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a) Terangkan secara

ringkas ,

i) pengoptimuman matematik ,

ii) maksimum I minimum global,

iii) maksimum I minimum lokal.

**Anda boleh menggunakan gambarajah untuk menjelaskan jawapan
**

anda.

**b) Peta Pemikiran adalah alat pembelajaran visual. Setiap peta
**

adalah berdasarkan kepada proses pemikiran asas, seperti kuantiti

, penjujukan , mengelas, membandingkan dan membezakan, dan

boleh digunakan bersama-sama sebagai satu set alat untuk

menunjukkan hubungan. Bina sekurang-kurangnya satu peta i-

Think, menunjukkan pelbagai cara untuk mencari nilai maksimum

atau minimum suatu fungsi kuadratik. Sertakan contoh yang

berkaitan.

INTRODUCTION

**In mathematics , the maximum and minimum of a function, known collectively as
**

extrema are the largest and smallest value that the function takes at a point

either within a given neighbourhood (local or relative extremum) or on the function

domain in its entirety (global or absolute extremum). Pierre de Fermat was one of

the first mathematicians to propose a general technique (called adequality) for

finding maxima and minima.To locate extreme values is the basic objective of

optimization.

PART I

a) Describe briefly ,

i) mathematical optimization ,

ii) global maximum I minimum ,

iii) local maximum I minimum.

You may use diagram to illustrate your answer.

including a variety of different types of objective functions and different types of domains. Furthermore. such as a quantity. if it is negative. if it is zero. b) Thinking maps are visual learning tools. More generally.org/wiki/Maxima_and_minima Finding global maxima and minima is the goal of optimization. optimization or mathematical programming) is the selection of a best element (with regard to some criteria) from some set of available alternatives. optimization includes finding "best available" values of some objective function given a defined domain (or a set of constraints). Although the first derivative (3x2) is 0 at x = 0. If the function is defined over a closed domain. an optimization problem consists of maximizing or minimizing a real function by systematically choosing input values from within an allowed set and computing the value of the function. and can be used together as a set of tools for showing relationships. Answers: Mathematical optimization (alternatively. a simple technique for finding local maxima and minima is to look for stationary points. If the second derivative at a stationary point is positive. So a method of finding a global maximum (or minimum) is to look at all the local maxima (or minima) in the interior. and take the biggest (or smallest) one. For twice-differentiable functions in one variable. or it must lie on the boundary of the domain. the point is a local minimum.Think map to show various methods in finding the maximum or minimum value of a quadratic function . a global maximum (or minimum) must be either a local maximum (or minimum) in the interior of the domain. . Create at least one i. The function x3 has no global or local minima or maxima. The generalization of optimization theory and techniques to other formulations comprises a large area of applied mathematics. then by the extreme value theorem global maxima and minima exist. sequencing. For any function that is defined piecewise.wikipedia. Finding maxima and minima http://en. classifying. the second derivative (6x) is also 0. Examples The function x2 has a unique global minimum at x = 0. further investigation is required. and also look at the maxima (or minima) of the points on the boundary. Each map is based on fundamental thinking process.[1] In the simplest case. the point is a local maximum. Include examples . and then seeing which one is biggest (or smallest). which are points where the first derivative is zero. you can find maxima (or minima) by finding the maxima (or minima) of each piece separately. comparing and contrasting.

and infinitely many global minima at ±π. From the sign of the second derivative we can see that -1 is a local maximum and +1 is a local minimum.. The function x3/ 3 . Note that this function has no global maxima or minima. Setting the first derivative to 0 and solving for x gives stationary points at -1 and +1. The function x3 + 3x2 − 2x + 1 defined over the closed interval (segment) [- 4.. but no global maxima or minima.x has first derivative x2 − 1 and second derivative 2x. ±3π. ±4π. . The function |x| has a global minimum at x = 0 that cannot be found by taking derivatives. . The function cos(x) has infinitely many global maxima at 0. because the derivative does not exist at x = 0. The function 2cos(x) ...x has infinitely many local maxima and minima. ±2π.. .2] (see graph) has two extrema: one local minimum in one local maximum in A global maximum on x=2 and a global minimum on x=-4. .

atau kadang-kadang dikenali sebagai Pengoptimuman Linear adalah satu kaedah untuk mencapai hasil yang terbaik (maksimum atau minimum) dalam model matematik yang mana keperluannya diwakili .A graph illustrating local min/max and global min/max points PENEROKAAN LANJUT Pengaturcaraan Linear.

