or
Vancouver, where minorities are one-third of the population and many are immi-
grants (as are 13.4 percent of all Canadians and 23 percent of Australians) (Axiss,
2007; Statistics Canada, 2002). I am ever mindful that the readers of this book are
culturally diverse. You and your ancestors reach from Australia to Africa and from
Singapore to Sweden.

Variation Across Cultures
We see our adaptability in cultural variations among our beliefs and our values, in
how we raise our children and bury our dead, and in what we wear (or whether we
wear anything at all). Riding along with a unified culture is like biking with the wind:
As it carries us along, we hardly notice it is there. When we try riding against the
wind we feel its force. Face to face with a different culture, we become aware of the
cultural winds. Visiting Europe, most North Americans notice the smaller cars, the
left-handed use of the fork, the uninhibited attire on the beaches. Stationed in Iraq,
Afghanistan, and Kuwait, American and European soldiers alike realized how liberal
their home cultures were. Arriving in North America, visitors from Japan and India
struggle to understand why so many people wear their dirty street shoes in the house.
Each cultural group evolves its own norms—rules for accepted and expected
behavior. Many South Asians have a norm for eating only with the right hand’s fin-
gers. The British have a norm for orderly waiting in line. Sometimes social expecta-
tions seem oppressive: “Why should it matter how I dress?” Yet, norms grease the
social machinery and free us from self-preoccupation. Knowing when to clap or
bow, which fork to pick up first at a dinner party, and what sorts of gestures and
compliments are appropriate—whether to greet people by shaking hands or kissing
each cheek, for example—we can relax and enjoy one another without fear of em-
barrassment or insult.
When cultures collide, their differing norms often befuddle. For example, if
Cultures differ Behavior seen as appropri-
ate in one culture may violate the norms of someone invades our personal space—the portable buffer zone we like to main-
another group. In Arab societies, but not in tain around our bodies—we feel uncomfortable. Scandinavians, North Americans,
Western cultures, heterosexual men often and the British have traditionally preferred more personal space than do Latin
greet one another with a kiss. Americans, Arabs, and the French (Sommer, 1969). At a social gathering, a Mexi-
can seeking a comfortable conversation distance may end up walking around a
room with a backpedaling Canadian. (You can experience this at a party by playing
Space Invader as you talk with someone.) To the Canadian, the Mexican may seem
intrusive; to the Mexican, the Canadian may seem standoffish.
Cultures also vary in their expressiveness. Those with roots in northern Euro-
pean culture have perceived people from Mediterranean cultures as warm and
charming but inefficient. The Mediterraneans, in turn, have seen northern Euro-
peans as efficient but cold and preoccupied with punctuality (Triandis, 1981).
Cultures vary in their pace of life, too. People from time-conscious Japan—where
bank clocks keep exact time, pedestrians walk briskly, and postal clerks fill requests
speedily—may find themselves growing impatient when visiting Indonesia, where
clocks keep less accurate time and the pace of life is more leisurely (Levine &
Annie Griffiths Belt/Corbis

Norenzayan, 1999). In adjusting to their host countries, the first wave of U.S. Peace
Corps volunteers reported that two of their greatest culture shocks, after the lan-
guage differences, were the differing pace of life and the people’s differing sense of
punctuality (Spradley & Phillips, 1972).


Variation Over Time norm an understood rule for accepted
and expected behavior. Norms prescribe
Consider, too, how rapidly cultures may change over time. English poet Geoffrey “proper” behavior.
Chaucer (1342–1400) is separated from a modern Briton by only 20 generations,
but the two would converse with great difficulty. In the thin slice of history since personal space the buffer zone we like to
1960, most Western cultures have changed with remarkable speed. Middle-class maintain around our bodies.
people fly to places they once only read about, work in air-conditioned comfort individualism giving priority to one’s own
where they once sweltered, and enjoy the convenience of anywhere-anytime elec- goals over group goals and defining one’s
tronic communication with those they once snail-mailed. With greater economic in- identity in terms of personal attributes
dependence, today’s women are more likely to marry for love and less likely to rather than group identifications.
endure abusive relationships out of economic need.
collectivism giving priority to group goals
But some changes seem not so wonderfully positive. Had you fallen asleep in the (often those of the extended family or work
United States in 1960 and awakened today, you would open your eyes to a culture group) and defining one’s identity
with more divorce, delinquency, and depression. You would also find North Ameri- accordingly.
cans—like their counterparts in Britain, Australia, and New Zealand—spending
more hours at work, fewer hours sleeping, and fewer hours with friends and family
(Frank, 1999; Putnam, 2000).
Whether we love or loathe these changes, we cannot fail to be impressed by their
breathtaking speed. And we cannot explain them by changes in the human gene
pool, which evolves far too slowly to account for high-speed cultural transforma-
tions. Cultures vary. Cultures change. And cultures shape our lives.

Culture and the Self
10: How do individualist and collectivist cultural influences affect people?
Cultures vary in the extent to which they give priority to the nurturing and expres-
sion of personal identity or group identity. To grasp the difference, imagine that
someone were to rip away your social connections, making you a solitary refugee in
a foreign land. How much of your identity would remain intact?
If as our solitary traveler you pride yourself on your individualism, a great deal
of your identity would remain intact—the very core of your being, the sense of
“me,” the awareness of your personal convictions and values. Individualists (often

© The New Yorker Collection, 2000, Ziegler from All rights reserved.
people from North America, Western Europe, Australia, or New Zealand) give rela-
tively greater priority to personal goals and define their identity mostly in terms of
personal attributes (Schimmack et al., 2005). They strive for personal control and
individual achievement. In American culture, with its relatively big “I” and small
“we,” 85 percent of people say it is possible “to pretty much be who you want to be”
(Sampson, 2000).
Individualists share the human need to belong. They join groups, but
they are less focused on group harmony and doing their duty to the group
(Brewer & Chen, 2007). And being more self-contained, they more easily
move in and out of groups. They feel relatively free to switch places of wor-
ship, leave one job for another, or even leave their extended families and mi-
grate to a new place. Marriage is often for as long as they both shall love.
If set adrift in a foreign land as a collectivist, you might experience a greater
loss of identity. Cut off from family, groups, and loyal friends, you would lose the
connections that have defined who you are. In a collectivist culture, group identifi-
cations provide a sense of belonging, a set of values, a network of caring individuals,
an assurance of security. In return, collectivists have deeper, more stable attach-
ments to their groups, often their family, clan, or company. In South Korea, for ex-
ample, people place less value on expressing a consistent, unique self-concept, and
more on tradition and shared practices (Choi & Choi, 2002).
Valuing communal solidarity, people in collectivist cultures place a premium on
preserving group spirit and making sure others never lose face. What people say


reflects not only what they feel (their inner attitudes) but what they presume others
feel (Kashima et al., 1992). Avoiding direct confrontation, blunt honesty, and un-
comfortable topics, people often defer to others’ wishes and display a polite, self-
effacing humility (Markus & Kitayama, 1991). Elders and superiors receive respect,
and duty to family may trump personal career preferences. In new groups, collec-
tivists may be shy and more easily embarrassed than are individualist Westerners
(Singelis et al., 1995, 1999). People in Japanese and Chinese cultures, for example,
exhibit greater shyness toward strangers and greater concern for social harmony
“One needs to cultivate the spirit of and loyalty (Bond, 1988; Cheek & Melchior, 1990; Triandis, 1994). When the pri-
sacrificing the little me to achieve ority is “we,” not “me,” that individualized latte—“decaf, single shot, skinny, extra
the benefits of the big me.” hot”—that feels so good to a North American in a coffee shop might sound more
—Chinese saying like a selfish demand in Seoul (Kim & Markus, 1999).
To be sure, there is diversity within cultures. Even in the most individualistic
countries, some people manifest collectivist values. But in general, people (espe-
cially men) in competitive, individualist cultures have more personal freedom, are
less geographically bound to their families, enjoy more privacy, and take more pride
in personal achievements (TABLE 4.1). During the 2000 and 2002
Olympic games, U.S. gold medal winners and the U.S. media cover-
ing them attributed the achievements mostly to the athletes them-
selves (Markus et al., 2006). “I think I just stayed focused,”
explained swimming gold medalist Misty Hyman. “It was time to
show the world what I could do. I am just glad I was able to do it.”
Japan’s gold medalist in the women’s marathon, Naoko Takahashi,
had a different explanation: “Here is the best coach in the world, the
best manager in the world, and all of the people who support me—
all of these things were getting together and became a gold medal.”
Even in describing friends, Westerners tend to use trait-describing
adjectives (“she is helpful”), whereas East Asians more often use
Kevin R. Morris/Corbis

verbs that describe behaviors in context (“she helps her friends”)
(Maass et al., 2006).
Individualism’s benefits can come at the cost of more loneliness,
more divorce, more homicide, and more stress-related disease
Uniform requirements People in individu-
(Popenoe, 1993; Triandis et al., 1988). Demands for more romance and personal
alist Western cultures sometimes see tradi-
tional Japanese culture as confining. But from fulfillment in marriage can subject relationships to more pressure (Dion & Dion,
the Japanese perspective, the same tradition 1993). In one survey, “keeping romance alive” was rated as important to a good
may express a “serenity that comes to people marriage by 78 percent of U.S. women but only 29 percent of Japanese women
who know exactly what to expect from each (American Enterprise, 1992). In China, love songs often express enduring commit-
other” (Weisz et al., 1984). ment and friendship (Rothbaum & Tsang, 1998). As one song put it, “We will be to-
gether from now on. . . . I will never change from now to forever.”

