You are on page 1of 46

G - TESTS W/CODES - TURBO

1995 Volvo 850

1995 ENGINE PERFORMANCE
Volvo - Self-Diagnostics

850 Turbo

INTRODUCTION
If no faults were found while performing BASIC DIAGNOSTIC
PROCEDURES, proceed with SELF-DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM. If no fault codes or
only pass codes are present, proceed to H - TESTS W/O CODES article
for diagnosis by symptom (i.e., ROUGH IDLE, NO START, etc.).

NOTE: All voltage tests should be performed using a Digital
Volt-Ohmmeter (DVOM) with a minimum 10-megohm input
impedance, unless specifically stated otherwise in testing
procedures.

SELF-DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM
850 turbo uses a Motronic 4.3 control system, which has a
single Electronic Control Module (ECM) to control fuel injection and
ignition systems. In addition, Motronic 4.3 control system
incorporates an on-board diagnostic function. Signals from various
sensors are monitored continuously. If certain signals are lost or
become faulty, ECM will adopt fixed substitute values (limp-home mode)
to enable vehicle to be driven for certain failures. Substitute values
can be adopted for Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) sensor signal,
Throttle Position (TP) sensor signal, Mass Airflow (MAF) sensor
signal, and oxygen sensor (HO2S) signal. See Fig. 1.

NOTE: To avoid confusion thinking there is an intermittent
malfunction with Malfunction Indicator Light (MIL),
carefully read following text.

ECM stores Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) differently in
accordance with a predetermined pattern. An emission related fault
must be present for a predetermined number of intervals before ECM
permanently stores a DTC and illuminates Malfunction Indicator Light
(MIL). If fault is cleared before a specified interval has passed, DTC
is erased from memory. There are 3 main types of intervals:

* Trip - All diagnostic functions have been performed.
* Running Cycle - Fuel trim (closed loop) has been initiated.
* Time - Time in seconds.

If a fault disappears for any reason after DTC has been
recorded permanently by ECM, DTC information will be retained by ECM.
Each time the fault occurs, first counter will advance one. Each trip
completed without a reoccurrence, a second counter will count down
from 3 to zero. When second counter has reached zero, MIL will
extinguish (if illuminated) and a third counter will start counting
down. The third counter counts number of warm-up cycles (starting at
40). A warm-up cycle is when engine temperature is less than 104 F
(40 C) at engine start and exceeds 183 F (84 C). When third counter
reaches zero, DTC is erased from ECM memory. If a fault reoccurs, the
second and third counter revert to their original settings and the
first counter advances one.
Faults are recorded in ECM memory in the form of Diagnostic
Trouble Codes (DTCs). Codes can be displayed using one of 4 methods:

* Using LED on Volvo diagnostic unit in engine compartment to
display codes. See Fig. 1.
* Using Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686) connected to Volvo Data Link
Connector (DLC) in engine compartment.
* Using a generic scan tester connected to On-Board Diagnostics
II (OBD II) Data Link Connector (DLC). DLC is located in
center console in front of gear shift lever. See Fig. 3.

On-board diagnostic unit for retrieving codes is located in
right front of engine compartment. Diagnostic unit is equipped with an
LED indicator, activation button and function select cable.
Diagnostic unit output socket No. 2 is used to retrieve
codes. Once selector cable has been inserted in correct slot,
depressing button once, twice or 3 times selects from one of 3 control
(fault tracing) functions. Faults stored in ECM memory are read by
observing LED flashes.
All fault codes contain 3 digits (example: 2-1-3). Since
codes have 3 digits, each code requires 3 series of flashes. A 3-
second interval separates series of flashes. See Fig. 2.

Fig. 1: Identifying Diagnostic Unit
Courtesy of Volvo Cars of North America.

Fig. 2: Counting Red LED Code Flashes For Code 2-1-3
Courtesy of Volvo Cars of North America.

RETRIEVING CODES
CAUTION: Never disconnect or connect ECM connector with ignition
switch in ON position.

Follow tool manufacturer’s instructions if retrieving codes
with Volvo Diagnostic Key Scan Tool, Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686) or
generic scan tool. Volvo Diagnostic Key Scan Tool and Volvo Scan Tool
must be connected to Volvo DLC located in engine compartment. Generic
scan tool must be connected to DLC located in console in front of gear
shift lever. See Fig. 3.

Fig. 3: Locating Data Link Connector (DLC)
Courtesy of Volvo Cars of North America.

On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) II
OBD II is a legally required diagnostic system. OBD II DLC
enables a generic scan tool to be connected to management system to
read codes and parameters which alter exhaust emission levels.
Information provided is not as comprehensive as that provided by Volvo
self-diagnostics or Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686).

Volvo Self-Diagnostic System
System is capable of self-diagnostic functions through the
use of Volvo diagnostic unit in engine compartment. System has 3 test
modes. Test mode No. 1 is used to display and erase codes. Test mode

No. 2 is used to verify operation of system components. Test mode No.
3 operates components in a certain order. Access to diagnostic system
is provided by socket No. 2 on diagnostic unit with ignition on.

CAUTION: After displaying DTCs, ignition must be switched off BEFORE
engine is started.

Test Mode No. 1 (Displaying Codes)
1) To retrieve codes, open Volvo diagnostic unit cover
(located in right corner of engine compartment) and connect test lead
to socket No. 2. Turn ignition on. Enter test mode No. 1 by pressing
test button once for 1-3 seconds.
2) Observe LED, and count number of flashes in 3 digit series
comprising a fault code. Because series are displayed at 3-second
intervals, codes can be easily distinguished.
3) If a fault code is retrieved, refer to the
TROUBLE CODE DEFINITION table under TROUBLE CODE IDENTIFICATION.
Depress push button again, and check for additional codes. Depress
push button a third time if necessary. If first code repeats, no other
codes are present.

Test Mode No. 1 (Erasing Codes)
1) Codes can be erased only after all DTCs have been
displayed and first DTC has been repeated at least once. To erase DTC,
turn ignition on. Press test button on Volvo diagnostic unit and hold
for more than 5 seconds. Wait for LED response.
2) Press button again and hold for more than 5 seconds. Turn
ignition off and on. Start engine. All DTCs will be erased and all
adaptive values reset.

Test Mode No. 2 (Verifying Operation Of System Components)
This test mode is activated by briefly pressing test button
on Volvo diagnostic unit 2 times, causing LED to rapidly flash. ECM
will flash a code indicating receipt of a signal from following
components with ignition on:

* 3-3-2 - TP sensor (throttle moved from or to idle).
* 3-3-3 - TP sensor (throttle moved from or to WOT).
* 1-2-4 - Transmission Control Module (TCM), when gear selector
is moved from or to a drive position.

Control unit will flash a code indicating receipt of a signal
from following components with engine running:

* 1-1-4 - A/C control, when A/C button is depressed or
released.
* 1-3-4 - A/C compressor running.
* 1-4-1 - RPM sensor.
* 3-4-2 - Camshaft Position (CMP) sensor.
* 3-4-3 - Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS).

NOTE: For test mode No. 3 to operate correctly, 3 injectors must
be disconnected. Reconnect injectors after completion of
test.

Test Mode No. 3 (Operating Components In A Certain Order)
This function is activated by briefly pressing test button on
Volvo diagnostic unit 3 times. Electronic Control Module (ECM) will
respond by activating listed components in order. This sequence is
repeated twice. Test mode No. 3 cannot be activated while engine is
running. The following components are operated:

* EGR vacuum controller.

P1404         1-1-5 P0201 Injector No. P1329. P1403. * Turbocharger (TC) control valve. * RPM (tachometer indicates 1250-1500 RPM). * Engine cooling fan. TROUBLE CODE IDENTIFICATION TROUBLE CODE DEFINITION       Code OBD II Code Fault         1-1-1 No Faults Detected By OBD System         1-1-2  P0605. * Injectors. 5         2-1-2 P0130. P1506 IAC Valve Opening Signal         2-2-5 A/C Pressure Sensor Signal         2-3-1 P0171.  Fault In ECM   P1401. P0117. 2         1-3-1 RPM Sensor Signal Missing         1-3-2 Battery Voltage         1-3-5 P0203 Injector No. low speed. high speed. 4         1-5-3 P0136. P1326. PO103 MAF Sensor Signal         1-2-3 P0116. P0131. P0172 Long Term Fuel Trim Idling         2-3-3 Long Term Idle Air Trim         2-4-1 P0400 EGR System Flow Malfunction         2-4-5 P1507 IAC Valve Closing Signal        3-1-1 VSS Signal . 1         1-2-1 P0102. P0118 ECT Signal         1-2-5 P0202 Injector No. * EVAP valve. 3         1-4-3 P0326 Front Knock Sensor Signal         1-4-5 P0204 Injector No. P0132 Front HO2S Signal         2-1-4 P0336 RPM Sensor Signal Sporadic         2-2-3 P1505. P0172 Long Term Fuel Trim Part Load         2-3-2 P0171. * IAC valve. P0138 Rear HO2S Signal         1-5-4 P0402 EGR System Leakage         1-5-5 P0205 Injector No. * Engine cooling fan. * A/C relay. P0137.

2         5-1-4 Engine Cooling Fan Low Speed Signal         5-2-1 P0135 Front HO2S Preheating         5-2-2 P0141 Rear HO2S Prr No. 3         4-5-4 P0304 Misfire Cylinder No. 5         5-1-3 P1405 Temperature Warning Level No. 2         5-1-4 Engine Cooling Fan Low Speed Signal         5-2-1 P0135 Front HO2S Preheating         5-2-2 P0141 Rear HO2S Preheating    . 3         4-5-4 P0304 Misfire Cylinder No. P0123 TP Sensor Signal         4-1-3 P1416. 2         4-5-3 P0303 Misfire Cylinder No. P1308 Acceleration Sensor Signal         4-5-1 P0301 Misfire Cylinder No. P1417. P1618 Request For MIL From TCM         4-1-1 P0122. 1         4-2-5 P0140 Temperature Warning Level No.          3-1-4 CMP Sensor Signal         3-1-5 EVAP System         3-2-5 Memory Failure         3-3-5 P1617. 2         4-5-3 P0303 Misfire Cylinder No. 1         4-5-2 P0302 Misfire Cylinder No. 4         4-5-5 P0305 Misfire Cylinder No. 5         5-1-3 P1405 Temperature Warning Level No. 4         4-5-5 P0305 Misfire Cylinder No. 1         4-3-3 P0331 Rear Knock Sensor Signal         4-3-5 P0133 Front HO2S Slow Response         4-3-6 P0133 Rear HO2S Compensation         4-4-3 P0422 TWC Efficiency         4-4-4 P1307. P1418 EGR Temperature Sensor Signal         4-1-4 Boost Pressure Regulation         4-1-6 Boost Pressure Reduction From TCM         4-3-2 Temperature Warning Level No.

1/TWC Damage         5-5-2 P0302 Misfire Cylinder No.      5-3-1 P1101 Power Stage Group A         5-3-2 P1102 Power Stage Group B         5-3-3 Power Stage Group C         5-3-4 Power Stage Group D         5-3-5 TC Control Valve Signal         5-4-1 P0444. 2/TWC Damage         5-5-3 P0303 Misfire Cylinder No. 5/TWC Damage . 4/TWC Damage        5-5-5 P0305 Misfire Cylinder No. 3/TWC Damage         5-5-4 P0304 Misfire Cylinder No. P0445 EVAP Valve Signal         5-4-2 P0300 Misfire On More Than One Cylinder         5-4-3 P1310 Misfire On At Least One Cylinder         5-4-4  P0300  Misfire On More Than One   Cylinder/TWC Damage         5-4-5  P1310  Misfire On At Least One   Cylinder/TWC Damage         5-5-1 P0301 Misfire Cylinder No.

.

3 Electronic Control Module (ECM) is located in right front of engine compartment. Turn ignition off and on. ROUGH IDLE..TESTS W/O CODES article for diagnosis by symptom (i. CLEARING CODES 1) Codes can be erased only after all DTCs have been displayed and first DTC has been repeated at least once. To erase DTC. turn ignition on.) or intermittent diagnostic procedures. 2) Press button again and hold for more than 5 seconds. 4-10 and the . SUMMARY If no hard fault codes (or only pass codes) are present.3 CONTROL SYSTEM NOTE: For connector terminal identification. etc. in front of strut tower. See RETRIEVING CODES. see Figs.e. Press test button on Volvo diagnostic unit and hold for more than 5 seconds. All DTCs will be erased and all adaptive values reset. ECM LOCATION Motronic 4. proceed to the H . DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE TESTING MOTRONIC 4. NO START. Wait for LED response. Start engine. driveability symptoms exist or intermittent codes exist.

. Fig. L . Fig.WIRING DIAGRAMS article. 5: Fan Controlled (FC) Relay Connector Terminals Courtesy of Volvo Cars of North America. 4: MAF Sensor & Power Stage Connector Terminals Courtesy of Volvo Cars of North America.

Fig. 7: Front & Rear HO2S Connector Terminals Courtesy of Volvo Cars of North America. . 6: ECT Sensor & EGR Controller Connector Terminals Courtesy of Volvo Cars of North America. Fig.

EVAP Valve. 8: EGR Temperature Sensor. Fig. Fuel Injector. IAC Valve & TP Sensor Connector Terminals Courtesy of Volvo Cars of North America. RPM Sensor & TC Control Valve Connector Terminals Courtesy of Volvo Cars of North America. CMP Sensor. Knock Sensor. .Fig. A/C Pressure Sensor. 9: Acceleration Sensor.

Fig. . 11: Fuel Pump Relay Connector Terminals Courtesy of Volvo Cars of North America. 10: Ignition Coil Connector Terminals Courtesy of Volvo Cars of North America.Fig.

3) To check for an injector signal that is too low. go to next step. check wiring between injector connector terminal No. Connect ohmmeter between injector connector terminal No. or A9 (1-5-5) for a short to voltage. 4) Ensure ignition is off. 2 and ECM connector terminal A10 (1-1-5). A38 (1-2-5). A38 (1-2-5). disconnect injector. 1 and main relay connector for an intermittent open circuit. 1-4-5 & 1-5-5 (Fuel Injector Problem) 1) If an injector circuit is shorted to ground or voltage. turn ignition off. check wiring between injector connector terminal No. A23 (1-4-5). A38 (1-2-5). check injector and ECM connectors for poor contact or oxidation. check for signal wire shorted to voltage or defective injector. Codes 1-1-5. Wait about 90 seconds. If resistance is 14. Check wiring between injector connector No. check wiring between injector connector terminal No. A24 (1-3-5). or if there is a break in the circuit. go to step 6). knock control circuit. code 1-1-2 is set. Connect ohmmeter between injector connectors No. A23 (1-4-5). If connector contact is okay. 1-3-5. If ohmmeter indicates 2500-4000 ohms. or A9 (1-5-5) for a short to ground. A24 (1-3-5). If ohmmeter indicates 2500-4000 ohms. 2 and ECM connector terminal A10(1-1-5). 2) Clear code. or A9 (1-5-5) for an open circuit. 6) Ensure ignition is off. If ohmmeter does not indicate about 14. A38 (1-2-5). 7) If fault is intermittent and signal is too high. If injector signal is too low. If fault is permanent. circuit for ECM’s temperature sensor. turn ignition off. 2 and ECM terminal A10 (1-1-5).5 ohms. connect an ohmmeter between injector connector terminal No. check wiring between injector connector terminal No. 1-2-5. If ohmmeter indicates infinite resistance. go to next step. 2 and ECM terminal A10 (1-1- 5). Connect ohmmeter between injector connector terminals No. Code 1-1-2 (Fault In ECM) 1) If ECM detects a fault in ROM/EPROM or RAM memory circuits. Also check wiring between injector connector No.5 ohms. A24 (1-3-5). check ECM connector for poor contact. go to next step. Check connectors for poor contact or oxidation. Disconnect injector connectors. If code does not reoccur. If ohmmeter indicates about 14. If codes 4-3- 2 and 5-1-3 are also present. check for poor contact between injector and/or ECM connector. Disconnect injector connectors. fault was intermittent. A23 (1-4-5). replace ECM. and repair as necessary. and repair as necessary. install new injector. 2) To check for an injector signal that is too high. check wiring between injector connector terminal No. and turn ignition on. Disconnect injector connector. 2 and ground. A23 (1-4-5). 8) If fault is intermittent and signal is too low. 2 and ECM terminal A10 (1-1-5). open circuit in signal or voltage wire. high connector resistance. go to step 7). replace injector. If code reoccurs. check for signal wire shorted to ground. If these codes are not present. 1 and ground. 2 and ground. If battery voltage is not present. 1 and 2.5 ohms. A38 (1- . 5) Ensure ignition is off. go to next step. If battery voltage is present. 1 and main relay connector for an open circuit. go to testing for those codes. If ohmmeter indicates about zero ohms. 1 and 2. or ECT sensor circuit’s NTC coupling. A24(1-3-5). If injector signal is too high. or A9 (1- 5-5) for an intermittent short to voltage. If resistance is not 14. or defective injector. ECM interprets this as a fault and sets code for appropriate injector. then disconnect injector connector. Connect voltmeter between injector connector terminal No. If ohmmeter does not indicate 2500-4000 ohms.5 ohms. If fault is intermittent.