However. both to make things more efficient and to make a better-quality product. linear programming and its many forms have come into wide use worldwide. it takes only a moment to find the optimum solution by modeling problem as a linear program and applying the simplex algorithm. several researchers developed the idea in the past. but it never made its way into . The theory behind linear programming is to drastically reduce the number of possible optimal solutions that must be checked. Answer History Of Linear Programming The 1940s was a time of innovation and reformation of how products were made. as well as numerical analysts. George B. but it was kept secret and was not published until 1947 since it was being used as a war-time strategy. and economists who have written hundreds of books and many more papers on the subject. many industries also found the method to be highly valuable. The computing power required to test all possible combinations to select the best assignment is quite large. Dantzig's original example of finding the best assignment of 70 people to 70 jobs emphasizes the praticality of linear programming. Fourier in 1823 and the well-known Belgian mathematician de la Vallée Poussin in 1911 each wrote a paper describing today's linear programming methods. Actually. who developed the theory of the duality and Leonid Kantorovich. But once it was released. (a) Jalankan satu kajian tentang Pengatucaraan Linear dan kemudian tuliskan penemuan anda. Anda juga perlu memberi sekurang-kurangnya dua contoh bagaimana Pengaturcaraan Linear diaplikasikan dalam pelbagai bidang pengaj ian. oleh perhubungan linear. Another person who played a key role in the development of linear programming is John von Neumann. Dantzig is the founder of the simplex method of linear programming. it was unknown to the public prior to 1947. for decision scientists (operations researchers and management scientists). mathematicians. The second world war was going on at the time and the army needed a way to plan expenditures and returns in order to reduce costs and increase losses for the enemy. a Russian mathematician who used similar techniques in economics before Dantzig and won the Nobel prize in 1975 in economics. In the years from the time when it was first proposed in 1947 by Dantzig. LP has become popular in academic circles. Though it is so common now. Anda boleh muatkan aspek-aspek sejarah dan kepentingannya kepada situasi kehidupan sebenar.

There are certain standards that require pilots to sleep for so many hours and to have so many days rest before flying. as not all pilots are able to fly the same planes. Pilots have certain specializations. It seems the reason linear programming failed to catch on in the past was lack of interest in optimizing. Airlines needed to consider how many people would be willing to pay a higher price for a ticket if they were able to book their flight at the last minute and have substantial flexibility in their schedule and flight times. The airline also needed to know how many people would only purchase a low price ticket. airlines charged the same price for any seat on the aircraft. The most controllable factor an airline has is its pilot’s salary. In order to make money. This required some linear programming. Example Application of Linear Programming in Real-Life Airlines The airline industry uses linear programming to optimize profits and minimize expenses in their business. Through linear programming. Initially. and engines for executing the steps of algorithms (computers and software). so it is important that airlines use their optimization teams to keep this expense as low as possible. they decided to charge different fares for different seats and promoted different prices depending on how early you bought your ticket. A paper by Hitchcock in 1941 on a transportation problem was also overlooked until the late 1940s and early 1950s. direct and in- direct flights. Banyak lagi contoh-contoh lain yang menggunakan Linear Programming ni. Airlines want to maximize the amount of time that their pilots are in the air. and layovers. airlines were able to find the optimal breakdown of how many tickets to sell at which price. without an in-flight meal. pilot schedules. techniques for solving the models (algorithms). Because all of these constraints must be considered when making economic decisions about the airline. Airlines also need to consider plane routes.mainstream use. linear programming becomes a crucial job. so this also becomes a factor. Our tools for doing this are ways to formulate real-world problems in detailed mathematical terms (models). Linear programming can be viewed as part of a great revolutionary development which has given mankind the ability to state general goals and to lay out a path of detailed decisions to take in order to 'best' achieve its goals when faced with practical situations of great complexity. Termasuklah . as well. Contoh2 Lain. including various prices in between.

like what to grow. chess) Factory manufacturing All of these industries rely on the intricate mathematics of linear programming. Even farmers use linear programming to increase the revenue of their operations. how much of it. Linear programming is an important part of operations research and continues to make the world more economically efficient. .) Strategic games (e. and what to use it for. trains. The military Capital budgeting Designing diets Conservation of resources Economic growth prediction Transportation systems (busses.g. Amusement parks use linear programming to make decisions about queue lines. etc.

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