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# Introduction to Management Science (ISOM 3123

)
Darrell Hicks
Practice Homework Problems Chapter 4
Spring 2013
Chapter 4 – Linear Programming: Modeling Examples

(#3)(a) In the investment example in this chapter, how would the solution become affected if the
requirement that the entire \$70,000 be invested was relaxed such that it is the maximum
amount available for investment?

Answer: Original solution: x3 = \$38,181.82 invested in treasury bonds, x4 = \$31,818.18 invested
in growth stock fund

(max return on investments) Z = \$6,618.18 (as shown in Exhibit 4.7).

(a) Changes to constraints #1 and #3 must be made into algebraic expressions (pgs. 122,
123). Changing constraint #1 to: 0.8x1 - 0.2x2 - 0.2x3 - 0.2x4 ≤ 0, constraint #3 to: 0.3x1+
0.7x2+ 0.7x3 - 0.3x4≥ 0, and constraint #5 to: x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 ≤ 70,000produces the
following results: x1 = \$0.00, x2 = \$0.00,

x3 = \$38,181.82 invested in treasury bills, x4 = \$31,818.18 invested in growth stock
fund

Z = \$6,618.18 (no change from the original problem)

(b) If the entire amount available for investment does not have to be invested and the
amount available is increased by \$10,000 (to \$80,000), how much will the total optimal return
increase?

Answer: Changing only constraint #5 to: x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 ≤ 80,000produces the
following results:

x3 = \$43,636.36 invested in treasury bills, x4 = \$36,363.64 invested in growth stock
fund

(max return on investments) Z = \$7,563.64; the increase is \$7,563.64 -
\$6,618.18 = \$945.46 increase

(c) Will the entire \$10,000 increase be invested in one alternative?

Answer: (c) No, both x3 and x4 increase in the amounts invested respectively: x3 invests
\$354.54 more than before and x4 invests \$590.91 more (than with \$70,000 total). The sum
of these two investments (treasury bills + stock funds) is \$7,563.63. The optimal
investments are now in the same arrangement as in the original problem. Treasury bills
Introduction to Management Science (ISOM 3123)
Darrell Hicks
Practice Homework Problems Chapter 4
Spring 2013
and growth stock funds should be the only investments:x3 = \$43,636.36 invested in
treasury bonds, x4 = \$36,363.64 invested in growth stock fund (with \$80,000 total).

The sum is \$43,636.36 + \$36,363.64 = \$80,000 total investments; no municipal bonds & no
certificates of deposit.

(#5) For the transportation example in this chapter, suppose that television sets not shipped
were to incur storage costs of \$9.00 at Cincinnati, \$6.00 at Atlanta, and \$7.00 at Pittsburgh. How
would these storage costs be reflected in the linear programming model for this example
problem, and what would the new solution be if any?

Original Transportation Example(pg.127)

Store TV Sets
Warehouse New York A Dallas B Detroit C Shipped Constraint Supply
1 Cincinnati 0 0 200 200 <= 300
2 Atlanta 0 200 0 200 <= 200
3 Pittsburgh 150 50 0 200 <= 200
Actual TV Sets Shipped 150 250 200
Constraints = = =
City Demand 150 250 200
Cost = \$ 7300

minimize Z = 16x1A + 18x1B + 11x1C + 14x2A + 12x2B + 13x2C + 13x3A + 15x3B +
17x3C

subject to

x1A + x1B + x1C<= 300
x2A + x2B + x2C<= 200
x3A + x3B + x3C<= 200
x1A + x2A + x3A = 150
x1B + x2B + x3B = 250
x1C + x2C + x3C = 200
xij >= solution
according to the unshipped TVs remaining in each of the three warehouses. Since the capacity
of the warehouses in Atlanta and Pittsburgh are used up by the results from Excel Solver, there
are only 200 TVs shipped from Cincinnati to Detroit (more supply than demand) with 100
unshipped TVs left in Cincinnati’s warehouse costing \$9 for each TV to store. The total storage
Introduction to Management Science (ISOM 3123)
Darrell Hicks
Practice Homework Problems Chapter 4
Spring 2013
cost is \$9 multiplied by100 TVs = \$900 which would raise the total cost of shipping and storing
the TVs but not change the optimal solution for this linear programming model. Only the total
shipping & storing costs, Z = \$8200 would change with an additional 900 dollars of storage cost
for 100 TVs not shipped from Cincinnati.