Code 1-2-1 (MAF Signal) 1) If signal from MAF sensor is less than . 1 and ground.000 ohms. 2 and ECM terminal A5 for an open circuit. A23 (1-4-5). disconnect MAF sensor. If ohmmeter shows about zero ohms. If ohmmeter does not indicate about zero ohms. If voltmeter does not indicate about . A24(1-3-5). 4 and ECM connector terminal A4 for a short to voltage. Check wiring between main relay connector terminal No. check wiring between MAF sensor connector terminal No. 3 and main relay connector terminal No. If fault is permanent and signal is too low. go to step 3). If ohmmeter indicates about zero ohms. this is interpreted by ECM as a fault and code 1- 2-1 is set.2 volts at idle. code is setting because of poor contact in MAF sensor connector and/or ECM connector. go to next step. 4 and ECM connector terminal A4 for an intermittent open or short circuit to ground. Also check wiring between MAF sensor connector terminal No. 7) Turn ignition off and reconnect MAF sensor. 8) Ensure ignition is off. go to next step. go to step 8). Turn ignition on. If ohmmeter indicates about zero ohms. Wait about 90 seconds and disconnect MAF sensor. check wiring between MAF sensor connector terminal No. check wiring between MAF sensor connector terminal No. replace MAF sensor. If voltmeter does not indicate 0-1 volt. Connect voltmeter between MAF sensor connector terminal No.1-. go to next step. check wiring between . 4 and ECM connector terminal A4 for an intermittent short to voltage. Turn ignition on. Ensure ECM connector terminals are not oxidized and make good contact. go to step 6). If fault is permanent and signal is too high. go to next step.2 volt. If battery voltage is present. If voltmeter indicates about . Wait 90 seconds. Connect ohmmeter between MAF sensor connector terminal No. Connect ohmmeter between MAF sensor connector terminal No.1-. and A9 (1-5-5) for an intermittent short to ground. go to next step. If ohmmeter indicates 9000-11. 2 and ground. or is considered incorrect according to RPM and throttle angle. Also check wiring between MAF sensor connector terminal No. Connect ohmmeter between MAF sensor connector terminal No. check all wiring and connectors for loose contacts and open circuits. 6) Ensure ignition is on and MAF sensor is disconnected. Ensure fresh air hoses and upper and lower charge air pipes are undamaged and securely connected. ensure all fresh air hoses. and upper and lower charge air cooler pipes are correctly attached. then disconnect MAF sensor.2-5). 2) If fault is intermittent and signal is too high. If hoses and pipes are okay. go to next step. 9) Ensure ignition is off. or short to voltage is not found. If fault is intermittent and signal is low. 3 and ground. If ohmmeter indicates about zero ohms. 4 and ECM connector terminal A4 for a short to ground. If fault is intermittent. 3 for an intermittent open circuit. 4 and ground. 3) Turn ignition off. Connect ohmmeter between MAF sensor connector terminal No. If ohmmeter does not indicate about zero ohms. 1 and ECM terminal A3 for an open circuit. check wiring between MAF sensor connector terminal No. Reconnect ECM. If ohmmeter does not indicate about zero ohms. 4 and ground. 3 for an open circuit. replace MAF sensor. 5) Ensure ignition is off and MAF sensor is disconnected. 2 and ground. Connect voltmeter between MAF sensor connector terminal No. check wiring between MAF sensor connector terminal No. If battery voltage is not present. If ohmmeter shows infinite resistance. go to next step. 2 and 4. 4) Ensure ignition is off and MAF sensor is disconnected. 3 and MAF sensor connector terminal No. If voltage reading is still incorrect after repair. If voltmeter indicates 0-1 volt.2 volt.2 volt or greater than 2. Connect voltmeter between MAF sensor connector terminals No.

check ECT sensor. Connect voltmeter between MAF sensor connector terminals No. go to step 10). go to next step. Turn ignition on. If fault is intermittent and signal is too high. Ensure ECM connector has good terminal contact. Reconnect MAF sensor connector. 3) If fault is permanent. Reconnect ECM connector. and EGR temperature sensor joint connector terminal A18 on ECM for signs of contact resistance and/or oxidation. If fault is permanent and signal is too high. If ohmmeter does not show about zero ohms. Code 1-2-3 (Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor Signal) 1) If ECM receives a signal from ECT sensor which indicates a temperature less than -49 F (-45 C). 8) Ensure ignition is off. go to next step. check wiring between ECT sensor connector terminal No. go to step 8). Disconnect ECT sensor connector. and/or 4-1-3 are set. TP sensor. go to step 7). then check resistance between ECT sensor terminals.2 volt. CMP sensor.MAF sensor connector terminal No. disconnect engine cooling fan relay connector "A". Connect an ohmmeter between ECT sensor connector terminals No. Reconnect ECM connector.1-. 4) If fault is permanent and signal is too low. reattach connector. . 1 and 2. Turn ignition on. Disconnect ECT sensor connector. If voltmeter shows . After testing. 10) Turn ignition off. check wiring between ECT sensor connector terminal No. 2 and ECM terminal A18 for an open circuit. If voltmeter does not show about 5 volts. Check ECM connector for poor contact and/or oxidation. 4-1-1. Code 5-1-4 (engine cooling fan half speed) signal will be set. If ohmmeter shows about zero ohms. Wait 90 seconds. or greater than 300 F (150 C). then disconnect ECT sensor. Connect an ohmmeter between ECT sensor connector terminal No. Connect voltmeter between ECT sensor connector terminals No. If voltmeter shows about 5 volts. If voltmeter shows more than about 5 volts. check for poor contact in MAF sensor connector and/or ECM connector. 1 and 2. check wiring between ECT sensor connector terminal No. test system using a known good MAF sensor. repeat test using a known good ECT sensor. check for poor contact at ECT sensor connector. If voltmeter shows about 5 volts. 7) Ensure ignition is off. 5) If ohmmeter shows about zero ohms. 6) Turn ignition on. If resistance is incorrect. 2) If Codes 3-1-4. Connect voltmeter between ECT sensor connector terminal No. go to step 9). turn ignition off. NOTE: Fan run-on must be allowed to finish before taking resistance measurements. NOTE: Before beginning testing procedure. Connect an ohmmeter between ECT sensor connector No. 1 and ECM terminal A31 for a short to voltage. Disconnect ECT sensor connector. 2 and ground. Disconnect ECT sensor connector. If no other codes are stored. retest using a known good ECT sensor. If ohmmeter does show about 2200 ohms. 9) Ensure ignition is off. check wiring between ECT sensor connector terminal No. If voltmeter does not show . If voltmeter shows about zero volts. code is caused by poor contact in ECM connector. check for poor contact at ECM connector. If ohmmeter does not show about zero ohms. If fault is intermittent and signal is too low.1-. 1 and 2.2 volt. 4 and ECM connector terminal A4 for an open circuit. If ohmmeter does not show about 2200 ohms. Ohmmeter should show about 2200 ohms. go to next step. check all connectors for an intermittent open or short circuit to voltage. 2 and ground. 1 and ECM terminal A31 for an intermittent short to ground. 4 and 2. this is interpreted as a fault and DTC 1-2-3 is set.

If ohmmeter does not read about zero ohms. Disconnect RPM sensor connector at ECM. check charging system. check wiring between RPM sensor connector No. Ensure RPM sensor is disconnected. check charging system for signs of excessive charge. Code 1-3-1 (RPM Sensor Signal Absent) 1) Turn ignition off. See ON-VEHICLE TESTING in the ALTERNATOR & REGULATOR article in the ELECTRICAL section. If voltmeter reads 12-15 volts. check wiring between RPM sensor and ECM for an open circuit. If voltmeter does not read 1-2 volts. 1 and 2. go to next step. Ensure all terminals are clean and tight. If voltmeter does not show about 5 volts. Connect voltmeter to battery. 5) Turn ignition off. go to next step. and voltage is too high. Ensure ECM connectors and grounds are clean and tight. 1 (automatic transmission) and ECM for a short circuit to ground. go to next step. 1 and 2. 2 (automatic transmission) at RPM sensor connector at ECM. check connecting flange/flywheel for possible damage and scratches through sensor’s holes. If voltmeter does read 12-15 volts. turn ignition off. Disconnect ECM connector. go to step 5). Connect an ohmmeter between terminal No. If ohmmeter shows about zero ohms. Disconnect ECT sensor. 1 and ground. replace RPM sensor. If voltmeter shows about 5 volts. If voltmeter does not read 12-15 volts. If engine starts. 2) If fault is permanent and voltage is too low. 10) If fault is permanent and signal is too low. 3) Turn ignition off. 1 and 2. Connect an ohmmeter between RPM sensor connector terminals No. 2 (manual transmission) or No. Clean RPM sensor connector. reason for code was poor contact in RPM sensor connector and/or ECM connector. operate engine at idle. Disconnect RPM sensor connector. Turn ignition on. Disconnect RPM sensor connector. Attempt to start engine. check wiring between ECT sensor terminal No. If ohmmeter reads 1500-2000 ohms. Reconnect ECM. retest system using a known good ECT sensor. If ohmmeter does not read 1500-2000 ohms. 1 and ECM connector terminal A31 for a short to ground. Connect voltmeter between ECT sensor connector terminal No. If ohmmeter shows about 200-500 ohms. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. replace voltage regulator. 2 (automatic transmission) and ECM for an open circuit. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. Disconnect RPM sensor. Code 1-3-2 (Battery Voltage Signal Too Low Or Too High) 1) If fault is permanent and voltage is too high. Wait 2 minutes. If no problem is found on connecting flange/flywheel. If ohmmeter reads 1500-2000 ohms. 1 (manual transmission) or connector No. Disconnect RPM sensor. 2) Turn ignition off. source of code was poor contact at ECM connector. check wiring between battery and ECM terminal A27 for an open circuit. 6) Turn ignition on. check wiring between RPM sensor connector No. If engine does not start. Connect an ohmmeter between RPM sensor connector terminals No. go to next step. If ohmmeter shows infinite resistance. 1 (manual transmission) or connector No. 7) Turn ignition off. If voltmeter reads 1-2 volts. check . Reconnect ECM. Connect an ohmmeter between RPM sensor connector terminal No. test using new RPM sensor. If ohmmeter does not read about zero ohms. 4) Turn ignition off. Connect an ohmmeter between RPM sensor connector terminals No. check wiring between RPM sensor and ECM for an open circuit or short to voltage.1 and ECM connector terminal A31 for an open circuit. 2 (automatic transmission) and ground. If fault is intermittent. Repair as necessary. go to next step. If ohmmeter does not show 200-500 ohms. Connect voltmeter between RPM sensor connector terminals. 1 (manual transmission) or terminal No. go to step 6).

go to next step. 2 and ground. check wiring between knock sensor connector terminal No. If ohmmeter shows about 100 k/ohms. If ohmmeter shows about zero ohms. If knock sensor value is not 2-6 at speeds greater than 3500 RPM. Ensure ECM connector is making good electrical contact and is connected securely to ECM. If ohmmeter does not read about zero ohms. gain access to knock sensor(s) by removing upper charge air cooler pipe and engine cooling fan. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. 5) Ensure ignition is still off and knock sensor is disconnected. go to step 7). If camshaft setting is okay. Code 1-4-3 (Front Knock Sensor Signal) & Code 4-3-3 (Rear Knock Sensor Signal) 1) If fault is intermittent. 2 and ground. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. If fault is intermittent and signal is faulty. If fault is permanent and signal is too low. Connect an ohmmeter between knock sensor connector terminal No. Connect an ohmmeter between HO2S connector terminal No. check wiring between rear HO2S connector . 1 and ground. 1 and ECM terminal A2 (Code 1-4-3) or terminal A30 (Code 4-3-3) for an open circuit. If ohmmeter shows infinite resistance. If fault is permanent and signal is faulty. Use Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686) to check knock sensor value. perform diagnosis for these codes first. See the 2. If knock sensor value is 2-6 at speeds greater than 3500 RPM. Reconnect ECM. 2) Turn ignition off. perform diagnosis as per Code2-1-2. go to step 8). check wiring between knock sensor connector terminal No. go to step 5). 2) Turn ignition off. Start and warm up engine. 2 and ECM connector terminal A17 for an open circuit. To gain access to rear knock sensor also remove intake manifold support bracket. 3) If fault is intermittent and voltage is too low. code is caused by poor contact in ECM’s connector. Wait 2 minutes. Wait 2 minutes. If ohmmeter reads about one megohm. Check camshaft setting in relation to crankshaft. 6) Ensure ignition is still off and knock sensor is disconnected. If ohmmeter does not read about one megohm. 1 and ECM connector terminal A2 (Code 1-4-3) or terminal A30 (4-3-3) for short to ground. Disconnect rear HO2S Gray connector. Connect an ohmmeter between knock sensor connector terminal No. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. If fault is permanent. go to step 4). Connect an ohmmeter between knock sensor connector terminal No. go to next step. 4) Ensure ignition is still off and knock sensor is disconnected. Repair as necessary. test system using a new knock sensor. go to next step. If ohmmeter does not read about zero ohms. 3) Ensure ignition is still off. go to next step. 4 and ground. If ohmmeter reads infinite resistance. check camshaft setting. go to step 9). If camshaft setting is okay.wiring between battery and ECM for connector resistance. Disconnect knock sensor. Ensure ECM connector terminals are free of resistance and oxidation. 7) Reconnect knock sensor(s). Code 1-5-3 (Rear HO2S Signal) 1) If Codes 5-2-2 or 2-1-2 are stored. check wiring between knock sensor connector terminal No. check all ECM and main relay wiring and connectors for looseness and and/or contact resistance. go to step 10).3L article in the ENGINES section. Connect an ohmmeter between knock sensor connector terminal No. If fault is intermittent and signal is too low. source of code is poor contact at knock sensor connector. If fault is permanent or intermittent and signal is too high. Increase engine speed to slightly greater than 3500 RPM. code was caused by poor contact in ECM connector. If ohmmeter reads about one megohm. check all wiring and connectors for poor contact. 1 and ground. go to next step.

go to next step.terminal No. Connect an ohmmeter between HO2S connector terminals No. Go to step 5). If reading is okay. turn ignition off. If engine still runs unevenly. 3 and ECM connector terminal A19. go to next step. 4 and ECM terminal A34 for an intermittent short circuit to ground. and wiring between rear HO2S connector terminal No. 4 and ground. fault is intermittent. go to step 6). . If ohmmeter reads about 100 k/ohms. 3 and ECM terminal A19 for an open circuit. check wiring between rear HO2S connector terminal No. 3 and ECM terminal A33. Ensure ECM connector terminal contacts are clean and tight. If ohmmeter reads about 200 ohms. If ohmmeter shows infinite resistance. go to step 7).9 volt within about 10 minutes. 5) Turn ignition off. 3 and ECM terminal A33. Check wiring between rear HO2S connector terminal No. Connect an ohmmeter between HO2S connector terminal No. Reconnect ECM. If ohmmeter reads infinite resistance. If ohmmeter reads about 200 ohms. 4 and ECM terminal A34 for a short circuit to ground. 3 and ground. If ohmmeter does not read about 200 ohms.165 volt) and stabilized between . 6) Turn ignition off. 7) Turn ignition off. Disconnect rear HO2S connector. Reconnect ECM. source of code is poor contact at rear HO2S connector. Connect an ohmmeter between HO2S connector terminal No. check wiring between rear HO2S connector terminal No. test using new HO2S. check wiring between front HO2S connector terminal No. Disconnect front HO2S Black connector. Also check wiring between front HO2S connector terminal No. If ohmmeter reads about 200 ohms. and wiring between rear HO2S connector terminal No. go to next step. If engine now runs smoothly. 4 and ECM connector terminal A34 for an intermittent short circuit of wire between rear HO2S connector terminal No. 3 and ECM terminal A19 for a short to ground. 3 and ground. Disconnect EGR connector. retest using new rear HO2S. 4 and ECM terminal A34 for an open circuit. If ohmmeter does not read about 200 ohms. 4 and ECM terminal A34. 8) If fault is permanent and signal is faulty. If engine runs smoothly at idle. check wiring between rear HO2S connector terminal No. Check voltage at rear HO2S. Disconnect HO2S connector. test system using a new front HO2S. Ensure rear HO2S is connected. and between rear HO2S connector terminal No. 3 and ground. Connect an ohmmeter between HO2S connector terminal No. Start and run engine at idle. 4) Turn ignition off. source of code is poor contact at ECM connector. 1 and ECM terminal A40 for a short to ground. check wiring between rear HO2S connector terminal No. 3 and ECM connector A19. Wait about 2 minutes. Connect an ohmmeter between rear HO2S connector terminal No. If engine runs unevenly at idle. Disconnect rear HO2S Gray connector. Disconnect rear HO2S connector. If ohmmeter shows about zero ohms. 9) If fault is intermittent and signal is too low. source of code is poor contact in ECM connector.1-. If ohmmeter does not read infinite resistance. Code 1-5-4 (EGR System Leakage) 1) Start and run engine at idle. check wiring between EGR controller connector terminal No. 4 and ECM connector terminal A34 for a short circuit to rear HO2S connector terminal No. If ohmmeter does not read about 100 k/ohms. Check ECM and rear HO2S connector for loose connection. If reading is not okay. 3) Turn ignition off. 3 and 4. 10) If fault is intermittent and signal is faulty. 3 and ECM terminal A19 for an open circuit. Disconnect rear HO2S connector. Ensure ECM connector terminals are clean and tight. 3 and ECM terminal A19 for an intermittent short circuit to ground. Voltage signal should have left its bottom setting (-. 2) Operate engine at idle. check wiring between rear HO2S connector terminal No.

