I.T.

REPORT

SIWES Report

STUDENT INDUSTRIALWORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME REPORTON MY EXPERIENCE ON
SITE/@WORK DURING MY THREE(3) MONTHS TRAINING

AT S.K.P. INTERNATIONAL SERVICES LIMITED, Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria.

BY

POPOOLA OPEYEMI SAMSON

MATRIC. NO: 2009/1134

DEPT OF ARCHITECTURE

BELLS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

Students Industrial Work Experience scheme is a program designed by the
universityto expose students to the practical aspects of his/her course of study. It
involves theattachment of a student to an organization in line with his/her
respective course of study thatcan provide the training and experience required in
the industry, as these experience andtraining cannot be obtained in the lecture
rooms but the theoretical knowledge taught inlecture rooms shall be applied by the
student in real industrial situations.This training/work experience, is an essential
component in the development of the practical and professional skills required of
each student by their respective course of studyand also stands as an aid to
prospective employment.As a student of architecture, i have been able to obtain

the most relevant and effective practical industrial training and experience in a
duration of three months(3 months) having beenexposed to practical on-site
situations and activities from S.K.P. international services, a construction company
with consultants in Architecture, Engineering and Quantity surveying. The
company’s principal areas of operations include building design project
management and buildingsupervision.Being

an architectural design and engineering services company with a vision
andcommitment to providing bespoke design and construction service using a
combination of the mostappropriate technology
, S.K.P. international services limited has undertaken various projects just to
mention a few as listed below:

Adamawa Plaza, Abuja

PTF Housing Scheme, Abuja

Pinnacle Plaza, Abuja

Coscharis Centre, Abuja

Petroleum Products Pricing Regulatory Authority(PPPRA) Head Office,Abuja

I was assigned as an industrial training student by the firm to the on-going
PetroleumProducts Pricing Regulatory Authority head office building project site to
learn, observe andreport the weekly construction activities, procedures and work
progress carried out on the siteand make a weekly presentation to the office on the
architectural experience and knowledgeobtained on the project.This report is
therefore an illustration of the nature of works and activities carried outon the
Petroleum Products Pricing Regulatory Authority head office building project and the

nature of works done during the course of the industrial programme. It also provides
adetailed principle of building construction and some aspects of engineering in
reference to building technology and how they are applied practically in building
construction.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

My deepest appreciation and gratitude goes to God for his gift of life to me and
strength to journey through and to Arc. S.K. Popoola, the C.E.O., skp international
services limited, for giving me this very rare privilege and opportunity to learn and
be trained under him and to the entire staff S.K.P. international services limited for
their tutelage, time, patience and support inspite of all the ups and downs
experienced during my training .Furthermore, my sincere appreciation also goes to
the entire staff of S.K.P. international services limited, for developing in me an
awareness of the general workplace, behaviour and interpersonal skills
development, and giving me the opportunity to get a feel of the work environment
which has exposed me to the architects responsibilities and ethics.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1

•About S.K.P. international services limited

•Introduction to site work

•Site safety precautions

•Site layout considerations

CHAPTER 2
•Construction terms and techniques

•Electrical engineering

•Mechanical engineering

CHAPTER 3

•Site meetings

CHAPTER 4

•Conclusion
CHAPTER 1: About S.K.P. international services limited

INTRODUCTION TO SITE WORK

I was introduced by my supervisor to the construction site, the contractor, project
manager, and site engineers in charge of the on-going project who further exposed
me to proper site work. Site work involves the entire process involved in the
construction of a building and onsite the following factors must be considered and
applied for effectiveness.

SAFETY FACTORS:
Safety is an important consideration at any construction site, but I was made to
understand that on a site with a high rise building, extra safety is of crucial
importance and should be everyone's primary concern because construction of
buildings at great heights such as the OPIC building in Abeokuta can be a dangerous
activity. Safety is based on knowledge, skill, and an attitude of care and concern
.Thus safety factors includes all the measures carried out to protect both the
worker, consultants, contractors and all persons present on the site at every given
time from fatalities and injuries, and as well as minimize or eliminate all possible
construction hazards. This safety measures can also be applied to the safety of the
building and building materials from damage of any kind.

Safety precaution guide lines for workers and persons present on a construction
site.

1. Proper clothing is as essential to safety. Wear clothes that are smart and
appropriate for the site work and weather conditions. Loose clothing is dangerous
for workers around power tools and equipment.

2. Footwear must be safety boots or work boots that are thick-soled shoes in
order to protect the feet from falling objects or from penetration by nails, and
should have non-slip soles. Sandals or other types of inappropriate footwear are
hazardous on construction site.

