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# Interaction Diagram for a Tied Square Concrete Column

Develop an interaction diagram for the concrete column shown in figure below. Determine 5 control points on the
interaction diagram and compare of calculated values with exact values from the complete interaction diagram
generated by spColumn software program.

Code

Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-14) and Commentary (ACI 318R-14)

Design Data

f c '  4,000 psi

f y  60,000 psi

Solution
Use the traditional approach hand calculations to establish the interaction diagram for the column section shown in
above by determining the following 5 points:
Point 1: Pure compression
Point 2: Bar stress near tension face of member equal to zero, ( f s  0 )

Point 3: Bar stress near tension face of member equal to 0.5fy ( f s  0.5f y )

Point 4: Bar stress near tension face of member equal to fy ( f s  f y )

Point 5: Pure bending

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85  4))]  808.23  18 = 809.85f c'  g (f y  0. T = 0 c = 15.85 x 15.65  324[(0.003   (c .3 kips Point 2 ( f s  0 ): Determine the Neutral Axis Depth. neutral axis depth. c Given:  s  0 Therefore.56 = 13.80A g [0.56 in a = 0. c is equal to effective depth. d and the tensile Force.85  4)  0.23 in Concrete compressive block force Cc = f c ' ab Cc =   4  13.d1) c 2 .80  0.68 kips Check whether compression reinforcement has yielded: Strain in first top layer:  s1 ' 0.85f c' )]  0.Point 1 (Pure compression): Pn (max)  0.0247  (60  (0.

Cs1 =  s1 '  (f y  f c' ) Cs1 = 3  1  (60   4) = 169.28 kips Strain on tension side s = 0 Tensile force.8 kips Strain in Second layer of compression reinforcement.56 .  s1 ' 0.00207 >  t = 0.8  66. Cs2 = Α s2 ' ε s2 ' Es  085 f c'  Cs2 = 2  1  (0.65 x 1045.56 .71 kips Moment Capacity Summing moments around the centroidal axis.003   (15.003   (c .00207 Therefore.56  s1 ' = 0.  s2 ' 0. 3 . Use  = 0.68  169.9) 15. second layer of compression reinforcement has not yielded.71 = 679.71 kips Pn  0.003   (15. Compressive force.44) 15.65 First/top layer of compression reinforcement has yielded.00253 >  y = 0.00126  29000   ) = 66.002 Therefore.00126 <  y = 0.2.  Compressive force. T = 0 Pn  C c  Cs1  Cs2  T Pn  809.9) c s2 ' 0.28  0 Pn  1045.56  s2 ' = 0. section is compression control.

003c  c = 11.65 x 253.57 in a = 0.75 k-ft M n  0.5 x 0.04668 .003  0.75 = 164.5f y ): Determine the Neutral Axis Depth.68      169.001305 0.56  c) c 0.001035 c  (15.5  y   s  s = 0.001035 c  0.23   18  M n  809.834 in 4 .0.00207 = 0. c Given: 0.8    2.003   (15. s   cu (d  c) c 0.56  c)  0.57 = 9.44   2 2   2  M n  3045 k-in = 253.001035 Using similar triangle.94 k-ft Point 3 ( f s  0.85 x 11. h a h  h  M n  C c      C s1    d1   T    d1  2 2 2  2   18 13.

9) 11. Cs2 = Α s2 ' ε s2 ' Es  085 f c'  Cs2 = 2  1  (0.d1 ) c  s1 ' 0. Cs1 =  s1 ' (f y  f c' ) Cs1 = 3  1  (60   4) = 169.84 kips Checking whether compression reinforcement has yielded: Strain in first top layer:  s1 ' 0.00067 <  y = 0.57  s1 ' = 0.57  s2 ' = 0. Use  = 0.  Compressive force. T = s s E s 5 .003   (c .002 Therefore.00207 Therefore.003   (c .834  18 = 601.Concrete compressive block force Cc = f c ' ab Cc =   4  9.  s2 ' 0. Compressive force.003   (11. section is compression control.00237 >  y = 0.9) c  s2 ' 0.00207 >  t = 0.2.00067  29000   ) = 32.003   (11.44) 11.57 .8 kips Strain in second layer of compression reinforcement.57 .001035 (Calculated previously) Tensile force.06 kips Strain on tension side s = 0.65 First/top layer of compression reinforcement has yielded. second layer of compression reinforcement has not yielded.

h a h  h  M n  C c      C s1    d1   T    d1   2 2   2   2   18 9.T = 3  1  0.44   2 2   2   2  M n  4161.84  32.6 k-in = 346.7 kips Pn  0. neutral axis depth is given by.834   18   18  M n  601.7 = 463.44   90    2.75 = 225.75 k-ft M n  0.84      169.001035  29000  90 kips Pn  C c  Cs1  Cs2  T Pn  601.8  90 Pn  713.8    2.65 x 713.91 kips Moment Capacity Summing moments around the centroidal axis. c Given:  y   s (Balanced condition) At balanced condition.06  169.39 k-ft Point 4 ( f s  f y ): Determine the Neutral Axis Depth. 6 .65 x 346.

