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Australia is both a continent and the sixth largest country in the world. Most of the
population is concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts.

A key business location, Australia has the unique advantage of historically being a
European-based English-speaking culture with a multicultural population located in
the Asian region. Economically, politically, socially, and educationally, Australia is
on a par with leading economies.

Mass immigration after the World War II brought large demographic changes,
making Australia one of the world's most multicultural countries. Much of the recent
immigration has been from Asia. Australia sees its future as a dominant Southern
hemisphere and Asian power. It is an important member of the Asia Pacific
Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum and strives to forge free trade arrangements
with China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

The country faces some of the same long-term challenges as other developed
countries: an aging population, pressure on infrastructure and environmental
concerns including climate change.

Culture Overview

Cultural Essentials

Australia is a multicultural country where about one-quarter of the
population was born overseas or has a parent who was. More than 260
languages are spoken and residents identify with about 270 ethnicities. In
addition, the government is actively engaging with the Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander Peoples.

Before reaching the stage of multiculturalism, the country went through
several stages, including "White Australia" policy, assimilation, and
integration. The multicultural policies ensure the equal involvement of
migrants in society, while acknowledging their rights to maintain their
cultural differences. Australia joins people's individual cultural traditions
and values to develop common future.

Multiculturalism has been quite successful for Australia and helped
transform the country from a small, insular community with a colonial
mindset to a sophisticated and cosmopolitan nation that can engage with 8.2.2017.

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the region and the world on its own terms.

Australia is an egalitarian country that does not have rigid class distinctions
and wealth does not make someone more important than others. This
dates back to the demarcation between convicts and ex-convicts and the
rest of the settlers. The ex-convicts who were treated as second-class
citizens refused to see themselves as inferior and believed they could
reach their goals if they worked hard.

The phrase "tall poppy" is used to describe someone who tries to stand out
from the crowd and act as though s/he is better than anyone else. Once
commonly used, the phrase has lost impact in recent years as Aussies
have realized they have a lot to offer on the global arena. Nonetheless,
most Aussies strive to remain modest about their accomplishments and
believe boasting or bragging is arrogant.

Basic egalitarianism is seen in all aspects of life. Aussies generally use first
names with everyone, from their boss to the server at a restaurant. They
form a queue when waiting to be served where a number of people seek
attention simultaneously. They are willing to wait their turn. When riding in
a taxi, men sit in the front with the driver to show that they see themselves
as equal.

Australians value authenticity and sincerity, and dislike pretentiousness.
They like to get to know "the whole person": What are your values and
interests? Are you a person of integrity? Do you have a sense of humor or
do you take yourself too seriously? Are you too focused on work? Do you
self-promote, talk about your background and achievements, or

Aussies may downplay their own success, which has given the
misconception that they are not achievement-oriented. The reality is that
Aussies are smart and competitive. Their "who me?" attitude may hide a
human dynamo.

Individualism and Group Orientation
Australians are individualistic and are comfortable working independently
to reach their goals. At the same time, they work well in groups and it is
common for everyone to pitch in and work together in times of crisis. This
is similar to the concept of "mateship," which is thought to emanate from
the sense of mutual dependence that came from the harsh conditions the
first settlers endured in the penal colonies. Individuals had to rely on each
other for mutual survival. Once a term used for male relationships, the
meaning has broadened over time.

Perhaps as a result of their passion for sports, Aussies accept that despite
their individuality they are part of a group. It could be a sporting team, work
group, company or neighborhood. When working in a group, Australians
believe each person should contribute to the best of their ability for the best
interest of the group. They will refer to success as the group's success,
even if they were a principal reason for the success. 8.2.2017.

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Australians are renowned for their easy-going behavior and senses of
humor. Foreigners generally describe them as casual, laid back and
passionate about sports.

Their informality is seen in the speech pattern and their ease at addressing
everyone from the CEO to the bank president to the mail carrier by their
first name. Australians are not impressed by titles; they want to see what
someone can do. This is not a culture where hyperbole is the norm. In fact,
it can lead to Aussies feeling the need to take "the person down a peg".

More so than most cultures, Australians do not like conducting business
with people who think that they are better than others. This is a culture
where appearing modest and unassuming is preferable to touting your
achievements and success. Information about your qualifications should be
revealed gradually and over a period of time rather than at the initial

At times, Australians may use language that is more colorful than you are
accustomed to hearing. This is not meant as an insult. Rather, it is their
way of demonstrating their sense of egalitarianism.

Direct Communication
Australians pride themselves on saying what they mean and meaning what
they say. They openly discuss their ideas without trying to state them in a
politically correct manner. They consider being understood as more
important than being diplomatic and polite. They are not afraid to disagree
with what someone has said, but do not make it into a personal attack on
the person. When people speak indirectly, Aussies may not understand the

Aussies value verbal sparring and frequently use understatement or
humor, mixed with cynicism or irony to make a point. Their humor is often
self-deprecating, but it can also be used to bring someone down if they are
taking themselves or the situation too seriously. People are expected to be
able to take a joke. In fact, Aussies' sense of humor is one of the first
things foreigners notice about them. Australians can poke fun at nearly
anything or anyone. Perhaps the only topic that can be off-limits is sports.

When presenting to an Australian audience, make sure your material
stresses substance. This is not a culture where fancy graphics can
compensate for a lack of good, concrete data.

Quality of Life / Work-Life Balance
The Australian quality of life, together with their home and family, are
sources of pride and enjoyment. As such, they strive for a balance between
their business and personal lives. This is especially the case with workers
born after 1965 (Gen X And Gen Y). They work to live, enjoy their leisure
time and are extremely sports-minded. This does not mean that Aussies
don't work hard; they do. They simply work to live rather than live to work.

Aussies often pepper their speech with sporting analogies. The most
popular sports are football, rugby, cricket, bush walking, tennis, and water 8.2.2017.

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activities such as sailing or surfing. Most Australians actively participate in
at least one sport and are frequent spectators to others. Sports often form
the basis of their social networks, since sporting friendships endure even if
you switch companies.

Much business entertaining revolves around sports, and the calendar is
punctuated by annual sporting events such as the Melbourne Cup horse
race, the Sydney to Hobart yacht race, international cricket tests, and the
Australian Open tennis tournament. When these events are happening,
they rivet the nation’s attention and are common topics of conversation.


Australia has a reputation for religious tolerance and acceptance. There is
not a state religion and, for the most part, religion is considered a private
matter that has little impact on everyday life. The majority of Australians
only attend church at Christmas or Easter, or to occasionally participate in
the important family rituals of christenings, weddings, and funerals.

The diversity of faiths has increased as Australia becomes increasingly
multi-cultural and aligns itself with its Asia-Pacific neighbors. Although the
largest segment of the population are nominally Christian, there are
increasing numbers of Buddhists, Muslims, and Jews.

Role of Women

Surprisingly for a country that produced well-known feminist Germaine
Greer, Australia was "behind the curve" on feminist issues for many years.
Between 1986 and 1993, the government took steps to address gender
stereotypes and promote positive images of women through extensive
consultation, research and the establishment of the National Working Party
on the Portrayal of Women in the Media.

More women than men complete secondary school and university and
women comprise nearly 60% of the workforce. In addition, more than 30%
of small businesses are female-owned.

Women hold about 40% of senior and executive positions in public service.
They also hold 34% of seats on federal government-controlled boards and
23% of chair or deputy chair positions. Twenty-five percent of women were
elected into the House of Representatives in the 43rd parliament and 37%
women in the Senate.

On 1/1/2011, the Australian Securities Exchange (ASX) Corporate
Governance Council implemented a diversity policy requiring all publicly 8.2.2017.

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traded Australian companies to set gender diversity targets. Companies
must report on their targets and provide explanations if they are not in

According to the 2012 Australian Census on Women in Leadership, 12.3%
of directors at ASX 200 companies are women. Interestingly, the larger the
company, the greater the change of gender equality since only 9.2% of
directors at ASX 500 companies are women. Women hold 9.7% of
executive key management positions in the ASX 200 and 9.2% of
executive key management positions in the ASX 500

There are more female directors in insurance, banking, retail and
telecommunications. Women remain under-represented in fields
traditionally thought of as male, such as IT and engineering. Many
businesses and industry associations have created programs to encourage
young women to study for and enter technical careers.

Although there remains a wage disparity between men and women, Gen Y
and Gen X employees are closer to pay parity (men out-earn women by
3.5%), whereas for Baby Boomers, the wage differential is nearly 15%.

View of Foreign Women
Foreign businesswomen should not expect to face gender bias or
discrimination. Australians generally accept foreign businesswomen and
treat them with the respect that is due someone in their position. Some
Australian businessmen may be more accepting of foreign businesswomen
than Australian businesswomen.

What is most important to Australian businesspeople is that the foreign
businesswoman makes an effort to fit into the local business culture and
follows through on her agreements and commitments.

Tips for Businesswomen
Foreign businesswomen should maintain a professional image and be
confident and assertive in their business dealings.

Since the business culture is somewhat informal, businesswomen should
not be standoffish or overly reserved or formal; such behavior may be
misinterpreted as putting on airs.

It is a good idea to demonstrate a sense of humor. Being able to accept a
joke made at your expense will improve your image and demonstrate that
you are self-confident.

In many companies, work associates my meet up after work for a drink. If a
foreign businesswoman is invited, she should attend, even if she only
drinks something non-alcoholic. If attending, the businesswoman should
pay for her "round".

It is generally a good idea to learn something about the organization and
the individual you will be meeting. It is also important to understand
Australian current affairs. 8.2.2017.