5) Check wiring between EGR controller connector terminal No. Carefully remove Yellow hose from EGR controller. Disconnect front HO2S Black connector. retest using new front HO2S. If voltmeter does not read about 1. go to step 9). If voltmeter does not read about . 34 and 42. 9) If fault is permanent and signal is too low. go to step 22).2 volts. go to step 23). Code 2-1-2 (Front HO2S Signal) 1) Check for other codes. 33 and 42. If voltmeter reads about . If voltmeter reads about 1. 4 and ECM terminal A34 for a short to voltage. 4) Operate engine at idle. If Code 5-2-1 is not stored. connect breakout box to ECM. go to next step. If engine still runs unevenly. go to step 20). go to next step. check wiring between front HO2S connector terminal No.2 volts. check wiring between rear HO2S connector terminal No.7 volt. If voltmeter does not read about . check if Yellow hose is blocked or kinked. Turn ignition on. Connect voltmeter between breakout box pins No. Turn ignition on. 3) Operate engine at idle. Replace as necessary. If voltmeter reads about . Connect voltmeter between breakout box pins No. go to next step. test using new rear HO2S. If voltmeter reads about zero volts. Disconnect rear HO2S Gray connector.7 volt.2 volts. If engine now runs smoothly. 2 and ECM connector terminal A40 for possible intermittent short circuits to ground. 8) Turn ignition off. If voltmeter does not read about zero volts.7 volt. 4) Turn ignition off. 3 and ECM terminal A33. Turn ignition on. check wiring between front HO2S connector terminal No. If engine now runs smooth at idle. If voltmeter does not read about . If voltmeter does not read about . Connect voltmeter between breakout box pins No. If voltmeter does not read about . Disconnect front HO2S Black connector. Ensure EGR controller is operating. 32 and 42. go to next step. Turn ignition on. 3) Turn ignition off. Disconnect front HO2S connector. go to step 13). 33 and 42. test system using a new EGR valve. Connect voltmeter between breakout box pins No. If fault is intermittent and signal is too high. If Code 5-2-1 is stored. Disconnect front HO2S Black connector. 32 and 42.2 volts. 33 and 42. Turn ignition on. Connect voltmeter between breakout box pins No. If voltmeter reads about . If voltmeter does not read about 1. test system using new EGR controller. 4 and ECM terminal A32 for a short to voltage.7 volt. 3 and ECM terminal A19 for a short to voltage. 10) Turn ignition off. If engine still runs unevenly at idle. and wiring between rear HO2S connector terminal No. go to next step. Connect voltmeter between breakout box pins No. 2) If fault is permanent and signal is too high. go to step 6).7 volt. go to step 21). Connect voltmeter between breakout box pins No. 5) Turn ignition off. 6) Turn ignition on. test using new front HO2S. Connect breakout box between ECM and ECM connector. go to next step. test using a new rear HO2S. If fault is intermittent and signal is faulty. If fault is permanent and signal is too low. test using new front HO2S. If voltmeter reads about . Turn ignition on.7 volt. .7 volt. Ensure EGR valve is not sticking. 33 and 42. 7) Turn ignition off. 33 and 42. diagnose that code first.7 volt.7 volt. Disconnect rear HO2S Gray connector. If fault is intermittent and signal is too low. go to step 12).7 volt. go to next step. Connect voltmeter between breakout box pins No. If fault is permanent and signal is absent. 11) Turn ignition off. If voltmeter reads about 1. Disconnect front HO2S Black connector. go to next step. If fault is intermittent and signal is absent. Carefully remove Yellow hose from EGR valve. If fault is permanent and signal is faulty. Turn ignition on. If voltmeter reads about . go to step 19). go to step 8).

4 and ECM connector terminal A32 for a short circuit in wiring between front HO2S connector terminal No. Ensure ECM connector terminals are clean and tight. 13) If fault is permanent and signal is absent. If voltmeter reads about . If ohmmeter reads about 200 ohms. Front HO2S should shift from its middle setting (. Reconnect ECM connector. turn ignition off. If ohmmeter reads infinite resistance. If reading is okay. 3 and 4. Disconnect front HO2S Black connector. go to step 17). 18) Turn ignition off. If reading is incorrect. 4 and ECM connector terminal A32 for an intermittent short circuit to voltage. 3 and ECM terminal A33. cause of code is poor contact in front HO2S connector. Ensure ECM connector terminals are clean and tight. source of code was poor contact in ECM connector. go to step 15). Connect ohmmeter between front HO2S connector terminal No. 4 and ground. If ohmmeter reads 50 ohms to infinite resistance.7 volt. Disconnect front HO2S Gray connector.2 volts. 3 and ECM connector terminal A33 for an open circuit. Connect voltmeter between breakout box pins No. Reconnect ECM. 3 and ECM connector terminal A33. Wait about 2 minutes.9 volt within minutes. 14) Turn ignition off. Disconnect front HO2S connector. go to next step. 4 and ECM terminal A32 for a short circuit to ground. Disconnect ECM. If ohmmeter reads infinite resistance. 3 and ground. If ohmmeter reads about 50 k/ohms. check wiring between front HO2S connector terminal No.1-. If ohmmeter does not read 50 to infinite ohms. 16) Turn ignition off. Turn ignition on. check wiring between front HO2S connector terminal No. Ensure front HO2S is connected. Disconnect ECM. check wiring between front HO2S connector terminal No. 15) Turn ignition off. Disconnect front HO2S connector. go to step 18). If voltmeter does not read about 1. Start and run engine at idle. 33 and 42. 12) Turn ignition off. If ohmmeter does not read about 200 ohms. 4 and ground. 3 and ECM terminal A19 for a short circuit to ground.45 volt). If ohmmeter does not read about 50 k/ohms. check wiring between front HO2S connector terminal No. Connect an ohmmeter between HO2S connector terminal No. If voltmeter reads about 1. retest using new rear HO2S. 17) Turn ignition off. test using new rear HO2S. Wait about 2 minutes. and wiring between rear HO2S connector terminal No. If ohmmeter does not read about 200 ohms. If voltmeter does not read about . If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. retest using new front HO2S. Connect an ohmmeter between HO2S connector terminal No. Turn ignition on. Also check wiring between front HO2S connector terminal No. Connect an ohmmeter between HO2S connector terminals No. Connect ohmmeter between HO2S connector terminal No. check wiring between front HO2S connector terminal No. check wiring between front HO2S connector terminal No. 19) If fault is permanent and signal is faulty. cause of code is poor contact at ECM connector.Disconnect rear HO2S Gray connector. 32 and 42. Connect voltmeter between breakout box pins No. 4 and ECM terminal A32 for an open circuit. Ensure connector tabs are not damaged. turn ignition off. and begin to vary between . check wiring between front HO2S connector terminal No. go to next step. If ohmmeter reads about 50 k/ohms.2 volts. and wiring between rear HO2S connector terminal No. 4 and ECM terminal A32 for a short circuit to ground. Disconnect front HO2S Black connector. 3 and ground. 3 and ECM terminal A33. If ohmmeter reads 200 ohms. test using new front HO2S.7 volt. Disconnect front HO2S connector. Connect an ohmmeter between HO2S terminal No. 20) If fault is intermittent and signal is too high. 3 and ground. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. check wiring between front HO2S connector terminal No. If ohmmeter reads about 200 ohms. test using new front HO2S. 3 and ECM connector terminal A19 for a short to ground. Disconnect front HO2S Black connector. 3 and ECM connector .

check wiring between front HO2S connector terminal No.terminal A33. check wiring between IAC valve connector terminal No. If ohmmeter reads 20-40 k/ohms. if voltmeter shows more than one volt. Connect voltmeter between IAC valve connector terminal No. and between rear HO2S connector terminal No. go to next step. 3 and ECM terminal A11 for a short circuit to wiring between IAC valve connector terminal No. check wiring between IAC valve connector terminal No. Check wiring between front HO2S connector terminal No. If there is an open circuit in voltage lead. between front HO2S connector terminal No. 3 and ECM terminal A19 for an intermittent short circuit to ground. If voltmeter shows less than one volt. If . go to next step. between rear HO2S connector terminal No. 4 and ECM terminal A34 for intermittent short to voltage. 1 and ECM terminal A25 for a short circuit to voltage. 21) If fault is intermittent and signal is too low. Turn ignition on. If voltmeter shows battery voltage. go to step 4). Connect voltmeter between ground and IAC valve connector terminal No. 5) Turn ignition off. contact resistance and oxidation. 3 and ECM terminal A19. 3) Turn ignition off. check wiring between IAC valve connector terminal No. Check front HO2S and ECM connectors for a loose connection. 3 (Code 2-2-3) or terminal No. Connect an ohmmeter between IAC valve connector terminals No. If IAC valve signal wiring is shorted to each other. 23) If fault is intermittent and signal is faulty. If fault is intermittent and signal is too low. If fault is permanent and signal is too low. 2) Turn ignition off. 3 and ECM terminal A33 for an intermittent open circuit. 3 and ECM terminal A11 for a short circuit to voltage. check connecting flange/flywheel through sensor hole for damage and scratches. 3 and ECM terminal A33. 2) If all wiring and connections are okay. 4 and ECM terminal A32. Code 2-1-4 (RPM Sensor Signal Sporadic) 1) Check RPM sensor and ECM connectors for loose connection. and between rear HO2S connector terminal No. On Code 2-2-3. wiring between front HO2S connector terminal No. retest using new RPM sensor. check wiring between front HO2S connector terminal No. 1 (Code 2-4-5). 1 and 3. 1 and ECM terminal A25. If ohmmeter shows about zero ohms. 4) If fault is permanent and signal is too low. Check wiring for short circuit to ground or voltage. 2 and ground. Repair as necessary. go to step 8). Disconnect IAC valve. if voltmeter shows more than one volt. Wait about 2 minutes. go to step 9). If fault is intermittent and signal is too high. both Codes 2-2-3 and 2-4-5 will be set. then both Codes 2-2-3 and 2-4-5 will be set. Disconnect IAC valve. test using new IAC valve. and wiring between rear HO2S connector terminal No. If no damage is present. 3 and ECM terminal A33. 3 and ECM terminal A19 for an intermittent short to ground. Disconnect IAC valve connector. If voltmeter does not show battery voltage. check wiring between front HO2S connector terminal No. 4 and ECM terminal A32 for an intermittent short circuit between front HO2S connector terminal No. 4 and ECM terminal A32. 22) If fault is intermittent and signal is absent. 3 and ECM terminal A33. Connect an ohmmeter between ground and IAC valve connector terminal No. 2 for an open circuit. go to next step. On Code 2-4-5. 4 and ECM terminal A32. Code 2-2-3 (Valve Signal Opening) or Code 2-4-5 (Valve Signal Closing) 1) If fault is permanent and signal is too high. and wiring between front HO2S connector terminal No. 3 and IAC valve connector terminal No. 3 (Code 2-2-3) or No. check wiring between main relay connector terminal No. Wait about 2 minutes. turn ignition off. Turn ignition on. 1 (Code 2-4-5). Disconnect IAC valve.

go to step 9). on Code 2-2- 3. go to step 8). cause of code was poor contact in ECM connector. 1 (Code 2- 4-5). 1 and ground. 3 (Code 2-2-3) or terminal No. go to next step. If ohmmeter reads 10-20 k/ohms. check wiring between IAC valve connector terminal No. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. If ohmmeter does not read about zero ohms. on Code 2-2-3. Repair as necessary. 2 for an intermittent open circuit. 9) If fault is intermittent and signal is too low on Code 2- 4-5. Check ECM connector for oxidation and poor terminal contact. On Code 2-2-3. 2) Turn ignition off. 2 for an intermittent open circuit. 3) Turn ignition off. go to next step. 1 and ECM terminal A25 for an intermittent open circuit or short circuit to ground. 8) If fault is intermittent and signal is too high. Also check wiring between IAC valve connector terminal No. 6) Turn ignition off. Also check wiring between IAC valve connector terminal No. 3 and ECM terminal A11 for an open circuit. Disconnect IAC valve connector. 1 and ground. If ohmmeter does not show 10-20 k/ohms. 1 and 2. If ohmmeter reads 9-14 ohms in both cases. 7) Turn ignition off. Check wiring between main relay connector terminal No. Reconnect ECM connector. check wiring between IAC valve connector terminal No. 3 and IAC valve connector terminal No. Repair as necessary. On Code 2-4-5. go to next step. 10) On Code 2-4-5. 2 and 3. If fault is intermittent and signal is too high. If fault is permanent and signal is too low. check IAC valve and ECM connectors for contact resistance and oxidation. go to step 4). test using new IAC valve. go to next step. 1 and ECM terminal A25 for a short to ground. then between terminals No. check wiring between IAC valve connector terminal No. Connect an ohmmeter between A/C pressure sensor connector terminal No. 1 and ECM terminal A25 for an intermittent short to voltage or intermittent short circuit to coil signal voltage. Disconnect IAC valve. check wiring between A/C pressure sensor connector terminal No. 3 and ECM terminal A11 for an intermittent short to voltage or intermittent short circuit to coil signal voltage. Wait about 2 minutes. cause of code is poor contact in IAC valve connector. Connect an ohmmeter between ground and IAC valve connector terminal No. Disconnect A/C pressure sensor. 3 and ECM terminal A11 for a short circuit to ground. check wiring between IAC valve connector terminal No. check IAC valve and ECM connectors for contact resistance and oxidation. go to step 7). Disconnect A/C pressure sensor connector. Connect an ohmmeter between A/C pressure sensor connector terminal No. 3 and ECM terminal A11 for an intermittent open circuit or short circuit to ground. Reconnect ECM connector. If fault is intermittent and signal is too low. 4) Turn ignition on. Repair as necessary. On Code 2-4-5. 1 and ECM terminal B28 for an open circuit. If ohmmeter does not read 9-14 ohms in both cases. If ohmmeter shows about zero ohms. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. If ohmmeter does not read about zero ohms. Disconnect A/C pressure sensor connector. Ensure ECM connector terminals are clean and tight. check wiring between IAC valve connector terminal No. and free of oxidation. If ohmmeter reads infinite resistance.ohmmeter reads 10-20 k/ohms. Code 2-2-5 (A/C Pressure Sensor Signal) 1) If fault is permanent and signal is too high. Repair as necessary. check wiring between IAC valve connector terminal No. Check wiring between main relay connector terminal No. go to step 7). go to next step. Connect a voltmeter between A/C pressure sensor connector . On Code 2-4-5. on Code 2-2-3. Connect ohmmeter between IAC valve connector terminals No. 3 and IAC valve connector terminal No. 1 and ECM terminal A25 for an open circuit.

