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# Modeling a Beam (I) analysis with Pro/Mechanica Structure

Introduction:

Pro/MECHANICA is a virtual prototyping tool used to study how designs will
behave in real world situations. Pro/MECHANICA includes capabilities such as
fatigue analysis, motion simulation, structural simulation, and thermal simulation.

This software has a complete associatively with Pro/ENGINEER,
Pro/ENGINEER, from PTC this is a parametric solid modeling tool used to design
and develop parts and products, as well as plan the manufacturing process.

 Pro/ENGINEER creates solid and sheet metal components, builds
assemblies, designs weldments, and produces production drawings.
 Pro/MECHANICA - simulates how a product or model will function in its
intended environment.

This documentation is meant to familiarize students with the use of Pro/Engineer
and Pro/Mechanica together and basically the main targets of this documentation
are:

1. Describe the Pro/E and Pro/M menus
2. Define the materials properties in Pro/E or Pro/M

3. Create the Pro/E part (Model) of the bracket part

4. Generate the FEA model from the Pro/E part model

5. Set up and run the finite element analysis

6. Interpret the analysis results

Instructions:

This exercise gives an introduction to 3D stress analysis, to 3D Solid CAD
modeling and its integration with 3D stress analysis. The analyzed problem is a
cantilever with an ‘I’ shaped x-section. An applied loading condition is considered
and a 3D mesh of the beam is analyzed and compared with the mechanics of
materials analytical solution.

Ftotal Y = Force distributed over RHS x-section
INPUT DATA: Force/Area = 11.36 N/mm2, Note: Units are in millimeters

LHS end
Fixed TX, TY, TZ

Steel:
E=200x103 MPa
v = 0.29

150 mm

200 mm 30 mm

• A Cantilever I-Beam: fully fixed at LHS, for Loading Condition a) vertical
load distributed on the RHS x-section
– Beam length 1.0 m, I-Beam x-section as shown
– RHS vertical load =150000N, distributed along upper flange
– Create 3D CAD solid model in Pro/E
– Open Pro/M and create an FEM analysis
– Material: E = 200x103 MPa, n = 0.29

Solution:

The general approach in Pro/M is as follows:

I- Create the model in Pro/E

II- Switch over to Pro/M integrated mode, then

 Assign material
 Define geometric constraints
 Apply load constraints
 Define the type of analysis

III- Run the analysis

IV- Post-processing: Study the results and carryout verification .

Finite Element Analysis

Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is a numerical procedure that mechanical
engineers use for many kinds of analysis: stress and strain analysis, heat
transfer analysis, vibrations analysis, etc. In our class, we will use a package
called COSMOS and we will perform stress and strain analysis. First, however, a
brief introduction to FEA will help you understand what COSMOS actually does.

Every part has some amount of "springiness"--even parts made of materials like
steel, aluminum, and other metals. This "springiness" depends on what kinds of
material the part is made of, how big the part is, and how resistant to loading the
part is.

For example, consider a cantilevered, steel beam of length L, with a rectangular
cross-sectional area, A.

L

You will recall from your strength of materials class that the beam's deflection for
this case is given as:

Fx2
   x  3L
6EI

We could use this formula to predict the deflection of the beam at any point along
the beam, however we are going to solve this problem in a slightly different way
and compare our results to the solution for deflection given above.

Let's begin by dividing the beam into two pieces and assuming that the free body
diagram for each piece looks like the picture below.