s2 ' 0.00207 >  t = 0.83 in Concrete compressive block force Cc = f c ' ab Cc =   4  7.2.003 0.003   (9.000068 <  y = 0. section is compression control. 0.003  0. Cs2 = Α s2 ' ε s2 ' Es  085 f c' ` 7 . Cs1 =  s1 ' (f y  f c' ) Cs1 = 3  1  (60   4) = 169.003   (9.003  Es c b  9.003 cb  =  fy 0.21  s2 ' = 0.21 .21  s1 ' = 0.65 First/top layer of compression reinforcement has yielded.21 =7.85 x 9.21 .83  18 = 479.44) 9.003   (c .d1 ) c s1 ' 0.003   (c .2 kips Checking whether compression reinforcement has yielded: Strain in first top layer:  s1 ' 0.00207 Therefore. Compressive force.00221 >  y = 0. second layer of compression reinforcement has not yielded.9) 9.8 kips Strain in second layer of compression reinforcement.00207 0.002 Therefore.21 in a b  0. Use  = 0.9) c  s2 ' 0.   Compressive force.

tensile reinforcement has yielded. s =  s (Balanced condition) Therefore.8  3.94  180 = 472. T = Α s f y T = 3  1  60  180 kips Pn  C c  Cs1  Cs2  T Pn  479.83   18   18  M n  479.Since a = 7.65 x 472.  18 7. Therefore. Tensile force.8    2.29 = 256.2      169.44   180    2.65 x 394.41 kips Moment Capacity Summing moments around the centroidal axis. above equation changes to the following: Cs2 = Α s2 ' ε s2 ' Es  Cs2 = 2  1  (0.00068  29000 = 3.83 in.29 k-ft M n  0.44   2 2   2   2  M n  4731.42 k-in = 394.94 Pn  0.29 k-ft 8 .94 kips Strain on tension side Since.94 = 307.2  169. second layer of reinforcement does not lie within the compression block zone.

00207 < ε s2   0.003     0. a = 0.003     0.85 x 4 = 3.00207 < ε s1   0.08 kips Strain on the tension side Bottom layer in the tension zone d-c  15.00867 9 .005 Therefore.Point 5 (Pure Bending): Use iterative procedure to determine M n Try c  4.4 in Concrete compressive block force Cc = f c ' ab Cc =   4  3. T1 = 3  1  60  180 kips Middle layer in the tension zone  h/2 . section is tension control.003     0.56  4  ε s1  0.9 Therefore. bottom layer of tensile reinforcement has yielded.c  94 ε s2  0.0 in.00867  c   4   y = 0.00375  c   4   y = 0.003     0.4  18 = 208.00867 >  t = 0. Use  = 0.

44   2 2   2   2  M n  3302 k-in = 275.8    2. Cs1 = Α s1 ' ε s1 ' Es . therefore.0017 <  y = 0.0.0017  29000 .08      91.85f c ' Cs1 = 2  1  (0.85x4 = 91. T2  2  1 60  120 kips Strain on the compression side  c  d1   4  2.8 kips Total tensile force.88 kips  300 kips Since T  C .8  299.65 k-ft 10 . use c  4.0.0017  c   4   s1 ' = 0.003     0.4   18   18  M n  208.Therefore.17 = 247.003     0.08 91.44  ε s1 '  0.00207 Therefore. compression reinforcement has not yielded.9 x 275.17 k-ft M n  0.44   180    2. middle layer of tensile reinforcement has yielded. T = T1 + T2 T  180  120  300 kips Total compressive force.0 in  18 3. C = Cc + Cs1 C  208.

3 M n (ft-kips) 259.8 M n (ft-kips) 225.43 4: f s  f y Pn (kips) 307. the hand-calculated control point values (red line) of the interaction diagram are in very good agreement with the control point values of the interaction diagram generated by spColumn Program (black line).91 463.41 307.3 808.71 679.65 247.5f y Pn (kips) 463.94 164.Conclusions and Observations As summarized in Table 1 below and plotted within the spColumn interaction diagram output.99 3: f s  0.3 2: f  0 s P (kips) n 679.39 225.8 M n (ft-kips) 164.72 11 .2 5: Pure Bending M n (ft-kips) 247. Table 1 – Comparison of spColumn and hand-calculated interaction diagram values Point Parameter Hand Calculated Values spColumn Values (exact) 1: Pure Compression Pn (kips) 808.21 259.

