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Volume: 03 Issue: 10 | Oct-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

**Effect of PI controller parameters on the performance of
**

Shunt Active Power Filter

Rajesh Babu Yamarthi1, R.Srinivasa Rao2, P.Linga Reddy3

1EEE Department, KKR & KSR Institute of Technology and Sciences,Guntur,AP,India

2Department of EEE, University college of Engineering, JNTU Kakinada, AP,India

3Department of EEE, KL University, Vaddeswaram, AP,India

--------------------------------------------------------------------**---------------------------------------------------------------------

Abstract - This paper proposes a novel predictive control classified as time-domain and frequency-domain

technique to achieve better dynamic performance of Shunt approaches. Fast Fourier transform (FFT), recursive

Active Power Filter (SAPF). In a non linear environment discrete Fourier transform (RDFT), and wavelet-based

SAPF can used to compensate harmonics and reactive power approach are the three widely used frequency-domain

efficiently. The Dynamic performance of SAPF mainly approaches [4]. The limitations of the frequency-domain

depends on the controller used to extract the harmonic approaches are problem of aliasing and synchronizing of

content in source current. Most of the control techniques are Sampling instant and zero crossing of fundamental. In time

require number of complex transformations. In this paper a domain approach instantaneous active and reactive

simple and easy to implement synthetic sinusoid generation Theory and Synchronous Reference Frame Theory are

technique by sensing the load current is proposed. The widely used. Akagi et al. [5] proposed the instantaneous

working of proposed controller is verified at different load reactive power theory (p-q theory)for estimating the

conditions. reference compensation currents required to inject into

the network at PCC where the nonlinear load is connected.

Key Words: Harmonics, Shunt Active power Filter, PI S. Bhattacharya, et al. [6] presented a synchronous

controller, THD reference frame technique (SRF theory) for obtaining

sinusoidal source currents under non linear load

condition. Advantages of time domain approaches are easy

in implementation and good steady-state performance

1.INTRODUCTION with ideal supply voltage. Major disadvantages are delay

in compensation; uses large number of voltage and

In the recent years power electronic converters are more current transducers, compensation is poor in case of

widely applied in domestic, commercial and industrial distorted supply voltage [7].

loads. This leads to harmonic pollution in utility side. This

harmonic pollution mainly affects the distribution Gary W. Chang, et al. [8] proposed a methodology which

networks leading to problems like non sinusoidal current works under imbalanced source voltages. Most of these

flows to sensitive loads, electromagnetic interferences, control methods involves number of transformations and

protection misoperation, insulation failures, harmonic hence implementation becomes difficult. System control

resonances... etc. Traditionally shunt passive filters are also complex with this methodologies.Duke.et al. [9] has

used to compensate harmonics. In spite shunt passive proposed a simple synthetic sinusoid generation

filters creates problems like overload, detuning due to technique to determine compensating currents by sensing

aging of their components, appearance of resonances with the load currents.

the power system for a harmonic below the tuned In this Paper a novel methodology adapted by the line

frequency, fixed filtering characteristic, etc. Active power currents is proposed. Traditional methodologies like p-q

filters (APF) are being investigated and developed as a theory and SRF theory are discussed and compared with

viable alternative to passive filters. An APF can do proposed PI Controller-Based predictive Algorithm. The

elimination of current harmonics, compensation of proposed controller is applied and verified the

reactive power and voltage regulation and improves performance under different operating conditions.

power quality. APFs are broadly classified in to two groups

such as Series APF and Shunt APF. Series APF is used to

eliminate the voltage harmonic and Shunt APF is used to

2. Shunt Active Power Filter

eliminate current harmonics [1]-[3].

Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) is the device designed to In distribution network, shunt active power filters (SAPF)

improve the quality of the waveform in the current signal are connected in parallel with the disturbing or nonlinear

in distribution networks. The operation of SAPF mainly loads to prevent them from injecting non sinusoidal

depends on reference-generation controller techniques. In currents.SAPF improves the quality of the source current

general reference-generation techniques may be broadly waveform by injecting compensating current into network

**© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 126
**

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 10 | Oct-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

**at PCC. Model Block diagram of SAPF is shown in Fig.1. The ( ) ( ) ( )
**

SAPF turns the non-sinusoidal source current into ( ) ( ) is

where source voltage and

sinusoidal waveform by injecting the harmonic currents instantaneous load current.

demanded by the non-linear load. Current harmonics can

be eliminated with SAPF. The main aim of SAPF is to The instantaneous source current is given by

mitigate harmonics in Load current so that source current ( )

remains in phase with Source Voltage. In other words only

fundamental frequency remains in source current. The The instantaneous current can be written as