Disconnect A/C pressure sensor. 2 and ECM terminal B9 for a short to voltage. . 8) If fault is intermittent and signal is too high. If voltmeter reads about 5 volts. If fuel and residual pressure are not okay. retest using new A/C pressure sensor. retest using new A/C pressure sensor. 2 and 4. 6) Turn ignition off. perform testing on that code first. cause of code is poor contact in ECM connector. check A/C pressure sensor and ECM connectors for loose connection or contact resistance. 7) If fault is permanent and signal is too low. Disconnect A/C pressure sensor. If voltmeter does not read about 5 volts. Also check wiring between A/C pressure sensor connector terminal No. go to step 8). go to next step. go to next step. If voltmeter reads more than about 5 volts. check wiring between A/C pressure sensor connector terminal No. Repair as necessary. If voltmeter reads about 5 volts. 2 and ECM terminal B9 for an intermittent short circuit to ground. Start engine and idle for 15 seconds. 9) If fault is intermittent and signal is too low. 2 and ground.2 volt. cause of code is poor contact in A/C pressure sensor connector.1-. 3) Turn ignition on. go to next step. turn ignition on. Reconnect ECM. Turn ignition on. go to next step. If voltmeter reads about zero volts. Repair as necessary. Repair as necessary. If voltmeter reads about 5 volts. Turn ignition on. turn ignition off. If parameter displays NO. go to next step. Turn A/C and blower on.terminal No.1-. If status message reads UPPER LIMIT. Connect voltmeter between MAF sensor connectors terminals No. 2) Check status message on Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686). go to step 6). test using new MAF sensor. Code 2-3-1 (Long Term Fuel Trim Partial Load) Or Code 2-3-2 (Long Term Fuel Trim Idling) 1) Check for other codes. Reconnect A/C pressure sensor. If status message reads LOWER LIMIT. See COMPUTERIZED ENGINE CONTROLS in I . 5) Check for air leakage in exhaust system. go to next step. If Code 3-1-5 is not stored. 8) If status message reads LOWER LIMIT. repair as necessary. 2 and ground. Connect voltmeter between A/C pressure sensor connector terminal No. Check wiring between A/C pressure sensor connector terminal No.2 volt. 2 and ECM terminal B9 for an intermittent open circuit or short circuit to ground. Reconnect ECM. 5) Turn ignition off. check wiring between A/C pressure sensor connector terminal No. If there is air leakage. repair as necessary. 7) Connect breakout box to ECM and check ground connections. If fuel and residual pressure are okay.SYSTEM/COMPONENT TESTS article. check wiring between A/C pressure sensor connector terminal No. 1 and ECM terminal B28 for an intermittent open circuit. Connect voltmeter between A/C pressure sensor connector terminal No. If air leakage in intake system is not present. If voltmeter reads . 2 and ECM terminal B9 for a short circuit to ground. If Code 3-1-5 is stored. 2 and ECM terminal B9 for an open circuit. Ensure ECM connector terminals are clean and free of oxidation. check wiring between A/C pressure sensor connector terminal No. 2 and ground. If voltmeter does not read . If there is no air leakage. Connect voltmeter between MAF sensor connector terminals No. If A/C APPROVED parameter displays YES on Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686). go to next step. 6) Check fuel and residual pressure. Repair as necessary. 2 and 4. If voltmeter does not read about 5 volts. 4) Check for air leakage in intake system.

2 volt. test using new MAF sensor. . go to next step. If voltmeter does not read . do not touch slide with a screwdriver or similar tool. Code 2-3-3 (Idle Air Trim) 1) If Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686) reads UPPER LIMIT. go to next step. Also check connectors for IAC valve. repair as necessary. If all components are not okay. Listen for sound of slide striking. If ohmmeter does not read 18-28 ohms. read off throttle position. If slide does not strike. If no air leakage and fuel and residual pressure are okay. If ohmmeter does not read 18-28 ohms. CAUTION: To prevent scratching and damage. Read off value of short term fuel trim once again. go to next step. air intake. 10) Turn ignition off. Repair as necessary. Repair as necessary. repair as necessary. 8) Turn ignition off. If vacuum gauge does show stable vacuum. Check fuel and residual pressure. Disconnect IAC valve. Ensure air cleaner. Connect vacuum pump to EVAP valve coupling. Repair as necessary. do not touch slide with a screwdriver or similar tool. Check all signals to and from ECM. 12) Connect breakout box to ECM connector and check grounds. adjust throttle angle. 11) Start engine and run at idle a few minutes. 1 and 3. If ohmmeter reads 18-28 ohms. Using Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686). 3) Turn ignition off. If value rises. If throttle position is not 3-8 degrees with throttle closed. If no air leakage is present. Remove IAC valve.1-. If all components are okay. repair as necessary. 2) Operate engine at idle. Check engine oil and fill as necessary. 6) If slide in IAC valve strikes. go to next step. Hold valve at connector. If throttle position is not 3-8 degrees with throttle shut. go to next step. 4) Turn ignition off. Using Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686). go to next step. Read off throttle position on scan tool. 9) Check for air leakage in intake and exhaust system. Turn valve quickly (but carefully) back and forth.If voltmeter reads . If vacuum gauge does not show stable vacuum. read off value on SHORT TERM FUEL TRIM and note value. Repair as necessary. and hoses and pipes between air cleaner and throttle body are not blocked. Disconnect and plug crankcase ventilation. go to next step. 10) Remove hose leading to intake manifold from EVAP valve. go to next step. engine oil is diluted with fuel. Turn valve quickly (but carefully) back and forth. go to next step. 9) Turn ignition off. retest using new IAC valve. clean IAC valve and ECM connectors of oxidation or other contact resistance. Connect an ohmmeter between IAC valve connector terminal No. Repair as necessary. If throttle position is 3-8 degrees with throttle closed.1-. retest using new IAC valve. 5) Turn ignition off. Connect an ohmmeter between IAC connector terminals No. go to next step. If value is more or less unchanged. Check IAC valve and related components for air leakage. If throttle position is 3-8 degrees with throttle shut. If scan tool reads LOWER LIMIT. 7) Run engine at idle. 1 and 3. go to next step. CAUTION: To prevent scratching and damage. Disconnect IAC valve.2 volt. Hold valve at connector. Listen for sound of slide striking. retest using new IAC valve. Connect ECM. go to step 7). If ohmmeter reads 18-28 ohms. Remove IAC valve.

turn ignition off. If vacuum gauge gives any reading. Pump vacuum to maximum of 4. 2 and breakout box pin No. Disconnect EGR controller connector. Disconnect ECM connector. Repair as necessary. Turn ignition on. Carefully remove White hose from EGR controller. Repair as necessary. 40 and EGR controller connector terminal No. Connect loose wire on EGR controller to ground so as to open EGR controller. 3 for an open circuit. Connect voltmeter between breakout box pins No. 11) If fault is intermittent. Connect a jumper wire between EGR controller connector terminal No.35 psi (30 kPa). Check Yellow hose for leaks or obstruction. If EGR pipe is okay. Start engine and run at idle. If hose is okay. 1 and main relay connector terminal No. Flow Malfunction) 1) Turn ignition on. go to next step. check wiring between EGR controller connector terminal No. If EGR controller does not function. 3 and check EGR controller functions. 4) Start and run engine at idle. Connect vacuum gauge to White hose. go to next step. go to next step. 8) Turn ignition off. Check that EGR valve retains vacuum. retest using new IAC valve. test using new EGR valve. Connect ohmmeter between breakout box pin No. Turn ignition on. If battery voltage is present. 2. If engine does not run unevenly at idle. If EGR controller functions. clean IAC valve and ECM connectors of oxidation or other contact resistance. If ohmmeter does not read zero ohms. If engine runs smoothly at idle when vacuum pump shows negative pressure and vacuum pump retains vacuum. 11) If slide in IAC valve strikes. 9) Turn ignition on. 2. 40 for a short circuit to voltage. retest using new EGR valve. check EGR controller connection and ECM connectors for signs of loose connection and contact . 6) Turn ignition off. 2) Turn ignition off. go to next step. 2 and ground. 5) Turn ignition off. Carefully disconnect Yellow hose from EGR controller. Connect breakout box to ECM connector. Connect a vacuum gauge to EGR controller connector. fault is intermittent. Ensure EGR connector is connected. check wiring between EGR controller connector terminal No. If ohmmeter reads zero ohms. If EGR controller operates. If voltmeter reads less than one volt. Go to step 11). If engine runs evenly when vacuum pump shows negative pressure but vacuum pump loses vacuum. 40 for an open circuit. go to next step. Disconnect wire at EGR controller connector terminal No. go to step 7). Connect Yellow hose to EGR valve. Connect White hose to EGR controller. Use Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686) to check if EGR controller functions. If engine runs unevenly at idle. If voltmeter does not read less than one volt. code was caused by poor contact in control module and/or EGR controller connector. If slide does not strike. go to next step. Use Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686) parameter Diagnostic Test Mode No. check if EGR pipe is clogged. 1 and ground. 7) If EGR controller does not operate. retest using new EGR controller. If battery voltage is not present. If vacuum gauge does not give a reading. Reconnect ECM. Disconnect EGR controller connector. Disconnect EGR connector. Connect vacuum pump to Yellow hose at EGR controller. Code 2-4-1 (EGR System. go to next step. 10) Turn ignition off. Start engine and run at idle. check wiring between EGR controller connection terminal No. 3) Turn ignition off. If vacuum gauge does not give a reading. Carefully disconnect Yellow hose from EGR valve. If EGR controller does not operate. retest using new EGR controller. 40 and 42. Connect voltmeter between EGR controller connector terminal No. Start and run engine at idle. go to next step. If vacuum gauge gives any reading. Engine should run unevenly when vacuum pump shows negative pressure. ensure White vacuum hose and connection to intake manifold are not blocked. Repair as necessary. 2 and breakout box pin No.

Check if Code 1-3-1 is stored. Disconnect camshaft position sensor. read off VSS signal. Go to next step. check wiring between instrument cluster connector terminal A7 and ECM terminal B18 for a short circuit to voltage. If speedometer is VDO. If Code 1-3-1 is stored. go to step 5). check wiring between instrument cluster connector terminal A7 and ECM terminal B18 for a short circuit to ground. Connect an ohmmeter between camshaft position sensor connector terminal No. Ensure ECM connector terminals are clean and free of oxidation. If voltmeter shows a steady reading of greater than 5 volts. 1 and main relay connector terminal No. check wiring between instrument cluster connector terminal A7 and control module terminal B18 for an open circuit. Connect voltmeter between breakout box pins No. Code 3-1-1 (Vehicle Speed Sensor Signal) 1) Test drive vehicle. 3 for an intermittent open circuit. check instrument cluster circuit for intermittent faults. If ohmmeter does not read 500 ohms. If Codes 1-2-3. go to next step. Raise and support front of vehicle. Disconnect ECM connector. 4-1-1. 40 for an intermittent open circuit. 18 and 28. go to next step. If Code 1-3-1 is not stored. If voltmeter reading varies between . Go to step 6). On Yazaki speedometer. on VDO speedometer. If no other codes are present. Also check wiring between EGR controller connector terminal No. ECT sensor. Also check wiring between instrument cluster connector terminal A7 and ECM terminal B18 for an intermittent open circuit or intermittent short to ground. speedometer or one of its components is defective. and EGR temperature sensor connection at ECM connector terminal A18 for signs of contact resistance and oxidation. check wiring between instrument cluster connector terminal A7 and ECM terminal B18 for an intermittent short circuit to voltage. determine if speedometer is VDO or Yazaki style. go to next step.resistance. 6) Turn ignition on. If ohmmeter does not read about zero ohms. fault is permanent. 4) Turn ignition off. 3) Turn ignition off. and possibly 4-1-3 are stored. Check ECM and instrument cluster connectors for an open circuit. source of code is poor contact in ECM connector. 1 and ground. Connect an . 18 and 28. If fault is permanent. Disconnect camshaft position sensor connector. 2) Test drive vehicle and ensure speedometer functions. fault is intermittent. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms.5-5 volts. 4) Connect breakout box between ECM and ECM connector. 2 and ECM connector terminal No. If speed is zero MPH. check TP sensor. go to next step. camshaft position sensor. Reconnect ECM connector. If speedometer shows zero MPH. 2) Using Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686) check status message to determine whether fault is permanent or intermittent. Check if Code 1-3-1 is stored. Check wiring between EGR controller connector terminal No. Using Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686). go to step 12). If speedometer is Yazaki. If ohmmeter reads about 500 ohms. go to step 4). go to next step. If speedometer is okay. If Code 1-3-1 is not stored. Shift transmission to Neutral. If speed is okay. Wait about 2 minutes. If fault is intermittent. Connect an ohmmeter between breakout box pins No. 3) Turn ignition on. check wiring between instrument cluster connector terminal A7 and control module terminal B18 for a short circuit to voltage. check wiring between instrument cluster connector terminal A7 and ECM terminal B18 for an open circuit. Rotate front wheels. If voltmeter shows a steady reading of about zero volts. Code 3-1-4 (Camshaft Position Sensor Signal) 1) Check for other codes. 5) Turn ignition off. If Code 1-3-1 is stored. See the INSTRUMENT PANELS article in the ACCESSORIES/SAFETY EQUIPMENT section. go to next step. Turn ignition on. Repair as necessary.

Ensure ECM connector terminals are clean and free of oxidation. If voltmeter reads more than about 5 volts. 2 and ECM connector terminal A21 for a short circuit to ground. or oxidation. If voltmeter shows battery voltage. 1 and ECM terminal A18 for an intermittent open circuit. Connect voltmeter between camshaft position sensor connector terminal No. check wiring between camshaft position sensor connector terminal No. Disconnect camshaft position sensor connector. If voltmeter does not show battery voltage. If battery voltage is present. Reconnect ECM. Connect voltmeter between camshaft position sensor connector terminal No. Wait about 2 minutes. check wiring between camshaft position sensor connector terminal No. If ohmmeter reads infinite resistance. go to step 7). 1 and ground. camshaft position sensor is okay. 2) Start and run engine at idle. 11) Ensure camshaft position sensor is connected. 3 and ground. go to next step. If engine starts. 8) Turn ignition off. 2 and ECM connector terminal A21 for an open circuit. Disconnect camshaft position sensor connector. 3 and ground. check for obstruction. Ensure ECM connector terminals are clean and free of oxidation. go to next step. If Code 5-4-1 is also present. check wiring between camshaft position sensor connector terminal No.5-3 k/ohms. 12) If fault is intermittent. 3 and ECM terminal A36 for an intermittent open circuit. Connect voltmeter between camshaft position sensor connector terminal No. If vacuum is not present in hose. Code 3-1-5 (EVAP System) 1) Check for other codes. short circuit to ground. code is caused by poor contact at camshaft position sensor connector or ECM connector. retest using new camshaft position sensor. Disconnect camshaft position sensor. If ohmmeter reads . 1 and ECM connector A18 for an open circuit. If engine starts. 10) Reconnect camshaft position sensor. go to next step. check wiring between camshaft position sensor connector terminal No. If vacuum is present in hose. or short circuit to voltage. 7) Turn ignition on. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. Disconnect ECM connector. Disconnect camshaft position sensor. If voltmeter reads less than about 5 volts. 3 and ECM terminal A36 for an open circuit. 2 and ground. contact resistance. 2 and ground. Reconnect ECM. go to step 10). Connect hose between EVAP . Connect an ohmmeter between camshaft position sensor connector terminal No. 3) Start and run engine at idle. 9) Turn ignition off. Disconnect camshaft position sensor. Connect an ohmmeter between camshaft position sensor connector terminal No. Also check wiring between camshaft position sensor connector terminal No.5-3 k/ohms. If engine does not start. If battery voltage is not present. check for poor contact at ECM connector. source of code is poor contact in ECM connector. Check wiring between camshaft position sensor connector terminal No. check that code first. Turn ignition on. go to next step. If ohmmeter does not read about zero ohms. 2 and ground. Also check hose connection to intake manifold. 5) Turn ignition on. 2 and ECM terminal A21 for a short circuit to voltage. 2 and ECM terminal A21 for an intermittent open circuit. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. If Code 5-4-1 is not present. Attempt to start engine. go to next step. Remove vacuum hose between EVAP valve and intake manifold. If engine starts. Check wiring between camshaft position sensor connector terminal No. retest using new camshaft position sensor. then go to step 11). If ohmmeter does not read . source of DTC is poor contact in ECM connector. check wiring between CMP sensor connector terminal No. check camshaft position sensor and ECM connectors for loose connection. 6) Turn ignition off. If voltmeter reads about 5 volts.ohmmeter between camshaft position sensor terminal No.

