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Introduction to Digital

Ingo Foldvari
Academic Program Manager
National Instruments California

Phone: 760 691 0877

Wireless Communication Devices 3


A Platform for Software Defined Radio Prototyping and Exploration 4

RF and Microwave Spectral Analysis 3. Ressource: http://www. NI RF and Communicatons Fundamentals 1. Analog Modulation 4. See Also .com/white-paper/3992/en ni. Modulation Measurements 7. Communication Standards 8. Digital Modulation 5. Introduction to RF & Wireless Communications Systems 2. Communications Systems 5 . RF & Communications Terminology and Glossary Fundamentals 3-Day Training Course 12. RF & Communications Resources 11. Understanding RF & Microwave Specifications 9. LabVIEW VIs (free download): 6 .com/content/1302357 ni. theoretical foundation Demonstrations and lab exercises based on • NI LabVIEW • LabVIEW Modulation Toolkit • NI IF & RF Communications Hardware Platform Full Color Version • Orderable Book: • Free PDF Download: • Free PDF Download: http://www. • Practical Black&White (low cost) Version • Orderable Book: http://www. RF Handbook Ideal for learning or refreshing your knowledge of RF & Comm.

com 7 . Online Community ni.

Wireless Digital Communication modulated IQ waveform IQ waveform analog analog digital 00100100 00100100 digital User User 8 .

5 feet ni.75 m = 100MHz 100MHz 2. Basics of Frequency Spectrum 100 1GHz MHz Wavelength Calculation Speed _ of _ Light (meters / sec)  Wavelength (meters ) Frequency ( Hz) FM Radio Example 299 792 458 m/s 300 M m/s   3 m wavelengt h ¼ wave antenna = .com 9 .

NI USRP and LabVIEW A Platform for Software Defined Radio Prototyping and Exploration .

com 11 .A Highly Productive Graphical Development Environment for Engineers and Scientists Hardware APIs Analysis Libraries Custom User Interfaces Technology Deployment Targets Abstractions Models of Computation ni.

Models of Computation Dataflow C / HDL Code Textual Math Simulation Statechart LabVIEW LabVIEW LabVIEW LabVIEW `` Desktop Real-Time FPGA MPU/MCU Personal Computers PXI Systems CompactRIO Single-Board RIO Custom Design 12 .

Review: Creating a Virtual Instrument • LabVIEW programs are called Virtual Instruments or 13 . • Each VI has two windows • Front Panel  User Interface (UI) o Controls = User Inputs o Indicators = Outputs • Block Diagram  Program Code o Data travels on wires from Front controls through functions to Panel indicators o Blocks execute by Dataflow Block Diagram ni.

com 14 .Review: Front Panel Controls Palette (Controls & Indicators) Control: Numeric Front Panel Indicator: Gauge ni.

com 15 .Review: Block Diagram Functions Palettes Structure: While Loop ni.

depending on their data types • A broken wire appears as a dashed black line with a red X in the middle DBL Numeric Integer Numeric String Boolean Scalar 1D Array 2D Array ni. and 16 16 . Review: Block Diagram – Wires • Transfer data between block diagram objects through wires • Wires are different colors. styles.

com 17 . Review: Block Diagram Terminals Front Panel Window Block Diagram Window Numeric Numeric Controls Indicator ni.

com 18 .Review: Tools Palette • Recommended: Automatic Selection Tool • Tools to operate and modify both front panel and block diagram objects Automatic Selection Tool Automatically chooses among the following tools: Operating Tool Positioning/Resizing Tool Labeling Tool Wiring Tool ni.

Review: Status Toolbar Run Button Continuous Run Button Abort Execution Additional Buttons on the Diagram Toolbar Execution Highlighting Button Retain Wire Values Button Step Function Buttons 19 .

