Kiln Performance & Efficiency

S. Description Symbol Formula
No.
1 Degree of filling DF
%
P
Def
n
s
2 Thermal loading TL Formula-1
or Gcal/hr/m2
Burning zone loading
F
NCV
A

Formula-2

P
H
A
3 Volumetric loading VL
tpd/m3
P
A
L
4 Material residence time in kiln RTK
min
L
Def
n
s
5 Clinker residence time in cooler RTC
(Empirical relationship from min
F.L. Smidth) A
Ps
P
6 True CO2 in kiln exit gas TCO2
vol%
CO2
CO2
O2
7 Excess air EA

% O2 CO2 8 Radiation heat losses RHL kcal/hr/m2 T t 9 Convection heat losses CHL kcal/hr/m2 T t 10 Forced convection heat losses FCHL (when wind speed > 3.0 m/s) kcal/hr/m2 T t v D 11 %Ash absorption in clinker %AA % CC Ash P 12 Raw Mix:Clinker ratio RMCK (dust to kiln) - %AA LOI 13 Raw Mix:Clinker ratio RMCS (dust to silo) - %AA LOI DL 14 Heat of reaction HR or kcal/ Theoretical heat required to kg-clinker produce 1 kg of clinker or Clinkerisation heat CaCO3 RMCK (including Heat of combustibles) MgCO3 LOI Al2O3 CH2O SiO2 Fe2O3 K2O .

t.t.t. mix FAMO (based on O2 analysis) % O2mix O2gas 16 False air w.r.r. gas FAGO (based on O2 analysis) % O2mix O2gas 17 False air w.r.r. mix FAMC (based on CO2 analysis) % CO2mix CO2gas 18 False air w. Na2O C S 15 False air w. gas FAGC (based on CO2 analysis) % CO2mix CO2gas .t.

mts n Burning zone efective diameter. mts Target 19 * L L Deff * n * s Def Kiln length. m2 P P A* L A Clinker production.Kiln Performance & Efficiency Formula Example 3. tpd L Burning zone cross-sectional area.2 * P P Deff 3 * n * s Def Clinker production. % Target F F * NCV NCV A * 1000 * 1000 A Fuel rate in kiln. rpm RTK Kiln slope. m2 P Static pressure at clinker droping area. m2 P P*H H A * 24 * 1000 A Clinker production. % Target 1. tpd TL Specific heat consumption in kiln.78 * O2 ) CO Kiln exit gas CO2. kcal/kg-fuel Target Burning zone cross-sectional area.( 4. tpd n Burning zone efective diameter. tpd Target 100 * ( CO2 + CO ) CO2 100 + ( 1. kg/hr TL Net calorific value of fuel. mts S Kiln speed. vol% Target 79 * O2 O2 . rpm DF Kiln slope.55 * A * Ps A P Ps Cooler grate cross-sectional area. mmWg RTC Clinker production. m2 VL Kiln length. mts S Kiln speed.89 * CO ) . kcal/kg-clinker Target Burning zone cross-sectional area. vol% O2 Kiln exit gas CO. vol% TCO2 Kiln exit gas O2.

