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Analysis, simulation and implementation of
space vector pulse width modulation inverter

Article · January 2006

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and space vector pulse width techniques [1. voltage depends on the applied technique of thyristors. Khater* and A. sinusoidal pulse width the basic of the pulse width modulation PWM modulation. PWM that with high harmonic contents. Mosfet. Shaltout** * Electronics Research Institute ** Cairo University GIZA EGYPT F.Inverter – Pulse width modulation – Space vector pulse width modulation 1 Introduction 2 Voltage-Source Pulse Width The inverters are used to convert the dc voltage Modulation (PWM) Inverter into ac voltage with controlled voltage and A typical voltage-source converter performs the frequency. The considered PWM This paper presents three main PWM techniques. The amplitude and switching. Simulation and Implementation of Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Inverter E. Implementation and Experimental results of SVPWM inverter are presented to realize the validity of the SVPWM technique. Key-Words: . The harmonic offers simple control and low switching loss. lower contents. IGBT …etc). Each technique has its own advantages There are several PWM techniques each has its and disadvantages. However. High switching inverter offers less harmonic contents than six-step frequency usually improves the quality of the motor inverter. The waveform of the output voltage voltage and frequency conversion in two stages: ac depends on the switching states of the six switches. by controlling the duty cycle of the switches. Importance of SVPWM own advantages and also disadvantages. khater@eri. techniques are: Analysis.com . There are several techniques of switching harmonic contents of the ac waveform are controlled the inverter switches such as the six step inverter. 1 the drive system. Implementation and Space-Vector PWM experimental results verify the inverter analysis and simulation. In general. esam_hendawi@hotmail. F. the switching frequency. and the best order harmonics are relatively high resulting in high utilization of dc link voltage.This paper presents analysis. following subsections. This is hysterisis current controller. Modeling of the switching intervals and control signal generators are introduced. high switching frequency leads to more switching losses in the inverter switches. to dc as a first stage and dc to ac for the second Many applications of inverters face three major stage. ISSN: 1790-2769 124 ISBN: 978-960-474-171-7 . drive distortion of the current wave (unless significant systems with low harmonic contents are better than filtering is performed). Hendawi*. aashaltout@yahoo. Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on APPLICATIONS of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Analysis.com Abstract: . modeling and implementation of SVPWM Sinusoidal PWM (most common) technique are presented due to its more advantages Hysteresis band current control than the other techniques.sci.2]. modulation. Also high switching frequency is limited by the switching capability and dead time of 3 PWM Principle The dc input to the inverter is “chopped” by the switches. The basic technique leads to recent utilization of parallel three PWM techniques are described briefly in the phase Inverters using SVPWM technique [5]. simulation and implementation of Space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) inverter. On the other hand. The best utilization of the dc link switching devices in the inverter (bipolar transistors. The basic three-phase voltage-source currents and consequently the whole performance of converter is shown in Fig. Principles of the SVPWM is introduced and analyzed. Although the three phase six-step inverter requirements and limitations [1-4].eg .

direct limiting of device peak current and practical insensitivity to machine parameters because of the elimination of any additional current controllers. ISSN: 1790-2769 125 ISBN: 978-960-474-171-7 . Fig. the lower switch is turned on. Hysteresis-band current control is very popular because it is simple to implement. However. On the other hand when the hysteresis band decreases. The switching frequency is not PWM. the opposite wave is not fixed. the pulse width is a In hysteresis-band current control the actual sinusoidal function of the angular position of the current tracks the form of command current within a reference signal. In this approach the reference sinusoidal PWM is shown in Fig. has fast transient response. the current ripples increases and the switching frequency decreases. Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on APPLICATIONS of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Rectifie DC bus Inverter T1 T3 T5 L C Power AC supply motor T4 T6 T2 Fig. 1 Basic three-phase voltage-source converter. The basic principle of three phase hysteresis band. PWM frequency is not fixed which results in non-optimal harmonic ripple in (b) states of switches of phase a machine current. Therefore. 2 Principle of three phase sinusoidal PWM. two signals are used to determine the pulse widths and control the switching of devices in each phase 3. As the width of the hysteresis band increases. the selection of the width of the hysteresis band must be (a) sine wave and carrier signals carried out to optimize the balance between harmonic ripples and inverter switching losses. 2.1 Sinusoidal PWM voltage causing undesired low-frequency torque and The most popular PWM approach is the sinusoidal speed pulsations. due to the variation of the upper switch in the half-bridge is turned off and the sinewave reference values during a PWM period. As a result. As the current error the relation between reference values and the carrier goes below the hysteresis band. The principle of hysteresis- band current control is illustrated in Fig. When the and comparators for the generation of the carrier and current error exceeds a predefined hysteresis band.2 Hysteresis-band current control leg of the inverter. Peak to peak current ripple and switching frequency are related to the width of hysteresis band. switching takes place. switching states. the current waveform becomes better having less low order harmonic contents but in this case the switching frequency increases and consequently the switching losses. However. The sinusoidal current wave is compared to the actual current wave PWM is easy to implement using analog integrators thus producing the current error [6]. This results in existence of harmonics in the output 3. 3. In this method a triangular (carrier) wave is constant and very narrow pulses may occur compared to a sinusoidal wave of the desired depending on the intersection between the carrier fundamental frequency and the relative levels of the wave and the sine reference.