F1,u1 F2,u2 F3,u3 F4,u4
M1, 1 M2, 2 M3, 3 M4, 4
1 2 3 4

L1 E2. Li.  Each element has a cross section. F2 = F3 M2 = M3 2 = 3 u2 = u3 We will use the method of superposition to determine the values of displacement. A2. a moment. a slope. and hold all other displacements at 0. j. K = f. and  same displacement. uj. (j indicates the node number) Nodes 2 and 3 have the same force. Ai. Ei (i indicates the element number)  Each node "sees" a force. node 1. Element 1 Element 2 E1. and a displacement. A1. Element 1 has nodes 1 and 2. Fj. 1 unit of displacement. same slope. L2  Each piece of the beam is called an element and each element possesses two nodes. length. Element 2 has nodes 3 and 4. same moment. Mj. In Matrix form:  f1   k11 k12 k13 k14   u1     k21 k22 k23 k24   1   M1         f2   k31 k32 k33 k34   u2   M2    k41 k42 k43 k44    2  First we will give the left most node. and modulus of elasticity.0 . We are going to treat each element as if it were a spring and use the formula. and slope of each node.

from a physical perspective: F1 F1 u=1   =  +  M1 M1 What this picture says is that we can look at the influence of the force. add the results together.  f1   k11 k12 k13 k14   1  M     1  k21 k22 k23 k24   0        f2   k31 k32 k33 k34   0  M2     k41 k42 k43 k44   0 f1  k11 M1  k21 f2  k31 M2  k41 Here's what we have done. and M1 . and the influence of the moment on the slope and displacement. to get the total effect--superposition. 3 2 F1L1 ML u1  1 1   2   11 3E1I1 2E1I1 2 FL ML 1  0  1  2   1 1  1 1 2E1I1 E1I1 Now solve these two equations for F 1. F 1 on the slope and displacement.

 L13 L  2 1 3  1   F  2  1   1     EI  L12   M1  0   2 L1    L13 L  2 1  3  1 4  2   L1 EI  L12  12E2I2   2 L1    L1  2  1    2EI  L1 0 L1  EI  EI   L13   1 L1 2  3EI   2  L1  2EI   2EI  0 L 12EI F1  41  3  k11 L1 EI L1 22 12E I 2 L1 6EI M1  2EI4  2  k21 L1 L1 22 12E I Now we can finish Element 1 by using the equations of equilibrium: F1  F2  0.F2  F1 12EI F2   3  k31 L1 6EI 12EI M node 2  M1  M2  L1F1  0  L 2  M2  L1 L1 3 1 6EI 12EI 6EI M2   2  2  2  k41 L1 L1 L1 .

and forcing everything else to remain fixed. F1 F2 F1 M1   =   M2 + M1   3 2 FL ML u1  0   1   2  1 1  1 1 3E1I1 2E1I1  L1  2 F1L1 2 ML  0   2  1  1 1   2    11 2 EI L1 2E1I1 E1I1     1 L1  2EI  EI   L1 3   L13 L 2   0 3 1 3  1   F   0 3EI L1 2       1    L1 2  3EI EI  L12  M 1   1   2 L1   1   2EI   2 L1  L13 L1  2 6EI 1 3   4 F1  2EI4  2  2   L1 L1 L1 EI  L12 2 2  12E I 12(EI)2   2 L1   3 L1 4EI M1  3EI4  L1 L1 12(EI)2 .  12EI   L3 k12 k13 k14   f1   6EI   u1     2 k22 k23 k24      M1    1     L  f2   12EI    L3 k32 k33 k34   u2   M2   6EI    2   2 k42 k43 k44   L  The next column of values in the stiffness matrix can be determined by setting the slope at node 1 equal to one unit.

1. The final matrix will look like this: . Column 4 can be determined by setting 2 to 1 and all other nodal displacements to 0. solve for F2 and M2 using equations of equilibrium F2  F1  0 6EI  F2  F1   2 L1 M1  M2   F1L1  0 6EI 4EI 2EI    L1 L1 L1 Now the stiffness matrix looks like the following:  12EI 6EI   3 2 k13 k14   1 L L 1   f1   6EI 4EI   u1     L2 k23 k24     M1  L1  1     1    f2    12EI  6EI k k   u2   M2   L3 L1 2 33 34    1   2  6EI 2 EI k43 k44   L12 L1  You should finish this problem using superposition and show that column 3 can be determined by setting u1. and 2 to zero and setting u2 to 1.Now.0.