TABLE 4.1 Value Contrasts Between Individualism and Collectivism

Concept Individualism Collectivism
Self Independent (identity from individual traits) Interdependent (identity from belonging)
Life task Discover and express one’s uniqueness Maintain connections, fit in, perform role
What matters Me—personal achievement and fulfillment; rights and Us—group goals and solidarity; social responsibilities
liberties; self-esteem and relationships; family duty
Coping method Change reality Accommodate to reality
Morality Defined by individuals (self-based) Defined by social networks (duty-based)
Relationships Many, often temporary or casual; confrontation acceptable Few, close and enduring; harmony valued
Attributing behavior Behavior reflects one’s personality and attitudes Behavior reflects social norms and roles

Sources: Adapted from Thomas Schoeneman (1994) and Harry Triandis (1994).


Culture and Child-Rearing
Child-rearing practices reflect cultural values that vary across time and place.
Do you prefer children who are independent or children who comply? If you
live in a Westernized culture, the odds are you prefer independence. “You are
responsible for yourself,” Western families and schools tell their children.
“Follow your conscience. Be true to yourself. Discover your gifts. Think
through your personal needs.” A half-century and more ago, Western cultural
values placed greater priority on obedience, respect, and sensitivity to others
(Alwin, 1990; Remley, 1988). “Be true to your traditions,” parents then
taught their children. “Be loyal to your heritage and country. Show respect
toward your parents and other superiors.” Cultures can change.

Copyright Steve Reehl
Many Asians and Africans live in cultures that value emotional closeness.
Rather than being given their own bedrooms and entrusted to day care, in-
fants and toddlers may sleep with their mothers and spend their days close to
a family member (Morelli et al., 1992; Whiting & Edwards, 1988). These cultures Cultures vary In Scotland’s Orkney Islands’
encourage a strong sense of family self—a feeling that what shames the child shames town of Stromness, social trust has enabled
parents to park their toddlers outside of shops.
the family, and what brings honor to the family brings honor to the self.
Children across place and time have thrived under various child-rearing systems.
Upper-class British parents traditionally handed off routine caregiving to nannies,
then sent their children off to boarding school at about age 10. These children and
their boarding-school peers generally grew up to be pillars of British society, as had
their parents before them. In the African Gusii society, babies nurse freely but
spend most of the day on their mother’s back—with lots of body contact but little
face-to-face and language interaction. When the mother becomes pregnant, the tod-
dler is weaned and handed over to someone else, often an older sibling. Westerners
may wonder about the negative effects of this lack of verbal interaction, but then the
African Gusii would in turn wonder about Western mothers pushing their babies
around in strollers and leaving them in playpens and car seats (Small, 1997). Such
diversity in child-rearing cautions us against presuming that our culture’s way is the

José Luis Pelaez, Inc./Corbis
only way to rear children successfully.

Developmental Similarities Across Groups
Mindful of how others differ from us, we often fail to notice the similarities predis- Parental involvement promotes devel-
posed by our shared biology. One 49-country study revealed that nation-to-nation opment Parents in every culture facilitate
their children’s discovery of their world, but
differences in personality traits such as conscientiousness and extraversion are cultures differ in what they deem important.
smaller than most people suppose (Terracciano et al., 2005). Australians see them- Asian cultures place more emphasis on school
selves as outgoing, German-speaking Swiss see themselves as conscientious, and and hard work than do North American cul-
Canadians see themselves as agreeable. Actually, these national stereotypes exagger- tures. This may help explain why Japanese
ate differences that, although real, are modest. Compared with the person-to- and Taiwanese children get higher scores on
person differences within groups, the differences between groups are small. Regardless mathematics achievement tests.
of our culture, we humans are more alike than different. We share the same life
cycle. We speak to our infants in similar ways and respond similarly to their coos
and cries (Bornstein et al., 1992a,b). All over the world, the children of warm and
supportive parents feel better about themselves and are less hostile than are the
children of punitive and rejecting parents (Rohner, 1986; Scott et al., 1991).
Even differences within a culture, such as those sometimes attributed to race, are
often easily explained by an interaction between our biology and our culture. David
Rowe and his colleagues (1994, 1995) illustrated this with an analogy: Black men
tend to have higher blood pressure than White men. Suppose that (1) in both
groups salt consumption correlates with blood pressure, and (2) salt consumption
is higher among Black men than among White men. The blood pressure “race dif-
ference” might then actually be, at least partly, a diet difference—a cultural prefer-
ence for certain foods.


And that, said Rowe and his colleagues, parallels psychological findings. Al-
though Latino, Asian, Black, White, and Native Americans differ in school achieve-
ment and delinquency, the differences are “no more than skin deep.” To the extent
that family structure, peer influences, and parental education predict behavior in
one of these ethnic groups, they do so for the others as well.
“When [someone] has discovered So, as members of different ethnic and cultural groups, we may differ in surface
why men in Bond Street wear black ways, but as members of one species we seem subject to the same psychological
hats he will at the same moment forces. Our languages vary, yet they reflect universal principles of grammar (Chap-
have discovered why men in ter 9). Our tastes vary, yet they reflect common principles of hunger (Chapter 10).
Timbuctoo wear red feathers.” Our social behaviors vary, yet they reflect pervasive principles of human influence
—G. K. Chesterton, Heretics, 1905
(Chapter 15). Cross-cultural research can help us appreciate both our cultural di-
versity and our human likeness.

9. Personal space, the portable buffer zone 10. Individualist cultures tend to value 11. Human developmental processes tend to
people like to maintain around their ; collectivist cultures tend to from one group to another
bodies, differs from culture to culture. value . because we are members of .
These differences are examples of a. interdependence; independence a. be the same; the same ethnic group
a. genetic variation. b. independence; interdependence b. be the same; the same species
b. individual influences. c. group solidarity; uniqueness c. differ; different species
c. cultural norms. d. duty to family; personal fulfillment d. differ; different ethnic groups
d. collectivist influences. Answers: 9. c, 10. b, 11. b.

Gender Development
As we will see in Chapter 9, we humans share an irresistible urge to organize our
worlds into simple categories. Among the ways we classify people—as tall or short,
fat or slim, smart or dull—one stands out: At your birth, everyone wanted to know,
“Boy or girl?” Our biological sex in turn helps define our gender, the biological and
social characteristics by which people define male or female. In considering how na-
ture and nurture together create social diversity, gender is the prime case example.
Earlier we considered one significant gender difference—in sexual interests and be-
haviors. Let’s recap this chapter’s theme—that nature and nurture together create
our differences and commonalities—by considering other gender variations.