◊ The Zephyr Television Company is considering leasing a new warehouse in Memphis. The new
warehouse would have a supply of 200 television sets, with shipping costs of \$18 to New York, \$9 to Dallas,
and \$12 to Detroit. If the total transportation cost for the company (ignoring the cost of leasing the warehouse)
is less than with the current warehouses, the company will lease the new warehouse. Should the warehouse
be leased?

Answer: Yes, the new Memphis warehouse should be leased because using it to ship 200
TVs to Dallas as in the original linear programming model reduced the total shipping cost
to \$6,550 from \$7,300. The cost of shipping from Memphis to Dallas for \$9 is clearly the
lowest cost of shipping to Dallas among all other warehouses. Consequently, it is cheaper
to ship all 200 TVs from the Memphis warehouse to Dallas with the remaining 50 (demand
= 250) coming from the next cheapest shipping to Dallas: Atlanta for \$12.

If supply could be increased at any one warehouse, which should it be? What restrictions would there
be on the amount of the increase?

Answer: Since the Memphis warehouse has the lowest shipping cost to Dallas, its capacity
should be increased by 50 TVs (to 250) to accommodate the entire demand for TVs in Dallas and
ship all 250 from Memphis to Dallas for \$9.

(#6) For the blend example in this chapter, if the requirement that “at least 3,000 barrels of
each grade of motor oil” was changed to exactly 3,000 barrels of each grade of oil, how would
this affect the optimal solution?

Answer: The optimal solution remains unchanged except for the shadow prices, which
change for some of the nine decision variables. Listed below are the results for the original
problem and also with the change to equalities: Note that there are alternative optimal solutions.

Variable Value Reduced Cost Original Val Lower Bound Upper Bound

X1s 1500.0 0 11 8 Infinity

X2s 450 0 13 13 13

X3s 1050.0 0 9 9 9

X1p 1200 0 8 -Infinity 11
Introduction to Management Science (ISOM 3123)
Darrell Hicks
Practice Homework Problems Chapter 4
Spring 2013
X2p 1050 0 10 -8 10

X3p 750 0 6 6 10.8

X1e 1800.0 0 6 -Infinity 17.3333

X2e 1200 0 8 8 25

X3e 0 0 4 -Infinity 14

Constraint Dual Value Slack/Surplus Original Val Lower Bound Upper Bound

Constraint 1 20 0 4500 4500 6200

Constraint 2 4 0 2700 2250 3150

The Dual value for all nine constraints are lowered by the change to equalities but the
optimal solution remains unchanged at Z = \$76,800.

If the company could acquire more of one of the three components, which should it be?
What would be the effect on the total profit of acquiring more of this component?

Answer: In general, we want the item with the largest shadow price which contributes the
most to the increases in total profit. Here, it is Component Number one with a shadow
price of \$20. Acquiring one more unit of component 1 increases profit by \$20 (for each

(#7) On their farm, the Friendly family grows apples that they harvest each fall and make into
three products—apple butter, applesauce, and apple jelly. They sell these three items at several
local grocery stores, at craft fairs in the region, and at their own Friendly Farm Pumpkin Festival
for 2 weeks in October. Their three primary resources are cooking time in their kitchen, their own
labor time, and the apples. They have a total of 500 cooking hours available, and it requires 3.5
hours to cook a 10-gallon batch of apple butter, 5.2 hours to cook 10 gallons of applesauce, and
2.8 hours to cook 10 gallons of jelly. A 10-gallon batch of apple butter requires 1.2 hours of labor,
a batch of sauce takes 0.8 hour, and a batch of jelly requires 1.5 hours. The Friendly family has
240 hours of labor available during the fall. They produce about 6,500 apples each fall. A batch
of apple butter requires 40 apples, a 10-gallon batch of applesauce requires 55 apples, and a
batch of jelly requires 20 apples. After the products are canned, a batch of apple butter will
generate \$190 in sales revenue, a batch of applesauce will generate a sales revenue of \$170,
and a batch of jelly will generate sales revenue of \$155. The Friendlys want to know how many
batches of apple butter, applesauce, and apple jelly to produce in order to maximize their
revenues.