3. Protective head gear (helmets or hard hats) must always be worn on a
construction site by all persons for protection of the head from falling objects of any
kind.

4. Suspension belts are of crucial importance for site workers working at very
high levels.

5. All exposed areas or parts of a building must be adequately protected with
temporary rail or supports and staircases must be protected with temporary
balustrades.

6. All scaffolding that is elevated 10 feet or more must be equipped with a safety
railing. All scaffolds must be equipped with a toe board to eliminate the possibility
that tools or debris will be kicked or pushed onto people below. A scaffold must be
designed to support four times the weight of the workers and the materials resting
on it.

7. Inspect all scaffolding each day before using it. Never use damaged or
defective equipment and avoid rusted parts since their strength is unknown. When
erecting scaffolding, provide adequate sills for the scaffold posts and use base
plates. Use adjusting screws, not blocks, when on an uneven grade. Make sure to
plumb and level scaffolding and do not force end braces when constructing the
scaffolding.

8. Use only properly graded and inspected lumber for planking. Inspect planking
daily for splits and knots, and remove defective or damaged planking.

9. Be always aware and alert of your surroundings.

10. A clean work place is a safe work place. This refers to the neatness and good
order of the construction site. Keep the site clear of danger as you work remove
nails from waste wood, move trip hazards and obstacles, etc. They interfere with
work and can constitute a hazard to both the worker and other persons on the site.

11. Any unsafe conditions or practices that is observed should IMMEDIATELY be
reported to the site project manager.

12. Emergency medical care in form of first aid assistance (first aid kit) must be
provided on the site and must be easily identifiable and nearby.

SITE LAYOUT CONSIDERATIONS

On the construction site, it was observed that certain site layout considerations
were observed so that items such as temporary structures, stationary plants, stores,
toilets(conveniences) and materials are placed in the most strategic and convenient
positions. These considerations are stated below:

Access to and within the site

Temporary access to the site requiring access both through and fro the site. Route
to and from the site must be checked in other to select the best suitable for
transporting equipment and materials to the site. Circulation on site for deliveries
must be carefully considered.

Site security considerations
The primary aim for security is to protect against theft, vandals, and trespassers.
Security provisions include: Adequate lighting at night and flood lighting which
Lights up the construction site and the building structure.

CHAPTER 2

Electrical 1st- fix:

This term is used to describe the fixing of PVC
CONSTRUCTION TERMS AND TECHNIQUES

The Construction techniques and terms described in this report involves the various
methods of construction carried out in the course of building construction for both
structural and non-structural elements of the building. While on site, certain terms
were used during the construction. These terms could be referred to as technical
terms or site terms or language being used by the site workers. As an architect,
adequate knowledge of these terms must be paid attention to in order communicate
effectively with the workers. Below are some site terms and definitions..

BLOCKWORK

This is the process of laying concrete masonry units to form either external walls as
in-fills or lock wall which are load-bearing or non- load bearing or internal walls as
partitions. These masonry units are commonly hollow sand-crete blocks which are
much economical per unit of wall area. The standard sand-crete block wall is
explained below;

Sequence of laying of sand-crete block wall:
•A bed of mortar is spread on the footing/floor.

•The first course of blocks for a lead is laid on the mortar. The mortar for the head
joint is applied to the end of each block with the trowel before the block is laid.

•The lead is built higher. Mortar is normally applied only to the face shells of the
block and not to the webs.

•As each new course is started on the lead, its height is checked with either a
folding rule or a story pole marked with the height of each course.

•A line is stretched between the leads on line blocks.

•The course between the leads are laid rapidly by aligning each block with the
stretched line.

•The last block to be installed in each course of infill blocks, the closer must be
inserted between blocks that have already been laid then the block is lowered
carefully into position.

PLASTERING

Plastering is the most common treatment for external and internal walls to help
withstand weather conditions. Plasters are used to render, run an uneven surface
into a smooth level surface. Plaster is a mixture of sand and cement at a ratio of 4:1
or 3:1(i.e. 8/6 head pans to1 bag of cement). Plastering is also used to correct
mistakes and to provide a smooth surface area for other finishing types like
painting.

FLOATING
Floating is the backing coat that is usually made of plaster such as Plaster of
Paris(P.O.P)

that provides a true or smooth surface for the final finishing coat on a wall after
plastering has been carried out on a wall surface. Most importantly, floating is
carried out on wall surfaces to fill up all uneven areas on a wall surface and may be
applied on the internal or external surface of walls, and also on ceilings. On majority
of the sites I went to, all the internal walls were floated with P.O.P after cement
plastering was done.