Gender Similarities and Differences
11: What are some ways in which males and females tend to be alike
and to differ?
Having faced similar adaptive challenges, we are in most ways alike. Men and
women are not from different planets—Mars and Venus—but from the same planet
Earth. Tell me whether you are male or female and you give me virtually no clues to
your vocabulary, intelligence, and happiness, or to the mechanisms by which you
see, hear, learn, and remember. Your “opposite” sex is, in reality, your very similar
sex. And should we be surprised? Among your 46 chromosomes, 45 are unisex.
But males and females also differ, and differences command attention. Some
much talked-about differences are actually quite modest, as Janet Hyde (2005) il-
lustrated by graphically representing the gender difference in self-esteem scores,
across many studies (FIGURE 4.6). Some differences are more striking. Compared
with the average man, the average woman enters puberty two years sooner, lives five


years longer, carries 70 percent more fat, has 40 percent
less muscle, and is 5 inches shorter. Other gender differ-
ences appear throughout this book. Women can become Females
sexually re-aroused immediately after orgasm. They of people Males
smell fainter odors, express emotions more freely, and
are offered help more often. They are doubly vulnerable
to depression and anxiety, and their risk of developing
eating disorders is 10 times greater. But, then, men are
some four times more likely to commit suicide or suffer
alcohol dependence. They are far more often diagnosed
with autism, color-blindness, attention-deficit hyperac-
tivity disorder (as children), and antisocial personality
disorder (as adults). Choose your gender and pick your
How much does biology bend the genders? What por- Lower scores Higher scores
tion of our differences are socially constructed—by the Self-esteem scores
gender roles our culture assigns us, and by how we are
socialized as children? To answer those questions, let’s look more closely at some av- FIGURE 4.6 Much ado about a small
erage gender differences in aggression, social power, and social connectedness. difference Janet Hyde (2005) shows us two
normal distributions that differ by the approx-
imate magnitude of the gender difference in
Gender and Aggression self-esteem, averaged over all available sam-
In surveys, men admit to more aggression than do women, and experiments con- ples. Moreover, though we can identify gender
differences, the variation among individual
firm that men tend to behave more aggressively, such as by administering what they
women and among individual men greatly
believe are more painful electric shocks (Bettencourt & Kernahan, 1997). The ag- exceeds the difference between the average
gression gender gap pertains to physical aggression (such as hitting) rather than rela- woman and man.
tional aggression (such as excluding someone). The gender gap in physical
aggression appears in everyday life at various ages and in various cultures, especially
those with gender inequality (Archer, 2004, 2006). Violent crime rates most strik-
ingly illustrate the gender difference. The male-to-female arrest ratio for murder, for
example, is 10 to 1 in the United States and almost 7 to 1 in Canada (FBI, 2007;
Statistics Canada, 2007).
Around the world, hunting, fighting, and warring are primarily men’s activities
(Wood & Eagly, 2002, 2007). Men also express more support for war. The Iraq war, aggression physical or verbal behavior
for example, has consistently been supported more by American men than by intended to hurt someone.
American women (Newport et al., 2007).

Gender and Social Power
From Nigeria to New Zealand, people worldwide have perceived men as more
dominant, forceful, and independent, women as more deferential, nurturant, and
affiliative (Williams & Best, 1990). Indeed, in most societies men are socially domi-
nant, and they place more importance on power and achievement (Schwartz &
Rubel, 2005). When groups form, whether as juries or companies, leadership tends
to go to males (Colarelli et al., 2006). As leaders, men tend to be more directive,
even autocratic; women tend to be more democratic, more welcoming of subordi-
nates’ participation in decision making (Eagly & Carli, 2007; van Engen & Willem-
sen, 2004). When people interact, men are more likely to utter opinions, women to
express support (Aries, 1987; Wood, 1987). These differences carry into everyday
behavior, where men are more likely to act as powerful people often do—talking as-
sertively, interrupting, initiating touches, staring more, and smiling less (Hall, 1987;
Leaper & Ayres, 2007; Major et al., 1990). Women’s 2009 representations in national
Such behaviors help sustain social power inequities. When political leaders are parliaments ranged from 10 percent in the
elected, they usually are men, who held 82 percent of the seats in the world’s gov- Arab States to 41 percent in Scandinavia,
erning parliaments in 2009 (IPU, 2009). When salaries are paid, those in tradition- with 17 percent in the United States and 22
ally male occupations receive more. percent in Canada (IPU, 2009).


Gender and Social Connectedness
To Carol Gilligan and her colleagues (1982, 1990), the “normal” struggle
to create a separate identity describes Western individualist males more
than relationship-oriented females. Gilligan believes females tend to differ
from males both in being less concerned with viewing themselves as sepa-
rate individuals and in being more concerned with “making connections.”
These gender differences in connectedness surface early in children’s
play, and they continue with age. Boys typically play in large groups with
an activity focus and little intimate discussion (Rose & Rudolph, 2006).
Girls usually play in smaller groups, often with one friend. Their play
tends to be less competitive than boys’ and more imitative of social rela-
Oliver Eltinger/ zefa/ Corbis

tionships. Both in play and other settings, females are more open and re-
sponsive to feedback than are males (Maccoby, 1990; Roberts, 1991).
Females tend to be more interdependent than males. As teens, girls
spend more time with friends and less time alone (Wong & Csikszentmi-
halyi, 1991). As late adolescents, they spend more time on social-net-
working Internet sites (Pryor et al., 2007). As adults, women take more
pleasure in talking face-to-face, and they tend to use conversation more to
explore relationships. Men enjoy doing activities side-by-side, and they
tend to use conversation to communicate solutions (Tannen, 1990;
Wright, 1989). The communication difference is apparent even in student
e-mails, from which people in one New Zealand study could correctly
guess the author’s gender two-thirds of the time (Thomson & Murachver,
These gender differences are sometimes reflected in patterns of phone
communication. In France, women make 63 percent of phone calls and,
when talking to a woman, stay connected longer (7.2 minutes) than men
Dex Image/Getty Images

do when talking to other men (4.6 minutes) (Smoreda & Licoppe, 2000).
So, does this confirm the idea that women are just more talkative? When
researchers (Mehl et al., 2007) counted the number of words 396 college
students spoke in an average day, they found that talkativeness varied
Every man for himself, or tend and enormously—by 45,000 words between their most and least talkative par-
befriend? Gender differences in the way we ticipants. (How many words would you guess you speak each day?) Contrary to
interact with others begin to appear at a very stereotypes of jabbering women, both men and women averaged about 16,000
young age. words daily.
Women worldwide orient their interests and vocations more to people and less to
things (Lippa, 2005, 2006, 2008). In the workplace, they are less often driven by
money and status and more apt to opt for reduced work hours (Pinker, 2008). In
the home, they provide most of the care to the very young and the very old. In the
greeting card aisles, they make 85 percent of the purchases (Time, 1997). Women’s
emphasis on caring helps explain another interesting finding: Although 69 percent
of people have said they have a close relationship with their father, 90 percent said
they feel close to their mother (Hugick, 1989). When wanting understanding and
someone with whom to share worries and hurts, both men and women usually turn
to women, and both have reported their friendships with women to be more inti-
mate, enjoyable, and nurturing (Rubin, 1985; Sapadin, 1988). And when they
themselves must cope with stress, women more than men turn to others for sup-
port—they tend and befriend (Tamres et al., 2002; Taylor, 2002).
Gender differences in power, connectedness, and other traits peak in late adoles-
cence and early adulthood—the very years most commonly studied (also the years
of dating and mating). As teenagers, girls become progressively less assertive and
“In the long years liker must they more flirtatious; boys become more domineering and unexpressive. But by age 50,
grow; The man be more of woman, these differences have diminished. Men become more empathic and less domineer-
she of man.” ing and women, especially if working, become more assertive and self-confident
—Alfred Lord Tennyson, The Princess, 1847 (Kasen et al., 2006; Maccoby, 1998).


The Nature of Gender X chromosome the sex chromosome

found in both men and women. Females
How do nature and nurture together form our gender? have two X chromosomes; males have one.
An X chromosome from each parent pro-
What explains our gender diversity? Is biology destiny? Are we shaped by our cul- duces a female child.
tures? A biopsychosocial view suggests it is both, thanks to the interplay among our
biological dispositions, our developmental experiences, and our current situations Y chromosome the sex chromosome
(Wood & Eagly, 2002, 2007). found only in males. When paired with an
X chromosome from the mother, it pro-
In domains where men and women have faced similar challenges—regulating
duces a male child.
heat with sweat, developing tastes that nourish, growing calluses where the skin
meets friction—the sexes are similar. Even when describing the ideal mate, both testosterone the most important of the
men and women put traits such as “kind,” “honest,” and “intelligent” at the top of male sex hormones. Both males and
their lists. But in domains pertinent to mating, evolutionary psychologists contend, females have it, but the additional testos-
guys act like guys whether they are elephants or elephant seals, rural peasants or terone in males stimulates the growth of
the male sex organs in the fetus and the
corporate presidents. Such gender differences may be influenced genetically, by our
development of the male sex characteristics
differing sex chromosomes and, physiologically, from our differing concentrations of during puberty.
sex hormones.
Males and females are variations on a single form. Seven weeks after conception,
you were anatomically indistinguishable from someone of the other sex. Then your
genes activated your biological sex, which was determined by your twenty-third pair
of chromosomes, the two sex chromosomes. From your mother, you received an X
chromosome. From your father, you received the one chromosome out of 46 that is
not unisex—either another X chromosome, making you a girl, or a Y chromosome,
making you a boy. The Y chromosome includes a single gene that throws a master
switch triggering the testes to develop and produce the principal male hormone,
testosterone. Females also have testosterone, but less of it. The male’s greater
testosterone output starts the development of external male sex organs at about the
seventh week.
Another key period for sexual differentiation falls during the fourth and fifth pre-