go to step 10). retest using new EVAP valve. If no vacuum is present. If engine cooling fan is running. fault is intermittent. go to step 3). go to next step. 1 and ground. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. If status message is INTERMITTENT FAULT. Also check ECM connector and battery positive terminal for a loose connection. 3-1-4 and possibly 4-1-3 are stored. and EGR temperature sensor connector on ECM for contact resistance and oxidation. If Codes 1-2-3. 2) Check status message on Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686). SIGNAL TOO HIGH or INTERMITTENT FAULT. Disconnect TP sensor. CMP sensor. Check if there is vacuum in EVAP valve when valve is activated. retest using new EVAP valve. If fault is permanent and signal is too low. If status message is INTERMITTENT FAULT. 4) Start and run engine at idle. or oxidation. and between EVAP valve and canister for an obstruction. go to step 3). check wiring between ECM terminal B26 and TCM terminal B15 for an intermittent short circuit to ground. SIGNAL TOO HIGH or PERMANENT FAULT. test system using new EVAP valve. Disconnect TP sensor. 6) Check hose between EVAP valve and intake manifold. Remove vacuum hose between EVAP valve and canister from canister. go to step 16). Repair as necessary. 4) Turn ignition off. Wait about 2 minutes. If there is vacuum. wait for it to switch off. Connect ohmmeter between TP sensor connector terminal No. go to step 14). check wiring between ECM terminal B26 and TCM terminal B15 for a short circuit to ground. Code 3-2-5 (Memory Failure) Check wiring between ECM terminal A26 and battery positive terminal for an intermittent open circuit. If no faults can be found. If there is vacuum.1-1-2. If inlets and outlets are okay. SIGNAL TOO LOW. If status message is PERMANENT FAULT. If status message is INTERMITTENT FAULT. 3) If fault is intermittent and signal is too high. SIGNAL TOO LOW. SIGNAL TOO HIGH. check for obstruction in hose between EVAP valve and canister. If there is no vacuum in EVAP valve when valve is not activated. 2) If fault is permanent and signal is too high. go to next step. Connect vacuum hose between EVAP valve and canister to EVAP valve. go to next step. If no other codes are stored. Check EVAP valve for dirt or deposits. If there is vacuum. SIGNAL TOO LOW. go to next step. If fault is intermittent and signal is too low. If status message is PERMANENT FAULT. 3) Turn ignition off. Remove hose between EVAP valve and canister from EVAP valve. ECT sensor. 5) Start and run engine at idle. check Throttle Position (TP) sensor. Check canister connections to ensure they are not clogged. Disconnect hose between EVAP valve and canister at EVAP valve. go to step 5). check wiring between ECM terminal B26 and Transmission Control Module (TCM) terminal B15 for a short circuit to voltage. Go to next step. check if all canister inlets and outlets are okay. Code 3-3-5 (Fault In Wiring Between TCM and ECM) 1) Check status message on Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686). If there is no vacuum. check wiring between ECM terminal B26 and TCM terminal B15 for an intermittent short circuit to voltage. If ohmmeter does not read about zero ohms.valve and intake manifold to EVAP valve. Check if there is vacuum in hose when EVAP valve is activated. Code 4-1-1 (Throttle Position Sensor Signal) 1) Check for other codes. SIGNAL TOO LOW. Repair as necessary. go to next step. contact resistance. If status message is PERMANENT FAULT. Disconnect ECM. SIGNAL TOO HIGH. .

Turn ignition on. 3 and ECM terminal A16 for an open circuit.6 k/ohms. Disconnect TP sensor. Disconnect ECM connector. check wiring between TP sensor connector terminal No. 14) If fault is intermittent and signal is too high. Disconnect TP sensor. Ensure ECM connector terminals are clean and tight. Disconnect TP sensor. 3 and ground. check wiring between TP sensor connector terminal No. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. If voltmeter reads about 5 volts. 6) Turn ignition on. TP sensor is okay. Using Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686). increasing as accelerator is depressed. and increase as accelerator pedal is depressed. Disconnect TP sensor. turn ignition off. 2 and ground. If voltmeter does not read about 5 volts. 2 and ground. 2 and ECM terminal A15 for a short circuit to ground. Reconnect ECM. Throttle angle should be 3-8 degrees when engine is at idle. increasing as accelerator is depressed. Connect voltmeter between TP sensor connector terminal No. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. Reconnect ECM. Disconnect TP sensor. If reading is not okay. If reading is okay. go to step 7). 2 and ECM terminal A15 for a short circuit to voltage. If wiring is okay. go to step 8). turn ignition off. retest using new TP sensor. 3 and ground. retest using new TP sensor. read off throttle angle. 2 and ECM connector terminal A15 for an open circuit. If ohmmeter reads infinite resistance. go to next step. 2 and ground. If . 1 and ECM terminal A18 for an open circuit. Start and run engine at idle. 3 and ECM terminal A16 for a short circuit to ground. Throttle angle should be 3-8 degrees at idle. Reconnect ECM connector. 1 and ground. 9) Turn ignition off. 12) Turn ignition on. If voltmeter reads about 5 volts. If reading is okay. Connect TP sensor. Turn ignition on. read off throttle angle. Ensure ECM connector terminals are clean and tight. If voltmeter reads about 5 volts. If voltmeter reads about 5 volts. Throttle angle should be 3-8 degrees when engine is at idle. retest using new TP sensor. code was caused by poor contact at ECM connector. 11) Turn ignition off. If reading is okay. check wiring between TP sensor connector terminal No. source of code is poor contact at TP sensor connector. Connect TP sensor. Turn ignition on. Disconnect TP sensor. If ohmmeter does not read about zero ohms. 7) Turn ignition off. Wait about 2 minutes. code is caused by poor contact at ECM connector.4-. If voltmeter reads about 5 volts. check wiring between TP sensor connector terminal No. check wiring between TP sensor connector terminal No. If reading is not okay. Connect an ohmmeter between TP sensor connector terminal No. go to step 12). 8) Turn ignition off. If ohmmeter reads . Connect voltmeter between TP sensor connector terminal No. Connect voltmeter between TP sensor connector terminal No. go to next step. If reading is not okay.Clean ECM connector of oxidation or other contact resistance. Disconnect ECM connector. Connect ohmmeter between TP sensor connector terminal No. Connect voltmeter between TP sensor connector No. Start and run engine at idle. 2 and ground. 10) If fault is permanent and signal is too low. 3 and ground. If voltmeter reads about zero volts. Connect voltmeter between TP sensor connector terminal No. check wiring between TP sensor connector terminal No. If voltmeter reads more than about 5 volts. 3 and ECM terminal A16 for a short circuit to voltage. Using Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686). source of code is poor contact in TP sensor connector. 5) Turn ignition on. check wiring between TP sensor connector terminal No. Start engine. code is caused by poor contact at ECM terminals. go to step 9). 13) Turn ignition off. Connect voltmeter between TP sensor connector terminal No. If voltmeter does not read about 5 volts. read off throttle angle. go to next step. If voltmeter does not read about 5 volts. Reconnect TP sensor. Disconnect TP sensor connector. Using Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686). If voltmeter does not show about 5 volts.

go to next step. If voltmeter reads less than 5 volts. Reconnect EGR temperature sensor connector. go to step 13). Repair as necessary. Connect voltmeter between EGR temperature sensor connector terminal No. go to next step. Connect other end of jumper wire to ground. Code 4-1-3 (EGR Temperature Sensor Signal) 1) Check for any other codes. 3 to check if EGR controller functions. If FAULTY SIGNAL is displayed. Check wiring between TP sensor connector terminal No. If voltage does not drop when engine runs unevenly. contact resistance. go to next step. 1 and ECM terminal A35 for a . 3 and ECM connector terminal A16 for an intermittent short circuit to ground. go to step 17). 2 and ground. If engine runs unevenly at idle. If no other codes are present. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. Connect an ohmmeter between EGR temperature sensor connector terminal No. 2 and ECM connector terminal A15 for an intermittent open circuit or short circuit to ground. Repair as necessary. and oxidation. check wiring between EGR temperature sensor connector terminal No. Also check wiring between TP sensor connector terminal No. observe voltage at EGR temperature sensor. check code status message. go to step 7). go to next step. check wiring between TP sensor connector terminal No. or oxidation. 15) Check TP sensor and ECM sensor connector terminals for loose connection. 2 and ECM terminal A18 for a short to voltage. Disconnect EGR temperature sensor connector. 3 and ECM terminal A16 for an intermittent open circuit or short circuit to voltage. If voltage drops when engine runs unevenly. Turn ignition on. If voltmeter reads greater than 5 volts. Check wiring between TP sensor connector terminal No. 8) Turn ignition off. 2) Using Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686). 4) Turn ignition off. If Code 1-5-4 is present. Connect jumper wire to free end of disconnected wire. check vacuum in EGR controller. 2 and ground. 7) Turn ignition off. Wait about 2 minutes. If ohmmeter does not read about zero ohms. Ensure connector terminals are clean and tight. 2 and ground. Using Volvo Scan Tool. check wire between EGR temperature sensor connector terminal No. 5) Run engine at idle. 16) If fault is intermittent and signal is too low. turn ignition on. Disconnect EGR temperature sensor connector. 2 and ECM terminal A15 for a short circuit to voltage. go to next step. Disconnect wire from EGR controller connector terminal No. check wiring between EGR temperature sensor connector terminal No. code is caused by poor contact in ECM connector. Connect an ohmmeter between EGR temperature sensor connector terminal No. Connect voltmeter between EGR temperature sensor connector terminal No.voltmeter reads about 5 volts. go to next step. Using Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686). If ohmmeter does not read about zero ohms. If voltmeter reads zero volts. If voltmeter does not read about 5 volts. If SIGNAL TOO HIGH is displayed. 3) If SIGNAL TOO HIGH is displayed. If SIGNAL TOO LOW is displayed. use Diagnostic Test Mode (DTM) No. perform testing for that code first. Disconnect EGR temperature sensor. Start and run engine at idle. check TP sensor and ECM sensor connector terminals for loose connection. go to next step. If voltmeter reads about 5 volts. go to step 11). If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. 1 and ground. If engine does not run unevenly. If voltmeter does not read zero volts. go to step 16). See CODE 2-4-1 (EGR SYSTEM FLOW MALFUNCTION). 9) Turn ignition on. 2 and ECM terminal A18 for an open circuit. contact resistance. 2. Disconnect EGR temperature sensor. If EGR controller does not function. go to next step. go to next step. If EGR controller functions. Connect free wire at EGR temperature sensor to ground. 6) Turn ignition off. go to step 9).

Repair as necessary. Repair as necessary. If ohmmeter reads about 200 k/ohms. Using Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686). 2) Turn ignition off. check wiring between EGR temperature sensor connector terminal No. 1 and ECM terminal A35 for an intermittent open circuit or short circuit to voltage. Repair as necessary. Leave MAF sensor connected.1 volt. If voltmeter reads about 5 volts. Turn ignition on. Disconnect EGR temperature sensor. Connect an ohmmeter between EGR temperature sensor connector terminals No. go to next step. If voltage is greater than . Disconnect EGR temperature sensor connector. Connect voltmeter between MAF sensor connector terminals No. Also check wiring between EGR temperature connector terminal No. retest using new EGR temperature sensor. If ohmmeter reads about 200 k/ohms. 13) If signal is too low.short circuit to voltage. Code 4-1-4 (Charge Pressure Control) 1) Turn ignition on. Disconnect EGR temperature sensor. 15) Turn ignition off. Disconnect EGR temperature sensor connector. 2 and 4.2 volt. 1 and ECM terminal A35 for an intermittent short circuit to ground. If voltmeter reads . If voltage is not greater than . If voltmeter does not read about 5 volts. 17) If fault is intermittent and signal is too high. 1 and ECM terminal A35 for an intermittent open circuit. cause of code is poor contact in EGR temperature sensor connector. 14) Turn ignition off. go to next step. Connect voltmeter between EGR temperature sensor connector terminal No. 1 and 2. Turn ignition on. If about 200 k/ohms are not present. go to step 3). If ohmmeter reads about 200 k/ohms. 18) If fault is intermittent and signal is too low. To check. If reading is about 5 volts. Connect an ohmmeter between EGR connector terminals No. start engine and run at idle.1-. Also check wiring between EGR temperature sensor connector terminal No. Repair as necessary. Check wiring between EGR temperature sensor connector terminal No. check wiring between EGR temperature sensor connector terminal No. 2 and ECM terminal A18 for an intermittent open circuit. 1 and ECM terminal A35 for an open circuit. cause of code was poor contact in EGR temperature sensor connector. then go to step 12). or short circuit to voltage. 1 and ground. Connect an ohmmeter between EGR temperature sensor connector terminals No. 1 and 2. Ensure MAF sensor and ECM connector terminals are clean and tight. check EGR temperature sensor connector for signs of loose connection or poor contact. 16) Check EGR temperature sensor and ECM connector terminals for signs of loose connection or poor contact. retest using new EGR temperature sensor. 10) Turn ignition off. Repair as necessary.1-. 1 and ECM terminal A35 for a short circuit to ground. code was caused by poor contact in ECM connector. Connect voltmeter between MAF sensor . Disconnect EGR temperature sensor connector. EGR temperature sensor is okay. Check wiring between EGR temperature sensor connector terminal No. If ohmmeter does not read about 200 k/ohms. turn ignition off. Repair as necessary. go to step 18). Start engine and run at idle. 1 and 2. check wiring between EGR temperature sensor connector terminal No. Reconnect connectors. Using Volvo Scan Tool (998- 8686). check voltage at EGR temperature sensor. Reconnect connector. Repair as necessary. read off EGR temperature sensor signal. If reading is not about 5 volts. Ensure connector terminals are clean and tight. go to next step.1 volt. If ohmmeter does not read about 200 k/ohms. short circuit to ground. 12) EGR temperature sensor may give defective reading due to signal wiring shorting to voltage. 11) Turn ignition off.2 volt. 2 and ECM terminal A18 for an intermittent open circuit. If voltmeter does not read . retest using new EGR temperature sensor.

Turn ignition on. If voltmeter reads .6 psi. check wiring between ECM terminal B42 and Transmission Control Module (TCM) terminal B1 for an intermittent fault. If . If fault is intermittent. Repair as necessary.1-.connector terminals No.SYSTEM/COMPONENT TESTS article. If fuel and residual pressure are okay. retest using new HO2S. Pump up pressure to about 46. retest with a new pressure servo. 2) If fault is permanent. check that TC control valve ticks. and hose between TC control valve and pressure servo for wastegate valve for obstruction or kinks. Repair as necessary. retest using new TC control valve. Replace wastegate valve pressure servo. Code 4-3-2 (Temperature Warning Level 1) Or Code 5-1-3 (Temperature Warning Level 2) 1) Check for other codes. Check Turbocharger (TC) control valve and ECM connector for contact resistance or poor contact. Valve should be open between Red and Yellow connectors when not activated. use Diagnostic Test Mode (DTM) 3 to check if engine cooling fan is functioning and that air is being drawn into connector for ECM box air hose in fan shroud. If there is no air leakage in exhaust system. Code 4-2-5 (Rear HO2S Lambdasond) 1) Perform a compression check on all cylinders. 2) Check for air leakage in intake system. If TC control valve ticks. check fuel and residual pressure. Repair as necessary. Connect Manometer (999-5230) and Pressure Tester (998-5496) to pressure servo. 3) If fault is intermittent. Repair as necessary. If compression is okay. 5) Turn ignition off. repair as necessary. If voltmeter does not read . If battery voltage is present. 2) Using Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686). Repair as necessary. 3. If fault is permanent. go to step 3). If hoses and/or TC control valve are blocked. Connect breakout box and check grounds. Connect voltmeter between breakout box pin No.2 volt. source of code was poor contact in MAF or ECM connector terminals. retest using new MAF sensor. 42 and ground. go to next step. Using Volvo scan tool in Diagnostic Test Mode (DTM) No. check status message. 6) Turn ignition off. go to next step. go to next step. If TC control valve does not tick. Also check that TC control valve is not blocked between Red and Yellow connectors when valve is activated. perform testing for that code first. 3) Turn ignition off. go to next step. check for air leakage in exhaust system. Check hoses between TC and TC control valve. Reconnect TC control valve and ECM connectors. See procedures in the I . If Code 5-1-4 is not stored. check wiring between ECM terminal B42 and Transmission Control Module (TCM) terminal B1 for an intermittent short circuit to ground. If there is no air leakage in intake system. Turn ignition on. If pressure servo is not okay. See COMPUTERIZED ENGINE CONTROLS in I . Code 4-1-6 (Charge Pressure Reduction From Transmission Control Module) 1) Using Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686). go to next step. If pressure servo fully opens. go to next step. Repair as necessary.SYSTEM/COMPONENT TESTS article.1-. If battery voltage is not present. check pressure servo setting. If Code 5-1-4 is stored. Repair as necessary. If hoses and TC control valve are okay. check wiring between ECM terminal B42 and Transmission Control Module (TCM) terminal B1 for a short circuit to ground. 2 and 4. Remove hose from pressure servo. Replace wastegate valve pressure servo.2 volt. Disconnect ECM. 4) Turn ignition off.