SCAFFOLD

A Scaffold is a temporary framework used to support people and material in the
construction or repair of buildings and other large structures. It is usually a modular
system of metal pipes, although it can be made out of other materials. The purpose
of a working scaffold is to provide a safe place of work with safe access suitable for
the work being done. All scaffolds must be equipped with a toe board to eliminate
the possibility that tools or debris will be kicked or pushed onto people below. A
scaffold must be designed to support four times the weight of the workers and the
materials resting on it.

Erecting of scaffolds

Back on site, scaffolds were erected round the structure as seen in the picture to
enable works to be carried out at various parts of the building and at various
heights.

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FORMWORK

Concrete must be given form by casting it in a mould. These moulds are known as
‘’formwork’ or ‘’shuttering’’.
A Formwork is the term given to either temporary or permanent mould into which
concrete or similar materials are poured.

Shutters are another type of formwork made of steel metal also known as shutters
panels.

They are flat metal panels made of steel which are assembled together to make the
complete formwork and are specially used to cast concrete columns in high rise
reinforced concrete frame structures. They are usually tight enough to prevent the
loss of fine materials. Erection of the shutters are usually orderly, simple and all the
units are of sizes that can be easily handled. It gives the column a smooth face.

TILING

Tiling in general terms can be defined as the cladding of a surface. We have floor
tiling and wall tilling (both external and internal walls). For example, the female
hostel porter’s lodge at university of agriculture, abeokuta (UNAAB),the toilet walls
were laid with ceramic tiles. The floor was tiled with vitrified ceramic tiles.

Illustrates floor tilling with vitrified tiles.

Tiles come in two forms namely:

•Vitrified tiles: these are tiles with the same properties all through, i.e. when
wearing occurs, the subsequent layers have the same texture, density and material.
They are mainly used for external walls and floors.

•Ceramic tiles: these tiles are made with clay and laminated surfaces, they are
usually used for toilets and kitchen tilling. Surface finish for tiles are either glazed or
unglazed and the material used for making the tiles include stones, clay, and
plastics, etc.

CURTAIN WALL

Curtain walls are glass walls typically designed to span multiple floors and allow the
penetration of day light into the building envelope, resist air and water infiltration,
and provide an architecturally pleasing façade of a building. They carry no dead-
load the building other than its own dead load, but rather transfer the horizontal
loads applied to it. These loads are transferred to the main building structure
through connections at floors or columns of the building.

CURTAIN WALL FRAMES

Curtain wall frames are made of extruded aluminium frames known as aluminium
extrusions. They are factory made and designed in units and assembled unit by unit
on site.

FIXING OF CURTAIN WALL FRAMES

When fixing curtain wall frames, the frames are screwed to the floor slab made of
mass concrete with an electrical power drill and also screwed to the top which is the
soffit of the floor slab.

PARAPET WALL
A parapet wall is a protective wall constructed on the perimeter edge/area of a roof
slab to protect rain water accumulation on the gutter /drainage of the roof slab from
draining down the sides of a building. It is usually of reinforced concrete and cast-in-
situ. On site, a parapet wall was constructed to a height of 1.0m.

ROOF GUTTER

Roof gutter is the drainage path created on a flat roof slab to channel accumulated
rain water for the roofing sheet into the drainage pipes on the roof slab.

DRAINAGE PIPES

Drainage pipes are pipes installed on the roof slab to drain rain/storm water on roof
slab. They are channelled through the roof beams and connected to the exterior
columns which are then sent down to the inspection chamber. They are made of
PVC plastic pipes and are100mm in diameter width.

FELTING

Felting of a roof slab involves the protection of the exposed concrete surface of the
roof from water penetration and infiltration, and all forms of damp and moist actions
by laying a thick damp proof membrane on the roof slab. One of the most common
felts applied on roof slab sis the bituminous felt. It is hot –mopped with asphalt to
create a strong damp proof membrane.

……........................................................

BUILDING SERVICES

In the construction of any building, there are two main services that must be
provided in the building in order to create a comfortable and habitable internal
building environment for the building occupants. These services are divided into two
main branches namely:
•Electrical engineering services

•Mechanical engineering services

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING SERVICES

The involvement of electrical engineering services is to supply electricity,
telephone, data outlets and provide lighting and power points in the building. They
also determine the best suited for generators. During the 3-months period on site, I
was able to learn how all these are applied.

ELECTRICAL TERMINOLOGIES

pipes of 13mm diameter called ‘Conduit Pipes’

and circular boxes before casting of the floor slab is done. The circular boxes are
outlets for the lighting points while the wires are passed through the conduit pipes.