SAPF also compensates reactive power and improves ( ) ( ) ( ) (15)

power factor due to its capacitive nature. Zero active

power exchanges between SAPF and grid. The source only When a nonlinear load is applied the load current has two

supplies the active power consumed by the load. components.They are fundamental component and harmonic

components, which can be expressed as

( ) ∑ ( )

( ) ∑ ( )

Substitute equation (14) and equation (16) in equation

(13), then The instantaneous load power can be given as

( ) ( ) ( )

+

**Fig -1.Block diagram of Shunt Active Power Filter ∑ ( )
**

Due to its capacitive character, the shunt active

filter is also used to generate reactive power and to = ( ) ( ) ( )(5)

compensate the power factor. The preceding fact imposes

a null active power exchange in the APF and implies that from (5), the real power drawn by the load is

the source must supply the active power consumed by the ( ) = ( ) ( ) (17)

load. One aim of the active filter is the harmonic mitigation From (17), the current supplied by the source, after

of the load current so that only the fundamental frequency compensation is

remains in the grid.

( ) ( )⁄ ( ) (18)

Where the peak value of the loss current.For harmonic

3. Proposed control algoritham mitigation, SAPF is must provide compensating Current

As stated before, when the utility voltage is purely ( )such that ( )must be in phase with the utility voltage

sinusoidal, the performance of the algorithms based on and purely sinusoidal. The compensating Current can be given

power theories are the best choice. However, under non as

sinusoidal voltage, the waveform quality of the resulting ( ) ( ) ( ) (19)

signal drops dramatically. Fig 2 shows the basic

compensation principle of a shunt Active power filter. A Hence, for accurate and instantaneous compensation, it is

simple synthetic sinusoid generation technique is necessary to estimate ( ) This ( ) is the fundamental

component of ( )as the reference current. The peak value of

proposed as follows. This methodology works under

the reference current can be calculated by controlling the

imbalanced source voltages

dc-side capacitor voltage.

Irrespective of the load current nature, Ideal compensation

requires the supply current to be sinusoidal and in phase with

the source voltage. The source currents, after compensation,

can be given as

( )

( ) (20)

Where is the amplitude of the desired source current,

Fig -2. Block diagram of Shunt Active Power Filter while the phase angle is obtained from the source voltages.

When nonlinear load is connected to the distribution Hence, the magnitude of the source currents ( ) is needed

system, the instantaneous load power can be given by

**© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 127
**

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 10 | Oct-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

**to be calculated. Fig. 3 shows the schematic diagram of 30
**

proposed control scheme. 20

10

Iabc

0

-10

-20

-30

0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

Time(sec)

(c)

Fig-4. Switch on response of the SAPF. (a)Supply

Current (b)Load Current (c) Injected Current

Fig -3. controller block diagram

2. Transient Response:

The SAPF with proposed controller giving best

4. SIMULATION RESULTS performance in steady state. However it is worthwhile to

Simulations are performed using MATLAB® Simulink. establish its reliability for transient conditions. The load is

Simulated results are analyzed based fitness function and increased suddenly at 0.15sec. The load current waveform

optimization algorithms. The parameters taken for and source current waveform are given in Fig.5.

simulation are: VS = 230V , f=60Hz , Rf = 0.1ohms ,Lf = 100

0.66mH, Cdc = 2000mF , Vdcref = 200V ,Rs = 1Ω ,Ls

=0.15mH ,RL = 10Ω , LL=20mH. 50

Ia

1.Dynamic Performance of SAPF 0

**Balanced sinusoidal source voltages are considered. -50
**

For simple analysis phase a quantities are considered.

-100

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

Switch-on Response: The compensator is switched Time(sec)

**on at 0.05s. Supply current, load current and filter current (a)
**

for phase "a" are shown in Fig.4. It is observed that the 100

**supply current is distorted until SAPF is turn on i.e at 0.05 50
**

sec. Up to 0.05 sec both source current and Load current

are distorted. When SAPF is switched on at 0.05 sec, SAPF

Ia

0

starts injecting compensating current and hence source

-50

current becomes sinusoidal. The THD of source current

without SAPF is 23.92% and THD of source current with -100

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

SAPF is 13.10%. Time(sec)

(b)

50 30

20

10

Iabc

0

Ia

0

-10

-20

-50

-30

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

Time(sec)

0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

Time(sec) (c)

(a) Fig-5.Transient response of the SAPF. (a)Supply

Current (b)Load Current (c) Injected Current

50

In the Fig.6. it is observed a smooth changeover from

the old condition of the load to its new load. During both

old and new load conditions, supply current is close to

Iabc

0

sinusoidal shape.