go to next step. 4-5-3. Connect fuel pressure gauge to system. If any code for misfiring is stored (Codes 4-5-1. Set blower switch at highest speed. 5-5-3.engine cooling fan operates. go to next step. Code for EVAP system can be set. retest using new rear HO2S. Voltage across rear HO2S terminals should increase to about . 3) Turn ignition on. If no air is coming from hose. Repair as necessary. 4-5-2. Check if there is a slight stream of air from control module box air hose. 2) Perform a compression check on all cylinders. Code 4-3-5 (Front HO2S Too Slow) 1) Check for other codes. If engine cooling fan does not operate. check fuel and residual pressure. check for air leakage in exhaust system. Repair as necessary. If there is no air leakage in exhaust system. 3) Check for air leakage in intake system. If compression is okay. 5-5-5. Code 4-4-3 (TWC Efficiency) 1) Check for other codes. Repair as necessary.8 volt. Repair as necessary. Repair as necessary. control module box is cooling okay. Remove instrument cluster hose at intake manifold. go to next step. retest using new TWC. 2) Perform a compression check on all cylinders. 5-4-4 or 5-4-5) perform that testing first. perform testing for that code first. If there is no air leakage in intake system. If there is no air leakage in exhaust system. check fuel and residual pressure. Repair as necessary. retest using new front HO2S. perform testing for Code 5-1-4. If fuel and residual pressure are okay. Erase code. 5-4-3. If none of the above codes are stored. Repair as necessary. go to next step. If fuel and residual pressure are okay. Repair as necessary. retest using new front HO2S. 3) Check for air leakage in intake system. check for air leakage in exhaust system. Close dash vents. 4-5-5. If fuel and residual pressure are okay. If there is no air leakage in intake system. check fuel and residual pressure. If there is no air leakage in exhaust system. If compression is okay. 4-5-4. 5-5-2. 2) Perform a compression check on all cylinders. If Code 4-2-5 is stored. check for air leakage in exhaust system. Remove hose pliers. 5-5-4. perform testing for that code first. If Code 4-3-6 is not stored. If Code 4-3-6 is stored. If air is blowing from hose. 3) Check for air leakage in intake system. go to next step. 5-4-2. If compression is okay. Code 4-4-4 (Acceleration Sensor Signal) 1) Check status message on Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686). 5) Increase fuel pressure by squeezing hose after fuel pressure regulator with Hose Pliers (115 8957). If there is no air leakage in intake system. ensure hoses and couplings are in place and not blocked. Squeeze hose between EVAP valve and intake manifold with Hose Pliers (115 8957). If Codes 4-3-5 or 4-3-6 are stored. 5-5-1. Start engine and run at idle until rear HO2S starts operating. Repair as necessary. Repair as necessary. If voltage across rear HO2S terminals drops to about zero volts. Repair as necessary. If voltage across rear HO2S terminals does not drop to about zero volts. Rear HO2S starts operating a short time after rear HO2S preheating starts. Repair as necessary. go to next step. Repair as necessary. 4) Turn ignition on. go to next step. If . Code 4-3-6 (Rear HO2S Compensation) 1) Check for other codes. go to next step. perform testing for that code first. If Code4-2-5 is not stored.

status message reads PERMANENT FAULT. Disconnect ECM. Connect A/C pressure sensor. Connect an ohmmeter between acceleration sensor connector terminal No. go to step 11). 1 and ground. Disconnect acceleration sensor connector. Disconnect acceleration sensor. 4) Turn ignition off. Disconnect acceleration sensor connector. 1 and ground. 1 and ground. Connect an ohmmeter between acceleration sensor connector terminal No. check wiring between acceleration sensor connector terminal No. 1 and ECM terminal B1 for an open circuit. check wiring between acceleration sensor connector terminal No. Repair as necessary. Connect voltmeter between acceleration sensor connector terminal No. 3 and ECM terminal B32 for a short to voltage. Connect an ohmmeter between acceleration sensor connector terminal No. If ohmmeter does not read about zero ohms. go to step 9). Disconnect acceleration sensor connector. 3 and ground. If ohmmeter reads 5-20 k/ohms. 6) Turn ignition off. If status message reads INTERMITTENT FAULT. SIGNAL TOO LOW. 2) If PERMANENT FAULT. 5) Turn ignition off. 3 and ECM terminal B29 for a short circuit to ground. go to step 13). go to next step. SIGNAL TOO LOW. Ensure connector terminals are clean and tight. retest using new A/C pressure sensor. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms on A/C equipped vehicles. If voltmeter reads more than 5 volts. code was caused by poor connector contact. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. go to next step. Disconnect acceleration sensor connector. 9) Turn ignition on. 3) Turn ignition off. go to next step. 10) Turn ignition off. 8) Turn ignition off. Repair as necessary. Disconnect acceleration sensor connector. Reconnect connector. SIGNAL TOO HIGH is displayed on scan tool. If ohmmeter reads infinite resistance. Connect an ohmmeter between acceleration sensor connector terminal No. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. Wait about 2 minutes. check wiring between acceleration sensor connector terminal No. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. Disconnect acceleration sensor connector. go to step 12). 1 and ground. go to next step. Connect voltmeter between acceleration . Ensure connector terminals are clean and tight. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms on non-A/C equipped vehicles. check wiring between acceleration sensor connector terminal No. If ohmmeter does not read about zero ohms. Reconnect connector. Ensure connector terminals are clean and tight. Disconnect acceleration sensor connector. SIGNAL TOO HIGH. If ohmmeter does not read 5-20 k/ohms. If status message reads INTERMITTENT FAULT. go to step 7). Disconnect ECM. check prerouted wiring between A/C pressure sensor connector terminal No. If ohmmeter reads about 5-20 k/ohms. check wiring between acceleration sensor connector terminal No. Connect an ohmmeter between acceleration sensor connector terminal No. Reconnect connector. go to step 5). If voltmeter reads about 5 volts. 3 and ECM terminal B29 for a short circuit to ground. If ohmmeter still reads zero ohms. If ohmmeter reads infinite resistance. 7) Turn ignition off. 1 and ground. Connect an ohmmeter between acceleration sensor connector terminal No. Connect ohmmeter between acceleration sensor connector terminal No. go to step 15). 2 and ground. SIGNAL TOO HIGH. Turn ignition on. turn ignition off. If ohmmeter reads 5-20 k/ohms. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. 1 and ECM terminal B1 for a short to ground. check wiring between A/C pressure sensor connector terminal No. go to step 4). Disconnect acceleration sensor connector. go to next step. If voltmeter reads about zero volts. If status message reads PERMANENT FAULT. 2 and ground. go to next step. Disconnect A/C pressure sensor connector. If ohmmeter reads infinite resistance. 1 and ECM terminal B1 for a short circuit to ground. 2 and ECM terminal B28 for an open circuit.

perform diagnosis for other codes first. and FLY ADAP E. Check wiring between acceleration sensor connector terminal No. 3). check prerouted wiring between connector No. 13) If fault is intermittent and signal is too high. Code 5-5-1 (Misfire Cylinder No. Code 4-5-2 (Misfire Cylinder No. Repair as necessary. Check wiring between acceleration sensor connector terminal No. 3 for A/C pressure sensor and ECM terminal B29 for an intermittent short circuit to ground. Turn ignition on. misfiring has occurred in more than one cylinder. check acceleration sensor and ECM connectors for poor terminal contact. 2) Read off all other misfiring codes. 4. use Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686) and check flywheel. retest using new acceleration sensor. 3 and ECM terminal B32 for a short circuit to ground. also check wiring between A/C pressure sensor connector terminal No. 3 and ground. 2. retest using new acceleration sensor. turn ignition off. TWC Damage). If voltmeter reads about 5 volts. FLY ADAP D. Code 4-5-5 (Misfire Cylinder No. If all components are okay. go to step 6). TWD Damage). Start engine and run at idle. cylinder compression. If any readings are incorrect. If code reoccurs. FLY ADAP C. cooling system. If readings are -97 to +97. Erase code. If no other codes are stored. Disconnect acceleration sensor. TWC Damage).sensor connector terminal No. On vehicles without A/C. and distributor cap and rotor. If voltmeter does not read about 5 volts. Code 4-5-3 (Misfire Cylinder No. go to next step. Code 4-5-4 (Misfire Cylinder No. Start engine and run at idle. 3 and ECM terminal B29 for an intermittent short circuit to ground. 11) Turn ignition on. TWC Damage). code was caused by poor terminal contact. Read off values on scan tool for FLY ADAP B. Repair as necessary. Check wiring between acceleration sensor connector terminal No. 1). 4). 1 and ECM terminal B1 for an intermittent open or short circuit to ground. 3 and ECM terminal B32 for an intermittent short circuit to ground. If voltmeter reads about 5 volts. TWC Damage) 1) Check for other trouble codes. 3 and ECM terminal B32 for an intermittent short circuit to voltage or intermittent open circuit. Or Code 5-4-5 (Misfire At Least One Cylinder. 3 and ground. If voltmeter does not read about 5 volts. . 3) Check all spark plugs. source of code is poor contact in acceleration sensor connector. scratches. TWC Damage). 14) On vehicles with A/C. Code 5-4-4 (Misfire More Than One Cylinder. Connect voltmeter between acceleration sensor connector terminal No. Code 5-4-3 (Misfire At Least One Cylinder). If any other trouble codes are stored. Code 5-5-4 (Misfire Cylinder No. 5. Code 4-5-1 (Misfire Cylinder No. If code does not reoccur. 2 and ECM terminal B28 for an intermittent open circuit. Repair as necessary. ignition wiring. 3. If Code 5-4-2 and/or Code 5-4-4 are stored. 12) If fault is permanent and signal is too low. Code 5-5-3 (Misfire Cylinder No. 15) If fault is intermittent and signal is too low. If misfiring occurred in several cylinders. check wiring between acceleration sensor connector terminal No. check RPM sensor tip and hole down by flywheel/connecting flange for damage. check wiring between acceleration sensor connector terminal No. Code 5-5-2 (Misfire Cylinder No. go to next step. 2). and metal particles. check wiring between acceleration sensor connector terminal No. 3 and ECM terminal B32 for an open circuit. check wiring and injector connectors. Reconnect acceleration sensor connector. TWC Damage). 5). Code 5-5-5 (Misfire Cylinder No. If misfiring occurred in one cylinder. Code 5-4-2 (Misfire More Than One Cylinder). 1.

Pump up pressure to about 14. 1 and ground. If fuel and residual pressure are okay. system is operating normally. Repair as necessary. Using Volvo Scan Tool (998- 8686). If no air leakage is present. Disconnect power stage 4-pin connector. Check distributor cap and rotor for cracks. 7) Connect Pressure Tester (998 5496) to expansion tank. retest using new flywheel. If voltmeter reads battery voltage. Connect an ohmmeter between ignition coil terminals No. If ohmmeter reads 8-9 k/ohms. 5) Check for air leakage in intake or exhaust system. Go to next step. 15 and ground. Depending on length. 16) Check wiring between injectors connector terminal No. and wiring between ECM terminal A41 and main relay connector terminal No. check voltage supply connectors at junction box. 3. 9) Remove distributor cap and rotor. If voltmeter does not read battery voltage. go to next step. Ensure all connectors are clean and tight. go to next step. or other signs of damage. Install distributor cap and connect all ignition wiring. check power stage ground connector for poor terminal contact. go to next step. then go to next step. and metal shavings.If RPM sensor and hole are okay. go to next step. then go to next step. go to next step. remove spark plugs and perform a compression test. wiring between power stage connector terminal No. Repair as necessary. 3 and battery voltage for an intermittent open circuit. If readings are not -97 to +97. 1 for an intermittent open circuit. If ohmmeter reads . Connect voltmeter between ignition coil connector terminal No. FLY ADAP D. read off values on FLY ADAP B. 1 and 15. If ohmmeter does not read . go to next step. If readings are -97 to +97. 4) Check wiring between relevant injector and ECM for signs of an intermittent open circuit. If ohmmeter does not read 8-9 k/ohms. If cap and rotor are okay. 12) Install new spark plugs. Wait about 2 minutes. 1 and main relay terminal No.5-1. retest using new flywheel. check RPM sensor tip and hole down by flywheel/connecting flange for damage. scratches. If RPM sensor and hole are okay. arcing. Repair as necessary. Disconnect ignition coil high tension wire. Also check suspect injector connector and ECM connector for poor terminal contact or oxidation. Connect ohmmeter between power stage connector terminal No. Measure resistance in each ignition wire. Connect cable terminal to ignition coil.5-4.5-1. Replace ignition wires as necessary. retest using new ignition coil. Shine flashlight into each cylinder and ensure there is no leakage between cooling system and cylinders. If no leakage is present. 1 and ground. go to next step. Repair as necessary. short circuit to ground. Check wires for cracks or arcing. and wiring between power stage connector terminal No. 6) If misfiring is occurring in several cylinders. Start engine and run at idle. If compression is okay. or intermittent short circuit to voltage. Repair as necessary. 11) Turn ignition off. If leakage is present. short circuit to ground. check fuel and residual pressure.5 ohms. 15 and high tension connector on ignition coil. or short circuit to voltage. Connect an ohmmeter between ignition coil terminal No. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. 4 and ECM terminal B11. 8) Remove all ignition wires. 14) Check wiring between power stage connector terminal No. Replace as necessary.5 ohms. and FLY ADAP E. retest using new ignition coil. 15. Repair as necessary. then go to step 12). go to next step.5 k/ohms. . resistance should be 1. If ohmmeter does not read about zero ohms. FLY ADAP C. go to next step. repair as necessary. then go to next step. 15) Start engine and run at idle. Disconnect cable terminal from ignition coil connector terminal No. Repair as necessary. 10) Turn ignition off. 13) Turn ignition off.5 psi. If wires are okay.

1. 2 and ground. 8) If fault is intermittent and signal is too high. and ECM terminal A7 for a short circuit to voltage. Go to next step. 4. retest using new FC relay. Disconnect connector "B" from Fuel Control (FC) relay. 2. Ensure connectors "A" and "B" are connected to FC relay. 1. turn ignition off. and ECM terminal A7 for an intermittent short circuit to voltage. Start engine and run at idle. Disconnect connectors "A" and "B" from FC relay. 2) If PERMANENT FAULT. Also check all connectors for good terminal contact. 1. Connect voltmeter between FC relay connector "A" and ground. read off status message. terminal No. check fusible link in wiring between starter motor and FC relay. If INTERMITTENT FAULT. terminal No. If ohmmeter reads 28-38 k/ohms. If INTERMITTENT FAULT. SIGNAL TOO LOW is displayed. Ensure all terminal connectors are clean and tight. check wiring between FC relay connector "B". 5) Turn ignition off. go to step 3). If voltmeter does not read about zero volts. If ohmmeter reads 28-38 k/ohms. SIGNAL TOO LOW. SIGNAL TOO HIGH is displayed. and wiring between fuel pump connector terminal No. If status message is intermittent. If all checks are okay. Disconnect connector "A" from Fuel Control (FC) relay. terminal No. go to step 7).Also check connectors at injectors. terminal No. If ohmmeter reads infinite resistance. SIGNAL TOO LOW is displayed. Go to next step. Using Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686). 3) IF PERMANENT FAULT. terminal No. go to next step. 1. system is operating normally. go to step 6). and ECM for loose connection. Connect an ohmmeter between FC relay connector "B". and ECM terminal A22 for a short circuit to ground. Repair as necessary. If voltmeter reads battery voltage. If ohmmeter reads infinite resistance. terminal No. and ground. check wiring between FC relay connector "B". go to next step. If voltmeter does not read battery voltage. and ground. wiring between fuel pump relay connector terminal No. check wiring between FC relay connector "B". . go to next step. 1. main relay. 2 and ground. 2. go to next step. Check fuel and residual pressure. SIGNAL TOO LOW is displayed. 6) Turn ignition off. Connect an ohmmeter between FC relay connector "B". check wiring between FC relay connector "B". If ohmmeter does not read infinite resistance. wiring between fuel pump relay connector terminal No. Connect an ohmmeter between FC relay connector "B". If PERMANENT FAULT. SIGNAL TOO HIGH is displayed. go to step 9). 1. SIGNAL TOO HIGH is displayed. Check relay and fan motor before replacing fusible link. terminal No. and ground. 18) Check intake and exhaust systems for air leakage. 1 . 3 and fuel pump connector terminal No. Disconnect connectors "A" and "B" from FC relay. Check engine oil level. 1. read off status message. retest using new FC relay. and ECM terminal A7 for a short circuit to ground. 4) Turn ignition off. and ground. Reconnect connectors. If ohmmeter does not read 28-38 k/ohms. Code 5-1-4 (Engine Cooling Fan Half Speed) 1) Using Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686). 1. go to step 8). 17) Check wiring between ECM terminal B27 and fuel pump relay connector terminal No. wiring between battery positive terminal and fuel pump connector terminal No. source of code is poor contact in FC relay and/or ECM connector. turn ignition off. and ECM terminal A7 for an open circuit. check wiring between FC relay connector "B". Connect voltmeter between FC relay connector "B". If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. Turn ignition on. terminal No. If PERMANENT FAULT. Repair as necessary. Disconnect FC relay connectors "A" and "B". 7) Turn ignition off. If voltmeter reads about zero volts. terminal No. Repair as necessary. Ensure connector terminals are clean and free of oxidation. If status message is PERMANENT.