However. Respond as candidly as possible to questions. Australians are relatively accommodating of newcomers in their communities and workplace. The best way to establish credibility is to have your credentials presented prior to your arrival. For the most part. Therefore. Attitudes are shaped by many variables. Strive to speak clearly and concisely and present a well-ordered business case.. having someone else introduce your background and qualifications can alleviate the need for you to speak about yourself in a way that could be considered boastful. Avoid excessive use of superlatives. This is seen in the country’s http://kpmg. Likewise. do not engage in lengthy getting-to-know-you conversation. Following through with promises and agreements is extremely important in developing an ongoing business relationship. Although a personal introduction is not required. Australians take a pragmatic approach and give newcomers the benefit of the doubt. you will lose credibility and have greater difficulty achieving a successful business deal. a foreign businesswoman should avoid self- promotional conversations. If you do not know the answer. as a relatively young nation of immigrants. . it is better to admit that rather than appear evasive. Australians are interested in learning about other cultures and are adept at adopting many influences imported by immigrants. Both the government and corporate Australia have comprehensive initiatives addressing diversity and the challenges of multiculturalism. a businesswoman should extend her hand to her Australian counterpart. which may be misinterpreted as insincerity. There are still remnants of the "tall poppy syndrome" where Australians poke fun at someone who boasts or brags about what they own or their accomplishments.2017. which may be considered over the top or insincere. This is a culture where actions speak louder than words. If you do not keep your word. including personal travel experience as well as living or working internationally or in a multicultural environment.. A naturally curious people.culturewizard.PrintView Page 6 of 56 Arrive on time for meetings as this shows respect for the Australians. Establishing Credibility In terms of greeting protocol.aspx. 8. View of Foreigners Australians are generally quite open to

Hierarchical vs. They are designed to help you work and understand people from other cultural backgrounds. Perhaps the most important tip we can provide is that when interacting across cultures. we had to make generalizations. plan to be 8. These external manifestations of status may be absent and are often regarded as pretentious in this environment. Formal vs. . Cultural Model. "fusion cuisine". Egalitarian The defining characteristics of this dimension are: • How society is structured • How power is allocated or earned • Tolerance for social mobility • How organizations are structured and run • The amount of responsibility and control employees are given Australia is an egalitarian society. but in order to describe cultural traits. When you interact with Australians.. • As a manager or team member.culturewizard. the following tips will help you: • People expect to be treated with an equal amount of respect and will express their opinions based upon their ability to contribute rather than their position. • People will feel empowered to demonstrate initiative and take responsibility.aspx. Please keep in mind that not all people from any given culture act the same. you need to approach every situation with an understanding of the basic tenets of a given culture and yet remain alert to the specific cultural signals you receive in each situation and adjust your behavior and expectations accordingly. Informal The defining characteristics of this dimension are: • The importance of appearance and demeanor as an indicator of status http://kpmg.PrintView Page 7 of 56 array of ethnic restaurants. demeanor. • Be aware that you cannot evaluate an individual's rank or importance based on appearance. • Don't expect deferential or special privileges based on your position in society or the workplace. privileges or status symbols.2. as well as international influences in alternative forms of exercise and medicine. which may not apply in some cases. Cross Culture Tips The following cultural observations are based on the dimensions in the ICAM169..

lines between personal and professional lives and status in the organizational hierarchy.) • Ostentatious displays of wealth or status may be considered pretentious and arrogant. teamwork in accomplishing and rewarding business goals • The roles and responsibilities of individuals to other family members • The appropriate levels of self-assertion and self-promotion within a society Australia is a relatively group-oriented society.2. • When working in a group.culturewizard. individuals will focus on their own primary tasks than that of the total group. the following tips will help you as you cross cultures: • Don't be surprised or offended if people address you by your first name-or even abbreviate it without your permission. Check with a colleague. local national or fellow expat if in doubt about specifics such as appropriate time to arrive and leave.2017. 8. as well as dress code and gift giving..PrintView Page 8 of 56 • The importance of protocol and etiquette • The appropriate use of titles. demeanor. • Groups are seen more for collegiality than for sharing responsibility. • Recognize that lines may be blurred-lines between socio-economic groups. it will be helpful to remember the following tips: • People prefer to work independently rather than as part of a group. When you interact with Australians. Individual The defining characteristics of this dimension are: • The source of an individual's identity and loyalties • The relative importance of the individual versus the group • Whether legal systems will protect the rights of the individual or focus on the group as a whole • Whether individuals prefer to work alone or be part of a group • Whether work teams operate as a seamless entity or as cooperating individuals • The value of individual contributions • Appearance. . These external manifestations of status may be absent and are often regarded as unnecessary and unwanted. http://kpmg. surnames and honorifics • The appropriateness of discussing personal matters at work • Appropriate ways of meeting people. An individual's importance and self-worth is determined by their ability to think and work independently. building relationships and entertaining Australia is an informal society. • Invitations to a social or business function might be vague and unspecific. As you interact with people from Australia.aspx. (You may gently and casually correct them if you prefer to be called something different. and lack of status symbols may be deceiving.. Group vs.

Transactional vs. Direct Communication The defining characteristics of this dimension are: • The relative importance of verbal vs. So don't be surprised if former mentors or colleagues fail to stay in touch once they (or you) have moved. but you might have to engage in more legal discussions than you would otherwise expect. work relationships can be very transient. • Avoid engaging in too much small talk or asking personal questions in business situations.culturewizard. independence and flexibility to get the job done.2. . or professional and personal lives Australia is a transactional-oriented culture. you will want to remember these points: • Be prepared to "get down to business" much earlier in an interaction.. provide employees with sufficient opportunities for independent problem solving.2017. • While people may appear open and friendly. Individuals will respond well to being given the autonomy. Indirect vs. The following tips will give you clues about how you might handle communication with Australian http://kpmg. • While personal relationships are long-term. • You will not have to build a relationship before commencing with business.PrintView Page 9 of 56 • As an employer or manager. Relationship The defining characteristics of this dimension are: • What constitutes a relationship • What are the expectations • Whether trust is deemed critical to building social or business relationships • What takes precedence in making a business decision: the people involved or other more objective business criteria • The pace and degree of formalized rituals in building new relationships • The appropriateness of mixing business and pleasure. non-verbal communication • The degree of directness or subtlety in the language • The relative importance of contextual versus tactical information in conveying a message • The need to maintain harmony and dignity when communicating • The degree to which a society uses conciseness and clarity versus eloquent language when communicating Australia is a direct communication culture. don't be offended if they don't seem interested in knowing much about 8. When you have business or social interactions with Australians..aspx. • Individual expression is encouraged and will be demonstrated in people's appearance and behavior.

meeting deadlines shows good management. • Meetings and social events may have a scheduled starting and ending time. • Brevity is appreciated in all kinds of communications. schedules • Attitudes towards timekeeping and punctuality • Comfort level with short range vs. Fluid vs. The following tips will give you clues about how you may best interact with Australian colleagues around time issues: • Most people consider time to be something that is within their control and they may have difficulties when outside forces interrupt their schedules. it is important to schedule visits in advance.culturewizard.. In general. • In general. even in a public forum such as a meeting or presentation. longer term planning • The feasibility / appropriateness of assigning set times for social functions or business meetings to start and finish Australia is a Controlled Time society. the goal is to continue the conversation to a logical conclusion. people tend to see those who are not prompt as disorganized or even unprofessional.PrintView Page 10 of 56 colleagues: • It is important to stand by your word when you make a commitment.2. criticism or feedback. External vs. • Because they structure their time. you will be judged on your words rather than your non- verbal behavior. • Do not be surprised if people offer direct praise. • Participants in a meeting may take turns speaking or they may speak over the other person if they believe they understood the message.2017. • Since they value their time. .com/DesktopModules/RW3Modules/CP2014/PrintView.. Internal Control The defining characteristics of this dimension are: • The degree to which people feel they control their environment and destiny-or the degree to which they feel their environment and destiny control them • Openness to change and innovation • The preference for rules and structure • Willingness to take risks http://kpmg. Controlled Time The defining characteristics of this dimension are: • The degree to which people feel that they can control time • The relative importance of relationships vs. 8. • Time management skills are valued. This is especially true in business.aspx.

people are measured on their own achievements in gaining status. • People will be interested in new products and systems. • While family background is important. even if it is not easily implemented. When interacting with people from Australia.. • Highly motivated people will make significant sacrifices for individual recognition and status.culturewizard. but gain status and respect by workplace accomplishments.2. and allow failure Australia is an Internal Control society. with them free to adopt how to approach the work. education and personal professional achievements. • Employees are often willing to make geographical moves for career opportunities. Generational Info Generational Overview you should remember the following tips: • Personal identity is a mixture of family lineage. When interacting with people from Australia.PrintView Page 11 of 56 • The degree to which organizational practices encourage and reward initiative and risk taking.. • People will find that doors open more easily based on family position and status. • Social occasions are not used to achieve business objectives. • Employees expect work to be delegated as broad guidelines. you should remember the following tips: • Change is typically perceived in a positive light. in itself. 8. Balance vs. .aspx. Status Motivation The defining characteristics of this dimension are: • The importance and value attached to professional vs. personal lives • How status and success are defined by a society • The presence or absence of government-sponsored initiatives relating to family welfare benefits • The source of an individual's identity and self-esteem • Tolerance for blurring the lines between professional and personal lives Australia is a Balance-Status Motivation culture. but financial achievement alone is not. • Individuals believe that they have some control over their destiny and environment.2017. a motivator.

expectations. technological advances. etc. although a few years on either side of the range is possible. opportunities and challenges. only 10% of the workforce will be Baby Boomers.aspx. 8. These generations often have different viewpoints towards many aspects of business as well as how long they expect to remain with a given company. . Significant events during a generation's formative years create similar values. Baby Boomers Born 1946 – 1964 Seminal Events • Firing of Gough Whitlam • Vietnam war • No-fault divorce • Moon landing Values • Hierarchical • Task-oriented • Idealistic • Enthusiastic • Energetic • Passionate • Principled • Relatively respectful of authority • Believe they could create a better world • Hard-working • Career-focused and economic conditions.. The groups are: • Baby Boomers: Born 1946 – 1964 • Generation X: Born 1965 – 1979 • Generation Y 1980-1994 Many Baby Boomers have already retired or are nearing normal retirement age. social changes.. Some may continue to work as consultants or freelancers. Australia currently has three generations in the workforce whose life experiences create behavioral differences. perceptions.PrintView Page 12 of 56 Generations are shaped by history.2. These are the most common definition. It is estimated that within 5 years.2017.culturewizard. either in their existing career or something entirely different.