(a) Formulate a linear programming model for this problem.
Introduction to Management Science (ISOM 3123)
Darrell Hicks
Practice Homework Problems Chapter 4
Spring 2013
Let x1 = the # of batches (10 gal) of Apple Butter, x 2 = the # of batches (10 gal) of Apple
Sauce,

x3 = the # of batches (10 gal) of Apple Jelly

Now we construct the linear program from the given information for price, resources,
materials, etc.:

maximize profit Z = 190x1 + 170x2 + 155x3 subject to the following constraints:

3.5x1 + 5.2x2 + 2.8x3 ≤ 500 (cooking time each product ≤ max available
hours)

1.2x1 + 0.8x2 +1.5x3 ≤ 240 (labor time each product ≤ max available
labor hrs)

40x1 + 55x2 + 20x3 ≤ 6,500 (required apples to use ≤ max available
apples)

(b) Solve the model by using the computer.

x1 = 41.27 (≈ 42), x2 = 0, x3 = 126.98 (≈ 127), Profit Z = \$190(42) + \$170(0) +
\$155(127) = \$27,665

The computer solution suggests that the maximum profit occurs with 42 (10 gal)
batches of Apple Butter (rounding up), no Apple Sauce should be made and 127 (10 gal)
batches of Apple Jelly. With the largest Shadow Price, cooking time is the most valuable
resource; for each additional hour of cooking time, profit will increase by \$52.38 up to a
max of 500 hrs.

(#13) The Kalo Fertilizer Company produces two brands of lawn fertilizer—Super Two and Green
Grow—at plants in Fresno, California, and Dearborn, Michigan. The plant at Fresno has resources
available to produce 5,000 pounds of fertilizer daily; the plant at Dearborn has enough resources
to produce 6,000 pounds daily. The cost per pound of producing each brand at each plant is as
follows:

(cost of Production) Max
Plant Demand
Product Fresno Available/d Price per
Dearborn ay Item

Super Two \$2 \$4 6,000 \$9/lb.
Introduction to Management Science (ISOM 3123)
Darrell Hicks
Practice Homework Problems Chapter 4
Spring 2013
Green Grow \$2 \$3 lbs/day \$7/lb.

7,000
lbs/day

The company has a daily budget of \$45,000 for both plants combined. Based on past
sales, the company knows the maximum demand (converted to a daily basis) is 6,000 pounds for
Super Two and 7,000 pounds for Green Grow. The selling price is \$9 per pound for Super Two and
\$7 per pound for Green Grow. The company wants to know the number of pounds of each brand
of fertilizer to produce at each plant in order to maximize profit.

(a) Formulate a linear programming model for this problem. Answer:

Let x1 = the # of lbs. of Super Two at Fresno, Let x2 = the # of lbs. of Super Two at
Dearborn

Letx3 = the # of lbs. of Green Grow at Fresno, Let x4 = the # of lbs. of Green Grow at
Dearborn

(cost of production) \$2x1 + \$4x2 + \$2x3 + \$3x4≤ \$45,000 (Fresno capacity) 1x1+ 1x3≤
5,000 lbs./day

(Super Two capacity) 1x1+1x2≤ 6,000 (Dearborn capacity) 1x2+ 1x4 ≤ 6,000
lbs./day

(Green Grow capacity) 1x3+ 1x4 ≤ 7,000 (non-negativity) (x1, x2, x3, x4)
≥0

Let Z (profit) = [Revenue] – (costs) = [\$9(x1 + x2) + \$7(x3 + x4)] – (\$2x1 +\$4x2 + \$2x3 + \$3x4);
Z = \$7x1 +\$5x2 + \$5x3 + \$4x4