Courtesy of Nick Downes.
natal months, when sex hormones bathe the fetal brain and influence its wiring.
Different patterns for males and females develop under the influence of the male’s
greater testosterone and the female’s ovarian hormones (Hines, 2004; Udry, 2000).
Recent research confirms male-female differences during development in brain
areas with abundant sex hormone receptors (Cahill, 2005).
In adulthood, parts of the frontal lobes, an area involved in verbal fluency, are re-
portedly thicker in women. Part of the parietal cortex, a key area for space percep-
tion, is thicker in men. Gender differences also appear in the hippocampus, the
amygdala, and the volume of brain gray matter (the neural bodies) versus white mat-
ter (the axons and dendrites).
Further evidence of biology’s influence on gender development comes from
studies of genetic males who, despite normal male hormones and testes, are born
without penises or with very small ones. A study of 14 boys who had undergone
early sex-reassignment surgery (which is now controversial) and were raised as girls
found that 6 later declared themselves as males, 5 were living as females, and 3 had
an unclear sexual identity (Reiner & Gearhart, 2004). In one famous case, the par-
ents of a Canadian boy who lost his penis to a botched circumcision followed advice
to raise him as a girl rather than as a damaged boy. Alas, “Brenda” Reimer was not
like most other girls. “She” didn’t like dolls. She tore her dresses with rough-and-
tumble play. At puberty she wanted no part of kissing boys. Finally, Brenda’s par-
ents explained what had happened, whereupon this young person immediately
rejected the assigned female identity, got a haircut, and chose a male name, David.
He ended up marrying a woman, becoming a stepfather, and, sadly, later commit-
ting suicide (Colapinto, 2000).
“Sex matters,” concludes the National Academy of Sciences (2001). In combina-
tion with the environment, sex-related genes and physiology “result in behavioral
and cognitive differences between males and females.”


The Nurture of Gender
Although biologically influenced, gender is also socially constructed. What biology
initiates, culture accentuates.

Gender Roles
Sex indeed matters. But from a biopsychosocial perspective, culture and the imme-
diate situation matter, too. Culture, as we noted earlier, is everything shared by a
group and transmitted across generations. We can see culture’s shaping power in the
social expectations that guide men’s and women’s behavior. In psychology, as in the
theater, a role refers to a cluster of prescribed actions—the behaviors we expect of
those who occupy a particular social position. One set of norms defines our cul-
ture’s gender roles—our expectations about the way men and women should be-
© The New Yorker Collection, 2001, Barbara Smaller

have. In the United States 30 years ago, it was standard for men to initiate dates,
from All rights reserved.

drive the car, and pick up the check, and for women to decorate the home, buy and
care for the children’s clothes, and select the wedding gifts.
Gender roles exist outside the home, too. Compared with employed women,
employed men in the United States spend about an hour and a half more on the
job each day and about one hour less on household activities and caregiving
(Amato et al., 2007; Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2004; Fisher et al., 2006). I do not
“Sex brought us together, but gender have to tell you which parent, about 90 percent of the time in two-parent U.S. fam-
drove us apart.” ilies, has stayed home with a sick child, arranged for the baby-sitter, or called the
doctor (Maccoby, 1995). In Australia, women devote 54 percent more time to un-
paid household work and 71 percent more time to child care than do men
(Trewin, 2001).
Gender roles can smooth social relations, saving awkward decisions about who
does the laundry this week and who mows the lawn. But they often do so at a cost:
“Genes, by themselves, are like If we deviate from such conventions, we may feel anxious.
seeds dropped onto pavement: Do gender roles reflect what is biologically natural for men and women? Or do
powerless to produce anything.” cultures construct them? Gender-role diversity over time and space indicates that
—Primatologist Frans B. M. de Waal (1999) culture has a big influence. Nomadic societies of food-gathering people have only a
minimal division of labor by sex. Boys and girls receive much the same upbringing.
The gendered tsunami In Sri Lanka, In agricultural societies, where women work in the fields close to home, and men
Indonesia, and India, the gendered division of roam more freely herding livestock, children typically socialize into more distinct
labor helped explain the excess of female gender roles (Segall et al., 1990; Van Leeuwen, 1978).
deaths from the 2004 tsunami. In some vil- Among industrialized countries, gender roles and attitudes vary widely
lages, 80 percent of those killed were women, (UNICEF, 2006). Australia and the Scandinavian countries offer the greatest gen-
who were mostly at home while the men were der equity, Middle Eastern and North African countries the least (Social Watch,
more likely to be at sea fishing or doing out-
2006). And consider: Would you say life is more satisfying when both spouses work
of-the-home chores (Oxfam, 2005).
for pay and share child care? If so, you would agree with most peo-
ple in 41 of 44 countries, according to a Pew Global Attitudes sur-
vey (2003). Even so, the culture-to-culture differences were huge,
ranging from Egypt, where people disagreed 2 to 1, to Vietnam,
where people agreed 11 to 1.
Attitudes about gender roles also vary over time. In the late
1960s and early 1970s, with the flick of an apron, the number of
U.S. college women hoping to be full-time homemakers had
plunged. In the three decades after 1976, the percentage of women
in medical, law, and psychology programs roughly doubled.
Gender ideas vary not only across cultures and over time, but
also across generations. When families emigrate from Asia to
Canada and the United States, their children tend to grow up with
© DPA/The Image Works

peers from a new culture. Many immigrant children, especially
girls, feel torn between the competing sets of gender-role norms
presented by peers and parents (Dion & Dion, 2001).

The opposite of a great truth is also true. they may decide. Social learning shapes gender schemas. “The opposite of a trivial truth is plainly false. c. A fertilized egg will develop into a boy b. In fact. NURTURE. English. are the ones with long hair. tating and by being rewarded or punished. “Gender role” refers to our to us by society. brain development. Before age 1. expectations about the way males and a. position ought to behave. feminine. Cognition (thinking) also matters. biological sex. an X chromosome from its father. 14.” or “I am female—therefore. For young chil- dren. natural selection. 1993). One of these was a schema for your own gen- der (Bem. d. In your own childhood. d. That is. c. b. uses the pronouns he and she. even when their families discourage traditional gender social learning theory the theory that we typing. 14.” reflected the physicist Niels Bohr on some of the paradoxes of modern science. And having compared themselves with their concept of gen- der. “Nicole. b. gender looms large. toys. feminine roles. have an ambiguous biological sex. sweet. The rigidity of boy-girl stereotypes peaks at about age 5 or 6. AND HUMAN DIVERSITY | 131 Gender and Child-Rearing role a set of expectations (norms) about a As society assigns each of us to a gender. Having divided the human world in half. others become distinctly feminine. Where there is variation. or concepts that helped you make sense of your world. To varying extents. our sense of being male or female. aggressive. they will adjust their behavior accordingly (“I am male—thus. the social position. c. the social category of male or female. an X chromosome from its mother. strong. there will be evolution. CHAPTER 4 | NATURE.. masculine. 1987. hormonally influenced differences in female. chil- dren begin to discriminate male and female voices and faces (Martin et al. and some girls more than for males or for females. REHEARSE IT! 12.” But parental modeling and gender typing the acquisition of a tradi- rewarding of male-female differences aren’t enough to explain gender typing (Lytton tional masculine or feminine role. The unique gene combination created when our mother’s egg . other languages classify objects as masculine (“le train”) or feminine (“la table”). 3-year-olds will then like their own sex better and seek out their own kind for play. 2002). Your gender schema then became a lens through which you viewed your experiences. are socially categorized as male or b. identity. children usually organize themselves into “boy worlds” and “girl worlds. a 6-year-old girl may just assume he cannot share her interests. gender identity our sense of being male Social learning theory assumes that children learn gender-linked behaviors by or female. “Big boys don’t cry. observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished. As a consequence of the gender assigned d. a Y chromosome from its father.” learn social behavior by observing and imi- each guided by rules for what boys and girls do. & Romney. 1991). a. Girls. 13.” It appears true that our ancestral history helped form us as a species. you’re such a good mommy to your dolls”. d. exhibit traditional masculine or if it receives females should behave. Reflections on Nature and Nurture “There are trivial truths and great truths. c. language forces children to begin organizing their worlds on the basis of gender. sense of being male or female. as you struggled to comprehend the world. a Y chromosome from its mother. we develop a gender a. If the new neighbor is a boy. for example. you—like other children—formed schemas. and heredity.” explain Carol Lynn Martin and Diane Ruble (2004). 13. Young children are “gender detectives. Once they grasp that two sorts of people exist—and that they are of one sort—they search for clues about gender. and songs. which means that we Answers: 12. some boys more than gender role a set of expected behaviors others exhibit traditionally masculine traits and interests. and they find them in language. and helpful”). we also become gender typed. defining how those in the inevitable result is our strong gender identity. dress. have a sense of being male or female. After age 2. Alex.