• They work to live. most are proud of being the generation that made a big splash by being the largest and most vocal. 8. • Baby Boomers will work much longer than any generation before them . • They are slowing down and becoming more interested in work-life balance. especially meetings.. • Baby Boomers expect younger generations to work their way up in the organization whereas the younger generations want to ignore unnecessarily complicated processes that could be Younger generations may view them as inflexible and wedded to antiquated ways of doing things. Work Ethic • Since they define themselves by what they do. • They can be intimidated when younger generations want to computerize and streamline work they have done a certain way for years. • Remain loyal and attached to an organization.. • Although they see themselves as change agents. they often enjoy being part of a team. • Value job security and a stable working environment. http://kpmg. • They enjoy holding meetings and giving stakeholders the opportunity to present their case. • Prefer person-to-person encounters. often not enjoying the fruits of their long as workplaces cater to their needs. • See meetings to be the ideal way in which to gather information. Preferred communication style Although not as formal or hierarchical as Builders. younger generations may see them as stubborn and reluctant to adopt technology. Boomers are often workaholics.PrintView Page 13 of 56 What this Looks Like in the Workplace • Baby Boomers reliance on face-time can frustrate younger generations who want to be evaluated on what they do. .2017. • Do not appreciate being bombarded with information. • Extremely process oriented and concerned about adhering to accepted procedures. Baby Boomers prefer formal communication. many focus on activities that do not provide a meaningful ROI to the organization. not how long they spent doing it. • Write emails in standard language without texting acronyms. • Although they have a strong individualistic streak.2.aspx. What this Looks Like in the Workplace • Most comfortable with print mediums or face-to-face communication for serious communication. Thus. What this Looks Like in the Workplace • Although they work extremely hard. • They are team players who work together to achieve common goals.

they are risk tolerant. work from home.2. They may understand why certain "solutions" are not • Acknowledge and respect their experience and knowledge. recognize the quality of their work and appreciate the hours they put in and the loyalty they • Foster their creative and entrepreneurial drives by allowing them to take chances on new ventures without fear of reprisal.culturewizard. • Promote the use of team approaches as a vehicle to improve their individual skillsets. • Corporate downsizings and the devastation of their financial futures leads many to be more risk tolerant since the only true security is the ability to take care of themselves. • Provide flexible work arrangements such as part time. most tempered this in order to succeed.aspx.2017. 8. However. although the level varies by person. respond best to a cooperative management style that is competency based. What this Looks Like in the Workplace • Although they began their careers wanting to effect change. • Appeal to their knowledge and team spirit to have them mentor younger workers.PrintView Page 14 of 56 Risk Tolerance Since they see themselves as change agents who brought to the workplace the same unbridled enthusiasm that took on the establishment. How to Manage • Tap into their historical perspective when considering a new business case. Reverse mentoring often works well for the organization. Such arrangements can bridge the way into retirement and facilitate the change for both the employee and the organization. This generation is learning to appreciate recognition and find it as rewarding as they once found promotions and salary increases. • Recognize what they have to offer. • Motivated by individuality and achievement. Generation X Born 1965 – 1979 Other Names • Gen X • Slacker Generation http://kpmg.. or short sabbaticals. they remain willing to take calculated risks. as a group. • Younger managers should respect their knowledge and experience. Baby Boomers respond positively if they believe they are respected for what they have to offer. .

• Look for collegial working relationships. • Work to live. • Tech savvy Work Ethic • Seek work-life balance. • Believe respect must be earned. They watched their parents give their all to an organization only to be made redundant.PrintView Page 15 of 56 • Baby Busters Seminal Events • Fall of the Berlin Wall • Challenger disaster • AIDS • Single-parent families • Multi-culturalism • Desert Storm • Latchkey children Values • Self-reliant and resilient • Career-oriented but also value family • Pragmatic • Realistic • Low-key • Innovative and flexible • Independent • Cautious • Goal-oriented • Collaborative • Team focused • Resourceful • Entrepreneurial • Embrace change What this Looks Like in the Workplace • Have a natural skepticism about companies. . What this Looks Like in the Workplace • Although they are willing to work hard.. which are often viewed as more important than achievement. Older generations may see this as a desire for change for its own sake.culturewizard. they do not expect job security and stay with an organization as long as they are learning and enjoying themselves. Therefore.2017. http://kpmg..2. • Results rather than process oriented. Extremely egalitarian. If there is a shortcut or a way to streamline a process. • Want frequent feedback. they will find it. • Fun-loving and creative. they focus more on working smart.aspx.

2. . Gen X can be extremely risk tolerant.aspx. They enjoy brainstorming and coming up with new solutions to old problems. What this Looks Like in the Workplace • Eager for change and new challenges since they are constantly striving to be all they can be. explain why and be prepared to discuss exceptions. • Gen Xs adapt well to change and are not lulled into a sense of security with the status quo. • Foster collaborative relationships within the work group. • Want work to be a source of lifelong learning.. stress the steps that must be followed. If there is a strict order of steps. This may be viewed as a lack of attention to detail. What this Looks Like in the Workplace • The best way to transfer knowledge to this generation is by mentoring. dislike repetitive tasks. They see most meetings as a waste of time that could have been spent more productively. • Provide frequent communication so that they feel they are in the loop and understand the rationale behind decisions.. They are also highly entrepreneurial. Expect to enjoy what they do and have fun while doing it.PrintView Page 16 of 56 • Seek variety and constant stimulation. http://kpmg.2017. they work best with a hands-off management style.culturewizard. Memos or reports are viewed as too formal and requiring too much unnecessary detail and background information. What this Looks Like in the Workplace • Want written communication to be visually appealing • Expect limited amount of theory or context • Informal writing style • Prefer email as the major communication vehicle. They want to find solutions to real problems rather than Preferred communication style Since they are egalitarian. Preferred Learning Style Gen Xs are experiential learners who learn by doing. How to Manage • Value constructive feedback • Do not micro-manage. 8. • When providing instructions. • Do not particularly care for meetings unless they serve a purpose. they prefer informal communication vehicles that are direct and immediate. Risk Tolerance Since they were raised to be self-reliant.

.PrintView Page 17 of 56 • Offer a variety of tasks and projects with increasing responsibility. • Provide ongoing training. mentoring and and will achieve it with your organization or elsewhere. Gen X wants to understand how their performance will be measured so they can monitor their progress. • Create opportunities to work in teams. • Provide clear deadlines and expectations. Generation Y Born 1965 – 1979 Other Names • Gen Y • The Why Generation • Millennials Seminal Events • New millennium 2000 • September 11 • Bali bombings • The Internet age • Iraq War Values • Optimistic • Self-Confident • Socially aware • Lifelong learners • Respect diversity • Technologically savvy • Close relationships with parents • Achievement-oriented • Work-life balance • Multi-taskers • Open and collaborative • Creative • Productive • What's-in-it-for-me attitude • Relationship oriented What this Looks Like in the Workplace http://kpmg.. • Provide performance-based rewards for achievement. 8.aspx. Work relationships are extremely important. Gen Xs believe they're responsible for their career advancement.2017.culturewizard. .2. • Focus on results rather than procedures and processes.

which older generations may view as a sense of entitlement not backed up by experience or performance. blogs and text messages. Therefore. • They focus on what is achieved rather than how it is achieved. action oriented and multi-taskers. What this Looks Like in the Workplace • Prefers to communicate through email. informal communication is the ideal. immediate. Do not care about the history or why something is done a certain way.culturewizard. lazy and unethical. sharp. rather than on the phone or face-to-face conversations. • Define success by what is important to them.2017. • View micromanagement as a lack of trust. • Want mentors. • Expect their careers to fit their lifestyle. Titles are not as important as challenging work.2. • Have a strong desire for a close. . they look for instant gratification. • Expect to progress rapidly. • Have high expectations and are not afraid of making their desires known. informal relationship with their manager. • Want work that is challenging and meaningful.they want to participate. • Prefer to share the same beliefs as their organization.aspx. selfish.PrintView Page 18 of 56 • Older generations see them as arrogant. Instant Messaging (IM). • Question anything and everything. They have no difficulty being barraged by information from multiple sources simultaneously. • Live in the here and now. 8. • The close relationships with their parents may make them appear immature. and they want their views to be heard. Nothing is sacred and nothing is immune to improvement. • Low tolerance for boredom. • Sense of entitlement. and to-the-point. http://kpmg. Many discuss work challenges with their parents. Have a low tolerance for boredom. Preferred communication style Having been raised with computers. • Expect immediate gratification and frequent promotions or new tasks. Work Ethic • Work to live • Work-life balance is considered a given • Expect to succeed What this Looks Like in the Workplace • Want flexible schedules and work arrangements that take into consideration their outside interests.. • Expect to do well and may place the blame elsewhere if they don't. • Expect fast messages that are • Enjoy being part of a team -. Expect their manager to also be their friend.

It is important to provide context to Gen Ys and help them develop a realistic idea of what they can expect. see them as a waste of time. explain how this task is relevant to the organization. Gen Ys are collaborative learners. • When delegating routine and mundane tasks. 8. • Frequently use humor. they can be risk How to Manage • Explain how their role fits into the organization. • They can have difficulties with Baby Boomer's approach to knowledge transfer in the guise of story telling since they have little patience for long-winded recitations. Let the older share their experiences and expertise while Gen Y provide insights into engaging with their generation and the new times. spontaneous learning situations. They are interested in getting facts quickly.2017. • Do not like meetings. • Provide opportunities to try new skills and take on new assignments in a protected environment. and thrive in a relaxed consensus- driven group. • Given their strong relationship ethic. enjoy working in teams. • Set up reverse mentoring where knowledge flows both ways. • Want transparency and credibility.. . Preferred Learning Style Prefer consensus-driven. http://kpmg. management and communication skills. • Good at building culturally diverse teams without discriminating. • Prefer webinars and online technology for on-going education. which is generally funny.PrintView Page 19 of 56 • Focus on speed and getting the message across. Give recognition in a form that matters to the individual.aspx.2. Risk Tolerance Since they are not accustomed to failure. not on how it is done. What this Looks Like in the Workplace Prefer to work in a team environment to mitigate risk among a group rather than accept individual responsibility.. Want multi-sensory. What this Looks Like in the Workplace • On the job training and mentoring are the optimal approaches to transferring knowledge. • Want to learn more about "soft skills" such as presentation skills. Consider new and innovative approaches that are motivational to the individual. participative situations that offer flexibility. mocking or even edgy. Gen Ys work best when they understand how their contribution matters.culturewizard. • Be their role model – they measure others on what they do. • Take an interest in them as a person. They do not believe there is only one way to do anything. • Clearly communicate expectations and what the employee can expect from the company.

Many don't understand the basics of good manners and decorum. Uniting Church 5.) Population Growth Rate: 1. German 3.1%. • Provide clear deadlines and follow-up promptly if one is missed.2%.aspx. other Protestant 1. Greek 1.4%. Italian 3. Chinese 3. other Christian 2. Australian 25. unspecified 5.4% Note: data represents self-identified ancestry.2%. urbanized people (with less than 15% of the nation living in rural areas).) Religions: Protestant 30.2%. Hindu 1.3%.6%.09% (2014 est.3% (2011 est.3%). • Offer training on basics of dealing with others and customer service. Dutch 1.5%. Nationality: Noun: Australian(s) Adjective: Australian Population: 22.8%.3%.2%).8% (includes Australian aboriginal . Catholic 25. and are known for their rugged individualism and concern for their health and the environment. • Communicate expectations clearly. Irish 7.3%.1%. Country Overview The People Australians are generally thought of as congenial. unspecified 9. Indian 1. other Catholic 0. Pentecostal 1. • Take the mystery out of how decisions are made.992. Scottish 6. none 22. This may be interpreted as lack of respect for authority or rudeness. • Break large goals into pieces so they can self-monitor their performance. Muslim 2. other 1.) (Anglican 17.) Ethnic groups: English 25.5%. Create an environment of transparency.3%.4%. other 15. .PrintView Page 20 of 56 • Provide frequent feedback.9%.4%.5%).0%.2%.9%. Orthodox 2.4%.2. Presbyterian and Reformed 2.8%. Lutheran 1. Buddhist 2. Millennials often only focus on those parts of the task that are enjoyed. 8.2017. • Remove barriers and unnecessary bureaucracy.3% (Roman Catholic 25.. Baptist..654 (July 2016 est. 1. start with something positive.1%. over a third of respondents reported two ancestries (2011 est. When offering constructive criticism.