(b) Solve the model by using the X1 X2 X X4 RHS Du
3 al
computer. Maximi 7 5 5 4
ze
Answer:According to the results for this Constra 2 4 2 3 <= 4500 0
int 1 0
linear programming model from QM for Constra 1 1 0 0 <= 6000 1
Windows™,the max profitZ = \$7(5,000) + int 2
Constra 0 0 1 1 <= 7000 0
\$5(1,000) + \$5(0) + \$4(5,000) = \$60,000 int 3
Constra 1 0 1 0 <= 5000 6
int 4
x1 = 5,000 lbs. x2 = 1,000 lbs. x3 = 0 lbs. Constra 0 1 0 1 <= 6000 4
int 5
x4 = 5,000 lbs. Solutio 500 100 0 500 Optim 6000
n-> 0 0 0 al Z-> 0
This result indicates the optimal solution is to
make 5,000 pounds of Super Two at Fresno but not any Green Grow there and to make 1,000
pounds of Super Two at Dearborn and 5,000 pounds of Green Grow also at Dearborn.
Introduction to Management Science (ISOM 3123)
Darrell Hicks
Practice Homework Problems Chapter 4
Spring 2013
(#14) Grafton Metalworks Company produces metal alloys from six different ores it mines. The
company has an order from a customer to produce an alloy that contains four metals according
to the following specifications: at least 21% of metal A, no more than 12% of metal B, no more
than 7% of metal C, and between 30% and 65% of metal D. The proportions of the four metals in
each of the six ores and the level of impurities in
Metal (%)
each ore are provided in the following table:
Or A B C D Impuriti Cost/To
1  When the metals are processed and
e 19 1 1 1 es40(%) \$27
n
2 43 1 2 7 15 25 refined, the impurities are removed.
5 2 4
3 17 0 0 0
5 5 30 32
The company wants to know the amount of
4 20 1 0 1
3 50 22
each ore to use per ton of the alloy that will
5 0 2
2 1 3
8 35 20
minimize the cost per ton of the alloy.
6 12 1 4 1
0 2
1 29 24
(a) Formulate
8 6 5a linear programming model for this problem.Answer: Let x1 = # of tons of
ore #1, x2 = # of tons of ore #2, x3 = # of tons of ore #3, … , x6 = # of tons of ore #6

The total cost per ton of alloy (Z) is then (\$Cost/Ton)(# of Tons of ore1) + (\$Cost/Ton)(# of Tons of
ore2) + (\$Cost/Ton)(# of Tons of ore 3) + … + (\$Cost/Ton)(# of Tons of ore 6) = Z

Minimize cost: Z = 27x1 + 25x2 + 32x3 + 22x4 + 20x5 + 24x6

Constraint 1: (Metal A %) 19x1 + 43x2 + 17x3 + 20x4 + 0x5 + 12x6≥ 21 [at least
21%]

Constraint 2: (Metal B %) 15x1 + 10x2 + 0x3 + 12x4 + 24x5+ 18x6≤ 12 [no more
than 12%]

Constraint 3: (Metal C %) 12x1 + 25x2 + 0x3 + 0x4 + 10x5 + 16x6≤ 7 [no
more than 7%]

Constraint 4: (Metal D % ≥) 14x1 + 7x2 + 53x3 + 18x4 + 31x5 + 25x6≥ 30 [more
than 30%]

Constraint 5: (Metal D % ≤) 14x1 + 7x2 + 53x3 + 18x4 + 31x5 + 25x6≤ 65 [less
than 65%]

(x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, x6) ≥ 0 [non-negativity]

(b) Solve the model using the computer. Answer:

Minimize cost: Z = 27x1 + 25x2 + 32x3 + 22x4 + 20x5 + 24x6 = \$23.91 per Ton of ore for
x2 = 0.28 ton, x3 = 0.53 ton

Z = \$25(0.28) + \$32(0.53) = \$23.96 per ton of ore

Shadow price of (Metal A) = \$0.51 per ton, (Metal D ≥) = \$0.44 per ton, Metal B, Metal C,
Metal D ≤ = \$0.00.
Introduction to Management Science (ISOM 3123)
Darrell Hicks
Practice Homework Problems Chapter 4
Spring 2013
(#15) The Roadnet Transport Company expanded its shipping capacity by purchasing 90 trailer
trucks from a bankrupt competitor. The company subsequently located 30 of the purchased
trucks at each of its shipping warehouses in Charlotte, Memphis, and Louisville. The company
makes shipments from each of these warehouses to terminals in St. Louis, Atlanta, and New York.
Each truck is capable of making one shipment per week. The terminal managers have indicated
their capacity for extra shipments. The manager at St. Louis can accommodate 40 additional
trucks per week, the manager at Atlanta can accommodate 60 additional trucks, and the
manager at New York can accommodate 50 additional trucks. The company makes the following
profit per truckload shipment from each warehouse to each terminal. The profits differ as a result
of differences in products shipped, shipping costs, and transport rates:

Terminal

Warehouse St. Louis Atlanta New York

Charlotte \$1,800 (route 1) \$2,100 (route 2) \$1,600 (route 3)

Memphis \$1,000 (route 4) \$700 (route 5) \$900 (route 6)

Louisville \$1,400 (route 7) \$800 (route 8) \$2,200 (route 9)

The company wants to know how many trucks to assign to each route (i.e. warehouse to
terminal) to maximize profit. (a) Formulate a linear programming model for this problem.
Answer: Let x1 = # of trucks on route 1, Let x2 = # of trucks on route 2, Let x3 = # of
trucks on route 3, … , Let x9 = # of trucks on route 9. Maximize profit Z.

Z = 1800x1 + 2100x2 + 1600x3 +1000x4 + 700x5 + 900x6 + 1400x7 + 800x8 +
2200x9

Constraint 1: (# of trucks from Charlotte) x1 + x2 + x3 = 30

Constraint 2: (# of trucks from Memphis) x4 + x5 + x6 = 30

Constraint 3: (# of trucks from Louisville) x7 + x8 + x9 = 30

Constraint 4: (# of trucks to St. Lous) x1 + x4 + x7≤ 40

Constraint 5: (# of trucks to Atlanta) x2 + x5 + x8 ≤ 60

Constraint 6: (# of trucks to New York) x3 + x6 + x9 ≤ 50
Introduction to Management Science (ISOM 3123)
Darrell Hicks
Practice Homework Problems Chapter 4
Spring 2013
(b) Solve the model by using the computer. Only the most profitable route from each
warehouse to each terminal is needed,using all of its trucks to maximize profit.

Answer: Z = \$159,000 (10 iterations); x2 = 30, x4 = 30, x9 = 30; (x1, x3, x5, x6, x7,
x8)= 0

(#24) Brooks City has three consolidated high schools, each with a capacity of 1,200 students.
The school board has partitioned the city into five busing districts—north, south, east, west, and
central—each with different high school student populations. The three schools are located in the
central, west, and south districts. Some students must be bused outside their districts, and the
school board wants to minimize the total bus distance traveled by these students. The average
distances from each district to the three schools and the total student population in each district
are:

Distance (Miles)

Centr Student The school board wants to determine the
Distr al West South number of students to bus from each district to each
Populati school to minimize the total busing miles traveled.
ict H.S. H.S. H.S. on
(a) Formulate a linear programming model for this
11 14 700
problem.
North 8 (x1) (x2) (x3)
Answer: Let x1 = the # of bused students on
12 300 route 1, x2 = the # of bused students on route
South (x4) 9 (x5) 0 (x6) 2, x3 = the # of bused students on route 3,
… , x15 = the # of students bused on route 15.
16 10 900
East 9 (x7) (x8) (x9) Minimize the total # of miles travelled but also
determine the number of students being
8 0 600 bused on each route and to which High School.
West (x10) (x11) 9 (x12) We ultimately want only one bus route from
each district to its closest high school, maybe
Centr 0 8 12 500 also to the next closest High School if
al (x13) (x14) (x15) necessary. We will have unusual units of
student-miles.