Review: Dataflow Programming • Block diagram execution – Dependent on the flow of data – Block diagram does NOT execute left to right • Node executes when data is available to ALL input terminals • Nodes supply data to all output terminals when done 20 .

or – Choose “Detailed 21 . Review: Context Help Window • Help»Show Context Help. press the <Ctrl+H> keys • Hover cursor over object to update window Additional Help – Right-Click on the VI icon and choose Help.” on the context help window ni.

Review: Textual Math with the MathScript Node • Implement equations and algorithms textually • Input and Output variables created at the border • Generally compatible with popular m-file script language • Terminate statements with a semicolon to disable immediate output (Functions»Programming» Structures»MathScript) Prototype your equations in the interactive MathScript 22 . ni.

com 23 .Review: The Interactive MathScript Window • Rapidly develop and test algorithms • Share Scripts and Variables with the Node • View /Modify Variable content in 1D. 2D. and 3D Variable Output Workspace Window View/Modify Variable Contents User Commands m-file Script (LabVIEW»Tools»MathScript Window) ni.

WAVEFORMS 24 . Programming Demo DATA VS.

com 25 . NI USRP Under the Hood ni.

com 26 .System Setup NI USRP-2920 NI USRP-2920 Transmitter Receiver • USRP control (Tx & Rx) • Modulate Tx signal • Demodulate Rx signal • Reconstruct message ni.

NI USRP-2920 Hardware Diagram Analog RF Transceiver Fixed Function FPGA PC 27 .

com 28 . Signal Processing NI USRP Tunable RF Transceiver and Synthesis  NI LabVIEW to Front Ends develop and explore  Frequency Range algorithms 50 MHz – 2.4 GHz & 5.2 GHz (NI-2920)  NI Modulation Toolkit 2.5 GHz (NI-2921) and LabVIEW add- ons to simulate or process live signals Applications 1 Gigabit Ethernet  FM Radio  Safety Radio Connectivity  TV  OFDM  Plug-and-play  GPS  Passive Radar capability  GSM  Dynamic Spectrum Access  Up to 25 MS/s  ZigBee baseband IQ streaming ni.

Graphical Implementations and MathScript RT NI USRP-2920 NI USRP-2920 Transmitter Receiver 29 .

com 30 . NI-USRP Driver Software Initialize Configure Write IQ Close ni.

com 31 . Communications Design Topics • Education • Introductory Communications • Digital Communications Complete • Antenna Theory RF Prototyping Solution • Research • Physical layer research (SISO & MIMO) • Cognitive Radio & Dynamic Spectrum Access • RF transmit or receive applications • Defense • Spectral Monitoring • Prototyping Communications Systems ni.

com 32 . Programming Demo TRANSMIT WAVEFORM ni.


Why IQ? • It is difficult to vary precisely the phase of a high- frequency carrier sine wave in a hardware circuit according to an input message signal. • A hardware signal modulator that manipulates the amplitude and phase of a carrier sine wave would therefore be expensive and difficult to design and build • HW circuit that uses I and Q waveforms are more flexible 34 .

ni. Quadrature Modulation Ac cos(2f ct   ) Amplitude Frequency Phase Angle (Frequency = Rate of change of Angle) I (t ) cos(2f ct )  Q(t ) sin(2f ct ) Note: I and Q capture magnitude and phase information I refers to in-phase data (because the carrier is in phase) Q refers to quadrature data (because the carrier is offset by 90 degrees).com 35 .

com 36 . ni. IQ Modulator IQ is the Cartesian representation of a vector from a Polar Coordinate System.


Modulation Basics • RF communication systems use advanced forms of modulation to increase the amount of data that can be transmitted in a given amount of frequency spectrum. • Signal modulation can be divided into two broad categories: • analog modulation (analog audio data is modulated onto a carrier sine wave ) • digital modulation (digital bits modulated onto a carrier sine wave) 38 .

com 39 . and phase in order to encode information ni. Modulation Basics • Carrier sine wave needs to change in amplitude. frequency.