132 | CHAPTER 4 | NATURE. “The idea that human minds are the —Lady Ashley. Culture. development In reality. by electing celibacy. ***** If nature and nurture jointly form us. As the roles we play change over time. Differences initiated by our na- ture may be amplified by our nurture. Human Genome Project . servants more servile. gentler sex. The human environment is not like the FIGURE 4. Mind matters. is all-pervasive but not all- Biological influences: Psychological influences: powerful. Thus both women and men are now seen as “fully capable of effectively carrying out organizational roles at all levels. . And as women’s em- ployment in formerly male occupations has increased. We are its architects. culture may magnify this gen- der difference through norms that encourage males to be macho and females to be the kinder. and approach to development expectations influence our future.7). a on Darwin’s theory leading science magazine. goals. This is a great truth about human nature. But it also is true that our experiences form us. etc. people may defy their genetic bent to reproduce. but if bled by the naturalism and evolutionism of contemporary science. Brute strength has become increasingly irrele- vant to power and status (think Bill Gates and Oprah Winfrey). NURTURE. Readers from it is true. we learn ways of thinking and acting. hormones. let’s hope that it doesn’t other nations bear with me. we change with them. 1997). And that is what enables cultures to vary and to change so quickly. Presidents in time become more presidential. too. But gender roles are converging.” declared a 2007 editorial in Nature. We are—it is a great truth—the products of our genes and environments.7 The biopsychosocial weather—something that just happens. In The Language of God.” scientific and lay thinking about evolution. people may defy peer pressures • Shared human genome • Gene-environment interactions and do the opposite of the expected. but we are also an open system. Genes are all-pervasive but not all-powerful. If men are encouraged toward roles that demand physical power. Roles remake their play- ers. are we “nothing but” the product of nature and nurture? Are we rigidly determined? We are the product of nature and nurture (FIGURE 4. Genes form us. gender differences in tradi- tional masculinity or femininity and in what one seeks in a mate have diminished (Twenge. temperament. Nevertheless (another great Social-cultural influences: truth) the stream of causation that shapes • Parental influences the future runs through our present • Peer influences • Cultural norms choices. and expectations Paul Sartre called “bad faith”—attributing responsibility for one’s fate to bad genes or Individual bad influences. each may then exhibit the actions expected of them and find themselves shaped accordingly. but in the United States there is a wide gulf between become widely known. If their genes and hormones predispose males to be more physically aggressive than females. feelings. Gender roles similarly shape us. To ex- • Individual genetic variations • Neurological effect of early experiences • Prenatal environment • Responses evoked by our own cuse our failings by blaming our nature and • Sex-related genes. In our families and in our peer relationships. ***** I know from my mail and from public opinion surveys that some readers feel trou- “Let’s hope that it’s not true. Our hopes. AND HUMAN DIVERSITY engulfed our father’s sperm predisposed both our shared humanity and our individ- ual differences. nurture is what philosopher-novelist Jean- and physiology • Beliefs.” note Wendy Wood and Alice Eagly (2002). Our decisions today design our environments tomorrow. unassailable fact. 2006). gender. commenting product of evolution is . we are both the creatures and the creators of our worlds. . and women toward more nurturing roles. That sentiment concurs with a 2006 statement of “evi- dence-based facts” about evolution jointly issued by the national science acade- mies of 66 nations (IAP.

that transparent over.” Yet a Gallup poll reports that half of U. Many of those who dispute the scientific story worry that a science of behavior (and evolutionary science in particular) will destroy our sense of the beauty. not to know a little about it. finely tuned universe? Why is there something rather than nothing? How did it come to be. Astronomer Sir Martin Rees has described Just Six Numbers (1999). Pope John Paul II in 1996 welcomed a science-religion dialogue. following a series of discoveries in various fields of knowledge. Augustine (quoted by Wil- ford. Had gravity been a tad bit stronger or weaker. CHAPTER 4 | NATURE. or had the weight of a carbon proton been a wee bit different. What caused this almost-too-good-to-be-true. 2007). the result would have been a soup too thin to support life. Rather. any one of which. measures light waves. air reflects light . compiles the “utterly compelling” evidence that leads him to conclude that Darwin’s big idea is “unquestionably correct. awed.” vice versa. our universe just wouldn’t have worked. life on Earth has come and Religion in the Fullness of Life. When Isaac Newton explained the rainbow in terms of light of differing wave. “Is it not stirring to understand how lengths. It boggles the mind—the entire uni- verse popping out of a point some 14 billion years ago. mystery. For those con- cerned. “The universe was brought into being in a less than fully formed state. I offer some reassuring thoughts. St. Yet.” Rather than fearing science. resolve the riddle of life’s meaning. Had it been the tiniest bit more. would produce a cosmos in which life could not exist.” Meanwhile. Darwin’s theory of evolution likewise is a coherent view of natural history. adults do not believe in evolution’s role in “how human beings came to exist on Earth” (Newport. 141. harm to the romance of the sunset When Galileo assembled evidence that the Earth revolved around the Sun. pp. was exquisitely fine-tuned to give birth to us? Or does that idea violate Occam’s razor. scientific silence is appro- priate. suggested philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein: “Whereof one cannot speak. ? It does no matic elegance of a rainbow arching across a brightening sky. nothing about Newton’s optics need diminish our appreciation for the dra. in the words of Harvard- Smithsonian astrophysicist Owen Gingerich (1999). that it seemed the universe had been expressly designed to produce intelligent. that color analysis led to an even deeper mystery—Einstein’s theory of special relativity. In the fifth century. finding it noteworthy that evolutionary theory “has been progressively accepted by researchers.S. More. It offers an organ- izing principle that unifies various observations. but was gifted with the capacity to transform itself from unformed matter into a truly marvelous array of structures and life forms. “so extraordinarily right. many people of science are awestruck at the emerging understand- ing of the universe and the human creature. noted Richard Dawkins (1998) in Unweaving the Rainbow. thereof one must be silent. he offered a co. Collins is not the only person of faith to find the scientific idea of human origins congenial with his spirituality. and instantly inflating to cosmological size. the principle that we should prefer the simplest of com- peting explanations? On such matters. by chance. AND HUMAN DIVERSITY | 133 director Francis Collins (2006. sentient be- ings”? Is there a benevolent superintelligence behind it all? Have there instead been an infinite number of universes born and we just happen to be the lucky inhabitants of one that. 1988 herent explanation for a variety of observations.” scribed his utter amazement that the Earth in time gave rise to bacteria and eventu. . —Carl Sagan. a self-described evangelical Christian. if changed ever so slightly. . Rocks of Ages: Science ally to Bach’s Mass in B-Minor. 1999 from nothing to structures as complex as a 6-billion-unit strand of DNA and the in- comprehensible intricacy of the human brain. that hung together. Lewis Thomas (1992) de. In The Fragile Species. His explanation eventually won the day because it de- scribed and explained things in a way that made sense. the uni- verse would have collapsed back on itself. 1999) wrote. Had the energy of this Big Bang been the tiniest bit less. Atoms no different from those in a . Newton’s light is made of colors. a humble. he did not offer irrefutable proof for his theory. 146). In a short 4 billion years. Skies of Other Worlds. and spiritual significance of the human creature. such as the changing shadows cast by the Moon’s mountains.” Some 1600 years later. —Stephen Jay Gould. we can welcome its enlarging our understanding “The causes of life’s history [cannot] and awakening our sense of awe. the poet Keats feared that Newton had destroyed the rainbow’s mysterious the world actually works—that white beauty. NURTURE.


rock somehow formed dynamic entities that became conscious. Nature, says cos-
mologist Paul Davies (2007), seems cunningly and ingeniously devised to produce
extraordinary, self-replicating, information-processing systems—us. Although we
appear to have been created from dust, over eons of time, the end result is a price-
less creature, one rich with potential beyond our imagining.


Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity
Behavior Genetics: Predicting Individual Differences appearing partners increases their chances of spreading their genes
widely. Women usually incubate and nurse one baby at a time.
1 Our genes predispose our biology. Does this mean they They can increase their own and their children’s chances of sur-
determine our behavior?
vival by searching for mates with a long-term capacity to support
Our heredity and our experiences interact to create our individual and protect their joint offspring.
and social differences. Behavior geneticists seek to quantify genetic
and environmental influences on our traits. Chromosomes are coils of 7 What are the key criticisms of the evolutionary perspective
DNA containing gene segments that, when “turned on” on human sexuality?
(expressed), code for the proteins that form our body’s building Critics argue that the evolutionary perspective on human sexuali-
blocks. Most human traits are influenced by many genes acting ty (1) starts with an effect and works backward to an explanation,
together. (2) underemphasizes social influences, and (3) could absolve peo-
ple from taking responsibility for their sexual behavior.
2 How do twin and adoption studies help us understand the Evolutionary psychologists cite the value of testable predictions
relative influences of environment and heredity?
based on evolutionary principles, as well as the coherence and
Studies of identical twins, fraternal twins, and adoptive families help explanatory power of those principles. They also remind us that
clarify the influence of genetic nature and of environmental nurture. understanding our predispositions can help us overcome them.