. Once the global stiffness matrix is determined.  12EI 6EI 12EI 6EI   3 2  3 2   L1 L 1 L1 L1   f1   6EI 4EI 6EI 2EI   u1   M        1 L1 2 L1 L1 2 L1   1    12EI 6EI 12EI 6EI     f2    3  2  2  u2   M2   L1 L1 L1 3 L1    2     6EI 2EI 6EI 4EI   2  L1 2 L1 L1 L1   12 6L1  12 6L1   u1   2 2   1  EI  6L1 4L1  6L1 2L1    3   L1   12  6L1 12  6L1  u2   2    2  2  6L1 2L1  6L1 4L1  This takes care of element 1. post-processing uses deflection information to determine stresses. and nodal loadings applied. the stiffness matrix is "inverted" and slopes and deflections are determined. How about element 2? It turns out the stiffness matrix will look exactly the same. E1 becomes E2 and nodal forces and displacements also assume their new indicies (2 and 3). but L1 becomes L2. Following this stage of analysis. Finite Element software completes this step for each element in the model. a process called "post processing" is executed. Then the elemental stiffness matrices are formed into a single matrix called the Global Stiffness Matrix in a process called assembly.

x y x     xo E E    y   x  y   yo E E 2(1  ) xy  xy    xy E .

.You will recall that this particular problem is described by the following differential equation: d 2u EI b 0 dx2 E is the beam's modulus of elasticity and I is the second moment of area. that will enable us to find the deflection at any point along the beam. The objective in solving this differential equation is to find a function. let's look at the shear and moment diagrams for the cantilevered beam. u(x). To begin solution of this problem.

we would express the boundary conditions on this problem like this: d 2u EI | x 0  Mo dx2 du EI | x0  0 dx u x| x0  0 Moment at the wall is -FL.0 at L. and although we did not draw the slope diagram. d 2u EI 2  Vx  Mo dx d 2u 1   Vx  Mo  dx2 EI du 1 1 x2     Vx  Mo  dx   V  Mo x  C 1 dx EI EI 2   1 x2   1 x3 x2  u(x)     V  Mo x  C 1 dx   V  Mo   C 1x  C 2  EI 2    EI  6 2  . Mathematically. or at the left side of the beam. It is also clear that the moment varies along the distance of the beam.0 Deflection at the wall is 0. we notice that the shear force is + F. Mo Slope at the wall is 0. unitl it becomes 0.0.0 . d 2u EI  Vx  Mo dx2 V* x is the moment function as it varies from 0  L. the moment is -FL (Mo). we know that the slope at the wall is 0. We can use this information to solve the differential equation.At x = 0.

regardless of what software it is.0. does not know what kind of problem you are solving. u x| x0  0 . then we can show that C2 is 0. dx So. knowing that EI | x0  0 .Knowing that. the solution for u(x) is 1 x3 x2   V  Mo  EI 6 2  VF Mo   FL Fx2 u x   x  3L 6EI So we have shown where the solution for deflection of a cantilevered beam comes from--what does this have to do with FEA? The FEA software.0 du And. . we can show that C1 is 0. The only thing the software can do is solve differential equations (or minimize functionals).

Beam Theory .

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Analytical Solution Creating the Part with Pro/E .

select part and solid (use the name bracket) .0 program: File>New.Open the Pro/E Wildfire 2.

CTRL+N. A New File dialog window will pop up. . Enter "bracket" and leave default settings of part type and solid sub-type. NOTE: You may want to turn off the annoying sound (Ring Message Bell) from Utilities -> Environment menus.Create a file name "Bracket" (you can use Beam) by clicking on the icon or alternately.

and then click Close and Done . then Click Ok.STEP2: Verify units setting by choosing Edit >Set up > Units from system of units. and click on Set. Select Inchlbmseconds option followed by clicking on the Close button Click Done in the menu manager Select millimeter Newton Second.