Fig. Depending on the reference voltages Vα and Eight possible combinations of on and off patterns Vβ. The non-zero vectors form the axes of a hexagon containing six sectors (V1 − V6) as shown in Fig.3 Space vector pulse width modulation voltage are: Space vector PWM refers to a special switching scheme of the six power semiconductor switches of Vdc Vdc a three phase power converter [7]. the complex reference voltage vector s processed as a whole. chart in Fig. 4 The angle between any adjacent two non-zero vectors is 60 electrical degrees. Therefore. The maximum output phase voltage and line-to-line The current error is not strictly limited and may voltage that can be achieved by applying SVPWM leave the hysteresis band. There is no interaction are: between the three phases. 6. Fig. vectors. It has been shown. only two adjacent non-zero voltage 3. the corresponding sector is firstly determined. Practically. This transformation results in six non-zero voltage vectors and two zero vectors. 5. 4 Non-zero vectors forming a hexagon and zero based control systems. This is the best ISSN: 1790-2769 126 ISBN: 978-960-474-171-7 . applications such as control of induction and voltage Vph rms is permanent magnet synchronous motors. the interaction between the three motor phases is considered. 3 Principle of hysteresis-band current control.4 Principle of space vector pulse width vectors Vx and Vx+60 and the zero vectors should be modulation used. may be achieved. Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on APPLICATIONS of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING The phase voltages corresponding to the eight combinations of switching patterns can be calculated and then converted into the stator two phase (αβ) reference frame. The on and off states of the lower The sector identification is carried out using the flow switches are the inverted states of the upper ones.m. The mentioned drawbacks of the sinusoidal PWM and hysteresis-band current control are reduced using Vdc  6 * Vph rms this technique. that SVPWM generates less harmonic distortion in both output voltage and current applied to the phases of an ac motor and provides a more efficient use of the supply voltage in comparison with sinusoidal modulation techniques. SVPWM provides a constant switching frequency and therefore the switching frequency can be adjusted easily. The zero vectors are at the origin and apply a zero voltage vector to the motor. Although SVPWM is more complicated than sinusoidal PWM and hysterisis band current control. These drawbacks limits Vdc the application of this approach into special Vph max = Vllmax = Vdc 3 applications And the r. Space vector Vph rms = Vll rms = 6 2 PWM (SVPWM) has become a popular PWM technique for three-phase voltage-source inverters in Therefore the dc voltage Vdc for a given motor r. The switching patterns in the six sectors are illustrated in Fig.s. output phase voltage and line-to-line 3.m. it may be implemented easily with modern DSP. Instead of using a separate modulator for each of the three phases (as in the previous techniques). The envelope of the hexagon formed by the non-zero vectors is the locus of the maximum output voltage.s.