3 What is the relationship between temperament and personality?
Parents and Peers
Temperament, or emotional reactivity, is one aspect of personality
(characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting). 8 To what extent are our lives shaped by early stimulation,
by parents, and by peers?
4 How do genes and environments interact? A developing child’s brain changes as neural connections increase
The stability of temperament suggests a genetic predisposition. To in areas associated with stimulating activity, and unused synapses
say that genes and environments interact means that our genes degenerate. Parents influence their children in areas such as man-
influence our abilities and the ways others react to us, but our ners and political and religious beliefs, but not in other areas, such
environments also trigger gene activity. as personality. Language and other behaviors are shaped by peer
groups, as children adjust to fit in. Parents’ decisions about chil-
Evolutionary Psychology: dren’s neighborhoods and schools can moderate the influence of
peer group culture.
Understanding Human Nature
5 How do evolutionary psychologists use natural selection Cultural Influences
to explain behavior tendencies?
Evolutionary psychologists seek to understand how natural selection
9 How do cultural norms affect our behavior?
has shaped our traits and behavior tendencies. The principle of Cultural norms are rules for accepted and expected behaviors.
natural selection states that variations increasing the odds of repro- Across places and over time cultures differ in their behaviors, atti-
ducing and surviving are most likely to be passed on to future gen- tudes, ideas, values, and traditions. Despite cultural variations,
erations. Some variations arise from new gene combinations at many common forces influence human behavior.
conception, others from mutations (random errors in gene replica-
tion). Charles Darwin, whose theory of evolution has for a long 10 How do individualist and collectivist cultural influences
time been an organizing principle in biology, anticipated the con- affect people?
temporary application of evolutionary principles in psychology. Individualist cultures (mostly Western) value personal independ-
ence and individual achievement and define identity in terms of
6 How might an evolutionary psychologist explain gender self-esteem, personal goals and attributes, and personal rights and
differences in mating preferences? liberties. Collectivist cultures, like those of many parts of Asia and
Applying principles of natural selection, evolutionary psycholo- Africa, value interdependence, tradition, and harmony, and they
gists reason that men’s attraction to multiple healthy, fertile- define identity in terms of group goals, memberships, and commit-


ments. Within any culture, the degree of individualism or collec- 12 How do nature and nurture together form our gender?
tivism varies from person to person.
Biological sex is determined by the twenty-third pair of chromo-
somes. The mother always contributes an X chromosome; the father
Gender Development gives either an X (producing a female) or a Y chromosome (which
11 What are some ways in which males and females tend to be triggers additional testosterone release and male sex organs). Gender
alike and to differ? is the set of biological and social characteristics by which people
Human males and females are more alike than different, thanks to define male and female. Sex-related genes and hormones interact
their similar genetic inheritance and physical abilities. Males and with developmental experiences to produce gender differences in
females do differ in body fat, muscle, height, age of onset of puber- behavior. Gender roles, expected behaviors for males and females,
ty, and life expectancy. They also vary in their vulnerability to cer- vary with culture, across place and time. Social learning theory pro-
tain disorders, and in such areas as aggression, social power, and poses that we learn gender identity as we learn other things—
social connectedness. through reinforcement, punishment, and observation.

Terms and Concepts to Remember
environment, p. 105 evolutionary psychology, p. 113 aggression, p. 127
behavior genetics, p. 105 natural selection, p. 113 X chromosome, p. 129
chromosomes, p. 106 mutation, p. 113 Y chromosome, p. 129
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), p. 106 gender, p. 115 testosterone, p. 129
genes, p. 106 culture, p. 121 role, p. 130
identical twins, p. 107 norm, p. 122 gender role, p. 130
fraternal twins, p. 107 personal space, p. 122 gender identity, p. 131
temperament, p. 110 individualism, p. 123 gender typing, p. 131
interaction, p. 111 collectivism, p. 123 social learning theory, p. 131

Test for Success: Critical Thinking Exercises
By Amy Himsel, El Camino College
1. If heredity is a primary influence on personality, how can we 4. Primatologist Frans B. M. de Waal (1999) observed that
explain why some siblings, who have different combinations “genes, by themselves, are like seeds dropped onto pavement:
of their parents’ genes, have very similar personalities? powerless to produce anything.” Explain what this means, in
terms of our human characteristics.
2. “Use it or lose it” is a phrase often used when discussing
strategies to stave off brain aging and decline in adulthood. In 5. Consider the Chinese saying, “One needs to cultivate the
reality, this rule is just as critical during infancy. Explain why. spirit of sacrificing the little me to achieve the benefits of the
big me.” What is the little me? The big me? How might a
3. It’s been said that our female ancestors most often sent their staunch individualist react to this saying?
genes into the future by pairing wisely, and our male ances-
tors by pairing widely. How does the evolutionary psychology The Test for Success exercises offer you a chance to apply your critical
perspective explain why these adaptive patterns are still seen thinking skills to aspects of the material you have just read. Suggestions
in the behaviors and priorities of contemporary men and for answering these questions can be found in Appendix D at the back
women who have more choices about when and whether they of the book.
will have children?

 Multiple-choice self-tests and more may be found

Chapter Outline

• Prenatal Development
and the Newborn
Prenatal Development
The Competent Newborn

• Infancy and Childhood
Physical Development
Cognitive Development
CLOSE-UP: Autism and
Social Development

• Adolescence
Physical Development
Cognitive Development
Social Development
Emerging Adulthood

• Adulthood
Physical Development
Cognitive Development
Social Development

• Reflections on Two Major
Developmental Issues
Continuity and Stages
Stability and Change

5: Developing Through
the Life Span

As we journey through life—from womb to tomb—when and how do we develop? developmental psychology a branch of
Virtually all of us began walking around age 1 and talking by age 2. As children, psychology that studies physical, cognitive,
we engaged in social play in preparation for life’s work. As adults, we all smile and and social change throughout the life span.
cry, love and loathe, and occasionally ponder the fact that someday we will die.
Developmental psychology examines how people are continually developing—
physically, cognitively, and socially—from infancy through old age. Much of its re-
search centers on three major issues:
1. Nature / nurture: How do genetic inheritance (our nature) and experience “Nature is all that a man brings with
(the nurture we receive) influence our development? him into the world; nurture is every
2. Continuity / stages: Is development a gradual, continuous process like riding influence that affects him after his
an escalator, or does it proceed through a sequence of separate stages, like birth.”
climbing rungs on a ladder? —Francis Galton,
3. Stability / change: Do our early personality traits persist through life, or do English Men of Science, 1874
we become different persons as we age?
In Chapter 4, we engaged the nature / nurture issue. At this chapter’s end, we will
reflect on the continuity and stability issues.

Prenatal Development and the Newborn
1: How does life develop before birth?
FIGURE 5.1 Life is sexually transmitted
(a) Sperm cells surround an ovum. (b) As one
Conception sperm penetrates the egg’s jellylike outer
coating, a series of chemical events begins
Nothing is more natural than a species reproducing itself. Yet nothing is more won- that will cause sperm and egg to fuse into a
drous. With humans, the process starts when a woman’s ovary releases a mature egg— single cell. If all goes well, that cell will sub-
a cell roughly the size of the period at the end of this sentence. Like space voyagers divide again and again to emerge 9 months
approaching a huge planet, the 200 million or more deposited sperm begin their race later as a 100-trillion-cell human being.
upstream, approaching a cell 85,000 times
their own size. The relatively few reaching the
Both photos Lennart Nilsson/Albert Bonniers Publishing Company
egg release digestive enzymes that eat away its
protective coating (FIGURE 5.1). As soon as one
sperm begins to penetrate and is welcomed in,
the egg’s surface blocks out the others. Before
half a day elapses, the egg nucleus and the
sperm nucleus fuse. The two have become one.
Consider it your most fortunate of moments.
Among 200 million sperm, the one needed to
make you, in combination with that one par-
ticular egg, won the race.
(a) (b)