Therefore, we calculate (Route length)*(# of students on Route)

The student-miles can be used to count the number of students and the average number of
miles the students are bused but the Z-value will need to be divided by the appropriate unit
(students or miles) or reconciled with the given information.
Introduction to Management Science (ISOM 3123)
Darrell Hicks
Practice Homework Problems Chapter 4
Spring 2013
Z = (Route #1 miles)*(x1) + (Route #2 miles)*(x2) + … + (Route #14 miles)*(Z=x14) +
(Route #15 miles)*(x15)

Z = 8x1 + 11x2 + 14x3 + 12x4 + 9x5 + 0x6 + 9x7 + 16x8 + 10x9 + 8x10 + 0x11 + 9x12 + 0x13
+ 8x14 + 12x15

(Constraint 1) x1 + x4 + x7 + x10 + x13 ≤ 1,200 [# of students on Routes to
Central H.S.] ≤ Capacity

(Constraint 2) x2 + x5 + x8 + x11 + x14 ≤ 1,200 [# of students on Routes to
West H.S.] ≤ Capacity

(Constraint 3) x3 + x6 + x9 + x12 + x15 ≤ 1,200 [# of students on Routes to
South H.S.] ≤ Capacity

(Constraint 4) x1 + x2 + x3 = 700 [# of students & Routes departing
North District]

(Constraint 5) x4 + x5+ x6= 300 [# of students & Routes
departing South District]

(Constraint 6) x7 + x8 + x9 = 900 [# of students & Routes departing
East District]

(Constraint 7) x10 + x11 + x12 = 600 [# of students & Routes
departing West District]

(Constraint 8) x13 + x14 + x15 = 500 [# of students & Routes
departing Central District]

(Constraint 9) (x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, x6, x7, x8, x9, x10, x11, x12, x13, x14, x15) ≥ 0 [non-
negativity]
X1 (8 mi.)
(b) Solve the model by using the
X2 (11 computer.
mi.)
North
X3 (14 mi.)
(700)
Answer: Minimum Student-Miles Z = 14,600; the sum of all districts = 3,000 students.
See Figure 1 Central H.S.
(700+500)
X4 (12 mi.)
South X5 (9 mi.)
X6 (0 mi.)
(300)
700
X7 (9 mi.)
X8 (16 mi.)
East X9 (10 mi.)
(900) West H.S.
(600)

X10 (8 mi.)
West X11 (0 mi.)
X12 (9 mi.) 300
(600)

X13 (0 mi.) South H.S.
X14 (8 mi.) 900
Central (300+900)
X15 (12 mi.)
(500)
Introduction to Management Science (ISOM 3123)
Darrell Hicks
Practice Homework Problems Chapter 4
Spring 2013

600

500

Figure 1 Problem 24 Total Number of Students=3,000
Z=14,600

x1 = 700, x6 = 300, x9 = 900, x11 = 600, x13 = 500, and (x2, x3, x4, x5, x7, x8, x10, x12, x14, x15) = 0
(students per route)

(#25) (a) In Problem #24 the school board decided that because all students in the north and
east districts must be bused, then at least 50% of the students who live in the south, west, and
central districts must also be bused to another district. Reformulate the linear programming
model to reflect this new set of constraints and solve by using a computer.

Additional constraints are for the South, West, and Central districts to include the within-
district students as available to be bused to other districts’ schools which were not
considered before (because they were not to be bused):

South to South: x6 ≤ 150 (at most 50% of the South District’s students
can be bused)
250300

X1 (8 mi.)
West to West: x11≤ 300 (at most 50% ofX2the
(11 West
mi.) District’s students can be
00

North
0
25

70

bused) (700) X3 (14 mi.)
30

0
Figure 2 Problem 25 (a) Total Number of Students=3,000
65 Z=20,400
Central to Central: x13≤ 250 (at most 50% of the Central District’s students can be Central H.S.
0
25

bused) (700+250+25
150

X4 (12 mi.)
South X5 (9 mi.)
All of the previous constraints remain unchangedX6and in effect
(0 mi.) in addition to the
(50/50)
new constraints that include students to be bused outside their own districts that
previously went to their local district high school. The solution
X7 (9 mi.) is illustrated in Figure 2 (a)
X8 (16 mi.)
to include the 3 additional constraints. Since the
Easttotal X9
number
(10 mi.) of students being bused
(900) West H.S.
increases, the cost increases as well. (150+300+25

X10 (8 mi.)
West X11 (0 mi.)
X12 (9 mi.)
(50/50)

X13 (0 mi.) South H.S.
X14 (8 mi.)
Central (150+650+30
X15 (12 mi.)
(50/50)
Introduction to Management Science (ISOM 3123)
Darrell Hicks
Practice Homework Problems Chapter 4
Spring 2013

x1 = 700, x5 = 150, x6 =150, x7 = 250, x9 = 650, x11 = 300, x12 = 300, x13 = 250, x14 = 250, and
x2, x3, x4, x8, x10, x15 = 0

(b) The school board has further decided that the enrollment in all three high schools
should be equal. Formulate this additional restriction in the linear programming model.