Connect an ohmmeter between HO2S connector terminal No. Turn ignition on. check wiring between HO2S connector terminal No. If voltmeter reads battery voltage. 3 for an open circuit.5-13 ohms. Wait about 2 minutes. If PERMANENT FAULT. go to next step. Disconnect HO2S connector. 9) If INTERMITTENT FAULT. SIGNAL TOO LOW is displayed. Disconnect front HO2S Black connector and/or rear HO2S Gray connector. If ohmmeter reads 1. If voltmeter does not read about zero volts. If ohmmeter does not read about zero ohms. go to step 8). SIGNAL TOO LOW is displayed. check wiring between HO2S connector terminal No. Disconnect front HO2S Black connector and/or rear HO2S Gray connector. retest using new HO2S. Disconnect HO2S and ECM connectors. 2 and breakout box pin No. If INTERMITTENT FAULT. Reconnect HO2S connector. 9) If fault is intermittent and signal is too low. If voltmeter does not read about zero volts. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. 1 and ground. 7) Turn ignition off. SIGNAL TOO HIGH is displayed. 1. 29 (Code 5-2-2). If voltmeter does not read battery voltage. check FC relay and ECM connectors for loose connection or poor terminal contact. Check all grounds. Disconnect HO2S connector. 2 and ground. 2 and ground. go to next step. 2 and ECM terminal A14 (Code 5-2-1) or terminal A29 (Code 5-2-2) for an intermittent short circuit to voltage. retest using new HO2S. go to step 3). go to next step. 2 and ECM terminal A14 (Code 5-2-1) or terminal A29 (Code 5-2-2) for a short circuit to ground. Disconnect ECM connector. 5) Turn ignition off. If PERMANENT FAULT. If ohmmeter does not read infinite resistance. 8) If INTERMITTENT FAULT. 1 and main relay connector terminal No. go to next step. Connect voltmeter between HO2S connector terminal No. Also check wiring between FC relay connector "A". 2 and ground. 2 and ECM terminal A14 (Code 5-2-1) or terminal A29 (Code 5-2-2) for signs of a short circuit to voltage. Connect ohmmeter between breakout box pins No. check wiring between HO2S connector terminal No.5-13 ohms. 14 (Code 5-2-1) or pin No. 4) Turn ignition on. 29 (Code 5-2-2). Check wiring between FC relay connector "B". Turn ignition on.SYSTEM/COMPONENT TESTS article. SIGNAL TOO HIGH is displayed. See COMPUTERIZED ENGINE CONTROLS in I . Connect ohmmeter between HO2S connector terminal No. Check wiring between . SIGNAL TOO LOW is displayed. 1. check wiring between HO2S connector terminal No. If ohmmeter does not read 1. and ECM terminal A7 for signs of an intermittent open or short circuit to ground. code is caused by poor contact in ECM and/or HO2S connector. 1 and main relay connector terminal No. 2) If PERMANENT FAULT. If ohmmeter reads infinite resistance. terminal No. SIGNAL TOO LOW is displayed. 3 for an intermittent open circuit. If voltmeter reads about zero volts. If INTERMITTENT FAULT. Disconnect ECM. Code 5-2-1 (Front HO2S Preheating) Or Code 5-2-2 (Rear HO2S Preheating) 1) Check status message using Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686). check wiring between HO2S connector terminal No. turn ignition off. check wiring between HO2S connector terminal No. 6) Turn ignition off. If voltmeter reads about zero volts. SIGNAL TOO HIGH is displayed. check wiring between HO2S connector terminal No. and starter motor for an intermittent open circuit. 3) If PERMANENT FAULT. 2 and ECM terminal A14 (Code 5-2-1) or terminal A29 (Code 5-2-2) for a short circuit to voltage. turn ignition off. 2 and ECM terminal A14 (Code 5-2-1) or terminal A29 (Code 5-2-2) for an open circuit. Connect Breakout Box (981-3190) to ECM connector. Connect voltmeter between HO2S connector terminal No. SIGNAL TOO HIGH is displayed. 27 and No. Connect voltmeter between HO2S connector terminal No. 14 (Code 5-2-1) or No. go to step 9). terminal No. go to next step.

3 to operate correctly. 1 and main relay for an open circuit. 1 and ground. check wiring between injector connector terminal No. go to next step. A38. If Code 5-4-1 is stored. 1 and 2. go to next step. Connect voltmeter between injector connector terminal No. or 1-5-5 are stored. Remove sound insulation from valve. 3) Turn ignition off. go to next step. If ohmmeter does not read 25-40 k/ohms. If ohmmeter reads infinite resistance. go to next step. retest using new EVAP valve. check wiring between EVAP valve connector terminal No. check that injectors operate properly. Connect voltmeter between EVAP valve connector terminal No. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. 2 and ECM terminals A10. 8) Using Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686) and Diagnostic Test Mode (DTM) No. 3 injectors must be disconnected. A23 or A9 (depending on which injector does not work) for a short circuit to ground.5 ohms. 1-3-5. 2 and ground. If no other codes are stored. If voltmeter does not read battery voltage. Disconnect EVAP valve. Connect an ohmmeter between injector connector terminal No. If voltmeter reads about zero volts. check wiring between injector connector terminal No. 2 and ECM terminal A10. check wiring between injector connector terminal No. 2 and ground. If voltmeter reads battery voltage. If voltmeter does not read about zero volts. Disconnect suspect injector connector. 1 and 2. Connect ohmmeter between injector connector terminal No. Go to step 14). A24. If one or more of Codes 1-1-5. 1-4-5. perform testing for that code first. A24. Wait about 2 minutes. 3. 5) Turn ignition on. Test must be performed several times with different injectors. code is caused by poor contact at ECM connector.HO2S connector terminal No. 9) Remove EVAP valve from bracket. Repair as necessary. go to next step. If injectors do not function. 10) Turn ignition off. contact resistance. If EVAP is not okay. perform testing for this code second. Connect ohmmeter between EVAP valve connector terminals No. Disconnect EVAP valve. 6) Turn ignition off. If ohmmeter does not read 14. . Disconnect suspect injector connector. 2 and ECM terminal A10. Disconnect suspect injector connector. A38. retest using new injector. If voltmeter does not read battery voltage. go to next step. A23 or A9 for an open circuit. If EVAP is okay. 4) Turn ignition off. Disconnect suspect injector connector. Ensure ECM connector terminals are clean and tight. 2 and ground. 2 and ECM terminal A14 (Code 5-2-1) or terminal A29 (Code 5-2-2) for an intermittent open circuit or short circuit to ground. If ohmmeter reads about 26 ohms at 68 F. fault is intermittent. A38. check wiring between main relay connector terminal No. If injectors function. go to next step. source of code is poor contact in injector connector. Disconnect suspect injector. go to step 8). 3 and injector connector terminal No. A24. 1 and ground. and oxidation. 7) Turn ignition off. Turn ignition on. 1-2- 5. If ohmmeter does not read about 26 ohms. Code 5-3-1 (Power Stage Group "A") 1) Check for other codes. 2) Using Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686) set to Diagnostic Test Mode (DTM) No. If voltmeter reads battery voltage. 1 for an open circuit. Connect voltmeter between injector connector terminal No. verify EVAP valve is operating correctly. Turn ignition off. If ohmmeter reads 25-40 k/ohms. Repair as necessary. go to next step. 3. If ohmmeter reads about 14. go to next step. Also check HO2S and ECM connectors for loose connection. Turn ignition on.5 ohms. Connect ohmmeter between injector connector terminals No. A23 or A9 (depending on which injector is inoperative) for a short circuit to voltage. For DTM No. If ohmmeter reads 25-40 k/ohms.

If battery voltage is not present. 2 and ground. 1 for an intermittent open circuit. 3 for an open circuit. go to next step. Disconnect IAC valve connector. A23 and A9 for an intermittent open circuit. . 3. go to next step. check wiring between EVAP valve connector terminal No. go to next step. or intermittent short circuit to voltage. 2-4-5. Disconnect EVAP valve connector. Connect voltmeter between EVAP valve connector terminal No. 2 and ground. short circuit to ground. 2) Disconnect 3 injectors. 4) Turn ignition off. Disconnect IAC valve connector. go to step 8). 3) Turn ignition off. Read valve. code is caused by poor terminal contact in EVAP valve connector. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. check wiring between IAC valve connector terminal No. Using Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686) set to Diagnostic Test Mode (DTM) No. Ensure ECM connector terminals are clean and tight. go to step 11). If ohmmeter reads infinite resistance. 3 and ground. Code 5-3-2 (Power Stage Group ’’B’’) 1) Check if other codes are present. If battery voltage is present. 2 and 3. Connect ohmmeter between IAC valve connector terminals No. 2 and main relay connector terminal No. Disconnect IAC valve connector. A38. EVAP valve and ECM connector for loose connection. 6) Turn ignition off. Also check main relay. source of code was poor contact in ECM connector. If ohmmeter reads 10-20 k/ohms. If no other codes are stored. If ohmmeter reads about 25-40 k/ohms. 3 and ECM terminal A11 for a short circuit to voltage. go to next step. or short circuit to voltage. Connect an ohmmeter between EVAP valve connector terminal No. Connect ohmmeter between IAC valve connector terminals No. If Codes 2-2-3. go to next step. If ohmmeter reads 9-14 ohms in both cases. go to next step. If ohmmeter does not read 25-40 k/ohms. If ohmmeter does not read 9-14 ohms in both cases. short circuit to ground. Connect ohmmeter between IAC valve connector terminal No. perform testing for these first. 1 for an intermittent open circuit. Turn ignition on. 2 and ECM terminal A39 for an open circuit. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. If IAC valve functions. go to next step. 1 and 2. Check wires between injector connector terminal No. Check wiring between EVAP valve connector terminal No. If ohmmeter reads infinite resistance. 3 and EVAP valve connector terminal No. 2 and ECM terminal A39 for a short circuit to ground. A24. If voltmeter does not read about zero volts. Disconnect EVAP valve connector. Disconnect IAC valve. 5) Turn ignition on. injector. retest using new IAC valve. 3 and injector connector terminal No. Connect ohmmeter between EVAP valve connector terminal No. If voltmeter reads about zero ohms. 13) Turn ignition off. check wiring between main relay connector terminal No. Wait about 2 minutes. 5-1-4. verify that IAC valve operates. Check wiring between main relay connector terminal No. or 5-3-5 are stored. check wiring between EVAP valve connector terminal No. 2 and ground. check wiring between IAC valve connector terminal No. 2 and ECM terminals A10. check wiring between EVAP valve connector terminal No. 3 and ground. If ohmmeter reads 25-40 k/ohms. Read valve again. If voltmeter reads about zero volts. Connect voltmeter between IAC valve connector terminal No. Wait about 2 minutes. 11) Turn ignition on. If IAC valve does not operate. Connect voltmeter between IAC valve connector terminal No. 14) If fault is intermittent. Disconnect EVAP valve connector. 2 and ground. go to next step. If voltmeter does not read about zero ohms. Repair as necessary. 12) Turn ignition off. 2 and ECM terminal A39 for a short circuit to voltage. 2 and ECM terminal A39 for an intermittent open circuit. check wiring between IAC valve connector terminal No. Repair as necessary.

If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. Disconnect FC relay connector terminal "A". 1 and ECM terminal A25 for an open circuit. 1. terminal No. 1. code was caused by poor contact in ECM connector. 16) Turn ignition off. If voltmeter does not read about zero ohms. code was caused by poor contact at ECM connector. If ohmmeter reads 10-20 k/ohms. Connect voltmeter between FC relay connector "B". 1 and ECM terminal No. If ohmmeter reads infinite resistance. 1 and ECM terminal A25 for a short circuit to voltage. code is caused by poor contact in IAC valve connector. go to next step. Disconnect IAC valve connector. check wiring between IAC valve connector terminal No. Connect ohmmeter between IAC valve connector terminal No. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. 3 and ground. 3 and ECM terminal A11 for an open circuit. terminal No. If ohmmeter does not read 10-20 k/ohms. 9) Turn ignition off. 8) Turn ignition on. 14) Turn ignition on. Reconnect ECM. go to next step. Repair as necessary. If ohmmeter reads about 10-20 k/ohms. terminal No. go to next step. If cooling fan operates on non-turbo vehicles. Disconnect IAC valve connector. go to step 17). check wiring between FC relay connector B1 and ECM terminal A7 for an open circuit. Connect ohmmeter between IAC valve connector terminal No. and ground. Wait about 2 minutes. Check ECM connector terminals for oxidation or poor contact. 12) Turn ignition off. Wait about 2 minutes. Connect ohmmeter between FC relay connector "B". 1 and ground. If ohmmeter reads 28-38 k/ohms. Disconnect FC relay connector "B". If ohmmeter reads about 80 ohms. If ohmmeter does not read about 80 ohms. go to next step. 1 and ground. If ohmmeter reads 28-38 k/ohms. Disconnect IAC valve connector. 17) Turn ignition off. 2. Disconnect Fan Control (FC) relay connector terminal "A". If voltmeter reads about zero ohms. check fusible link between starter motor and FC relay. . terminal No. check wiring between FC relay connector terminal B1 and ECM terminal A7 for a short circuit to voltage. go to step 24). Connect an ohmmeter between FC relay connector terminals A1 and B1. If ohmmeter does not read 10-20 k/ohms. If voltmeter reads about zero volts. If ohmmeter reads 10-20 k/ohms. 10) Turn ignition off. 1.3 and ECM terminal A11 for a short circuit to ground. If cooling fan operates on turbo vehicles. Connect ohmmeter between IAC valve connector terminal No. check wiring between FC relay connector B1 and ECM terminal A7 for a short to ground. Disconnect ECM and clean terminals of oxidation. go to step 18). 13) Turn ignition off. If there is an open circuit in fusible link. If cooling fan does not operate at all. probable cause is a short circuit to ground in the wiring. Repair as necessary. If ohmmeter does not read 28-38 k/ohms. Connect an ohmmeter between FC relay connector "B". 1 and ground. 11) Using Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686). code is caused by poor terminal contact. If ohmmeter reads infinite resistance. Disconnect FC relay connector terminal "B". Connect voltmeter between FC relay connector terminal "A" and ground. If battery voltage is not present. enter Diagnostic Test Mode (DTM) No. 7) Turn ignition off. Ensure terminals are clean and tight. check wiring between IAC valve connector terminal No. retest using new FC relay. If battery voltage is present. 3 and verify engine cooling fan functions. Disconnect IAC valve connector. check wiring between IAC valve connector terminal No. check wiring between IAC valve connector terminal No. go to next step. Turn ignition on. go to next step. 5 for a short circuit to ground. If voltmeter does not read about zero volts. and ground. 15) Turn ignition off. Reconnect ECM connector. Disconnect FC connector "B". Repair as necessary. Connect ohmmeter between FC relay connector "B". go to next step. and ground. Disconnect FC relay connector "B". Connect voltmeter between IAC valve connector terminal No.