As illustrated here>>>>>

the conduit pipes have already been laid prior to the floor screeding.

Trunking

This is a term used to denote a protective casing for wires. There are two common
types.

•Cable tray

•Cable basket
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SERVICES

Ventilation systems/Air conditioning systems:

Central air conditioning is an air conditioning system which uses ducts to distribute
cooled and/or dehumidified air to more than one room, or uses pipes to distribute
chilled water to heat exchangers in more than one room, and which is not plugged
into a standard electrical outlet. Central air conditioning performs like a regular air
conditioner but has several added benefits. When the air handling unit turns on,
room air is drawn in from various parts of the building through

Return-air ducts: This air is pulled through a filter where airborne particles such as
dust and lint are removed. Sophisticated filters may remove microscopic pollutants
as well. The filtered air is routed to air supply ductwork that carries it back to rooms.
Whenever the air conditioner is running, this cycle repeats continually because the
central air conditioning unit is located outside the office spaces, it offers a lower
level of indoor noise than a free-standing air conditioning unit.

FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM

Basically two fire-fighting systems were used during my stay on site;

•Wet system

•Dry system.

WET SYSTEM.

The wet system consists of reducers and sprinkler heads.
EXPANSION JOINT

Expansion joints are structural joints in a building that are created to allow for the
thermal expansion and contraction of a building that occurs in concrete when
loaded. In the construction of fence that I witnessed, the expansion joints were
created uniquely for this purpose. The expansion joints were created right from the
foundation up to the roof level of the building. They are created to accommodate
structural movements.

CONCRETE

Concrete is a mixture of coarse and fine aggregates, cement and water which is
allowed to harden. Coarse aggregate used on site is normally gravel and Fine
aggregate is sand.

Concrete mixes/ratio:

Concrete ‘’slump test’’:

On site, before any concrete is cast into the formwork or mould, a slump test is
always carried out on it to test for its consistency and quality check to determine
the desired degree of workability. Freshly mixed concrete is an unstable mixture of
solids and liquids. If it is vibrated excessively, and dropped from a height, it is likely
to segregate, which means that the coarse aggregate work sits way to the bottom
of the form and the water and cement paste rise to the top. The result is concrete of
non-uniform and with unsatisfactory properties.

‘’Curing of concrete’’

Concrete cures by hydration and not by drying. Thus, it is essential that the
concrete must be moist until its required strength is achieved. Maximum strength
for concrete is attained after 28days(4 weeks) of curing. If it is allowed to dry at any
point during this timeframe, the strength of the cured concrete will be reduced and
its surface hardness and durability are likely to be adversely affected.

REINFORCEMENT BARS

Concrete has no useful tensile strength and is limited in its structural uses. Steel
reinforcement bars are used in concrete columns beams, and slabs. Reinforcement
bars have various diameter sizes. They come in 12mm,16mm 18mm, 20mm 24mm
30mm and 32mmdiameter sizes.

CASTING

Casting is the process of pouring concrete mix into a mould or form laid with
reinforcement bars to form a solid mass structure.

Casting a concrete wall

•Vertical reinforcing bars are first wired to the dowels that project from the
foundation footing and horizontal bars are wired to the vertical bars as seen in the
illustration below.

•The formwork is erected. Sheets of plywood form the face of the concrete and are
supported by wooden studs. The studs are supported against the pressure of the
wet concrete by horizontal supports.

•The concrete is then poured, compacted and cured.

CHAPTER 3
SITE MEETINGS

During my training, site meetings were held every two weeks on a Tuesday. The
essence of the site meetings is dissipating instructions to the contractors and to
assess the progress of the project. The site meeting is chaired by the project
architect who gives out all instructions. During the meetings, all the consultants are
expected to be present in order to obtain an update of a weekly report on each of
their jurisdictions as regards the building project from the contractors. Issues from
what material should be used to the ordering of materials and expenses made are
discussed in full length and all issues or problems encountered are presented to the
architect for instructions. After a few site meetings, my supervisor handed over the
task of writing the minutes of the meeting to me. This i did until my last site
meeting on the site. During the meeting, everyone is presented with their copy of
the minute and is expected to file them afterwards. The site meeting for the
building project is expected to be held till the project is completed and handed over
to the clients.

CHAPTER 4

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, as a student of architecture, i have been able to obtain

the most relevant and effective practical industrial training and experience in a
duration of three months(3months) having been exposed to practical on-site
situations and activities. Furthermore, an awareness of the general workplace has
been developed in me and I have acquired important behaviour and interpersonal
skills with the opportunity giving me to get a feel of the work environment and
exposure as a student to the architects responsibilities and ethics .Finally, I would
like to state that the SIWES programme is a very relevant and necessary
programme for all students that must be taken advantage of by every student for
each student’s professional development prior to graduation.