Arabic 1. Greek 1.PrintView Page 21 of 56 Languages: English 76. Australia is the driest continent in the world... which hosts about 3.aspx. Sydney is a bustling metropolis with tall buildings. and later to prisoners of a penal colony. Sydney is the tourist and economic capital of Australia. Melbourne. . and indeed in the world. excellent public transportation system.4%. Christmas Island.3%. with the exception of the Blue Mountains of New South Wales. and is home to some of the world’s most unusual and varied wildlife. and the Grampians of Victoria. Vietnamese 1.000 events per year. Government http://kpmg. Coral Sea Islands.1%. as the largest city in the country and the capital of the state of New South Wales. 8. Melbourne is home to over 4 million people. Cocos (Keeling) as the capital of Victoria and the cultural capital of Australia. is the Sydney Opera House.6%. Sydney. unspecified 5% (2011 est. One of the most architecturally distinctive buildings in the city. Norfolk Island) as well as the Australian Antarctic Territory and the subantarctic Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Island. With its fascinating history as home to the indigenous Aborigines for thousands of years. a vibrant night life. Sydney's Central Business District and many of its suburbs sit on sandstone cliffs overlooking Sydney Harbor – considered one the most beautiful harbors in the world.2%.2. Mandarin 1. Sandwiched between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The country is divided into 6 distinct self-governing states and two mainland territories.) Source: The World Factbook Cities & Regions Australia's terrain ranges from tropical to desert.2%. and beautiful beaches.8%. It also administers a number of island territories (Ashmore and Cartier Islands. and international cuisine.4%. With nearing 6 million residents. Australia lies across the Tropic of Capricorn.2017. The country has relatively flat lands. other 10. The city is known for its mix of 19th century architecture and modern urbanity. Cantonese 1. Italian 1.culturewizard.

com/DesktopModules/RW3Modules/CP2014/ A comprehensive directory of Australian government web sites. a Commonwealth real Capital: Canberra Independence: 1 January 1901 (from the federation of UK colonies) Legal system: Common law system based on the English model Source: The World Factbook More Government Information Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members in Australia https://www..overview: Following two decades of continuous growth.PrintView Page 22 of 56 Country name: • Conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia • Conventional short form: Australia Government type: Parliamentary democracy (Federal Parliament) under a constitutional monarchy. low unemployment. .cia. 8.gksoft. Links to Government Web Sites http://www. Department of An online directory of leaders updated weekly by the Central Intelligence Agency. http://kpmg.2.S.. and a strong and stable financial system. principally driven by a sharp fall in global prices of key export commodities.aspx. Demand for resources and energy from Asia and especially China has stalled and sharp drops in current prices have impacted growth. Background Note: Australia http://www.2017.culturewizard. Australia enters 2016 facing a range of growth An overview of government and political conditions published by the U. Economy Currency: Australian dollar (AUD) Economy . contained inflation. very low public debt.state.

culturewizard. Malaysia. Industries Mining.aspx. Japan. stimulated growth. Australia’s free trade agreement (FTA) with China entered into force in 2015. Singapore. and a regional FTA with ASEAN and New Zealand. and renewable energy sources. Canada.4%. Germany 4. Singapore. . and other trade forums..2. Australia continues to negotiate bilateral agreements with India and Indonesia. as well as larger agreements with its Pacific neighbors and the Gulf Cooperation Council countries. Thailand 5. South Korea 5. US 11. Department of Finace China 23%. and an Asia-wide Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership that includes the ten ASEAN countries and China. Korea. New Zealand and India. Malaysia. accounting for about 70% of GDP and 75% of jobs. adding to existing FTAs with the Republic of Korea. the G20. natural gas. APEC. Australia is a significant exporter of natural resources. Official information from the Department of Finance and Official information from the Commonwealth Department of the Treasury. New Zealand.. A series of major investments. and food. although this trend has reversed due to falling global commodity prices. the US. chemicals. Australia benefited from a dramatic surge in its terms of trade in recent years. and the US. 8. and made the economy more flexible and dynamic. Thailand. will significantly expand the resources sector. Chile. http://kpmg. Australia plays an active role in the World Trade Organization.6% (2015) Source: The World Factbook More Economic Information Department of Treasury http://www. energy. industrial and transportation equipment.PrintView Page 23 of 56 The services sector is the largest part of the Australian economy. Australia.1%. copper. iron. Japan. food such as the US$40 billion Gorgon Liquid Natural Gas project. uranium. and Vietnam. Chile.treasury. Australia is an open market with minimal restrictions on imports of goods and services. Australia's abundant and diverse natural resources attract high levels of foreign investment and include extensive reserves of coal. steel Exports . Peru. Australia was comparatively unaffected by the global financial crisis as the banking system has remained strong and inflation is under control. Australia is also working on the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement with The process of opening up has increased productivity. New Zealand. Japan 7.

2. and poor farming practices. industrial development.229 m Natural hazards: Cyclones along the coast. population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts.. 8. the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast..760 km Climate: Generally arid to semiarid. the invigorating sea breeze known as the "Fremantle Doctor" affects the city of Perth on the west coast and is one of the most consistent winds in the world Source: The World Factbook http://kpmg.2017.220 sq km Land: 7. urbanization.741. the only continent without glaciers. is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site.current issues: Soil erosion from overgrazing. forest fires Volcanism: Volcanic activity occurs on the Heard and McDonald Islands Environment . fertile plain in southeast Elevation extremes: Lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m Highest point: Mount Kosciuszko 2. continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean Area: Total: 7. temperate in south and east. .aspx. limited natural freshwater resources Geography .300 sq km Water: 58. severe droughts. soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water.culturewizard. clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species. the largest coral reef in the world.note: World's smallest continent but sixth-largest country. tropical in north Terrain: Mostly low plateau with deserts.920 sq km Note: Includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island Land boundaries: 0 km Coastline: 25.682.PrintView Page 24 of 56 Geography & Climate Location: Oceania.

. Australia developed as a free society. Australian troops fought with the Allies. • During both World Wars. • The colonies encountered many problems after settlement. • In 2003 the Senate passed no-confidence motion against Prime Minister John Howard over his handling of Iraq crisis. as in many democratic countries at the time. They suffered due to bad farming conditions. Australia saw a great deal of political change with women's movements and movements by indigenous peoples. it was largely unknown land referred to as Terra Australia Incognita. Arthur Philip. Vietnam. explorer Captain James Cook sailed for four months along the uncharted eastern coast of Australia. • During the 1960s. now known as the city of Sydney.2. followed by the Dutch. Australia. 1788. • In 1770. 8. still largely unexplored and thought to be uninhabitable. The Portuguese. but for centuries. the southern part of which he named New South Wales. the colonies of New South Wales. However. thought to have migrated from Southeast Asia.. there were increasing struggles regarding Aboriginal land rights. • Sydney hosted the 2000 Olympic Games. By 1901.2017. . Victoria. and Tasmania were self-governing and federated. • From the 1850s to the 1890s. • The first penal colony was founded on the shores of Port Jackson. which began to be established in 1788. • With industrialization rapidly increasing in England and the loss of the American colonies following the Revolution. In the 1850s. • A constitution for separate Australian colonies was approved by the British in 1897-98.aspx. and lack of adequate food and supplies. a retired Naval Captain. They also contributed troops later in the Korean. from a commonwealth headed by the British monarch to an independent republic. for many indigenous Australians. were the first Europeans to briefly set foot on the continent. • Between the 1820s and the 1880s. The Northern Territory joined the federation ten years later. Western Australia. In the 1980s. which is known as Australian Day – the biggest day of celebration in the country. and became increasingly urbanized. • The entire continent came under British dependency in 1829. was the first to govern the colony. He stopped at various points and at Possesion Island in the North he planted a flag and claimed Australia for the British Crown. crowded cities began to create a demand for more space for prisons. disease. • Philip took formal possession of the colony on January 26. The Aborigines are a very spiritual people with deep connections to nature and the land. South Australia. • Europeans had charted some of Australia’s coastlines. the country experienced a Gold Rush. the population grew very rapidly. It was the first time the Senate's ever voted of no-confidence in an active http://kpmg.culturewizard. it is a day of protest and mourning. was chosen as the place to set up penal colonies. was defeated in 1999.PrintView Page 25 of 56 History Overview • The first known people in Australia were the Aborigines. and Iraq Wars. • A referendum to change Australia's status.

• Despite Gillard’s announcement of September elections.. • In February 2012.2. a leadership challenge in March 2013 led to a cabinet reshuffle. • In July. • In 2006 Australia and East Timor signed an agreement to divide billions of dollars in expected revenues from oil and gas deposits in the Timor Sea. the goal of which was to get rid of long-time Kevin Rudd Australia signed an agreement with PNG to conduct off-shore processing on Manus Island. • Prime Minister Rudd ratified the Kyoto protocol on climate change in 2007. • In 2008 the government abandoned the 1990 policy to hold asylum seekers in detention centers until their cases were heard. • An independent panel recommended creating asylum centers in Nauru and PNG in September 2012. a carbon tax was implemented amid economic concerns. challenged Gillard’s leadership and lost. Julia Gillard was elected Governor General the same year. the Foreign Minister. Country Information Embassies History Public Holidays http://kpmg. . Nonetheless. At the same time.PrintView Page 26 of 56 government official.2017. Howard was elected to a fourth term the following year. • In 2008 the government abandoned the policy it had held since the 1990s to hold asylum seekers in detention centers until their cases were heard. She was the first woman to hold her position in Australia.aspx.. This reversed the previous government's policy.culturewizard. Both arrangements were approved in July 2013. 8. Kevin Rudd.

mate" (when a man greets another man). use the same name that was used during introductions. often a handshake and a warm. "G'day" or "G'day. .. While an Australian may say. • Avoid giving an expensive gift." You may also simply ask the question in return rather than giving a response. http://kpmg. Trades people may be given a small amount of cash. even the first time they meet someone. • A good quality bottle of wine is also a good hospitality gift..aspx. "Hello". thanks. or a six-pack of beer at Christmas. Gift Giving In general. "Fine.PrintView Page 27 of 56 Tourist Information Social Etiquette Meeting People Greetings are casual. this can sound patronizing when spoken by a foreigner. welcoming smile. It is better to simply say. Naming Conventions • Aussies often use first Here are some general gift giving guidelines (but also check to be sure they are permitted under company policy): • If invited to someone's home for dinner. • Whether or not a woman adopts her husband's surname upon marriage is a personal decision rather than a cultural nuance. 8.2017. Small gifts are commonly exchanged with family members. • If in doubt as to the correct protocol. close friends.2. bring a box of chocolates or flowers to the hosts. a bottle of wine. • Some women continue to use their maiden name at work and adopt their husband's surname in other situations. The question "How are you?" is rhetorical and the expected response is. which could be interpreted as boasting.culturewizard. and neighbors on birthdays and Christmas. Australians do not lavish expensive gifts on each other.