Modulation Example – AM Radio Audio Signal Baseband IQ AM Radio Signal 20Hz – 20kHz Audio Radio IQ Mixing Message (Baseband) Frequency Carrier 40 LabVIEW Software NI USRP Hardware .

More than just the message: Packet Structure GUARD SYNC PCKT BAND SEQ NUM DATA PAD Field Length Description [bits] Guard Band 30 Allow initialization of Rx PLL. 41 .256 Variable length data field. ni. etc Sync Sequence 20 Frame and Symbol Synchronization Packet Number 8 Range: 0-255 Used for reordering of packets and detection of missing packets Data 64 . Length detected dynamically at Rx end Pad 20 Allows for filter edge effects.

Digital Modulation the “how one sends” of “what” one sends IQ Baseband Data Bit Stream (32 Bits) Symbol Stream (4-QAM) (2 bits/symbol16 IQ symbols) To RF Amplifier ni.Modulation Basics .com 42 .

the faster the communication speed. the number of bits sent per second is called Bit Rate .the higher the bit 43 . One way for digital communication systems to support a higher bit rate is to encode multiple bits of information in the variations of the carrier signal. Symbol maps for 4-ASK modulation (left) and 4-PSK modulation (right) ni. Mapping Bits to Symbols In digital modulation.

0.1) • each symbol has a unique 2-bit pattern 10 00 • bits are grouped in two’s so that they can be mapped to the corresponding symbols • ( 44 . 4-QAM Symbol Map • Four-QAM uses four combinations of phase and amplitude.0. • Each combination is assigned a 2-bit digital pattern.1.11).01.0. 11 01 ni.1) is grouped into the three symbols (10.1. Example • generate the bit stream (1.

Frequency Domain for a Sinc Pulse Pulse-Shape Filtering in Communications Systems http://www. Pulse-Shaping Filter In communications systems. • Generating bandlimited channels (reduce bandwidth) • reducing inter symbol interference (ISI) from multi-path signal reflections Both requirements can be accomplished by a pulse shaping filter which is applied to each symbol A sync pulse meets both of these requirements because it efficiently utilizes the frequency domain to utilize a smaller portion of the frequency 45 .ni. Time ni. two important requirements of a wireless communications channel demand the use of a pulse shaping filter. and because of the windowing affect that it has on each symbol period of a modulated signal.

Pulse-Shaping Filter Sharp transitions from one symbol to the next occur when filtering is not applied. the sharp transitions are smoothed and the resulting signal is limited to a specific frequency band Frequency Domain of Unfiltered Signal Phase and Amplitude Transitions in an Unfiltered Modulated Signal Smoothed Phase and Amplitude Transitions in a Filtered Modulated Signal Frequency Domain of Filtered Signal 46 . Applying a pulse-shaping filter to the modulated sinusoid. Sharp transitions in any signal result in high-frequency components in the frequency domain resulting in significant channel power outside of the defined bandwidth.


com 48 . NI-USRP Driver Software Initialize Configure Start Read IQ Stop Close ni.

com 49 . NI-USRP Driver Software Initialize Configure Start Read IQ Stop Close ni.

Programming Demo RECEIVE COMPLEX IQ 50 .

Digital Communication System NI Modulation Toolkit NI USRP NI Modulation Toolkit NI USRP 51 .

Communications Design in LabVIEW
LabVIEW Modulation Toolkit

• Analog and Digital modulation formats
• AM, FM, PM
• Custom
• Visualization
• 2D and 3D Eye, Trellis, Constellation
• Modulation Analysis
• BER, MER, EVM, burst timing,
frequency deviation, ρ (rho)
• Impairments
• Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN)
• DC offset, Quadrature skew, IQ gain
imbalance, phase noise
• Equalization, Channel Coding, Channel
Models 52

Programming Demo





com 56 . Decode & Hear Live FM Radio Mono Stereo Audio Audio Left .65 92 99 Hz kHz kHz kHz kHz kHz kHz kHz kHz kHz ni.Right Left + Right 19kHz Stereo Pilot Direct Band Audos Subcarrier (10%) (10%) RBDS (10%) (5%) 0 57 kHz 30 15 23 38 53 58.35 67.65 76.