2 and ECM terminal B41 for an open circuit. 19) Turn ignition off. go to next step. If ohmmeter reads about 80 ohms and vehicle is not equipped with EGR. 3. TC valve. check wiring between EGR controller connector terminal No. and connector "B". If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. Wait about 2 minutes. If voltmeter reads battery voltage. go to next step. check wiring between TC control valve connector terminal No. code was caused by poor contact in ECM connector. If ohmmeter reads 22-26 ohms. Connect an ohmmeter between TC control valve connector terminal No. If ohmmeter reads infinite resistance. Repair as necessary. Turn ignition on. retest using new TC control valve. If TC control valve functions. If voltmeter does not read 0-1 volt. Disconnect EGR controller. code was caused by poor contact in FC relay connector. go to next step. 18) Using Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686) set to Diagnostic Test Mode (DTM) No. 2 and ECM terminal A40 for a short to voltage. 21) Turn ignition on. 24) If intermittent fault is suspected. 1 and 2. check wiring between TC control valve connector terminal No. check wiring between TC control valve connector terminal No. 2. Turn ignition on. If voltmeter reads 0-1 volt. 2 and ground. Turn ignition on. If voltmeter does not read battery voltage. go to step 5). If ohmmeter reads 27-37 k/ohms. Disconnect TC control valve connector. FC relay. Disconnect TC control valve. Repair as necessary. Connect voltmeter between TC control valve connector terminal No. 3) Turn ignition off. If voltmeter does not read 0-1 volt. If ohmmeter does not read 22-26 ohms. check wiring between FC relay connector B2 and ECM terminal A22 for a short circuit to ground. check main relay. retest using new FC relay. IAC valve. 23) Turn ignition off. code is caused by poor contact in TC control valve connector. terminal No. 2 and ground. Disconnect TC control valve connector. and ground. Code 5-3-3 (Power Stage Group ’’C’’) 1) Turn ignition off. Disconnect FC relay connector "B". terminal No.and ground. go to step 24). Reconnect ECM connector. check wiring between TC control valve connector terminal No. Connect voltmeter between TC control valve connector terminal No. Connect voltmeter between EGR controller connector terminal No. go to next step. 1 and ground. Repair as necessary. Connect ohmmeter between FC relay connector "A". If ohmmeter does not read about 80 ohms. 20) Turn ignition off. Connect voltmeter between FC relay connector "B". 2. If ohmmeter reads infinite resistance. Connect ohmmeter between connector terminals No. If voltmeter does not read about zero volts. If ohmmeter reads 27-37 k/ohms. 2 and ground. go to next step. . and vehicle is equipped with EGR. If ohmmeter does not read 27-37 k/ohms. and related wiring for open or short circuits to ground or voltage. If TC control valve does not function. Disconnect IAC valve connector. 2) Turn ignition off. Disconnect ECM connector and ensure contacts are clean and tight. go to next step. verify if TC control valve is functioning. 2 and ECM terminal B41 for a short circuit to ground. If voltmeter reads about zero volts. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. go to next step. Connect an ohmmeter between TC control valve connector terminal No. Disconnect connector "B" from FC relay. terminal No. 1 and main relay connector for an open circuit. 2 and ECM terminal B41 for a short circuit to voltage. go to next step. If ohmmeter reads about 80 ohms. 22) Turn ignition off. 2 and ground. 1. Disconnect TC control valve. check wiring between FC relay connector B2 and ECM terminal A22 for a short circuit to voltage. If voltmeter reads 0-1 volt.

Disconnect FC relay connector "B". On vehicles with ECC. fault is intermittent. 1 and 2. Disconnect EGR controller. 2) Turn ignition off. If voltmeter does not read 0-1 volt. and connector "A". go to next step. check wiring between FC relay connector terminal B2 and ECM terminal A22 for an intermittent short circuit to voltage. Connect voltmeter between breakout box pins No. ECC control module is located behind A/C controls on dash. Connect ohmmeter between FC relay connector "B". go to step 7). check wiring between instrument cluster connector terminal A11 and ECM terminal B21 for a short circuit to voltage. retest using new EGR controller. Check wiring between ECM terminal B12 and TCM terminal B12 for an intermittent short circuit to voltage. If voltmeter does not read 0-1 volt. retest using new FC relay. Go to next step. If ohmmeter reads 75-95 ohms. go to step 9). Check wiring between instrument cluster connector terminal A11 and ECM terminal B21 for an intermittent short circuit to voltage. 2. Code 5-3-3 (Power Stage Group "C") 1) Turn ignition off. If ohmmeter reads about 80 ohms and vehicle is not equipped with EGR. go to next step. Disconnect EGR controller connector. If ohmmeter does not read 75-95 ohms. go to next step. 8) Turn ignition on. Connect voltmeter between breakout box pins No. On vehicles equipped with Electronic Climate Control (ECC). 23 and 28. ECC control module is located behind A/C controls on dash. Connect voltmeter between breakout box pins No. and ground. also check wiring between ECM terminal B23 and ECC control module terminal A23 for an intermittent short circuit to voltage. If voltmeter reads 4-8 volts. See COMPUTERIZED ENGINE CONTROLS in I . Turn . Connect ohmmeter between EGR controller connector terminals No. check wiring between instrument cluster connector terminal A26 and ECM terminal B23 for a short circuit to voltage. If voltmeter reads 0-1 volt. go to step 5). Check wiring between instrument cluster connector terminal A9 and ECM terminal B39 for an intermittent short circuit to voltage. 6) Connect breakout box and check all ground connections. 12 and 28. Turn ignition on. If ohmmeter does not read about 80 ohms. Connect voltmeter between breakout box pins No. terminal No. If voltmeter reads 6-7 volts and vehicle is equipped with automatic transmission. and ECM terminal A22 for short circuit to voltage. go to next step. Connect breakout box to ECM. Disconnect FC relay connectors "B" and "A". If voltmeter reads 6-7 volts and vehicle is equipped with manual transmission. 39 and 28. 4) Turn ignition off. If voltmeter reads 4-8 volts and vehicle is not equipped with trip computer. 21 and 28. 9) If fault is suspected to be intermittent. Connect voltmeter between FC relay connector "B". Check wiring between EGR controller connector terminal No. Turn ignition on. If voltmeter does not read 6-7 volts. 7) Turn ignition on. also check wiring between ECM terminal B23 and ECC control module terminal A23 for a short circuit to voltage. go to next step. If voltmeter reads 0-1 volt. terminal No. If voltmeter does not read 4-8 volts.SYSTEM/COMPONENT TESTS article. 5) Start and run engine at idle. terminal No. check wiring between instrument cluster connector terminal A9 and ECM terminal B39 for a short circuit to voltage. If voltmeter does not read 0-1 volt. terminal No. and vehicle is equipped with trip computer. go to next step. 2 and ECM terminal A40 for an intermittent short circuit to voltage. check wiring between ECM terminal B12 and TCM terminal B12 for a short circuit to voltage. 3) Turn ignition off. If ohmmeter reads about 80 ohms and vehicle is equipped with EGR. Check wiring between instrument cluster terminal A26 and ECM terminal B23 for an intermittent short circuit to voltage. check wiring between FC relay connector "B". 2. Ensure ECM is connected. If voltmeter reads 0-1 volt. 1. 2.

If voltmeter reads 0-2 volts. Disconnect A/C relay. Turn ignition on. On vehicles with ECC. Connect voltmeter between breakout box pins No. go to next step. If voltmeter reads 4-8 volts and vehicle is equipped with trip computer. If voltmeter reads 6-7 volts. go to step 8). go to step 9). 6) Turn ignition off. 1 and 2. If engine starts. 9) Fault is intermittent. 2 and ground. Start engine and run at idle. 39 and 28. and between ECM and TCM for an intermittent short circuit to voltage. If voltmeter does not read 0-1 volt. 5) Start and run engine at idle. check wiring between ECM and ECC module for an intermittent short circuit to voltage. 7 and 28.SYSTEM/COMPONENT TESTS article. Start engine and run at idle. 8) Turn ignition on. check wiring between EGR controller connector terminal No. Check wiring between FC relay and ECM. Turn ignition on. also check wiring between ECM terminal B23 and ECC control module terminal A23 for a short circuit to voltage. If ohmmeter reads 75-95 ohms. Connect voltmeter between breakout box pins No. Connect voltmeter . check wiring between ECM terminal B12 and TCM terminal B12 for a short circuit to voltage. Connect voltmeter between breakout box pins No. between instrument cluster and ECM. If voltmeter reads 0-1 volt. 7) Turn ignition on. If voltmeter reads 0-2 volts. check wiring between instrument cluster connector terminal A9 and ECM terminal B39 for a short circuit to voltage. Connect ECM to breakout box. If voltmeter reads 0-2 volts. If voltmeter does not read 4-8 volts. If voltmeter does not read 0-1 volt. 2 and ECM terminal A40 for a short circuit to voltage. 23 and 28. 12 and 28.ignition on. Connect voltmeter between EGR controller connector terminal No.SYSTEM/COMPONENT TESTS article. 40 and 28. See COMPUTERIZED ENGINE CONTROLS in the I . Connect breakout box to ECM. If ohmmeter does not read 75-95 ohms. 3) Turn A/C on. Connect voltmeter between breakout box pins No. 21 and 28. check wiring between instrument cluster connector terminal A26 and ECM terminal B23 for a short circuit to voltage. go to next step. If voltmeter does not read 0-2 volts. Connect ECM to breakout box. If vehicle is equipped with Electronic Climate Control (ECC). go to next step. If engine does not start. go to step 8). Code 5-3-4 (Power Stage Group "D") 1) Attempt to start engine. Connect voltmeter between breakout box pins No. See COMPUTERIZED ENGINE CONTROLS in I . retest using new EGR controller. go to step 5). If voltmeter does not read 6-7 volts. Connect voltmeter between breakout box pins No. Turn A/C on. go to next step. If voltmeter does not read 0-1 volt. and vehicle is not equipped with A/C. between EGR controller and ECM. go to next step. go to next step. If voltmeter reads 0-1 volt. Set blower at low speed. Set blower at low speed. 4) Turn ignition off. go to next step. go to step 7). 2) Connect breakout box and check ground connections. check wiring between instrument cluster connector terminal A11 and ECM terminal B21 for a short circuit to voltage. Connect ohmmeter between EGR controller connector terminals No. check wiring between instrument cluster connector terminal B11 and ECM terminal B7 for a short circuit to voltage. Check ground connections. go to next step. and vehicle is equipped with A/C. 4) Turn ignition off. and vehicle is equipped with automatic transmission. If voltmeter reads 4-8 volts and vehicle is not equipped with trip computer. If voltmeter reads 6-7 volts and vehicle is equipped with manual transmission. If voltmeter does not read 0-2 volts. Disconnect EGR controller. If voltmeter reads 0-1 volt. go to next step. Connect breakout box to ECM. ECC control module is located behind A/C controls on dash.

8) Problem is intermittent. Disconnect TC control valve. If voltmeter reads about one volt. go to next step. If voltmeter does not read 0-2 volts. Disconnect ignition power stage. 1 for an open circuit. Connect voltmeter between TC control valve connector terminal No. 4 and ECM terminal B27. check wiring between ignition power stage connector terminal No. 6) Turn ignition off. go to next step. Turn ignition on. check wiring between TC control valve connector terminal No. ECC control module is located behind A/C controls on dash. 27 and 28. 4 and ECM terminal B11 for a short circuit to voltage. 2 and ECM terminal B41 for a short circuit to ground. If voltmeter reads about one volt. Turn ignition on. Connect voltmeter between TC control valve connector terminal No. Connect voltmeter between breakout box pins No. go to step 2). retest using new power stage. check wiring between fuel pump relay connector terminal No. Turn ignition on. 4 and Electronic Climate Control (ECC) control module terminal A25 for a short circuit to voltage. go to step 7). If voltmeter does not read about one volt. If voltmeter reads 0-1 volt. If voltmeter does not read battery voltage. See COMPUTERIZED ENGINE CONTROLS in I . go to next step. go to step 8). check wiring between A/C relay connector terminal No. SIGNAL TOO LOW. Reconnect ECM connector. it may be necessary to floor accelerator quickly a couple of times. If ohmmeter reads 27-37 k/ohms. Check wiring between instrument cluster connector terminal B11 and ECM terminal B7. 4 and ECC control module terminal A25. If voltmeter does not read less than one volt. If ohmmeter reads infinite resistance. retest using new fuel pump relay. wiring between fuel pump relay connector terminal No. 3 and TC control valve connector terminal No. If voltmeter reads battery voltage. 2 and ground. 4) Turn ignition off.between breakout box pins No. Connect voltmeter between breakout box pins No. Connect ohmmeter between TC control valve connector terminal No. If ohmmeter reads 27-37 k/ohms. Ensure ECM connector terminals are clean and tight. retest using new TC control valve. retest using new A/C relay. Turn ignition on.SYSTEM/COMPONENT TESTS article. If voltmeter does not read about one volt. Repair as necessary. 4 and ECM terminal B27 for a short circuit to voltage. 11 and 28. check wiring between A/C relay connector terminal No. Disconnect TC control valve. check wiring between TC control valve connector terminal No. 2 and ground. and wiring between A/C relay connector terminal No. If voltmeter does not read 0-1 volt. go to step 7). SIGNAL TOO HIGH. If vehicle is equipped with ECC. If . If fault is PERMANENT. If fault is INTERMITTENT. If fault is INTERMITTENT. If voltmeter reads less than one volt. Disconnect TC control valve. If fault is PERMANENT. 40 and 28. 2) Turn ignition off. Connect voltmeter between breakout box pins No. check wiring between main relay connector terminal No. and wiring between ignition power stage connector terminal No. Disconnect ECM connector. Disconnect fuel pump relay. To obtain correct status message. go to step 3). If voltmeter reads 0-2 volts. 2 and ECM terminal B41 for a short circuit to voltage. go to step 6). Connect ohmmeter between TC control valve connector terminal No. 5) Check ground connections with breakout box. 4 and ECM terminal B11 for an intermittent short circuit to voltage. SIGNAL TOO HIGH. 5) Turn ignition off. Code 5-3-5 (Turbocharger Control Valve Signal) 1) Check status message on Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686). 2 and ground. 27 and 28. Turn ignition on. 4 and ECM terminal B40 for an intermittent short circuit to voltage. SIGNAL TOO LOW. Connect ECM. Disconnect Turbocharger (TC) control valve. problem is poor contact at ECM connector. If ohmmeter reads about zero volts. 1 and ground. Wait about 2 minutes. 3) Turn ignition off. 7) Turn ignition off.

Disconnect EVAP valve. retest using new TC control valve. If fault is PERMANENT. 3 for an intermittent open circuit. Floor accelerator a couple of times. Connect ohmmeter between EVAP valve connector terminal No. retest using new EVAP valve. SIGNAL TOO LOW. 7) If fault is intermittent and signal is too high. 2) Turn ignition off. 1 and main relay connector terminal No. 2 and ECM terminal A39 for a short circuit to ground. 1 and main relay connector terminal No. 3) Turn ignition off. retest using new EVAP valve. If ohmmeter reads 25-40 k/ohms. Disconnect EVAP valve connector. Repair as necessary. 2 and ground. Wait about 2 seconds. check EVAP valve and ECM connector for loose connection or contact resistance. go to step 3). code is caused by poor contact in TC control valve connector. check wiring between EVAP valve connector terminal No. If code returns. If code does not return. Connect voltmeter between EVAP valve connector. If fault is INTERMITTENT. go to step 8). 2 and ECM terminal A39 for a short circuit to voltage. If ohmmeter reads 25-40 k/ohms. Disconnect EVAP valve connector. 1. 5) Turn ignition off. Disconnect EVAP valve. Start engine. If ohmmeter does not read 25-40 k/ohms. If fault remains. Repair as necessary. Erase code. Ensure ECM connector terminals are clean and make good terminal contact. 2 and ECM terminal B41 for an open circuit. Repair as necessary. Connect ohmmeter between EVAP valve connector terminal No. 6) Turn ignition off. check wiring between EVAP valve connector terminal No. If ohmmeter reads about zero ohms. code is caused by poor contact in EVAP and/or ECM connector. 3 for an intermittent open circuit. 1 and 2. Also check wiring between EVAP valve connector terminal No.ohmmeter does not read 27-37 ohms. SIGNAL TOO HIGH. go to step 7). 7) Check TC control valve and ECM connectors for loose connection or contact resistance. If fault is INTERMITTENT. 2 and ECM terminal A39 for an open circuit. 2 and ECM terminal B41 for an intermittent short circuit to voltage. Repair as necessary. If ohmmeter reads about 26 ohms. SIGNAL TOO LOW. Connect ohmmeter between EVAP valve connector terminals No. If fault is permanent and signal is too high. Disconnect EVAP valve. 2 and ECM . Turn ignition on. 3 for an open circuit. Also check wiring between TC control valve connector terminal No. If ohmmeter does not read about 26 ohms. 2 and ECM terminal A39 for an intermittent short circuit to voltage. check wiring between TC control valve connector terminal No. 4) Turn ignition off. 6) Turn ignition off. If ohmmeter reads about 26 ohms. go to next step. go to step 6). 8) Check TC control valve and ECM connectors for loose connection or contact resistance. If voltmeter does not read battery voltage. Check wiring between TC control valve connector terminal No. Check wiring between EVAP valve connector terminal No. go to step 2). check wiring between EVAP valve connector terminal No. Connect ohmmeter between EVAP valve connector terminals No. code will return within one minute. 2 and ECM terminal B41 for an intermittent open circuit or short circuit to ground. 8) If fault is intermittent and signal is too low. terminal No. If ohmmeter does not read 26 ohms. 2 and ground. 1 and main relay connector terminal No. Disconnect ECM. Also check wiring between TC control valve connector terminal No. code is caused by poor contact at ECM connector. go to next step. check wiring between EVAP valve connector terminal No. If voltmeter reads battery voltage. 1 and 2. and ground. Turn ignition on. check wiring between EVAP valve connector terminal No. Code 5-4-1 (EVAP Signal) 1) Check status message on Volvo Scan Tool (998-8686). If ohmmeter reads infinite resistance. Reconnect TC control valve.

terminal A39 for an intermittent open circuit or short circuit to ground. .