Answer: The constraints for each of the three high schools now changes to a maximum
student capacity of 1000.

(Constraint 1) x1 + x4 + x7 + x10 + x13= 1,000 [# of students on Routes to
Central H.S.] = Capacity

(Constraint 2) x2 + x5 + x8 + x11 + x14= 1,000 [# of students on Routes to
West H.S.] = Capacity

(Constraint 3) x3 + x6 + x9 + x12+ x15 = 1,000 [# of students on Routes to
South H.S.] = Capacity

 Note: Due to the fact that originally, there was more student capacity (3,600) than there
are students available, the original constraints were written to not exceed the maximum
capacity while now all of each high school’s student capacity must be used to
accommodate all 3,000 students. See Figure 2 (b) for the results:
300

Introduction to Management Science (ISOM 3123)
Darrell Hicks
15

Practice Homework Problems Chapter 4
350
0

0
30
Spring 2013

150
250

0
55

X1 (8 mi.)
North X2 (11 mi.)

0
250

40
X3 (14 mi.)
(700)
Central H.S.
(1,000
X4 (12 mi.)
Figure 2 Problem 25 (b)
South X5 (9 mi.) of Students=3,000
Total Number
Z=21,200 X6 (0 mi.)
(300)
x1 = 400, x2 = 300, x5 = 150, x6 = 150, x7 = 350, x9 = 550, x11 = 300, x12 = 300, x13 = 250, x14 =
250, and x3, xX7
4, x8, x10, x15 = 0
(9 mi.)
X8 (16 mi.)
East X9 (10 mi.)
(#26)The Southfork Feed Company makes
(900) a feed mix from four ingredients—oats, corn,
West H.S.
(1,000)
soybeans, and a vitamin supplement. The company has 300 pounds of oats, 400 pounds of corn,
300of soybeans, and 100 pounds of vitamin
200 pounds supplements for the mix. The company has
X10 (8 mi.)
X11 (0 mi.)
the following requirements for the mix:West X12 (9 mi.)
(600)

 At least 30% of the mix must be soybeans. (constraint 1)
 At least 20% of the mix must be theX13vitamin
(0 mi.) supplement. (constraint 2) H.S.
South
X14 (8 mi.)
 The ratio of corn to oats Central
cannot exceed 2 to 1.
X15 (12 mi.)
(constraint
(1,000) 3)
 The amount of oats cannot exceed the amount of soybeans.
(500) (constraint 4)
 The mix must weigh at least 500 pounds. (constraint 5)

A pound of oats costs \$0.50; a pound of corn, \$1.20; a pound of soybeans, \$0.60; a pound
of vitamin supplement, \$2.00. The feed company wants to know the number of pounds of
each ingredient to put in the mix in order to minimize the total costs.

(a) Formulate a linear programming model for this problem.

Let x1 = # of pounds of oats, x2 = # of pounds of corn, x3 = # of pounds of soybeans, x4 =
# of pounds of vitamins
Introduction to Management Science (ISOM 3123)
Darrell Hicks
Practice Homework Problems Chapter 4
Spring 2013
The “mix” = (x1 + x2 + x3 + x4); the sum of the number of pounds of all ingredients
combined.

Minimize cost (Z) = 0.50x1 + 1.20x2 + 0.60x3 + 2.00x4; (cost per pound of ingredient * # of
pounds of ingredient)

(constraint #1) x3 ≥ 0.30(x1 + x2 + x3 + x4) → x3 ≥ 0.30x1 + 0.30x2 + 0.30x3 + 0.30x4

-0.3x1 -0.3x2 + 0.7x3 – 0.3x4 ≥ 0 : at least 30% of the mix must be soybeans.