Click Ok. draw some lines to create the right geometry by selecting the line icon Start the first line aligned with the TOP plane and symmetrical about the RIGHT plane (This is just our convention. click the left button to change the direction of the line and the middle .STEP 3: Create the Beam. and Close In the sketcher mode. Select Insert>Extrude. You may choose your own reference system for the sketch. (To create the lines. but you need to keep track the coordinate system in which you define the line). start the line clicking the left button of the mouse. just click on the icon line. select the Front plane and the Right plane as the Sketch and reference plane respectively. Make change to the dimensions. Click on Define.

button of the mouse to finish. . then Click Ok. and modify them in the Modify dimensions dialog box. In order to change the dimensions Click on the dimension button Click on every dimension you want to change (the regenerate box has to be unchecked).

you have to press the enter button of your keyboard (Not the green arrow) The final sketch should look such as the following graphic: .Every time you change a value (Dimension) in the modify dialog box.

Click on the button to accept the sketch Change the value of the deep to 1000 and press the enter button Click on the green arrow button The final Model should look like this: Switch to Pro/Mechanica Integrated Mode Applications>Mechanica .

The following message appears indicating the unit system that is being used Click on Continue Click on Advanced .

Select 3D and Structure Click OK Select Insert>Displacement Constraint .

5 x 105 N in the Y direction. Click Preview and later Ok . and apply a force of -1.Select one end face of the beam Constraint all the degrees of Freedom The symbols indicate the degrees of freedom that have been constrained Now. we have to apply the force Select the other end surface.

Click Ok and then Close the Materials dialog box . and Click on the model (This should be highlighted in blue and later in red. The force applied on the end face of the beam The next step is to assign the material to the beam Select Steel and Click on Assign/Part.

we have to create the mesh to perform the finite element analysis Auto Gem>Create Click on Create .Now.

these values are not the same on every computer because the software generates them automatically and randomly. if we want to control the creation of these elements we have to go to: AutoGEM>Control FEM Elements in the model Click on Close and save the mesh (Yes) The Final Postprocess step is to create a static Analysis: Analysis>Mechanical Analysis/Studies Select File>New Static . A dialog box with the AutoGem appears.

click on the green flag button (start run) Click yes to run the error detection . this has to be cleaned otherwise the software is not going to run. the swap space that pro/Mechanica needs to run is huge.Change the parameters according to the dialog box. Note: If your work directory is the N drive. With the Study Beam1 highlighted.

we can review the final results Press the insert definition button . click on close Now.While the software is running select display study status to see how the software run and determine when it is going to stop When the software has finished.

Select the right Design Study Directory Select the quantity needed Click on Display Options .

Click on Ok and show You can see the deformed shape of the beam with the stress contour value .

Go to info>View Max The following message appears. Click Ok .

the one where the beam has all its degree of freedom constrained .Now. it is at one of the ends. you can see the location of the maximum stress.

Principal The graphic should look like this The maximum Shear Stress is: .In the result window definition change the component to Maximum Principal Stress and repeat the procedure we did to obtain the Max.

. and the transversal shear stress.The magnitude of the deformation: In order to get the bending stress. we have to take into account the coordinate system of the model.

The Bending Stress (Z-Stress) Change the component to ZZ and Select the coordinate system of the model .

63N/mm2 .The Bending Stress (281.5 N/mm2)(ZZ) Transversal Stress (YZ Stress) =246.

45mm .867 mm 3.42Mpa Maximum Deformation: 3.73Mpa Maximum Transversal Stress: 24.The Validation Results: Pro/M Analytically Maximum Stress in the zz Direction: 281.63Mpa 31.5 Mpa 206.

but in this case there is a distributed force applied on the top flange of the beam Downward Y-Force distributed over Top Flange INPUT DATA: Pressure = 1 N/mm2 LHS end Fixed TX. this is due to the mesh generated on the model.As you can see there are differences in the answers.TY. basically. determine the right mesh to get an accurate answer.29 . this is one of the skill that every designer has to develop. Exercise: Case b) vertical force distributed over the top flange Repeat the exercise.TZ Steel: E=200x103 MPa v = 0. if the mesh is coarse the final answer is going to be far away from the analytical answer.