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cyborg

An Illustrated Dictionary of

anthropology

Amber Case
Illustrated by Maggie Wauklyn
Foreword by Douglas Rushkoff

An Illustrated Dictionary
of Cyborg Anthropology

By Amber Case
Illustrated by Maggie Wauklyn
Foreword by Douglas Rushkoff

For Sheldon .

cyborganthropology.com Second Edition February 2014 . For any other uses please contact Amber Case at case@cyborganthropology.com ISBN-13: 978-1494773519 ISBN-10: 1494773511 www. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by any electronic or mechanical means including photocopying. or information storage and retrieval without permission in writing from the author. you may not use this work for commercial purposes. recording. and you may not alter or transform this work. Educators are free to copy and distribute this work for instructional purposes under the following conditions: You must attribute the text of this book to Amber Case. and attribute the illustrations to Maggie Wauklyn. An Illustrated Dictionary of Cyborg Anthropology Copyright © 2013 by Amber Case Illustrations © 2013 by Maggie Wauklyn Design and layout by Aaron Parecki All rights reserved.com Give feedback on the book at: feedback@cyborganthropology.

. . . . . . . . 87 . . . 67 Companion Species. . . . . . 37 Prosthetics. . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Robot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Affective Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Proxemics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 About the Author. . . 57 About the Illustrator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Junk Sleep. . . . . . 45 Secondhand Cyborg. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 City as Software. . . 51 Synesthesia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Paracosmic Immersion . . . 63 Celebrity as Cyborg . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Mundane Studies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Sighborg . . . . . . . . . . .23 Micro-singularity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Machine Learning. .Table of Contents Foreword. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Panic Architecture . . . 99 Anomie. . . . . . 33 Path Dependence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Digital Backyard. . . . . 83 Flow . . . . . . 35 Persistent Architecture . . . . . . 79 Equipotential Space. . . . . . . . . . . 98 Ambient Awareness. 11 Interstitial Space. . . . . . . 59 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Asynchronous Communication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Connective Obligation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Quantified Self . . . . . . 91 Cyborg. 77 Diminished Reality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Hertzian Space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Mental Real Estate. . . . 15 Invisible Space . . . . . . . . . . 81 Extended Nervous System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Hyperlinked Memories . . . . . . . . 49 Steve Mann. . . . . . . . . 71 Cyborg Security . . . . 89 Introduction . . . . . . 27 Natural Language Processing . 53 Additional Reading . . . . . . 75 Digital Hoarding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Architecture Fiction. . . 9 Identity Production . . .

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night in Portland. me at this point (younger generations being But coming face to face with Case one rainy the latest model of human being. At the and experiments I had been following for very least. I have been writing about “screenagers” same page or.Foreword When I finally met Amber Case – whose writing to us would help us cope with it better. growing web happens. envisioned. was like meeting the future I had always cyborg society is more advanced than my own. but we seemed lies an effort to identify. we shared many of the cyborg.” Sure. in more cyborg parlance.” and “this is the way I express the project) on the ever-expanding lexicon of the feeling when. codify. gamified. She jotted down – brilliant though they may be – Case doesn’t ideas and phrases into her iPhone while I simply muse on possibilities for a digitally jotted them down with a pen on the little pad engaged. having a word or phrase we agreed several years – I felt as if I had at last come on somehow ensured that we were describing in contact with the next iteration of human the same phenomenon. itself. in and “digital natives” since the early 90’s. By developing a 7 . we had all best take notice. For herein same insights and experiences. or programmer since before generations younger and more advanced than even that. We immediately found a step I may have seen this all coming. on the stairs to a bar no and so her facility with and immersion in the less. hacker. I carry around (of course we took a moment to she actually tests her hypotheses in the real compare form factors and usage patterns). and articu- most concerned with arriving at a terminology late how what it means to be a human being – as if being able to name what was happening is changing in a digital age.. and sync. And unlike most of her peers notes at breakneck speed. and interactive society. world by launching everything from big games to research studies. That we were on the being.. Case is a generation or maybe two punk. We ended up spending the majority of our antenna-touching simply exchanging our glos. “This is my term for when such and such entire book (as well as a living. but Case is the to share. interacting with one form or another of cyber- Of course. after all). That’s why when Case comes out with an saries. and spent a half hour exchanging coming.