The period of zero voltage Ts To To To Ts 2 4 4  Tk 4  Tk  Tk  1 2 is *  Vs dt   V 0 dt   Vs* dt   Vs* dt   V 7 dt 0 0 To To  Tk To  Tk  Tk  1 T0 = Ts – 2 (Tk + Tk+1) (7) 4 4 4 (4) Assuming that the reference voltage. every PWM period. Read Vα and Vβ No Yes Vβ ≥ 0 No No V  V / 3 V  V / 3 Sector = 5 Sector = 2 Yes Yes No No V  0 V  0 Sector = 4 Sector = 3 Yes Yes Sector = 6 Sector = 1 Fig. 6) 3  sin (k  1) sin k  Tk 1  Therefore  3 3  2   Solving the last equation. Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on APPLICATIONS of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING choice of three general patterns that will be  reference voltage Vref into its two components Vα introduced later in this paper. ISSN: 1790-2769 127 ISBN: 978-960-474-171-7 . 5. and vectors Vk and Vk+1 are constants during each pulse T0. the inverter has to stay in zero state for the rest of the period. the time intervals Tk and Vs* (k )  v d [cos(k  1)  j sin(k  1) ] (2) Tk+1 can be calculated as: 3 3 3   k k  k k 3Ts  sin 3  cos 2 2  Tk  3   v   (6) jk Vs* (k  1)  v d e 3  v d [cos  j sin ] (3) T    3 3 3 3  k 1  2 v d  sin (k  1)  (k  1)    v   cos   3 3  Due to symmetry in the patterns in the six sectors. 3. The procedure of calculating the time intervals Tk and Tk+1 is and Vβ gives the following result: discussed as follows: The non-zero vectors can be represented by the   (k  1)   k   following equation:  v   Ts 2  cos 3  cos 3    v . 4. 5 Flow chart for determining the sector. or equal to Ts. Tk+1. 2.  v d Tk  (k  1)   Tk 1  k      2 3   sin   sin      3   3   2 j ( k 1 ) V s* ( k )  vde 3 (1)  (k  1) k  3 2 cos 3 cos   T  3 k  vd    (5) (k=1. three general patterns can be width modulation period (Ts) and splitting the applied. the voltage Having determined the time intervals Tk. the following integration can be carried out for only Since the sum of 2Tk and 2Tk+1 should be less than half of the pulse width modulation period (Ts/2).

8. The outputs of this block are supplied to the control signals generator which is described in the following section. Sb. Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on APPLICATIONS of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Ts 4 Inverter Model The inverter is modeled using three functions that H L calculate the output phase voltages of the inverter H depending on the following relations between the dc L H voltage (Vdc) and the switching states of the upper L switches Sa.9]. The input of the model is the switching intervals Tk and Tk+1. and 4 for patterns I. 6 Control Signal Generator The block of the control signals generator and its details are illustrated in Fig. and Sc. This block works according to equation 6 to produce finally the switching intervals Tk and Tk+1. the total harmonic distortion THD which is an indication of the harmonic contents and III inverter losses that are the least when applying pattern I. The voltage references Vd and Vq are transformed to the stator two phase (αβ) reference frame to give the reference voltages Vα and Vβ. 6 Switching patterns in the six sectors. Fig. Comparison between the three patterns is listed in [8. The II number of switching states in each pulse width modulation period Ts is 7. Va = (2 Sa – Sb – Sc) * Vdc / 3 (8) Vb = (2 Sb – Sa – Sc) * Vdc / 3 (9) Vc = (2 Sc – Sa – Sb) * Vdc / 3 (10) 5 Switching Intervals Generator The current controllers produce the voltage references in the d-q rotor reference frame. ISSN: 1790-2769 128 ISBN: 978-960-474-171-7 . 7 Three general SVPWM patterns. 7. 9. Ts T0/4 Tk Tk+1 T0/2 Tk+1 Tk T0/4 I Fig. T0/4 Tk Tk+1 T0/2 Tk+1 Tk T0/4 These patterns are shown in Fig. The off period T0 is calculated as given in equation 7. Tk Tk+1 T0 Tk+1 Tk and III respectively. However. 5. the best choice is pattern I T0/2 2Tk 2Tk+1 T0/2 which is applied to the drive system in the simulation and the experimental. These voltage references are the inputs to the switching intervals generator that is shown in Fig. Therefore. II.

Fig. ISSN: 1790-2769 129 ISBN: 978-960-474-171-7 . 10a is built. and T0/4 + Tk + Tk+1. the repeating sequence is is used to implement the inverter. Fig. 8 Switching intervals generator. the control signal generator outputs the chips that allow continuous monitoring of power suitable control signal to each switch using look up device current. low loss IGBTs with optimized the three comparators are the control signals of the gate drive and protection circuitry. a repeating 7 Inverter Hardware sequence as shown in Fig. The outputs of combine high speed. Highly effective upper switches of the inverter as shown in Fig. The IGBT power switches in the IPM tables and multiport switches. The power compared with the values of the switching intervals module is advanced hybrid power devices that T0/4. Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on APPLICATIONS of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING To generate the control signals. Depending on the sector through the use of advanced current sense IGBT number. 9 Control signals generator. T0/4 + Tk. During each An intelligent power module (IPM) PM25RSB120 SVPWM period (Ts). 10b over-current and short-circuit protection is realized for a certain sector. are controlled by a low level input signal.