(constraint #2) x4 ≥ 0.20(x1 + x2 + x3 + x4) → x4 ≥ 0.20x1 + 0.20x2 + 0.20x3 + 0.20x4

-0.2x1 -0.2x2- 0.2x3+ 0.8x4 ≥ 0 : at least 20% of the mix must be soybeans.

(constraint #3) 2 pound of corn ≤ 1 pound of oats → 2x2 ≤ 1x1 →

-1x1 + 2x2 ≤ 0 : the ratio of corn to oats cannot exceed (≤) 2 to 1.

(constraint #4) x1 ≤ x3 → x1 – x3 ≤ 0 : the amount of oats cannot exceed the
amount of soybeans.

(constraint #5) x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 ≥ 500 : the mix must weigh at least 500 pounds.

(b) Solve the model by using the computer. (7 iterations) x1 = 200, x2 = 0, x3 = 200, x4 =
100

Minimum cost (Z) = 0.50x1 + 1.20x2 + 0.60x3 + 2.00x4 = \$0.50(200) + \$1.20(0) +
\$0.60(200) + \$2.00(100) = \$420

(#27)The United Charities annual fund-raising drive is scheduled to take place next week.
Donations are collected during the day and night, by telephone, and through personal contact.
The average donation resulting from each type of contact is as follows:

Phone Interview Personal Interview

Day Avg. Donation: Avg. Donation:
\$2.00 (x1) \$4.00 (x3)

Night Avg. Donation:\$3.00 Avg. Donation \$7.00
(x2) (x4)

The charity group has enough donated gasoline and cars to make at most 300 personal
contacts during one day and night combined. The volunteer minutes required to conduct each
type interview are as follows:
Introduction to Management Science (ISOM 3123)
Darrell Hicks
Practice Homework Problems Chapter 4
Spring 2013
Phone Interview Time Personal Interview Time
(min.) (min.)

Day Minutes: 6 (x1) Minutes: 15 (x3)

Night Minutes: 5 (x2) Minutes: 12 (x4)

The charity has 20 volunteer hours available each day and 40 volunteer hours each night.
The chairperson of the fund-raising drive wants to know how many different types of contacts to
schedule in a 24-hour period (i.e., 1 day and 1 night) to maximize the total donations.

(a) Formulate a linear programming model for this problem. Answer: Maximize total
donations (Z).

(Z) = 2x1 + 3x2 + 4x3 + 7x4 (sum of all types of donations)

1 hour = 60 minutes, 20 hours = 1200 minutes, 40 hours = 2400 hours;

Let x1 = number of Phone Interviews (Day), x2 =number of Phone Interviews (Night),

x3 = number of Personal interviews (Day), x4 = Personal Interviews (Night)

Resources: funding for 20 hours of labor per day, 40 hours of labor per night.

(x1 + x2) = total # of Phone Interviews; (x3 + x4) = total # of Personal Interviews

(constraint 1) (x3 + x4) ≤ 300 [gas and car supply at most 300
personal interviews]

(constraint 2) 6x1 + 15x3 ≤ 1,200 minutes [available Day labor time = 20 hours],
interview time in mins.

(constraint 3) 5x2 + 12x4 ≤ 2400 minutes[ [available Night labor time = 40
hours], interview time in mins.

(constraint 4) (x1, x2, x3, x4) ≥ 0 [non-negativity requirement for linear
programs]

(b) Solve the model by using the computer.

Answer: Maximum donations: Z = \$1,840; x1 = 200, x2 = 480, x3= 0, x4 = 0
Introduction to Management Science (ISOM 3123)
Darrell Hicks
Practice Homework Problems Chapter 4
Spring 2013
This solution suggests that only Phone Interviews should be conducted because
they take less time and are therefore more profitable. Notice the labor hours available are
used up by the Phone Interviews:

Phone Interviews (Day) x1(6 mins) + Phone Interviews (Night) x2(5 mins) = (200)(6) +
(480)(5) =

1,200 minutes (Day maximum labor hours) + 2,400 minutes (Night maximum labor hours)

Z = 2x1 + 3x2 + 4x3 + 7x4 = \$2(200) + \$3(480) + \$4(0) + \$7(0) = \$1,840