It is not an insult. Australians generally extend invitations a week in advance. In some cases.. 8. • A thank you note is not expected. the more strict the protocol. Guests typically bring wine or beer for their personal consumption. http://kpmg. • Unless stated otherwise. They may invite you to their house after a brief acquaintance. no more than 15 minutes late if invited to a barbeque or a large party. • A small gift for the children is generally well received.culturewizard. they have simply decided to invite some friends over for a barbeque or small gathering. Sitting back and waiting for someone to serve you may be interpreted as thinking that you are superior – a negative in egalitarian Australia. Entertaining How Australians Entertain Australians enjoy entertaining and can be quite casual about it. It is a good idea to check with the hosts to see what they recommend. but a telephone call the next day to thank the host and hostess for their hospitality is a nice gesture. Many invitations will be for a barbeque or "barbie". the dress code is generally casual. which is meant quite literally.PrintView Page 28 of 56 • The thought behind the gift is generally considered more important than the gift itself. • If asked to "bring a plate" you are expected to bring a dish that the guests can share.2. . You may be told where things are and be expected to serve yourself. Australians often extend invitations on relatively short notice. The more formal the occasion. • Gifts are opened when received. two weeks for more formal events. • Contact the hosts ahead of time to see if they would like you to bring a dish. When in doubt.aspx. an informal barbecue may be held at a public beach or park..2017. Invitations may be verbal You will often be told to make yourself at home. in which case everyone will be expected to bring their own food. watch what others are doing and emulate their behavior. If you are invited to an Australian's house: • Arrive on time if invited to dinner. • Offer to help the hosts with the preparation or clearing up after a meal is Table Manners Australians are very casual and this is seen in their table manners.

there is no consideration given to any member's financial status. Once the drinks have been drunk. An invitation to a restaurant by an Australian does not mean they intend to pay.. • Wait until everyone has been served before eating. • At a barbeque. Splitting the bill among diners is commonplace. • At formal meals. • Portion sizes can be quite generous. Like splitting the bill at a restaurant. .2017. Most restaurants do not allow smoking. They allow patrons to bring their own alcoholic beverages and charge a minimal amount for "corkage". they will generally say so when extending the invitation. • Indicate that you have finished eating by laying your knife and fork parallel on your plate. especially in more sophisticated restaurants. the invitation was to join them. Dining Out Tipping is becoming more prevalent. Some restaurants are called "BYO" (bring-your-own).2.. a tip of 10% is given for good service. Toasting • Toasts are common. You can find more explicit http://kpmg. they expect everyone to pay individually when going out casually. • The most common toast is "Cheers".hold the fork in the left hand and the knife in the right while eating. Since Australians are egalitarian. If a restaurant does not add a service • The host generally offers the first toast. Buying out of turn is considered to be putting on airs while not buying a round is deemed rude.culturewizard. background. or gender when buying a round for the group. Tipping The following tipping hints are guidelines. wait for the host to start eating or until you are invited to begin.PrintView Page 29 of 56 • Table manners are Continental -. The GST included in bills is a goods and services tax rather than a service charge. • Australians are quite accepting of different types of table manners. Tips are generally expected when there is a group dining. 8. Every member of the group is expected to buy the same number of rounds. It is best to call in advance to find out the policy of the restaurant. • Keep your elbows off the table and your hands above the table when eating. Standard rules for buying a round or shout: A round or shout is where one person pays for the drinks of the other members of the group. If they plan to host the group. guests are expected to help themselves. another group member pays for the next round. • It is impolite to use salt or pepper without first tasting the food.

Since time can be controlled. It is a good idea not to raise sensitive subjects such as the treatment of Aborigines or immigration unless you know the person well and can present your case as an intellectual argument rather than an attack. or even early for meetings is important.culturewizard. In social situations. local sights or landmarks. Humor is an integral part of Australian conversations. and local wines.2017. Conversation Topics Australians are enthusiastic conversationalists and debaters. simply that they will generally be unwilling to give up their weekend or holiday time for their job.. Arriving late is considered rude as is arriving before the stipulated time. operas. arriving on time. It is considered extremely rude to arrive late for a meeting. they prefer that business not interfere with social time. guests are expected to arrive close to the time invited. restaurants. Discussing sports is a favorite pastime.PrintView Page 30 of 56 information on restaurant tipping in the Dining Out section above. Australians will let you know if they do not appreciate a comment or discussion topic. They may discuss politics and religion. http://kpmg. . They will gladly discuss a wide range of topics. This does not mean that Australians won't work to finish a job.2. Aussies enjoy arguing and debating. especially rugby and cricket. They are able to poke fun at themselves and at others.. although it is best to wait for them to raise these issues. In business situations. Their sense of humor is often They will gladly listen to your point of view and play devil's advocate for enjoyment. Sporting events start on time as do plays. For the most part. • Restaurants: 10%–15% in fine restaurants • Porters: $2 per bag • Taxis: Round up Approach to Time Most Australians think time is something you can control. and other social activities. 8. Other safe topics include travel.

This is called a "round" or a "shout".PrintView Page 31 of 56 If an Aussie makes a joke at someone's expense.) Australians are rather it means that they think of the person as a friend. As such. • The attitude of "no worries" is the norm.2. . they will ask personal questions in an attempt to get to know someone better.2017. and taxi are the norm. Queuing for the bus. Much socializing takes place in pubs where everyone in a group is expected to pay for a round of drinks. ask questions of a financial nature. (See Entertaining for more information. • Try to respond to teasing with a quick comeback. There are few rules to follow: • Men should not wink at women since it may be taken as an overture. Aussies appreciate people who can poke fun at themselves. or the handicapped. and getting too close could be misconstrued. however.. Extreme displays of emotion are frowned upon. • Maintain eye contact while speaking. They will generally not. Faux Pas Keep in mind the following behaviors while in Australia: • Do not boast about your accomplishments and achievements.aspx. People usually speak at an arms distance. Other Situations Although Aussies are informal. A woman traveling alone should sit in the back left passenger seat of the car. and enjoy quite a bit of personal space. When riding in a taxi. do not drop in uninvited. 8. It is polite to telephone first. Australians are more direct than people from many other cultures. it is customary for men to sit in the front with the driver..culturewizard. http://kpmg. Australians do not use a lot of hand gestures. train. the driver will be on the right. It is considered good manners to give up your seat on mass transportation to the elderly. Men generally do not relinquish their seat to women near their own age. Do not jump the queue. Humor can also be used to poke fun at someone who is too serious. • Do not appear too stiff or formal. women with babies.

Direct questions are common and are not meant to be offensive. Communication Communication Essentials With the increased levels of immigration. so it is important to speak plainly. They say what they mean and mean what they say and expect the same from They expect that others are doing their best. . even in business. straightforward. communication may mirror that of someone's country of origin rather than be purely Australian in nature. and concise speech. The information provided is based on the Australian communication style. Body language is minimal. Australians generally do not need a lot of background or context in order to communicate their ideas or gather information in business and social situations. Information about your qualifications should be revealed gradually and over a period of time rather than at the initial meeting. Most Australians are direct and comfortable addressing others in a frank. This is a culture where appearing modest and unassuming is preferable to touting your achievements and success.aspx. Australians do not like conducting business with people who think that they are better than others. you may have difficulty with the brevity and lack of context provided in Australian communication. although it may add emphasis or context to the spoken word. More so than most cultures. they may think that your compliments are a precursor to being given false information. They expect people to keep their problems to themselves. http://kpmg. They value frank. For the most part. Australians strive to maintain a cheerful demeanor. Australians do not trust people who give excessive praise. Do not expect the Australian to notice your non-verbal language and provide an expanded explanation. While this may differ based upon an Australians' cultural heritage.2. concise manner. go to the end and wait your turn. If you are having a difficulty with an Australian in a business situation.PrintView Page 32 of 56 • If there is a queue. 8. This is a culture where what you say will be taken literally. Barging in is considered rude. the matter should be discussed in private.2017..culturewizard. Sporting analogies are frequently used in conversation. If you offer praise too frequently. If you come from a culture where communication is more indirect. If you do not understand something. you are expected to ask for clarification.

Australian English.culturewizard. it is their way of demonstrating their sense of egalitarianism. 8. Australians have a dry humor that often includes irony and sardonic wit. Be clear that the translation must be exact. rather than what the translator thinks each party wants to hear.2. . The following are some Strine words or phrases that you may encounter. At times. However. Have your translator explain to you the most elementary of basic courtesies.PrintView Page 33 of 56 You may want to learn something about Australian sports before conducting business. Key Words/Phrases Australia is extremely diverse: less than 80 percent of the population speak English as a first language.aspx. or Strine. Non-Verbal Language http://kpmg. This is not meant as an insult.. differs from other dialects mainly in its vocabulary. It is a good idea to meet with the translator prior to your appointments so that the person learns your accent and can be exposed to any technical or non-familiar terms that may be used. English is usually used in business.2017. English Strine Hello G'day Afternoon Avo Chicken Chook Sick Crook Cooler Eskie Buy a round of drinks Shout Lose your temper Spit the dummy Lose control Throw a wobbly Using Translators When you select a translator. Australians may use language that is more colorful than you are accustomed to hearing. Rather. Developing a thorough relationship with your translator enables them to argue your points with a level of confidence they might not otherwise be sure to develop an early understanding of what you expect—specifically.