351 * v0. K RHL Target 80. K v Wind speed. K t Ambient air temperature. mts FCHL Target CC * Ash CC P Ash Coal consumption. % Fe2O3 LOI content in kiln feed.t ) T Radiating body temperature.LOI ) ) . vol% EA CO2 content in gas.%AA %AA 100 . % C SiO2 content in clinker.( 511.LOI ) ) MgCO3 .LOI ) ) + ( 11.6 * CH2O * RMCK ) RMCK .LOI ) ) LOI . % Na2O Water of crystalisation in kiln feed. SiO2 MgCO3 content in kiln feed.805 * D-0. % RMCK Loss on ignition of raw mix. K CHL Target 28.( 32 * S * RMCK ) Al2O3 CaCO3 content in kiln feed.333 T Radiating body temperature.724 * ( T . K t Ambient air temperature.%AA ) * 100 %AA ( 100 . % DL Loss on ignition of raw mix.t4 ) T Radiating body temperature.( 59 * Fe2O3 / ( 100 .33 * ( ( T + t ) / 2 )-0. vol% Target 4 * 10-8 * ( T4 .DL ) LOI %Ash absorption.t )1. . % Target ( 4. tph Target 100 .03 * ( ( T + t ) / 2 )-0.LOI LOI %Ash absorption.282 * CaCO3 * RMCK ) + ( 3. % HR K2O content in clinker.O2 CO2 O2 content in gas. 0. % K2O Al2O3 content in clinker.21 * ( 100 . % %AA Clinker production. m/s D Radiating body diameter. K t Ambient air temperature. % RMCS Dust losses from preheater.085 * MgCO3 * RMCK ) CaCO3 + ( 222 * Al2O3 / ( 100 .CO2 ) .( 79 * C * RMCK ) .LOI ) * ( 100 . % Target ( 100 .( 1000 * ( K2O + Na2O ) / ( 100 . % S Fe2O3 content in clinker. % Target .6 * SiO2 / ( 100 . tph P Ash content in fuel (as fired basis).195 * ( T . % CH2O Kiln feed:Clinker ratio.

vol% FAMC CO2 content in unmixed gas. vol% FAMC CO2 content in unmixed gas. vol% FAMO O2 content in unmixed gas.CO2mix ) * 100 CO2mix CO2gas CO2gas CO2 content in mixture of gas. % Carbon content in kiln feed.O2gas ) * 100 O2mix 21 . vol% FAGO O2 content in unmixed gas.O2gas O2gas O2 content in mixture of gas.O2gas ) * 100 O2mix 21 . vol% Target ( CO2gas .O2mix O2gas O2 content in mixture of gas. % ( O2mix . vol% Target .Na2O content in clinker. vol% Target ( CO2gas .CO2mix ) * 100 CO2mix CO2mix CO2gas CO2 content in mixture of gas. vol% Target ( O2mix . % Sulphur as pyrites in kiln feed.

5 60 4.002 4.0 3300 13.52 5.Example 3300 4.85 4.52 60 4.52 2.0-5.0-5.3 3.6 20-25 36.2 45.07 5.5 0.3 4 4 8.7 - 2.30 14-16 10000 6980 13.8 4 17.0-5.0 3300 280 13.16 4.4 20-25 87 700 3300 28.8 .

26.74 35.2 0.525 - 1.5 4.38 0.41 0.6 34.53 1.04 389 - .5 15 137.1 1.74 35.5 10-15 517 305 2512 - 443 308 760 - 525 302 5 4.5 8.15 2088 - 14.17 1.5 1.05 13.658 - 75.47 2.58 - 1.5 17.58 1.1 1.27 0.

1 34.5 7.6 2.6 2.4 5-7 3.0 5-7 32.1 34.6 5-7 32.5 7.8 4.8 4. 3.5 5-7 .

65 Kiln thermal loading Coal CV 6980 kcal/kg Main burner coal 5.3 m Kiln rpm 4 rpm Slope 4% Raw meal/clinker factor 1.PC 62 % R meal/clinker factor 1.60 tph Kiln thermal loading 3.00 tph Main burner 5.69 million kcal/hr/m2 Volumetric loading Feed rate 240 tph Kiln length 60 m .Kiln 38 % Coal .13 MW/m2 2.60 Specific coal consumption PC 9.65 Kiln loading 8.50 tph Kiln feed 240 tph Coal CV 6980 kcal/kg Spec consumption 696 kcal/kgclinker Coal .78 % Ratio Feed/rpm*100 0.Kiln % loading Feed rate 240 tph Clear Φ 4.

5 min Kiln residence time (Labhan) 17.11 tpd/m3 Kiln residence time Kiln rpm 4 rpm Kiln residence time (Duda) 19.Volumetric loading 4.9 min .

cal/kgclinker illion kcal/hr/m2 .