SIWES (architecture 300l)
STUDENT INDUSTRIALWORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME REPORTON MY EXPERIENCE ON
SITE/@WORK DURING MY THREE(3) MONTHS TRAINING @ S.K.P. INTERNATIONAL
SERVICES LIMITED, Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria. by POPOOLA OPEYEMI SAMSON
2009/1134 DEPT OF ARCHITECTURE BELLS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Students
Industrial Work Experience scheme is a program designed by the university to
expose students to the practical aspects of his/her course of study. It involves the
attachment of a student to an organization in line with his/her respective course of
study that can provide the training and experience required in the industry, as these
experience and training cannot be obtained in the lecture rooms but the theoretical
knowledge taught in lecture rooms shall be applied by the student in real industrial
situations. This training/work experience, is an essential component in the
development of the practical and professional skills required of each student by
their respective course of study and also stands as an aid to prospective
employment. As a student of architecture, i have been able to obtain the most
relevant and effective practical industrial training and experience in a duration of
three months(3 months) having been exposed to practical on-site situations and
activities from S.K.P. international services, a construction company with consultants
in Architecture, Engineering and Quantity surveying. The company’s principal areas
of operations include building design project management and building supervision.
Being an architectural design and engineering services company with a vision and
commitment to providing bespoke design and construction service using a
combination of the most appropriate technology , S.K.P. international services
limited has undertaken various projects just to mention a few as listed below:
•crescent university sports center, Abeokuta. •mayeigun’s haven (residential
apartment), Abeokuta. •abeokuta grammar school sports center, Abeokuta.
•mayeigun’s college, hilltop, Abeokuta. •elizade university, Akure. •funaab female
hostel porter’s lodge, Abeokuta, etc. I was assigned as an industrial training student
by the firm to the on-going Funaab female hostel porter’s lodge site to learn,
observe and report the weekly construction activities, procedures and work progress
carried out on the site and make a weekly presentation to the office on the
architectural experience and knowledge obtained on the project. This report is
therefore an illustration of the nature of works and activities carried out on the site
and the nature of works done during the course of the industrial programme. It also
provides a detailed principle of building construction and some aspects of
engineering in reference to building technology and how they are applied practically
in building construction. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My deepest appreciation and
gratitude goes to God for his gift of life to me and strength to journey through and
to Arc. S.K. Popoola, the C.E.O., skp international services limited, for giving me this
very rare privilege and opportunity to learn and be trained under him and to the
entire staff S.K.P. international services limited for their tutelage, time, patience and
support inspite of all the ups and downs experienced during my training
.Furthermore, my sincere appreciation also goes to the entire staff of S.K.P.
international services limited, for developing in me an awareness of the general
workplace, behaviour and interpersonal skills development, and giving me the
opportunity to get a feel of the work environment which has exposed me to the
architects responsibilities and ethics. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 •About S.K.P.
international services limited •Introduction to site work •Site safety precautions
•Site layout considerations CHAPTER 2 •Construction terms and techniques
•Electrical engineering •Mechanical engineering CHAPTER 3 •Site meetings
CHAPTER 4 •Conclusion CHAPTER 1: About S.K.P. international services limited
INTRODUCTION TO SITE WORK I was introduced by my supervisor to the
construction site, the contractor, project manager, and site engineers in charge of
the on-going project who further exposed me to proper site work. Site work involves
the entire process involved in the construction of a building and onsite the following
factors must be considered and applied for effectiveness. SAFETY FACTORS: Safety
is an important consideration at any construction site, but I was made to
understand that on a site with a high rise building, extra safety is of crucial
importance and should be everyone's primary concern because construction of
buildings at great heights such as the OPIC building in Abeokuta can be a dangerous
activity. Safety is based on knowledge, skill, and an attitude of care and concern
.Thus safety factors includes all the measures carried out to protect both the
worker, consultants, contractors and all persons present on the site at every given
time from fatalities and injuries, and as well as minimize or eliminate all possible
construction hazards. This safety measures can also be applied to the safety of the
building and building materials from damage of any kind. Safety precaution guide
lines for workers and persons present on a construction site. 1. Proper clothing is
as essential to safety. Wear clothes that are smart and appropriate for the site work
and weather conditions. Loose clothing is dangerous for workers around power tools
and equipment. 2. Footwear must be safety boots or work boots that are thick-
soled shoes in order to protect the feet from falling objects or from penetration by