and through their very future of technology from the industrial-age presence they highlight for us what makes us massification of labor and production that we uniquely human . They become partners that coexist with us on ourselves. we make stuff that goes reality in real time. These are things not made intimate with machines and programs.and them not. Humans may soon become more gies will live on. If we can manage to disconnect the the cyborg landscape. heightens the senses. Call me old fashioned. and magni- without the words. we do more than Cyborg Anthropology community – are building simply make stuff. we become capable of envisioning an making. Just as eyeglasses help a are doing. Case is not just corrupt the code of human spirit beyond all reporting on the digital frontier. pre-programmed. and programming. robotic The intentions we embed into these technolo- landscape. but contex. enable Douglas Rushkoff. Case – and the greater genomics. but this or manufactured. but the human. the Bible for that part). 2011 mind-to-mind intimacy. Just as God created era when our tools will more than match the the world with a word (read the beginning of limits of our intentions.language for the era of cyborgs. With nano. we have no idea what we fies our agency. We are. doesn’t mean we become more machine-like. just went through for the past five hundred In order to navigate this new terrain of our own years. on to make more stuff. person to see. robotics. our technologies can forge entirely human-to-human connections. We create robots and programs and entities that then go make new My only real concern here is that readers not versions of themselves. we deserve a language for describing implementation of technology that enhances and conceiving it. mistake the emerging reality depicted here for a dehumanized. and promote collab- orative activities on a scale unimaginable to our pre-digital forebears. this doesn’t mean we will necessarily 8 . but birthed and launched. indeed. So even if cut-and-paste becomes an approach to sexuality and genetics instead of just docu- ments. moving into an tualizing and creating it. recognition. Oct.

have been scattered across the web. Some Donna Haraway was quoted in 1997. Deborah Heath and Aaron Parecki for offering advice on this short book. In addition to has to do with networks and information. 1993) I found that References as technology increased in people’s lives there 1-2. It is impossible to represent the inside of us. A Cyborg Manifesto. “the realities phrases in this book are new. and her work. Wired. this book’s main function is to operate as unmade. “being a cyborg isn’t about how in 1985 with its radical views on technology and many bits of silicon you have under your skin or humanity. Jon Lebkowsky.wired. between people and technology so intimate that it’s no longer possible to tell where we end and This book is a first step down the road of machines begin. I encourage has been prevalent in science fiction with the readers of this book to keep this in mind as they increase in our entanglement with technology. everywhere there’s a car or a phone or treatise. examine the world around them. a conversation-starter and a to posit discussion around what we’re becoming jumping-off point for the imagination. it its hold on the popular imagination. “Technology is not with respect to technology.”2 What better than a collection of terms a mental appetizer. a VCR. the idea of a machine/human construct the systems that make up our lives. tools and methods of neutral. broke onto global intellectual scene As Haraway said. the term cyborg has not lost how many prosthetics your body contains”. Since then. We’re living in a world of connections entire spectrum of the cyborg in one short volume. coin them. identity and humanity is changing how we’re changing with it. Hari. Retrieved weren’t a lot of approachable words and phrases May 16. Maggie Wauklyn. Kunzru. When I began exploring the nascent field of Cyborg Anthropology (est. now. We’re inside of what we make. As find them. until this of modern life happen to include a relationship point. The articles in this Technology is so embodied in our everyday lives book are meant as a broad invitation to examine that it is often difficult to step back and realize how culture. networks and systems of information for decades Thanks to Sheldon Renan.html 9 .com/wired/ to describe what was happening. I set out to archive/5. 2013.”1 cataloguing the new interactions and experiences of the modern cyborg subject. and it’s communication. (1997) You Are Cyborg.02/ffharaway_pr. Andrew Warner.” Haraway’s most famous essay.and it matters which ones get made and Instead. and in some cases. It should and what we’re living in? “The cyborg age is here not be regarded or examined as a critical academic and now. from http://www. . and some.Introduction The idea that we are all cyborgs is not new.

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those with pacemakers. In view most closely fits Bush and Englebart’s idea popular culture. Some examples humans. Robocop. as these fictions explore embodied sound systems . An “enhanced augmenting their brains by storing content and cyborg” describes a person with technologies ideas outside of themselves in technology. the fact that most modern technology users are insulin pumps or artificial limbs. in a paper called “Cyborgs and Space. Types of Cyborgs Clynes and Kline’s definition of cyborg describes Chris Gray’s Cyborg Handbook defines two “exogenous” or external components1. or technology built into the body. but networks and information. and collective. meaning categories of cyborg technologies in relation to that beings can still be classified as cyborgs humans. the enhanced cyborg is closely of augmented human intellect. restorative and enhanced.Cyborg The term cyborg was developed by space have access to. a club’s dancers. This most commonly found in cyborg fiction. external systems and attachments to survive the Doug Englebart’s “Augmenting Human Intellect” extremely hostile environment of space travel. lights. discusses machines as help for the human brain.”6 Social news networks 11 . The issue of how far enhanced technologists Manfred Clynes and Nathan S.3 Clynes and Kline described cyborgs as beings Englebart’s inspiration came from a 1945 paper that used external components to extend “the by Dr.” humanity is an increasing subject of ethical This paper detailed how humans might use debates. or Star Trek’s Borg computer network. The idea that “we are all cyborgs”5 comes from but are not limited to. technologies should go in transforming Kline. Many enhanced cyborgs Cyborgs are not just about technology and are found in popular fiction. organs. “An of characters that are enhanced cyborgs are automated production line in a factory.all are cyborg constructions of technology that only a small number of beings people and machines. components. an office Terminator. Vannevar Bush’s “As We May Think”4. associated with additive technologies to Cyborgs and Social Networks increase one’s capacity to do something over the general norm. Restorative even if they do not have internally attached technologies “restore lost function. and limbs.”2 Restorative cyborgs can include. a self-regulatory control function of the organism paper on the extension of self and a machine as to adapt to new environments.”1 helper for the human brain.