Prenatal Development
Fewer than half of all fertilized eggs, called zygotes, survive be-
yond the first 2 weeks (Grobstein, 1979; Hall, 2004). But for you
© Patrick Moberg/

and me, good fortune prevailed. One cell became 2, then 4—each
just like the first—until this cell division produced a zygote of some
100 cells within the first week. Then the cells began to differenti-
ate—to specialize in structure and function. How identical cells do
this—as if one decides “I’ll become a brain, you become intes-
tines!”—is a puzzle that scientists are just beginning to solve.
First known photo of Olympic About 10 days after conception, the zygote attaches to the
swimming champion, Michael Phelps mother’s uterine wall, beginning approximately 37 weeks of the closest human rela-
If the playful cartoonist were to convey literal
truth, a second arrow would also point to the
tionship. The zygote’s inner cells become the embryo (FIGURE 5.2a). Over the next 6
egg that contributed the other half of Michael weeks, organs begin to form and function. The heart begins to beat.
Phelps’ genes. By 9 weeks after conception, the embryo looks unmistakably human (FIGURE 5.2b).
It is now a fetus (Latin for “offspring” or “young one”). During the sixth month,
organs such as the stomach have developed enough to allow a prematurely born
fetus a chance of survival.
Prenatal development At each prenatal stage, genetic and environmental factors affect our develop-
zygote: conception to 2 weeks ment. The placenta, which formed as the zygote’s outer cells attached to the uterine
embryo: 2 weeks through 8 weeks wall, transfers nutrients and oxygen from mother to fetus. The placenta also screens
fetus: 9 weeks to birth out many potentially harmful substances. But some substances slip by, including
teratogens, which are harmful agents such as viruses and drugs. If the mother car-
ries the HIV virus, her baby may also. If she is a heroin addict, her baby will be born
a heroin addict. If she smokes, she will not smoke alone; both she and her fetus will
experience reduced blood oxygen and a shot of nicotine. If she is a heavy smoker,
her fetus may receive fewer nutrients and be born underweight and at risk for vari-
ous problems (Pringle et al., 2005).
There is no known safe amount of alcohol during pregnancy. Alcohol enters
the woman’s bloodstream—and her fetus’—and depresses activity in both their
central nervous systems. A pregnant mother’s alcohol use may prime her off-
spring to like alcohol. In experiments, when pregnant rats drink alcohol, their
young offspring later display a liking for alcohol’s odor (Youngentob et al.,
2007). Teens whose mothers drank when pregnant are at risk for heavy drinking
and alcohol dependence. Even light drinking can affect the fetal brain (Braun,
1996; Ikonomidou et al., 2000), and persistent heavy drinking will put the fetus
“You shall conceive and bear a son. at risk for birth defects and later intellectual or developmental disabilities. For 1
So then drink no wine or strong in about 800 infants, the effects are visible as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS),
drink.” marked by a small, misproportioned head and lifelong brain abnormalities (May
—Judges 13:7 & Gossage, 2001).

Images courtesy of Lennart Nilsson/Albert Bonniers Publishing Company

FIGURE 5.2 Prenatal
development (a) The
embryo grows and develops
rapidly. At 40 days, the spine
is visible and the arms and
legs are beginning to grow.
(b) By the end of the second
month, when the fetal period
begins, facial features, hands,
and feet have formed. (c) As
the fetus enters the fourth
month, its 3 ounces could fit
in the palm of your hand. (a) (b) (c)


The Competent Newborn
2: What are some newborn abilities?
Having survived prenatal hazards, we as newborns came equipped with automatic “I felt like a man trapped in a
responses ideally suited for our survival. We withdrew our limbs to escape pain. If a woman’s body. Then I was born.”
cloth over our face interfered with our breathing, we turned our head from side to —Comedian Chris Bliss
side and swiped at it.
New parents are often in awe of the coordinated sequence of reflexes by which their
baby gets food. When something touches their cheek, babies turn toward that touch,
open their mouth, and vigorously root for a nipple. Finding one, they automatically
close on it and begin sucking—which itself requires a coordinated sequence of reflex-
ive tonguing, swallowing, and breathing. Failing to find satisfaction, the hungry baby
may cry—a behavior parents find highly unpleasant and very rewarding to relieve.

Prepared to feed and eat Animals are
predisposed to respond to their offsprings’
cries for nourishment.
Lightscapes Photography, Inc. Corbis

Carl and Ann Purcell/Corbis

Moreover, psychologists have discovered that we are born preferring sights and
sounds that facilitate social responsiveness. As newborns, we turn our heads in the
direction of human voices. We gaze longer at a drawing of a facelike image (FIGURE
5.3) than at a bull’s-eye pattern; yet we gaze more at a bull’s-eye pattern—which has
contrasts much like those of the human eye—than at a solid disk (Fantz, 1961). We
prefer to look at objects 8 to 12 inches away. Wonder of wonders, that just happens
to be the approximate distance between a nursing infant’s eyes and its mother’s
(Maurer & Maurer, 1988).
Within days after birth, our brain’s neural networks were stamped with the smell
of our mother’s body. Thus, a week-old nursing baby, placed between a gauze pad
from its mother’s bra and one from another nursing mother, will usually turn to- zygote the fertilized egg; it enters a
ward the smell of its own mother’s pad (MacFarlane, 1978). At 3 weeks, if given a 2-week period of rapid cell division and
pacifier that sometimes turns on recordings of its mother’s voice and sometimes develops into an embryo.
that of a female stranger’s, an infant will suck more vigorously when it hears its embryo the developing human organism
now-familiar mother’s voice (Mills & Melhuish, 1974). So not only could we as from about 2 weeks after fertilization
young infants see what we needed to see, and smell and hear well, we were already through the second month.
using our sensory equipment to learn.
fetus the developing human organism
from 9 weeks after conception to birth.

teratogens agents, such as chemicals and
viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus
FIGURE 5.3 Newborns’ preference for during prenatal development and cause
faces When shown these two stimuli with the harm.
same elements, Italian newborns spent nearly
twice as many seconds looking at the facelike fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) physical and
image (Johnson & Morton, 1991). Canadian new- cognitive abnormalities in children caused
borns—average age 53 minutes in one study— by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In
displayed the same apparently inborn preference severe cases, symptoms include noticeable
to look toward faces (Mondloch et al., 1999). facial misproportions.


1. Which of the following is NOT one of the sufficiently functional to allow a chance b. Heroin
three major issues that interest develop- of survival. c. Alcohol
mental psychologists? a. zygote; embryo d. Nicotine
a. Nature/nurture b. zygote; fetus 4. Stroke a newborn’s cheek and the infant
b. Reflexes/unlearned behaviors c. embryo; fetus will root for a nipple. This illustrates
c. Stability/change d. placenta; fetus a. a reflex.
d. Continuity/stages 3. Teratogens are chemicals that pass b. nurture.
2. Body organs first begin to form and through the placenta’s screen and may c. differentiation.
function during the period of the harm an embryo or fetus. Which of the d. continuity.
; within 6 months, during the following is NOT a teratogen?
period of the , the organs are a. Oxygen Answers: 1. b, 2. c, 3. a, 4. a.

Infancy and Childhood
“It is a rare privilege to watch the During infancy, a baby grows from newborn to toddler, and during childhood from
birth, growth, and first feeble toddler to teenager. We all traveled this path, developing physically, cognitively, and
struggles of a living human mind.” socially. From infancy on, brain and mind—neural hardware and cognitive soft-
ware—develop together.
—Annie Sullivan, in Helen Keller’s
The Story of My Life, 1903

Physical Development
3: During infancy and childhood, how do the brain and motor skills develop?

Brain Development
In your mother’s womb, your developing brain formed nerve cells at the explosive
rate of nearly one-quarter million per minute. On the day you were born, you had
most of the brain cells you would ever have. However, your nervous system was im-
mature: After birth, the branching neural networks that eventually enabled you to
walk, talk, and remember had a wild growth spurt (FIGURE 5.4). From ages 3 to 6, the
most rapid growth was in your frontal lobes, which enable rational planning. This
helps explain why preschoolers display a rapidly developing ability to control their
attention and behavior (Garon et al., 2008).
The association areas—those linked with thinking, memory, and language—are
the last cortical areas to develop. As they do, mental abilities surge (Chugani &
Phelps, 1986; Thatcher et al., 1987). Fiber pathways supporting language and
agility proliferate into puberty, after which a pruning process shuts down excess
connections and strengthens others (Paus
et al., 1999; Thompson et al., 2000).
As a flower unfolds in accord with its
genetic instructions, so do we, in the or-
derly sequence of biological growth
processes called maturation. Maturation
decrees many of our commonalities—
from standing before walking, to using
nouns before adjectives. Severe depriva-
tion or abuse can retard development,
FIGURE 5.4 Drawings of and ample experiences of talking and
human cerebral cortex reading with parents will help sculpt neu-
sections In humans, the
brain is immature at birth. As ral connections. Yet the genetic growth
the child matures, the neural tendencies are inborn. Maturation sets
networks grow increasingly At birth 3 months 15 months the basic course of development; experi-
more complex. ence adjusts it.