nails, and should have non-slip soles. Sandals or other types of inappropriate
footwear are hazardous on construction site. 3. Protective head gear (helmets or
hard hats) must always be worn on a construction site by all persons for protection
of the head from falling objects of any kind. 4. Suspension belts are of crucial
importance for site workers working at very high levels. 5. All exposed areas or parts
of a building must be adequately protected with temporary rail or supports and
staircases must be protected with temporary balustrades. 6. All scaffolding that
is elevated 10 feet or more must be equipped with a safety railing. All scaffolds
must be equipped with a toe board to eliminate the possibility that tools or debris
will be kicked or pushed onto people below. A scaffold must be designed to support
four times the weight of the workers and the materials resting on it. 7. Inspect all
scaffolding each day before using it. Never use damaged or defective equipment
and avoid rusted parts since their strength is unknown. When erecting scaffolding,
provide adequate sills for the scaffold posts and use base plates. Use adjusting
screws, not blocks, when on an uneven grade. Make sure to plumb and level
scaffolding and do not force end braces when constructing the scaffolding. 8. Use
only properly graded and inspected lumber for planking. Inspect planking daily for
splits and knots, and remove defective or damaged planking. 9. Be always aware
and alert of your surroundings. 10. A clean work place is a safe work place. This
refers to the neatness and good order of the construction site. Keep the site clear of
danger as you work – remove nails from waste wood, move trip hazards and
obstacles, etc. They interfere with work and can constitute a hazard to both the
worker and other persons on the site. 11. Any unsafe conditions or practices
that is observed should IMMEDIATELY be reported to the site project manager. 12.
Emergency medical care in form of first aid assistance (first aid kit) must be
provided on the site and must be easily identifiable and nearby. SITE LAYOUT
CONSIDERATIONS On the construction site, it was observed that certain site layout
considerations were observed so that items such as temporary structures,
stationary plants, stores, toilets(conveniences) and materials are placed in the most
strategic and convenient positions. These considerations are stated below: Access
to and within the site Temporary access to the site requiring access both through
and fro the site. Route to and from the site must be checked in other to select the
best suitable for transporting equipment and materials to the site. Circulation on
site for deliveries must be carefully considered. Site security considerations The
primary aim for security is to protect against theft, vandals, and trespassers.
Security provisions include: Adequate lighting at night and flood lighting which
Lights up the construction site and the building structure. CHAPTER 2
CONSTRUCTION TERMS AND TECHNIQUES The Construction techniques and terms
described in this report involves the various methods of construction carried out in
the course of building construction for both structural and non-structural elements
of the building. While on site, certain terms were used during the construction.
These terms could be referred to as technical terms or site terms or language being
used by the site workers. As an architect, adequate knowledge of these terms must
be paid attention to in order communicate effectively with the workers. Below are
some site terms and definitions.. BLOCKWORK This is the process of laying concrete
masonry units to form either external walls as in-fills or lock wall which are load-
bearing or non- load bearing or internal walls as partitions. These masonry units are
commonly hollow sand-crete blocks which are much economical per unit of wall
area. The standard sand-crete block wall is explained below; Sequence of laying of
sand-crete block wall: •A bed of mortar is spread on the footing/floor. •The first
course of blocks for a lead is laid on the mortar. The mortar for the head joint is
applied to the end of each block with the trowel before the block is laid. •The lead is
built higher. Mortar is normally applied only to the face shells of the block and not to
the webs. •As each new course is started on the lead, its height is checked with
either a folding rule or a story pole marked with the height of each course. •A line is
stretched between the leads on line blocks. •The course between the leads are laid
rapidly by aligning each block with the stretched line. •The last block to be installed
in each course of infill blocks, the closer must be inserted between blocks that have
already been laid then the block is lowered carefully into position. PLASTERING
Plastering is the most common treatment for external and internal walls to help
withstand weather conditions. Plasters are used to render, run an uneven surface
into a smooth level surface. Plaster is a mixture of sand and cement at a ratio of 4:1
or 3:1(i.e. 8/6 head pans to1 bag of cement). Plastering is also used to correct
mistakes and to provide a smooth surface area for other finishing types like
painting. FLOATING Floating is the backing coat that is usually made of plaster such
as Plaster of Paris(P.O.P) that provides a true or smooth surface for the final finishing
coat on a wall after plastering has been carried out on a wall surface. Most
importantly, floating is carried out on wall surfaces to fill up all uneven areas on a
wall surface and may be applied on the internal or external surface of walls, and
also on ceilings. On majority of the sites I went to, all the internal walls were floated