They do not touch someone's arm. Men may kiss or hug a woman with whom they have a personal relationship. The proper way to close a letter depends upon how well you know the person.2017. Making eye contact during conversation adds to the credibility of the message.. Mail & Telephone Letters / Email While in many respects Australia is an informal country. Letters should be addressed using the person’s honorific title and their surname.aspx. you may find that your Australian associates "freeze up" if you touch them while speaking. Due to the direct and to-the-point style that many Australians prefer. If you know the person well. Sustained eye contact throughout a conversation is expected. . this is not the case with men. 8. Although female friends may hug or kiss when greeting. Australians prefer some personal physical space between people when conversing—about arm’s length (the distance of an outstretched arm).culturewizard. If you don’t know the person’s name. unless you have a personal relationship. The most common ending for a business letter to someone with whom you don’t have a personal relationship is "Yours Faithfully" or "Yours Sincerely". If you put your arm around an Australian's shoulder when speaking. For the most part. their emails can appear somewhat abrupt if you are from a culture where written communication is used to foster the personal relationship. Eye contact is a sign of sincerity." Non-verbal expressions are not as important in Australian communication except as they add emphasis to a message or are part of an individual’s personal communication style. e-mail is considered a quick way to provide information.2. The language is http://kpmg. Smiling is also an important non-verbal cue that you are listening and enjoying the conversation. request information. or come to agreement on business matters.. you might close the letter with "Kind Regards". In general. They try to "say what they mean and mean what they say. Email is often the main vehicle of communication in business situations as it provides a record that is not available from a telephone call.PrintView Page 34 of 56 Australians expect to be taken at their words with little emphasis on their non-verbal language. Australians are not tactile communicators. regardless of the depth of the relationship. the person may feel that their personal space has been invaded. Email is extremely widespread. Language should be formal and polite. for both personal and professional use. If you are from a more demonstrative culture. it retains some vestiges of "Dear Sir / Madam" is appropriate.

you may have to go through a secretary or P. “Kind Regards”.2017. Conference calls and video-conferencing are also common. background data. Presentations Handouts: • It is customary to distribute a copy of the presentation at the start of the presentation. as they function as the gatekeeper to the individual you’re trying to access. • Materials should inspire credibility. (personal assistant) to reach a senior level executive. err on the side of formality and address the person using their honorific title and surname unless you have previously been asked to use their first name. avoid scheduling at an anti-social time in Australia.culturewizard.. If at all possible. or the more informal "Cheers". • To emphasize a point. or spelling mistakes indicate lack of attention to detail. When leaving a message. 8. Voicemail is extremely common. so expect to be on first names terms with everyone except the most senior members of an organization. Treat this person with the utmost In many cases. it is important to bear in mind that the vast difference in time zones that may complicate scheduling. intersperse charts and graphs with written material. Telephone Australia is an informal society. • Handouts should provide additional details. be sure to speak slowly and clearly and leave all of your contact details. When scheduling. grammatical errors. case studies. trust and confidence. . and testimonials in the handouts. or charts and data to substantiate what is presented. • Handouts with backup data or more information may be given out at the end of the presentation.2. although it is still common to start with a greeting (“Hi” or “Hello” plus the person’s name).A. and close with “Regards”.. • Typos. • If your company has not previously done business with this company. Presentation Slides/PowerPoint: • Avoid excessive bells and whistles. When in doubt. • Use diagrams and pictures when possible rather than words.aspx. • Keep A/V slides simple and easy to read. provide references. http://kpmg. • Limit the number of words per slide and the number of graphic images.PrintView Page 35 of 56 less formal than a letter.

com/DesktopModules/RW3Modules/CP2014/PrintView. • Double negatives. Opening the Presentation: • Welcome the audience. emotions and feelings are not part of the business culture. 8. since they may not be readily understood. For each key message. Be ready to put the visual aids aside and discuss the substance of the presentation if that is preferable to the audience. or even funny that segues into the presentation. testimonials and references. • Speak in a straightforward manner. • Presentations should be well-organized. not the presentation. • State the business advantage of what you are about to discuss and a “big picture” overview. • Avoid using hyperbole. • Limit the presentation to three key messages. • Minimize slang or jargon. Use common sense arguments. humble. • Australians prefer "substance over style". exaggeration or self-promotion. middle and end. are considered poor grammar and should be avoided..aspx. do not focus entirely on one member. • Introduce yourself briefly (name. • You may ask the audience to turn off their mobile phones. http://kpmg. "I think" or "I believe" is preferable to "I feel". • When presenting a new concept. position. Presenter: • Maintain an open and friendly style when presenting. provide some brief historical data. • Open with something personal. • Make eye contact with your audience. • Digressions or excessive details are not appreciated. succinct and to the point. • Begin with an overview or agenda. prepare a memorable anecdote or story. A joke or humorous story at the start can facilitate developing a rapport. Go over the presentation’s structure.culturewizard. • Presentations should be straightforward and emphasize both the positive and negative aspects of the business case.PrintView Page 36 of 56 • Slides should be an outline.2017. the audience may interrupt to ask for clarification or challenge you on a statement. Show a clear start. .2. while understood. • Avoid phrases that imply you have an emotional tie to the information being conveyed. • Draw parallels with the familiar to facilitate understanding complex ideas.. Audience: • Even if a Q&A session is on the schedule. and company). • Present your business case with facts and figures. Body of the Presentation: • Focus on the benefits your product or service has for the audience. • Emphasize details and explain the practical implications of your information.

• Expect challenging questions from the audience. Internet http://kpmg. The 12-hour clock divides the day into two periods (midnight to noon and noon to midnight). • You can use interactive exercises with Australians.m. To ensure there is no confusion. Closing the Presentation: • You may present a summary at the end of the presentation.. 2011 would be written 09. Example: July 9. 2 o'clock in the afternoon would be 14:00 in the 24-hour clock. • Leave time for a Q&A session at the end of your presentation. Australians enjoy verbal sparring and see it as a way "test your mettle".com/DesktopModules/RW3Modules/CP2014/PrintView. Time The 24-hour clock is a timekeeping convention where the time of a day is the number of hours since midnight.aspx. This might include asking for a follow-up meeting in a week to talk about the next step or to answer any questions that arose in the interim. • Thank the audience. you may want to spell out the name of the month.culturewizard.2. The year may be written in two or four digits../p. If the day or month is less than 10. designation to denote day or night.2017. Most Australians use the 12-hour clock when speaking and writing with the a. each with 12 hours.11 or 09/07/2011. Date/Time Date In Australia. Australians use the 24-hour clock in the defense industry and some airline and train schedules. .m. This leaves no ambiguity as to what is the day and what is the month. month and year format with periods or slashes between each number. 8.PrintView Page 37 of 56 • Present potential drawbacks of not adopting the proposal/recommendation.07. including leading zeroes is optional. • End the presentation with a call to action. Thus. dates are generally written in the day.

PrintView Page 38 of 56 Language & Phrasebook Newspapers Postal Services Radio & Television Business Protocol Meeting & Greeting • Shake hands upon arriving and when leaving.culturewizard.2. • Business titles are seldom used since they are viewed as putting on airs. address a businessperson in the same manner they were introduced.. http://kpmg. • Initially.2017. • Titles should be simple to understand. Business Cards • Business cards are exchanged at the initial introduction without formal ritual. • Wait for a woman to offer her hand.aspx. 8. .. some Australians may have honorary titles which may or may not be used. • The move to first names generally occurs quite rapidly. address businesspeople by their honorific title and their surname. • As a Commonwealth When in doubt. it is a good idea to wait until invited before using someone's first name. Nonetheless. • Maintain eye contact during the greeting. • The business card may be put away with only a cursory glance.

Appropriate attire varies within countries based on location. Gifts Here are some general gift giving guidelines (but also check to be sure they comply with company policy): • Business gift giving is not part of the business culture. Some industries and companies may have less stringent requirements. Before embarking on an international trip.aspx. • Men should wear a dark-colored. something from your home country will be appreciated. .2017. event.. As such. • Business attire is relatively conservative in Melbourne and Sydney. • In Brisbane or other tropical areas. • If you choose to give a gift. It is a good idea to check with the company to determine how "dressed down" is acceptable. http://kpmg. depending on the job function and company culture.2. men may wear short-sleeved shirts and ties. conservative business suit to the first meeting. • Inviting someone out for a meal or a drink can be considered a gift. • Some companies have instituted "casual Friday" and some allow blue jeans or other casual attire to be worn. • It is a good idea to dress conservatively until you know the dress code of the company. it is generally a good idea to check with the local office to determine what the appropriate dress code is in a specific • Avoid giving something expensive as it might make the recipient uncomfortable.PrintView Page 39 of 56 Business Attire The way a businessperson dresses conveys their professional image and their respect for the people with whom they conduct business. • Australians will be more concerned with the thought that went into the gift than the cost. • Women generally wear a smart dress or a business suit. and individual organization culture. 8.. what we report is the conservative approach to business attire for a country.

another member of the party pays for the next round. Business Hours • Offices: 8:00am—5:00pm Monday to Friday • Banks: 9:30am—4:30/5:00pm Monday–Friday. make sure to take beer and a selection of wines.. Every member of the party is expected to buy the same number of rounds. or gender. • Do not raise the subject of business unless the host does. • If taken to a pub. Buying out of turn is considered to be putting on airs while not buying a round is deemed rude. • If invited out for a drink with colleagues.PrintView Page 40 of 56 Business Entertaining • Much business entertaining takes place over lunch or a drink after work. except on late night shopping when it can be around . • Shopping malls: 10:00am to 7:00pm daily. each person is expected to pay for a round of drinks (called a "shout"). background. If so. • If you host a business dinner. accept the invitation. Once the drinks have been drunk. • You may be invited to an Australian's house for a barbeque or a meal. • Business breakfasts are becoming popular in Sydney.. Banks found in shopping malls often operate extended opening hours. Standard rules for buying a round or shout: A round or shout is where one person pays for the drinks of the other members of the party. check if the restaurant is BYO ("Bring Your Own"). there is no consideration given to any member's financial status.culturewizard. Some are open Saturday morning.aspx. • High street shops: On Saturdays 8:30am to between noon and 4:00pm. Business Meetings Meeting Essentials Scheduling Meetings http://kpmg. 8. Many stores are also open on Sundays from 9:00am to 4:00pm. Like splitting the bill at a restaurant.

emergencies do arise. which can make them appear blunt to people from cultures where communication is more indirect. In fact. Since Australians believe that everyone could have something important to add to a discussion. Therefore. . They should be made with as much lead time as possible. it will be discussed. It is a good idea to confirm the meeting. Australians tend to put directness before diplomacy. If you know that you will be late it is a good idea to telephone and offer your apologies. there will be an agenda. which has been agreed to and perhaps circulated in advance.2. either by telephone or in writing. even if they have time in their schedule. Many executives have personal assistants who make their appointments. If you do not arrive on • The intent is to address items in order with little discussion of items not related to the business discussion.aspx. They expect you to mean what you say and say what you mean. Australians have a direct communication style. • If something important arises as a result of the business discussion. However. 8. It is better to arrive a few minutes early rather than to keep someone waiting.PrintView Page 41 of 56 Appointments are necessary and relatively easy to schedule. They are generally comfortable giving a negative response. a few days in advance.culturewizard. If so. in the http://kpmg. The item will not be held over for another meeting. they do not expect subordinates to remain silent if their opinions are not the same as their superior. Conducting Meetings For the most part. your behavior may be interpreted as indicating that you are unreliable. it is important not to make promises that you cannot keep. Your colleagues will tell you what they think rather than what you want to hear. Christmas and Easter are not the best times to schedule business meetings since many businesspeople take vacation during these times. Agendas • For all but the most informal meetings. Punctuality is expected.2017. you may be able to schedule a meeting by explaining the reason. Rank is not considered the sole determinant of having a valuable opinion. Most executives will not receive cold callers...