1. Unbalanced Case

The performance of SAPF is also verified for

-50

0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 Unbalanced case. Three phase unbalanced voltage is

Time(sec)

applied as source and observed Source voltage waveform,

(b)

Source current waveform and Load current. Fig .6. shows

the performance of the system when an unbalanced

source is applied.

**© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 128
**

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 10 | Oct-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

200

Table- I : THD cpmparision

100

Controller type Without SAPF Case-I Case-II

Vabc

0

THD % 23.92 13.10 3.51

-100

**-200 Table- II : PI controller coefficients
**

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

Time(sec) Optimizati

Kp Ki

on Method

(c)

100 Case-I 8.1658 9.0673

Case-II 3.7855 2.5852

50

Iabc

0

The THD comparision is given in Table-1. The

-50 proposed PI controller coeffients are given in Table-2.

Detailed Harmonic Analysis is given in Table 4.Hence the

-100

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 performance of proposed controller is depending on

Time(sec) selected values of Kp and Ki.

50

(b)

5.Conclusion

The proposed controller based shunt active power

filter has been studied to improve the power quality by

compensating harmonics and reactive power requirement

Iabc

0

of the nonlinear load. The SAPF has good steady state and

transient responses. The THD of source current without

SAPF is 23.92% and THD of source current with SAPF is

-50

13.10%. The performance of the SAFP has been examined

0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Time(sec)

0.08 0.1 for variation of PI controller gain coefficients. With best

(c) selection of gain constants, the performance of SAPF can

Fig.6.Unbanced case response of the SAPF. (a)Supply be improved. The THD of the source current with best PI

Voltage (b)Supply Current (c) Load Current controller coefficients is well below 5%, the harmonic

3. Response with change in PI controller gains. limit imposed by the IEEE-5 19 standard.

In the proposed controller, The PI controller is used to REFERENCES

process the error between The DC side capacitor voltage [1]. H. Akagi, Y. Kanazawa, and A. Nabae, “Instantaneous

and reference voltage. PI controller gives the amplitude of reactive power compensators comprising switching

the desired source current. Unit sine vectors are generated devices without energy storage components,” IEEE

from the source voltages. Multiplication of peak value with Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. IA-20, no. 3, pp. 625–630,

unit sine vectors gives the reference currents. The step May/Jun. 1984.

change response for some of the selected values of KP and [2]. Hirofumi. Akagi, “Trends in Active Power Line

Ki are presented in Table I. the values of Kp and Ki are conditionors,” IEEE Transactions on power electronics,

decided by suitably considering the overshoot and settling vol.9, no. 3, pp. 625–630, May/Jun. 1994,pp 263-268.

time in transient response for a step change in dc voltage [3]. R.C. Dugan, M.F. McGranaghan and H.W. Beaty, "Power

SystemQuality". New York McCraw-Hill, 1996.

reference. The comparison of DC capacitor voltage for [4]. J. Drieson and R. Belmens, „„Active power filter control algorithms

both cases of gain coefficients is given in Fig.7. using wavelet based power definitions,‟‟ in Proc. HQPC,2002, vol. 2.

300 pp. 466–471.

Case-I

250 Case-II [5]. H. Akagi, Y. Kanazawa, and A. Nabae, “Generalized theory of the

instantaneous reactive power in three-phase circuits,” in Proc. IEEJ

200

Int.Power Electronics Conf., Tokyo, Japan, 1983, pp. 1375–1386.

Vdc

**150 [6]. S. Bhattacharya, D. M. Divan, and B. Banerjee, “Synchronous frame
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100 harmonic isolator using active series filter,” in Proc 4th Eur. Power

ElectronicsConf., vol. 3, 1991, pp. 030–035

50

[7]. Bhattacharya, C. Chakraborty, and S. Bhattacharya, “Shunt

0 compensation:Reviewing Traditional Methods of Reference Current

0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01

Time(sec) Generation,” IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE ,

SEPTEMBER 2009

Fig-7 .The comparison of the DC capacitor voltage

**© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 129
**

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 10 | Oct-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

**[8]. Gary W. Chang, , and Tai-Chang Shee , “A Novel Reference
**

Compensation Current Strategyfor Shunt Active Power Filter Control”

IEEE transactions on power delivery, vol. 19, no. 4, october 2004, pp

1751-1758

[9]. DUKE. R.M., and IIOUNL, S.D.: The steady state performance ofA

controlled current active filter. IEEE Trans,Power Electronics1993,&

pp140 146

© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 130

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