with P.O.P after cement plastering was done. SCAFFOLD A Scaffold is a temporary
framework used to support people and material in the construction or repair of
buildings and other large structures. It is usually a modular system of metal pipes,
although it can be made out of other materials. The purpose of a working scaffold is
to provide a safe place of work with safe access suitable for the work being done. All
scaffolds must be equipped with a toe board to eliminate the possibility that tools or
debris will be kicked or pushed onto people below. A scaffold must be designed to
support four times the weight of the workers and the materials resting on it.
Erecting of scaffolds Back on site, scaffolds were erected round the structure to
enable works to be carried out at various parts of the building and at various
heights. FORMWORK Concrete must be given form by casting it in a mould. These
moulds are known as ‘’formwork’ or ‘’shuttering’’. A Formwork is the term given to
either temporary or permanent mould into which concrete or similar materials are
poured. Shutters are another type of formwork made of steel metal also known as
shutters panels. They are flat metal panels made of steel which are assembled
together to make the complete formwork and are specially used to cast concrete
columns in high rise reinforced concrete frame structures. They are usually tight
enough to prevent the loss of fine materials. Erection of the shutters are usually
orderly, simple and all the units are of sizes that can be easily handled. It gives the
column a smooth face. TILING Tiling in general terms can be defined as the cladding
of a surface. We have floor tiling and wall tilling (both external and internal walls).
For example, the female hostel porter’s lodge at university of agriculture, abeokuta
(UNAAB),the toilet walls were laid with ceramic tiles. The floor was tiled with vitrified
ceramic tiles. Tiles come in two forms namely: •Vitrified tiles: these are tiles with
the same properties all through, i.e. when wearing occurs, the subsequent layers
have the same texture, density and material. They are mainly used for external
walls and floors. •Ceramic tiles: these tiles are made with clay and laminated
surfaces, they are usually used for toilets and kitchen tilling. Surface finish for tiles
are either glazed or unglazed and the material used for making the tiles include
stones, clay, and plastics, etc. CURTAIN WALL Curtain walls are glass walls typically
designed to span multiple floors and allow the penetration of day light into the
building envelope, resist air and water infiltration, and provide an architecturally
pleasing façade of a building. They carry no dead-load the building other than its
own dead load, but rather transfer the horizontal loads applied to it. These loads are
transferred to the main building structure through connections at floors or columns
of the building. CURTAIN WALL FRAMES Curtain wall frames are made of extruded
aluminium frames known as aluminium extrusions. They are factory made and
designed in units and assembled unit by unit on site. FIXING OF CURTAIN WALL
FRAMES When fixing curtain wall frames, the frames are screwed to the floor slab
made of mass concrete with an electrical power drill and also screwed to the top
which is the soffit of the floor slab. PARAPET WALL A parapet wall is a protective wall
constructed on the perimeter edge/area of a roof slab to protect rain water
accumulation on the gutter /drainage of the roof slab from draining down the sides
of a building. It is usually of reinforced concrete and cast-in-situ. On site, a parapet
wall was constructed to a height of 1.0m. ROOF GUTTER Roof gutter is the drainage
path created on a flat roof slab to channel accumulated rain water for the roofing
sheet into the drainage pipes on the roof slab. DRAINAGE PIPES Drainage pipes are
pipes installed on the roof slab to drain rain/storm water on roof slab. They are
channelled through the roof beams and connected to the exterior columns which
are then sent down to the inspection chamber. They are made of PVC plastic pipes
and are100mm in diameter width. FELTING Felting of a roof slab involves the
protection of the exposed concrete surface of the roof from water penetration and
infiltration, and all forms of damp and moist actions by laying a thick damp proof
membrane on the roof slab. One of the most common felts applied on roof slab sis
the bituminous felt. It is hot –mopped with asphalt to create a strong damp proof
membrane. BUILDING SERVICES In the construction of any building, there are two
main services that must be provided in the building in order to create a comfortable
and habitable internal building environment for the building occupants. These
services are divided into two main branches namely: •Electrical engineering
services •Mechanical engineering services ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING SERVICES The
involvement of electrical engineering services is to supply electricity, telephone,
data outlets and provide lighting and power points in the building. They also
determine the best suited for generators. During the 3-months period on site, I was
able to learn how all these are applied. ELECTRICAL TERMINOLOGIES Electrical 1st-
fix: This term is used to describe the fixing of PVC pipes of 13mm diameter called
‘Conduit Pipes’ and circular boxes before casting of the floor slab is done. The
circular boxes are outlets for the lighting points while the wires are passed through
the conduit pipes. As illustrated here>>>>> the conduit pipes have already been
laid prior to the floor screeding. Trunking This is a term used to denote a protective
casing for wires. There are two common types. •Cable tray •Cable basket