. Due to the great distances between their country and others. Management Styles Relationships Australians are transactional and do not need long-standing personal relationships in order to conduct business. Since the population is relatively small given the size of the country and most large businesses operate out of key cities. laugh or smile. They also enjoy poking fun at others. Australians frequently inject humor into business discussions. Boasting about your company’s products or services may be considered ill- mannered. For the most part. Australians dislike hyperbole since they prefer to treat everyone as equals and dislike people who appear self-important or overly These relationships may not be as formalized as the "Old School" network and are becoming less important as more women and immigrants move up the career ladder.2017. Do not discuss your personal life at a business meeting. open and honest dialogue is considered the way to reach the best conclusion.2. it is a good idea to let them know something about you as a person. Be cautious not to appear impressed with your position. Privacy is important. 8. Australians tend to be more reliant on technology in business than many other countries.aspx. You may respond with good-natured teasing of your own. Although the "Tall Poppy" syndrome is not as prevalent as it http://kpmg. senior-level executives within an industry generally know one another. They may use video conferencing or telephone conference calls in lieu of face-to-face meetings. Unlike most cultures. Their humor tends towards irony and self-deprecation. a personal introduction can be beneficial when trying to meet with a decision maker. As such. This shows that you do not think too highly of yourself. people strive to develop harmonious working relationships since they never know when they will have to work with that person again. Although it is not necessary to use an intermediary to make introductions. Networking and relationship building are often important to long-term business success.culturewizard. If someone makes a joke at your expense. such as your interests.PrintView Page 42 of 56 collaborative business culture. Since Aussies work to live.. possessions or achievements. . they can be distrustful of people who appear "all business". Eye contact is important since it demonstrates respect and indicates that the other person is listening.

PrintView Page 43 of 56 once was. Feel free to tease them back in a jovial manner. Management Essentials If you were to think about the most important cultural attributes that you will see operating in business in Australia. positions of authority are earned on the basis of individual Australians do not appreciate hyperbole or hard sell techniques. Organizations and individuals are predisposed to risk. 8. many Aussies remain cynical about others who come across as snobs or impressed with themselves. Australians appear superficially friendly and somewhat relaxed. This is a culture where seeing yourself as better than someone else can have serious negative consequences. which means that they can have a high tolerance for risk and can be receptive to change. This does not mean that they don't pay attention to details or drive a hard bargain. Risk Tolerance Australians tend to be flexible. because there are rewards for risk takers who succeed and significant tolerance for those who do not. they would be: • Egalitarianism • Achievement orientation • Direct communication • Controlled time It is important to treat everyone with respect and deference. For the most part. If they begin to tease you.culturewizard. They prefer concise communication. As in most egalitarian cultures. it means your relationship has moved beyond superficial.aspx. There is a marked tendency for Aussies to poke fun at or tease people with whom they have a relationship. . Failure is often viewed as a necessary step in the learning process. which believes that hard work and innovation will bring a http://kpmg..2017. Underlying this readiness for risk and change is a generally optimistic and positive mindset. merely that they work to live rather than live to work. Since they are direct communicators. Managers may consult employees to gather background information and to share in the decision making process.

They may prefer to have decisions come from a team so that the risk is mitigated among a group and they do not have to accept individual responsibility.aspx.culturewizard. this often appears as a desire for change for its own sake. Impact of Generations on Risk Tolerance Since they are not accustomed to failure. 8. They adapt well to change and are not lulled into a sense of security with the status quo. business opportunities are presented and discussed from an optimistic perspective. They are also highly entrepreneurial. and adherence to schedules is expected. . it would generally follow a positive interpretation of the opportunity. success-oriented perspective with details about how to make the plan succeed. Since people in controlled-time cultures tend to have highly structured time. http://kpmg. they do not see any process or procedure as sacred and believe that most processes can be improved upon. they will find it. At the same time. Since they live in the here and now. As a result. but they are often modified and adjusted due to unanticipated events or changes in the environment. Successful entrepreneurs who have achieved wealth are admired as heroes and icons as evidence of Australia’s land-of-opportunity mythology.PrintView Page 44 of 56 better Gen X can be extremely risk tolerant. To older generations. without understanding the ramifications or why certain steps are necessary. Generation X employees are more concerned with working smart than with working hard. it’s generally a good idea to provide milestones on major projects so that everyone is clear on expectations. they are less interested in maintaining a certain way of doing something simply because it has historically been done that way. managers are expected to stay focused on the opportunity and the positive vision. Plans are created and followed. Therefore. While careful risk analysis is expected. Schedules & Deadlines Australia is a controlled-time culture. Australian managers will look for a proactive. Without losing sight of the risk... it is important to provide context to guide the employee. Since they were raised to be self-reliant. Missing a deadline is a sign of poor management and inefficiency. This can be particularly off-putting to individuals from cultures who have been trained to adhere to plans and weigh the risks before embracing the opportunity. They enjoy brainstorming and coming up with new solutions to old problems. Gen Y can be somewhat risk averse.2.2017. When discussing plan implementations. If there is a shortcut that can be taken or a way to streamline a process.

Although they take work seriously.. It is not common for managers to provide a great deal of positive feedback to employees. they take their free time just as seriously. Sporting analogies are often used since they are commonly understood. This type of accommodation is especially important to Gen X and Gen Y employees. most adopt a consultative management style. the management style tends to be collaborative and participative. Instead. Decision Making Company Structure Company structures are somewhat flat and not very hierarchical. Australians work to live.. they are generally not willing to give up weekends to meet a target. They do not value multi-tasking the way many other cultures They emphasize goals and outcomes and expect their employees to do their job in a professional manner. employees might become suspicious if excessive http://kpmg. Australians prefer to complete a project before beginning another. Most organizations are headed by a Managing Director and some employees have more status than others. . 8. Many organizations have adopted a matrix management style.2017. but do not generally micro-manage. Australians don't believe this makes them superior to other employees. they may devote their entire workday to the project until it is completed. If the deadline cannot be met without extending into an employee’s free time. Managers tend to be task-oriented. the deadline is considered unrealistic. Status tends to be based on achievement rather than position. In fact. due to the belief that everyone has something to offer. At the same time. There is no doubt about who is the boss.PrintView Page 45 of 56 Although Australians respect deadlines. many claim the linchpin of Australian management is fellowship or leading by walking alongside. Many managers prefer to give broad guidelines and expect their subordinates to work out the details of how to structure the assignment. which may explain why titles are not as prevalent as they are in many other cultures.aspx.culturewizard.2. Many organizations have flexible working hours in order to accommodate employees' lifestyle needs. however. often with a bit of humor. In fact. Managing Employees Australian managers do not see themselves as superior to their subordinates. When working on a deadline. Communication between managers and subordinates tends to be direct. For the most part.

both Gen X and Y also seek autonomy in their role and tasks. • Provide opportunities to try new skills and take on new assignments in a protected environment. Generation Y employees expect to develop a close personal relationship with their boss. whereas Baby Boomer managers gave less challenging work and tended to micro-manage by telling them how to do something and providing little room to make their own decisions about how to go about a task. When managing employees born between 1965 and 2000 (Gen X and Gen Y). • Provide frequent feedback. In research done on the Australian workplace.culturewizard. Gen Ys claimed that Gen X managers treated them as equals and provided them with stimulating work. • Be their role model – they measure others on what they do. Let the older share their experiences and expertise while Gen Y provide insights into engaging with their generation and the new times. • When delegating routine and mundane tasks. To maintain these positive traits. it is important that the manager shows a sincere interest in the subordinate's development and provides guidance and feedback as the employee tries new behaviors. http://kpmg. Negative feedback or constructive feedback is more common and is provided in a matter of fact manner. Negative feedback may be presented in a humorous manner. • Communicate expectations clearly.PrintView Page 46 of 56 praise is given or if they do not believe the praise is deserved. Since they were raised in a supportive educational system.. so they arrive at the workplace brimming with confidence. start with something Australians pride themselves on their ability to respond positively to direct feedback.aspx. explain how this task is relevant to the organization. consider the following: • Explain how their role fits into the organization so the employee understands how their contribution matters. When communicating areas where improvements could be made. Gen Ys yearn for recognition. managers need to enthusiastically encourage subordinates and reward them publicly. • Set up reverse mentoring where knowledge flows both ways.2017. 8. Impact of Generations on Managing Employees The age of the employee can materially impact the best way to manage employees. When offering constructive criticism. They expect this to continue in the workplace.. All three generations want to be engaged at work.2. . • Provide clear deadlines and follow-up promptly if one is missed. Gen Ys also expect to be recognized when they did their job well. They were raised with feelings of self-esteem and self-worth.

Australians work best in teams when they are able to develop a bond with their team members. Team Focus As a nation of sports fanatics. Team members are expected to contribute ideas and thoughts openly and succinctly. Impact of Generations on Decision Making Both Generations X and Y expect to be able to provide input into decision making. Gen Y’s are not attuned to hierarchical structures. The collaborative business culture may mean that considerable time is spent getting input from others before reaching a decision. Even though the most senior person may ultimately make the decision. In the most successful teams. Decisions are based on facts and reasoning. . The team leader is also a valuable team member. Team members are generally chosen based on their experience or proven skills relevant to the business issue. Lower level employees often have a considerable amount of decision making authority. Australians understand the benefits of working in a group to achieve a common goal.. Mutual trust and respect are tantamount to a team’s success since the team is often more highly motivated to work together if they feel that each member is working to the best of their ability.. Decision making is not reserved for those at the top of the organization.aspx. rules and company policy are more important than the decision maker's personal feelings or sentiments. especially in larger organizations. since consensus is viewed as the optimal way to reach a The leader is http://kpmg. In such cases.culturewizard. Each member is expected to voice their opinion. Decision making follows a logical and pragmatic approach. 8. which tend to have more standardized rules and procedures. they expect to have input into decision- making processes. A more appropriate viewpoint would be first among equals as this reinforces the egalitarian nature of the culture. It would be difficult for leaders to be effective if they saw themselves as more important than the group.PrintView Page 47 of 56 Decision Making When making a decision. The process can be slow and extended. there may be considerable time spent in consultation with subordinates or key stakeholders. Since they were given leadership opportunities during their education and were encouraged to challenge each other’s decisions. members are valued and treated with respect.2017. do not rush the process.2.