Renee Altier for Worth Publishers

Phototake Inc./Alamy Images

Profimedia.CZ s.r.o./Alamy
Jim Craigmyle/Corbis

FIGURE 5.5 Triumphant toddlers Sit,
crawl, walk, run—the sequence of these
Motor Development motor development milestones is the same
The developing brain enables physical coordination. As an infant’s muscles and nerv- the world around, though babies reach them
ous system mature, more complicated skills emerge. With occasional exceptions, the at varying ages.
sequence of physical (motor) development is universal. Babies roll over before they sit
unsupported, and they usually creep on all fours before they walk (FIGURE 5.5). These
behaviors reflect not imitation but a maturing nervous system; blind children, too,
crawl before they walk.
There are, however, individual differences in timing. In the United States, for ex-
ample, 25 percent of all babies walk by age 11 months, 50 percent within a week after In the eight years following the 1994 launch
their first birthday, and 90 percent by age 15 months (Frankenburg et al., 1992). The of a U.S. “Back to Sleep” educational cam-
recommended infant back-to-sleep position (putting babies to sleep on their back to re- paign, the number of infants sleeping on their
duce the risk of a smothering crib death) has been associated with somewhat later stomach dropped from 70 to 11 percent—and
crawling but not with later walking (Davis et al., 1998; Lipsitt, 2003). SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome)
deaths fell by half (Braiker, 2005).
Genes play a major role in motor development. Identical twins typically begin
sitting up and walking on nearly the same day (Wilson, 1979). Maturation—includ-
ing the rapid development of the cerebellum at the back of the brain—creates our
readiness to learn walking at about age 1. Experience before that time has a limited
effect. This is true for other physical skills, including bowel and bladder control. Be-
fore necessary muscular and neural maturation, neither pleading nor punishment
will produce successful toilet training.

© The New Yorker Collection, 2001, Robert Weber
Maturation and Infant Memory

from All rights reserved.
Our earliest memories seldom predate our third birthday. We see this infantile am-
nesia in the memories of some preschoolers who experienced an emergency fire
evacuation caused by a burning popcorn maker. Seven years later, they were able
to recall the alarm and what caused it—if they were 4 to 5 years old at the time.
Those experiencing the event as 3-year-olds could not remember the cause and
usually misrecalled being already outside when the alarm sounded (Pillemer,
1995). Other studies confirm that the average age of earliest conscious memory is “This is the path to adulthood.You’re here.”
3.5 years (Bauer, 2002). By 4 to 5 years, childhood amnesia is giving way to re-
membered experiences (Bruce et al., 2000). But even into adolescence, the brain
areas underlying memory continue to mature (Bauer, 2007).
Although we consciously recall little from before age 4, our memory was process- Can you recall your first day of preschool (or
ing information during those early years. In 1965, while finishing her doctoral work, your third birthday party)?
Carolyn Rovee-Collier observed an infant memory. She was also a new mom,
whose colicky 2-month-old, Benjamin, could be calmed by moving a crib mobile.
Weary of bonking the mobile, she strung a cloth ribbon connecting the mobile to maturation biological growth processes
Benjamin’s foot. Soon, he was kicking his foot to move the mobile. Thinking about that enable orderly changes in behavior,
her unintended home experiment, Rovee-Collier realized that, contrary to popular relatively uninfluenced by experience.


opinion at that time, babies are capable of learning. To know for sure that little
Benjamin wasn’t just a whiz kid, Rovee-Collier had to repeat the experiment with
other infants (Rovee-Collier, 1989, 1999). Sure enough, they, too, soon kicked
more when linked to a mobile, both on the day of the experiment and the day after.
They had learned the link between moving legs and moving mobile. If, however,
she hitched them to a different mobile the next day, the infants showed no learn-
ing. Their actions indicated that they remembered the original mobile and recog-
nized the difference. Moreover, if tethered to the familiar mobile a month later,
they remembered the association and again began kicking (FIGURE 5.6).
Evidence of early processing also appeared in a study in which 10-year-olds were
shown photos of preschoolers and asked to spot their former classmates. Although
they consciously recognized only 1 in 5 of their onetime compatriots, their physio-
logical responses (measured as skin perspiration) were greater to their former class-
mates whether or not they consciously recognized them (Newcombe et al., 2000).
Michael Newman/PhotoEdit

What the conscious mind does not know and cannot express in words, the nervous
system somehow remembers.

FIGURE 5.6 Infant at work Babies only 3 Cognitive Development
months old can learn that kicking moves a
mobile, and they can retain that learning for
a month. (From Rovee-Collier, 1989, 1997.)
4: From the perspectives of Piaget and of today’s researchers, how does a child’s
mind develop?
Cognition refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, re-
membering, and communicating. Somewhere on your life journey you became con-
scious. When was that, and how did your mind unfold from there? Developmental
“Who knows the thoughts of a child?” psychologist Jean Piaget (pronounced Pee-ah-ZHAY) spent his life searching for
—Poet Nora Perry the answers to such questions. His interest began in 1920, when he was in Paris de-
veloping questions for children’s intelligence tests. While administering the tests,
Piaget became intrigued by children’s wrong answers, which, he noted, were often
strikingly similar among children of a given age. Where others saw childish mis-
takes, Piaget saw intelligence at work.
“Childhood has its own way of seeing, A half-century spent with children convinced Piaget that a child’s mind is not a
thinking, and feeling, and there is miniature model of an adult’s. Thanks partly to his work, we now understand that
nothing more foolish than the children reason differently, in “wildly illogical ways about problems whose solutions
attempt to put ours in its place.” are self-evident to adults” (Brainerd, 1996).
—Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 1798 Piaget’s studies led him to believe that a child’s mind develops through a series of
stages, in an upward march from the newborn’s simple reflexes to the adult’s ab-
stract reasoning power. Thus, an 8-year-old can comprehend things a toddler can-
not, such as the analogy that “getting an idea is like having a light turn on in your
head,” or that a miniature slide is too small for sliding, and a miniature car is much
too small to get into (FIGURE 5.7). But our adult minds likewise engage in reasoning
uncomprehended by 8-year-olds.

FIGURE 5.7 Scale errors Psychologists Judy
DeLoache, David Uttal, and Karl Rosengren
(2004) report that 18- to 30-month-old chil-
Both photos: Courtesy Judy DeLoache

dren may fail to take the size of an object into
account when trying to perform impossible
actions with it. At left, a 21-month-old
attempts to slide down a miniature slide. At
right, a 24-month-old opens the door to a
miniature car and tries to step inside.


FIGURE 5.8 An impossible object cognition all the mental activities associat-
Look carefully at the “devil’s tuning ed with thinking, knowing, remembering,
fork” (left). Now look away—no, better and communicating.
first study it some more—and then
look away and draw it. . . . Not so schema a concept or framework that
easy, is it? Because this tuning fork is organizes and interprets information.
an impossible object, you have no
schema for such an image. assimilation interpreting our new experi-
ences in terms of our existing schemas.

accommodation adapting our current
Piaget’s core idea is that the driving force behind our intellectual progression is understandings (schemas) to incorporate
new information.
an unceasing struggle to make sense of our experiences: “Children are active
thinkers, constantly trying to construct more advanced understandings of the
world” (Siegler & Ellis, 1996). To this end, the maturing brain builds schemas,
concepts or mental molds into which we pour our experiences (FIGURE 5.8). In
Chapter 4, we explored the idea of how children form a gender schema. By adult-
hood we have built countless schemas, ranging from cats and dogs to our concept of
To explain how we use and adjust our schemas, Piaget proposed two more con-
cepts. First, we assimilate new experiences—we interpret them in terms of our
current understandings (schemas). Having a simple schema for cow, for example, a
toddler may call all four-legged animals cows. But as we interact with the world, we
also adjust, or accommodate, our schemas to incorporate information provided
by new experiences. Thus, the child soon learns that the original cow schema is too

Bill Anderson/Photo Researchers, Inc.
broad and accommodates by refining the category.
Piaget believed that as children construct their understandings, they experience
spurts of change, followed by greater stability as they move from one cognitive
plateau to the next. Let’s consider these stages, as Piaget viewed them, in the light of
current thinking.
Jean Piaget (1896–1980) “If we examine
Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking the intellectual development of the individual
or of the whole of humanity, we shall find
Piaget proposed that children progress through four stages of cognitive develop-
that the human spirit goes through a certain
ment, each with distinctive characteristics that permit specific kinds of thinking number of stages, each different from the
(TABLE 5.1). other” (1930).

TABLE 5.1 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

Typical Age Range Description of Stage Phenomena
Birth to nearly 2 years Sensorimotor • Object permanence