Different patterns are introduced and the most effective one is selected. 11 Switching patterns in two different sectors of SVPWM Ts Ts/2 T0/4 + Tk + Tk+1 T0/4 + Tk T0/4 Ts/2 Ts a. The fault and on/off control signals are usually transferred to and from the system controller using isolating interface circuits.Read analogue signals from A/D converters simultaneously 2. 10 Control signals in a certain section devices off when it is in the high state and the power and calculate the corresponding pattern and switches are kept off when the input signals are high.Executing the main program until the step of generating the reference voltages vq and vd. Analysis. 3. Tk+1 . Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on APPLICATIONS of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING The active low control input keeps the power Fig. 12. A fault output signal is provided to alert the system 4. activated. exceeds the pulse width modulation period.The reference voltages vq and vd are transformed to the reference voltages vα and vβ.Comparing a repeating sequence with switching intervals Ts Fig. modeling b. Over modulation is IPMs have sophisticated built-in protection circuits detected and corrected if the case Tk + Tk+1 that prevent the power devices from being damaged. Details of this program explained in the following steps: 1. 8 Implementation and Experimental results The SVPWM is achieved by applying a software C program to control the position and speed of a permanent magnet synchronous motor [10]. durations Tk . 12 inverter output voltage Conclusion Analysis of space vector pulse width modulation is T0/4 Tk Tk+1 T0/2 Tk+1 Tk T0/4 presented. 11 and inverter output voltage is illustrated in Fig. Switching patterns in two different sectors of SVPWM are given in Fig. and To. The reference voltages vα and vβ are utilized to determine the sector of the vectors from 1 to 6 Fig.Output the control signals and wait for the controller if any of the protection circuits are instantaneous PWM period to complete.Control signals and simulation of the switching intervals generators ISSN: 1790-2769 130 ISBN: 978-960-474-171-7 .

“Comparison of Three PWM Strategies SPWM SVPWM and One Cycle control. [4] Vas. Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on APPLICATIONS of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING and control signal generators are introduced./Dec.. Mokhtari.. 36..S. George. pp. B. Malaysia. [9] Leong.1538. C. July 2009. Appl. [8] Hua.. 2005. G. of 2005 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology ICIT. References: [1] Bose. of 2009 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Electronics ISIE.” The Fifth International Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Systems PEDS." Proc. Nov. A. P. [5] H. [6] Uddin. G. B. N. 2002.” Proc. Makrides. and Rahman M. [2] Rashid. Vol.. Thesis. 2003.Y. pp..A. and Xiaoying. 2003. R.. No. Seoul.. Shuo... Radwan. S. Ind. T. “Advanced Control of PM Machines for Servo Applications. 6.” Prentice Hall PTR.” MNPERE.. 2001.” Academic Press. and Marimuthu. Hendawi. 1992. Dec. [3] Mohan. “A Comparison of Losses in Small (<1 kW) Drives Using Sine and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Schemes.. H.” Oxford University Press. pp.... 2005. K. S. Volume 2. N. ISSN: 1790-2769 131 ISBN: 978-960-474-171-7 .. 2000. B. Hong Kong. “Space Vector Switching Patterns for Different Applications a Comparative Analysis. Pouya and H. Grinberg. 2009. M. M. Z.” IEEE Trans. Nov. Zhengming. L. Cairo Univ. M. 1313 – 1316. Jianzheng. and McMahon... [7] Hariram.” The Sixth IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Systems PEDS. “Performance of Current Controllers for VSI-Fed IPMSM Drive. Jan. [10] E.D. 1531. H. “Electrical Machines and Drives a Space-Vector Theory Approach. Dec.” Ph. "Control of Parallel Three-phase Inverters Using Optimal Control and SVPWM Technique. N. Korea. 1444 – 1449... “Power Electronics Handbook. R. Experimental results and steps of generating SVPWM patterns using microcomputer are presented to verify the effectiveness of the analysis and simulation. “Modern Power Electronics and AC Drives. Kuala Lumpur. R. “First Course on Power Electronics and Drives..