Packet Based Transceiver 58 .

com . NI PXI RF & NI USRP Case Studies and User Solutions ni.

NI PXI RF 60 .

NI RF and Communications Market Communications Design RF Test & Measurement • Low Cost • Calibration • Flexible • Low Phase Noise • Portable • Precise measurement • Radio • Real-time • High Bandwidth 61 .

3 V Management Synthesizer REF CLK/ Crystal 802. MAC End and PHY Power 62 . computing. consumer electronics and networking channels GPIO GPIO 11ac CPU and 2. • The networking and connectivity subsidiary of Qualcomm. Inc. • Leading provider of wired and wireless technologies • Serving mobile.11ac Device Block Diagram ni.4/5 GHz Radio WLAN Memory PCIE PCIE Front RF SOC.

000+ Combinations ni.11ac 100+ Combinations 1.11a + b + g + 802.000+ Combinations 10. RF Standards—Increasing Complexity 802.11n + 63 .

com 64 . Software –Designed Approach ni.

com 65 . NI PXIe-5644R Hardware Front Panel RF Input RF Output 65 MHz – 6 GHz 65 MHz – 6 GHz 80 MHz BW 80 MHz BW Reference In/Out Calibration In/Out Always keep the calibration cable connected Trigger LOs In/Out Digital I/O Independent 24 channels In & Out Up to 250 Mbps MIMO Support Additional triggering ni.

com 66 . Vector Signal Transceiver/Device Under Test Integration Qualcomm Atheros 802.11ac Device Under Test RF-out RF-in Tx VSA RF-in RF-out Rx VSG Digital Digital I/O I/O Digital Device Control ni.

Average Output Power -45 -25 -5 15 -45 -25 -5 15 -18 -18 -23 -23 -28 -28 -33 -33 -38 -38 -43 -43 -48 -48 Traditional Instrumentation NI PXI Vector Signal Transceiver * Error Vector Measurement: 67 . EVM* (dB) vs.

11n + 802.11ac Early 2000s 2007 2012 Traditional Rack and Stack NI PXI RF Instrumentation NI PXI VST 10X 200X Faster Than Traditional 20X “At Qualcomm Atheros. Director of Engineering at Qualcomm Atheros ni.11a + b + g + 802. Qualcomm Results 68 . instrumentation flexibility and to-the-pin control are critical for keeping our RF test process as efficient as possible. and we're pleased with the performance gains we've seen when testing with NI's new vector signal transceiver.” Doug Johnson.

Lab Ready Digital Communications Labs Communications Systems Labs by Dr. Stanford 1 AWGN Simulator 1 Source Coding 2. Sachin Katti. ni. Robert Heath.1 Modulation /Demodulation 2 Packet Communication. 69 . UT Austin by Dr.2 Pulse Shaping and Channel Correction 3 Energy Detection 3 Modulation 4 Equalization 4 Demodulation 5 Frame Detection 5 Design Challenge: 6 Intro to OFDM Packet based Transceiver 7 Frequency Correction & Sync 8 OFDM Channel Coding (Ships in Bundle) (FREE: ni.

… I am glad that I took this class! “ Source: Stanford EE 49: Teaching Evaluations (Spring Quarter 2011) . where I learned a lot. NI USRP at Stanford University Student Course Feedback: “ Awesome class! I really enjoyed the lectures. and the labs were really cool because we got to use the hardware.