Australians are likely to become suspicious if you present a business case that is overly optimist.. Australians negotiate in an open and direct manner.culturewizard. but in accordance with company policy. Brevity is a virtue. they will take you at your word.. No solution is perfect and presenting yours as such could cause a lack of trust.2017. Australians are not impressed by irrelevant or redundant detail. Australians will look for facts and figures to prove a business case and do not rely on their personal feelings about the proposal or the negotiator. so avoid making promises that you cannot keep. Likewise. they are win-win negotiators when negotiating with those they see as equals. They expect that the initial price offered to be close to the price that will be agreed to and do not expect to do bazaar haggling. Honesty is important to Australians. but they do not dominate the discussion or generation of ideas. For the most part. almost to the point of bluntness in some cases.PrintView Page 48 of 56 deferred to as the final authority in decision They prefer to get to the point quickly and say what they mean. In this egalitarian culture. the amount will decrease over time. . It is expected that your initial proposal will have only a small margin for negotiation. Negotiations tend to proceed quickly. It is important to follow established rules and protocols rather than to allow feelings to take precedence. High-pressure techniques can be a turn-off to down-to-earth Aussies. Negotiations Australians get down to business quickly with a minimum amount of small talk. Praise should be given to the entire group rather than to individuals. Someone who acts in a superior manner or as if they know more than the Australian side will be met with a cold reception. Impact of Generations on Team Focus Both Gen X and Y employees work well in teams and Gen Y employees are adept at working in cross-cultural teams quite effectively. Australians are not averse to using prices from competitors as a vehicle to get you to make concessions. Australians rely on written agreements at the end of negotiations to prevent http://kpmg. If Australians make concessions. They tend to be direct. 8. Company policies are important during negotiations and tend to be adhered to without deviation. there is a tendency to be suspicious of excessive praise. Even then it should be used sparingly.2. At the same time. . 8. Moving There Advice and Tips for Moving Customs Regulations Entry Requirements Getting Around Getting There Safety & Security Emergency Numbers Emergency Numbers To reach emergency services from a local phone. dial: • From a landline: 000 • From a mobile: 112 Emergency Numbers http://kpmg.PrintView Page 49 of 56 misunderstandings and problems down the line.2017.

Before You Go • Take time to get all of your financial and personal records in order. take an extra pair of glasses if you wear to dress. pickpockets and spontaneous political demonstrations. Terrorist attacks and kidnappings have simply brought all security concerns to our awareness. . Be sure to learn details of your location -. In-Country So many variables go into being safe. • Be sure you have enough of your prescription medication so you are all right if you cannot get a refill right away.PrintView Page 50 of 56 Emergency Numbers To reach emergency services from a local phone. dial: • From a landline: 000 • From a mobile: 112 Safety Precautions Today. how to act in public. • Make copies of all of your travel documents (including detailed itinerary with contact numbers) and be sure two people have easy access to them. we think of political situations as causing safety concerns. how to carry yourself. obtain and make several copies of important emergency company contact numbers to keep and give to all members of your family who might need them. • Do the same with crucial health documentation.2017. and who to be watchful of. where you can go and where to When in comes to your safety. • Find out the services your company offers to you in case of emergency. but ordinary crime. The wise traveler is cautious about hurricanes and earthquakes along with hotel fires. http://kpmg. • Be sure someone knows where you will be and how to contact you in emergencies at all times. and many of them revolve around understanding the specifics of where you are. 8. and what to do in those events.2. With the exception of the emergency telephone numbers.aspx.. Seek information from cultural experts and local nationals whom you have confidence in. weather and geographic problems also pose risks.culturewizard. • Think about the small (and large) disasters that could occur at home during your absence and be sure there is someone prepared to assist you. • Talk with a trusted family member or friend about what types of emergencies might arise in your absence. don’t be afraid to ask. including preparing a will. this information is compiled for travelers in general and will apply in varying degrees to your destination and personal situation.

aspx. This is not only wise for business and social purposes. 8. ◦ As a rule. The following websites offer specific advice for women: • Travel Tips for Women • Best Women's Travel Tips • Her Own Way: A Woman's Safe Travel Tips • Tips for Solo Women Travelers Women Travelers Travel Tips Crowded Situations • When you’re in crowded places.2017. if you wish walking you to your room very late at night or escorting you from a parking lot to the hotel lobby). • Do not display your guest room key unnecessarily. • Use the room safe or hotel safe deposit box.PrintView Page 51 of 56 Hotel Safety • Know how to call for help AND what to say..) • Read the fire safety information and know what you would do if you need to evacuate. your glasses (if necessary). Even groups of children can be working together to divert your attention while one will steal your money. http://kpmg. Safety in Your New Home City • Learn about your host country and culture. • Carry as few valuable items with you as possible when you know you’re going to a crowded area. • Don’t let strangers into your room. • Lock your door and do not answer it until you feel comfortable that you know who it • Watch out for pickpockets who will try to distract you in many different ways while taking your money. ◦ Use a hotel known for its security and be sure that whatever type of transportation you use. expensive cameras. but is extremely important so you can understand what may be offensive or negligent behavior. valuables and other important items. be extremely cautious and circumspect. • Travel with a flashlight. • Women traveling alone will have different issues depending upon the morés of the society you’re visiting. Know exactly where the nearest fire exits are.. For example.culturewizard. be very careful to guard your property at all times. • In the event that you might need to leave your room quickly. ◦ Find out all the gender-based restrictions and abide by them.2. keep your room key. PDAs and cash are easy targets. a pair of shoes and some money by your bedside. it is reliable and safe. (Remember to safeguard your passport. ◦ Ask hotel concierge or front desk manager to assist you whenever you have questions about your safety. • Hide personal documents. . (They will also arrange for you to have help.

reading local papers and telling your local friends to keep you informed. Clearly the length of time you spend and the geographic and political profile of the countries you’re living in--or traveling to--will make a difference in your level of preparedness. With the exception of the emergency telephone numbers. • For helpful information: Helpful Tips • If you are living in a high-risk location. your company should have guidelines for your safety. 8.2017. Nonetheless.. Keep informed—not only with your country’s published data and warnings. • Use your Embassy. but by identifying sources of local news. such as a lost passport or the need for money because yours has been stolen.culturewizard. Always check to see what services your company may offer to you. • No matter where you live—high risk or low risk countries—today’s world is volatile. Be sure you have 24-hour hotline numbers and appropriate contacts who can assist you.aspx. Keeping yourself and your family safe anywhere you go—whether it is an extended trip within hours of your home or a long-term assignment halfway around the world—requires planning and active follow-through.PrintView Page 52 of 56 • The more you know about your location. • Embassies Around the World • Even if you are living in a relatively safe country. Security Issues Security is not simply a state-of-mind. practicing common sense based upon knowledge of your location will help you. contact: Embassies Around the World • Make sure you know the name of the firm your company has selected for medical emergencies and evacuation services. always be sure that close family or friends have accurate contact information so they can find you quickly. International SOS provides emergency medical and evacuation services for individuals and companies.2. Emergencies • In an emergency that requires help by your government. and you never know when a potentially dangerous situation can develop. Don’t underplay the importance of understanding what is culturally appropriate—it may help you avoid some difficult situations. Emergencies http://kpmg. . the safer you’ll be. certainly understand written and unwritten laws and codes of conduct. You might want to contact: International SOS to see if you qualify for some of their services. These people are here to help you.. this information is compiled for travelers in general and will apply in varying degrees to your destination and personal situation. nor is it a stroke of

such as a lost passport or the need for money because yours has been stolen.S. keep enough cash on hand so you will be all right if there are power failures and ATM machines don’t work. fire and other emergency personnel.PrintView Page 53 of 56 • In an emergency that requires help by your government. we recommend the following government sites as quite comprehensive and easy-to- understand: Australian Travel Advisories Canadian Travel Advisories UK Travel Advice US Travel Warnings • Read about other precautions you should take for weather. it is one of the most valuable items you possess--so protect it as you would cash. • Whenever possible carry valuables and important prescription medications in your carry-on luggage. Be sure you know the words to use in the local language. The U.aspx. • Do not leave laptops. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has in- depth information regarding all regions of the world. http://kpmg. Embassies Around the World • See if there are any health-related issues in the countries to which you’re traveling. credit cards and other valuables. Prepare For Your Destination • Read about security and safety issues in the countries you’ll be traveling to or living in. do not pack valuables in your checked luggage. International SOS provides emergency medical and evacuation services for individuals and companies. if possible. • For the most current. computer bags or other luggage unattended at any time.. if asked..2. En Route • Protect your passport. If it is lost or stolen.culturewizard. up-dated information.and geographic-related concerns. 8. • Be able to answer questions about your luggage and be able to open all suitcases and packages immediately. You may need to reach the police. • Avoid calling attention to yourself by wearing fancy jewelry or carrying other expensive items. You might want to contact: International SOS to see if you qualify for some of their services. report it immediately to the nearest appropriate Embassy or consulate. • Use your business address on your luggage tags. Be sure you know how to call for help in an emergency. phone and hours of operation. . For example.2017. • Be sure you know how to contact (and get to) your country’s Embassy and Consulate wherever you are traveling—you need the location details. contact: Embassies Around the World • Make sure you know the name of the firm your company has selected for medical emergencies and evacuation

• If you find yourself alone in a train car or compartment after everyone else leaves. you could run the risk of being misinterpreted and perhaps becoming a target if your clothing is provocative or offensive. Know Where You’re Going • Ask people in the hotel what areas you should avoid. Otherwise. http://kpmg. • If you cannot speak the local language. read safety literature and be sure you know where emergency exits are located. • Learn about transportation in your location—what’s safe and what can be problematic and when. Your interpretation of this guideline needs to be based on local practices and customs. Identify the location of the emergency alarm system. When they occur. Attire you may think is perfectly acceptable. • Avoid disturbances and loud arguments. • If you drive. offers a wide-range of information to travelers of all nationalities: http://www. • When you have a specific location you’re going to. quickly walk the other way. carry the card of your hotel or your address with you at all times--as well as your destination address. Get off if someone suspicious gets on. buses. • Experts say that if someone does attack you. the U. • Even when you have a mobile phone. give them your valuables—money and passport—and do not fight back. learn to use the local pay phones and keep change with you. and deserted train Moving Around Safely • Always remain alert.aspx. Consider marking and tagging the pages of a phrase book with these types of important phrases. you may feel safer moving to an occupied car.culturewizard. keep your doors locked and windows closed. • Ostentatious jewelry will also draw attention to you.2017.S. • Be sure to know enough of the language to call for help. Contact your Embassy for detailed information.state. may not be so you’ll be well served to learn what is appropriate.. and never pick up hitchhikers. • When you’re on the plane or train. 8. • For general information when you are en route. • Be wary when you are alone in lifts. . independent taxi cabs may pose specific problems. • Dress conservatively. State Dept.PrintView Page 54 of 56 • Be sure to respond completely to requests by security officials and avoid comments about security that could be misinterpreted. ask colleagues or people who work in the hotel if there are things you should know about that area. • You should also ask your company about specific transportation guidelines they’ve established for your safety. alleys. Trains. such as poorly- lit streets. subways.. Find out before you go if it is preferable to hire a private driver and car. • Avoid areas where you can become a victim of

. *Sources: U.. Transportation Security Administration Settling In Accommodation Arrival Procedures Conversions Eating Out Entertainment Family Corner Health and Safety http://kpmg.PrintView Page 55 of 56 • Make others aware of your specific whereabouts.S.2017. even when you’re going to business appointments.. 8.2017.PrintView Page 56 of 56 Media Money and Banking Nightlife Shopping Social Clubs Sports http://kpmg.