65 .8.5fy fs=0. phi(b) = 0.5fy fs=0 fs=0 Point 2 fs=0. Licensed to: StructurePoint.003 in/in Yo = 0. phi(c) = 0.col Project: Interaction Dia Control Points Column: Interior Col Engineer: SP f'c = 4 ksi fy = 60 ksi Ag = 324 in^2 8 #9 bars Ec = 3605 ksi Es = 29000 ksi As = 8.5fy 18 x 18 in Point 3 Code: ACI 318-14 Point 4 Units: English Run axis: About X-axis Point 5 Run option: Investigation Slenderness: Not considered -400 400 Column type: Structural Mx (k-ft) Bars: ASTM A615 Date: 07/20/16 Time: 14:42:41 (Pmin) (Pmin) -600 STRUCTUREPOINT .85 Min clear spacing = 5.43 in Clear cover = 1.5fy fs=0.00 in Ix = 8748 in^4 e_u = 0.10 (TM). P (kip) 1600 y x fs=0 fs=0 (Pmax) (Pmax) Point 1 fs=0.00206897 in/in Xo = 0.9.88 in Confinement: Tied phi(a) = 0. License ID: 00000-0000000-4-2A05D-2471B File: C:\TSDA-spColumn-Interaction Diagram-Control Points.00 in^2 rho = 2.00 in Iy = 8748 in^4 Beta1 = 0.4 ksi e_yt = 0.47% fc = 3.spColumn v5.

74 -0.21 15.--------.00 0.99999 0.5*fy 463.col 02:42 PM General Information: ==================== File Name: C:\TSDA-spColumn-Interaction Diagram-Control Points.56 9.99 0. Ag = 324 in^2 Ix = 8748 in^4 Iy = 8748 in^4 rx = 5.56 -0.43 0.00 15.003 in/in Beta1 = 0.72 0.56 -0.3 -256.56 0.----------. #3 ties with #10 bars.00000 0.STRUCTUREPOINT .00866 0.0 -247.-------.00 5. License ID: 00000-0000000-4-2A05D-2471B 07/20/16 C:\TSDA-spColumn-Interaction Diagram-Control Points.56 -0.00 4.74 0.00047 0.30 0.00 15.900 *** End of output *** .00 0.31 # 6 0.47% Minimum clear spacing = 5.0 679.-----------.57 15.00 50.-------.00207 0.00207 0.900 -X @ Max compression 1010.4 -0. phi(b) = 0.-----------.63 0.900 @ Max tension -432.46 15.8 -225.56 0.00 in^2 at rho = 2.00 50.650 @ Tension control 153.900 @ Max tension -432.8 306.21 15. 808.00500 0.-------.57 15.56 15.38 -0.44 # 7 0.650 @ Allowable comp.19615 in Xo = 0 in Yo = 0 in Reinforcement: ============== Bar Set: ASTM A615 Size Diam (in) Area (in^2) Size Diam (in) Area (in^2) Size Diam (in) Area (in^2) ---.00207 0.650 @ fs = 0.43 -0.00500 0.27 1.26 4.84 15.38 0.56 15. ---.00 0. ---. phi(c) = 0.99999 0.85 Section: ======== Rectangular: Width = 18 in Depth = 18 in Gross section area.84 15.650 @ Balanced point 307.----------.00103 0.56 0.00 11.00 0.56 -0.00207 0.00000 0.00206897 in/in Eps_u = 0.8 164.900 @ Pure bending 0.56 0.--------. 808.20 # 5 0.5 in Control Points: =============== Axial Load P X-Moment Y-Moment NA depth Dt depth eps_t Phi Bending about kip k-ft k-ft in in --------------------.10 (TM) Page 2 Licensed to: StructurePoint.14 15.spColumn v5.30 -0.------ X @ Max compression 1010.00 0.650 @ fs = 0.8 -164.8 225.5*fy 463.56 9.4 ksi Eps_yt = 0.650 @ fs = 0.9.56 0.27 # 11 1.4 -0.8 -306. #4 with larger bars.56 0.99 -0.col Project: Interaction Dia Control Points Column: Interior Col Engineer: SP Code: ACI 318-14 Units: English Run Option: Investigation Slenderness: Not considered Run Axis: X-axis Column Type: Structural Material Properties: ==================== Concrete: Standard Steel: Standard f'c = 4 ksi fy = 60 ksi Ec = 3605 ksi Es = 29000 ksi fc = 3.900 @ Pure bending 0.00 5.00 11.00 18.00 4.65 Layout: Rectangular Pattern: All Sides Equal (Cover to transverse reinforcement) Total steel area: As = 8.00 15.650 @ Tension control 153.650 @ Balanced point 307.3 256.41 1.00 0.00 15.650 @ Allowable comp.69 2.8.19615 in ry = 5.00 15.-----------.00866 0.0 679.56 0.88 0.3 -109.56 0.0 -0.11 # 4 0.60 # 8 1.0 247.43 in 8 #9 Cover = 1.00 15.25 # 18 2.3 109.00 18.56 # 14 1.00103 0.56 0.--------. phi(a) = 0.00 9.0 -0.00 # 10 1.38 0.75 0.56 -0.00047 0.650 @ fs = 0.00 -0.14 15.----------- # 3 0.50 0.79 # 9 1.13 1.46 15.00 9.72 -0.00 Confinement: Tied.