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SERVICES Ventilation systems/Air conditioning systems:
Central air conditioning is an air conditioning system which uses ducts to distribute
cooled and/or dehumidified air to more than one room, or uses pipes to distribute
chilled water to heat exchangers in more than one room, and which is not plugged
into a standard electrical outlet. Central air conditioning performs like a regular air
conditioner but has several added benefits. When the air handling unit turns on,
room air is drawn in from various parts of the building through Return-air ducts: This
air is pulled through a filter where airborne particles such as dust and lint are
removed. Sophisticated filters may remove microscopic pollutants as well. The
filtered air is routed to air supply ductwork that carries it back to rooms. Whenever
the air conditioner is running, this cycle repeats continually because the central air
conditioning unit is located outside the office spaces, it offers a lower level of indoor
noise than a free-standing air conditioning unit. FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM Basically
two fire-fighting systems were used during my stay on site; •Wet system •Dry
system. WET SYSTEM. The wet system consists of reducers and sprinkler heads.
EXPANSION JOINT Expansion joints are structural joints in a building that are created
to allow for the thermal expansion and contraction of a building that occurs in
concrete when loaded. In the construction of fence that I witnessed, the expansion
joints were created uniquely for this purpose. The expansion joints were created
right from the foundation up to the roof level of the building. They are created to
accommodate structural movements. CONCRETE Concrete is a mixture of coarse
and fine aggregates, cement and water which is allowed to harden. Coarse
aggregate used on site is normally gravel and Fine aggregate is sand. Concrete
mixes/ratio: Concrete ‘’slump test’’: On site, before any concrete is cast into the
formwork or mould, a slump test is always carried out on it to test for its
consistency and quality check to determine the desired degree of workability.
Freshly mixed concrete is an unstable mixture of solids and liquids. If it is vibrated
excessively, and dropped from a height, it is likely to segregate, which means that
the coarse aggregate work sits way to the bottom of the form and the water and
cement paste rise to the top. The result is concrete of non-uniform and with
unsatisfactory properties. ‘’Curing of concrete’’ Concrete cures by hydration and not
by drying. Thus, it is essential that the concrete must be moist until its required
strength is achieved. Maximum strength for concrete is attained after 28days(4
weeks) of curing. If it is allowed to dry at any point during this timeframe, the
strength of the cured concrete will be reduced and its surface hardness and
durability are likely to be adversely affected. REINFORCEMENT BARS Concrete has
no useful tensile strength and is limited in its structural uses. Steel reinforcement
bars are used in concrete columns beams, and slabs. Reinforcement bars have
various diameter sizes. They come in 12mm,16mm 18mm, 20mm 24mm 30mm and
32mmdiameter sizes. CASTING Casting is the process of pouring concrete mix into a
mould or form laid with reinforcement bars to form a solid mass structure. Casting a
concrete wall •Vertical reinforcing bars are first wired to the dowels that project
from the foundation footing and horizontal bars are wired to the vertical bars as
seen in the illustration below. •The formwork is erected. Sheets of plywood form the
face of the concrete and are supported by wooden studs. The studs are supported
against the pressure of the wet concrete by horizontal supports. •The concrete is
then poured, compacted and cured. CHAPTER 3 SITE MEETINGS During my training,
site meetings were held every two weeks on a Tuesday. The essence of the site
meetings is dissipating instructions to the contractors and to assess the progress of
the project. The site meeting is chaired by the project architect who gives out all
instructions. During the meetings, all the consultants are expected to be present in
order to obtain an update of a weekly report on each of their jurisdictions as regards
the building project from the contractors. Issues from what material should be used
to the ordering of materials and expenses made are discussed in full length and all
issues or problems encountered are presented to the architect for instructions. After
a few site meetings, my supervisor handed over the task of writing the minutes of
the meeting to me. This i did until my last site meeting on the site. During the
meeting, everyone is presented with their copy of the minute and is expected to file
them afterwards. The site meeting for the building project is expected to be held till
the project is completed and handed over to the clients. CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION In
conclusion, as a student of architecture, i have been able to obtain the most
relevant and effective practical industrial training and experience in a duration of
three months(3months) having been exposed to practical on-site situations and
activities. Furthermore, an awareness of the general workplace has been developed
in me and I have acquired important behaviour and interpersonal skills with the
opportunity giving me to get a feel of the work environment and exposure as a
student to the architects responsibilities and ethics .Finally, I would like to state that
the SIWES programme is a very relevant and necessary programme for all students
that must be taken advantage of by every student for each student’s professional
development prior to graduation.