CA ni.Networked Systems Group Needs: Solution: • Exposure to real-world signals • SDR Platform • Recruit students to • Lower learning curve RF/Communications early • Maintainable • Prepare students for research • Affordable “The course evaluations for our class was 71 . ECE Stanford. Sachin Katti.0. Stanford University . likely one of the highest ratings among all classes in the School of Engineering at Stanford.” Dr.94/5. Students rated the class 4.

” Dr. Portugal ni. allowing the team to rapidly prototype and successfully deploy the first cognitive radio test bed of this 72 .NI USRP Research Case Study: Cognitive Radio & Whitespace LabVIEW Graphical System Design • Spectral sensing with blind detection • GPS geographic localization • Adaptive spectrum utilization “LabVIEW software and the NI USRP hardware are key components of this research project. Paulo Marques. COGEU Aveiro.

MIMO Radio Prototyping • Plug and play 2x2 MIMO • Driver based synchronization • Reference designs available 2x2 MIMO .Alamouti Coding • Maximal Ratio Combining • Alamouti Coding 73 .

com 74 .6x6 MIMO Testbed ni.

com 75 . spatial Network TX 3 MIMO Cable TX 4 Cable diversity USRP USRP TX 5 MIMO Cable TX 6 • Independently clocked. phase Host USRP USRP coherent Tx & Rx Computer TX 7 MIMO Cable TX 8 Gigabit Ethernet Network Switch Cable Receive USRP USRP Rx 1 MIMO Cable Rx 2 USRP USRP Rx 3 MIMO Cable Rx 4 Network Cable USRP USRP Rx 5 MIMO Cable Rx 6 USRP USRP Rx 7 MIMO Cable Rx 8 External Clock ni. Robert Heath NI USRP 8x8 MIMO Testbed Director WNCG University of Texas at Austin Ref in External Clock PPS in Transmit • Adaptable from 2x2 to 8x8 USRP USRP TX 1 MIMO Cable TX 2 • Algorithm design in MathScript RT USRP USRP • 128 subcarrier OFDM.NI USRP Research Case Study: Dr. 4 QAM.

11b beacon signals • Identification of hotspots.NI USRP Research Case Study: Physical Layer Prototyping Dr.11b SSID Decoding Frequency Demodulation Interpret the Carrier Offset & frame for Detection Estimation & Descrambling SSID Correction ni. Murat Torlak • Continuously monitoring Demodulate Descramble multiple wifi channels • Demodulation and descrambling of 76 . tracking relative power levels 802.

over-the-air communication OFDM link • 1024 subcarriers • 256-QAM modulation per subcarrier • bit rate of about 77 .4 Mbps on laptop LabVIEW host-based VIs • Imported m-file scripts • Extensive use of Mathscript RT • ~2 month timeframe • reducing project time by 2/3 ni.NI USRP Research Case Study: Algorithm Research Cleaning Up “Dirty RF” Established a live.

NI USRP Research Case Study: TU-Dresden: “Dirty RF” Established a live. over-the-air communication OFDM link • 1024 subcarriers • 256-QAM modulation per subcarrier • bit rate of about 1.4 Mbps on laptop LabVIEW host-based VIs • Imported m-file scripts • Extensive use of Mathscript RT • ~2 month timeframe • reducing project time by 2/3 78 .

London • Testing MUSIC direction finding algorithm • Rapid prototyping in LabVIEW with MathScript RT External USRP Clock RX 1 • Synchronized up to12 USRP devices Ref in PPS • Reference provides continuous phase in USRP alignment compensation RX 2 Direction Finding (uniform linear USRP array) Network Cable RX 3 Host USRP Compute r RX 4 Gigabit Network Ethernet USRP Cable Switch TX Calibration Signal 79 . Athanassios Manikas Comm & Array Processing Chair Position Detection & Localization Imperial College.NI USRP Research Case Study: Prof.

com/usrp Tx Simulation RF Direction Finding RF Record & & Localization Playback 80 .Research: Downloadable Reference Designs 8x8 MIMO-OFDM GPS ni.