BBC News. from http://www.). (1997) You Are Cyborg.02/ and adapt to fast-moving trends. Anderson’s Feed describes a future in which http://www.uk/2/hi/technology/8120324. Clynes. (1995) The Cyborg Handbook. Neil Harbinson10 http://blogs.com/ the drawbacks of an augmentative cyborg magazine/archive/1945/07/as-we-may-think/303881/ technology pushed to an extreme.co.harvard. Stellarc created ideas into their own. from M. Complexity and Social Networks Blog. Though the “Feed” allows people to quickly purchase items 5-6. (July 1945) As We May Think.” as his vision only species that rapidly assimilates new species and allows him to see in grayscale. Retrieved May 16. (September 1960) because of their connection to networks of Cyborgs and Space. Vannevar. Harvard University.wired. (October 1962) Augmenting Human slowed.theatlantic. Mann and collaborator http://news. Retrieved January 2013.html and experimental artist Stellarc brought wider attention to cyborg technology to augment one’s 8. Maggie.stm James Fung developed wearable technology to 9. from own experience of reality. Hari. Lehmann.iq. a machine-hybrid that allowed him to “hear color. Mentor.8 Intellect: A Conceptual Framework. The book explores 4. New death spread through many forms of media so York: Routledge. ed. Gray. Institute for Quantitative Social function on the same level as their peers. and Nathan S. The Cyborg Handbook. Retrieved February 17. Retrieved February 17. quickly that networks around the world were 3. 2013. Chris Hables.html everyone’s brain is physically connected to a global network of information. Doug Engelbart Institute. Ideas are often so quickly a 3rd arm for himself. Manfred E. Doug.T. (August 24. Shiels. Information can spread faster (Eds. (June 26. experience a kind of “microsingularity. Kline. 2011) TweetQuake. Engelbart. 2013. Bush.” a moment in which geographically disconnected References people experience the same news within minutes 1. See entry on Steve Mann block advertisements from reality. Retrieved January 2013. In Gray.html access to the latest technology are stuck with ill-fitting prosthetics that remove their ability to 7. and Figueroa-Sarriera information.edu/netgov/2011/08/tweetquake. Wired.com/wired/archive/5.bbc. (pp. Sune.7 The news of Michael Jackson’s 2. 26-27 and 74-75) New York: on Twitter than the speed of an earthquake’s Routledge shockwaves. The Atlantic. those without ffharaway_pr. 2009) Web slows after Jackson’s death. Kunzru. like Reddit are coming closer to resembling artist Neil Harbinson helped develop technology Star Trek’s borg collective. See entry on Synesthesia 12 .org/pubs/augment-3906. Colorblind 10. from Cyborg pioneers Steve Mann9. showing that technology absorbed by those connected to information could add to how he worked. 2013.dougengelbart. from http://www. Science and the Program on Networked Governance.

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Affective Computing Projects such as the Smart Phone Frequent EDA
Event Logger (FEEL) utilize a wristband sensor
that measures electrodermal activity (EDA). The
Affective Computing is a term used to describe
wristband sensor responds to stress, anxiety,
the process of using technology to help measure
and arousal to help people determine which
and communicate emotion. The concept of
“emails, phone calls, or meetings cause wearers
Affective Computing was popularized by Rosalind
the most stress or anxiousness.”6 The pocket-
Picard’s 1, who currently runs the Affective sized digital Tamagochi pet is another example
Computing group at MIT’s Media Lab.2
of a device “built for affective human-computer
An early example of an emotionally intelligent communication.”7
agent is the AI chatbot program Eliza, one of the References
very first chatbot programs. Eliza was written at
MIT by Joseph Weizenbaum around 1966. Eliza ran 1. Picard, Rosalind. (2000) Affective Computing. Cambridge:
a series psychotherapeutic scripts that provided MIT Press.
non-judgemental feedback to questions posed 2. Highlighted Projects. MIT Media Lab: Affective Computing
by users3. Portland programmer Brennan Novak’s Group. Retrieved May 5, 2013, from
project Emoome prompts the user to share their http://affect.media.mit.edu/projects.php
emotional state and then visualizes it for the user.
3. Weizenbaum, J. (1966) ELIZA - A computer program for
This “emotional journal” enables one to look back the study of natural language communication between man
on words and phrases associated with feelings and machine. In Communications of the ACM (pp. 9(1):36-
over time.4 45). New York: ACM.

MIT Media Lab Student Kelly Dobson built a 4. Novak, Brennan. Emoome - Visualize Your Emotions.
blender that operated based on the intensity of Retrieved May 7, 2013, from https://emoo.me/
her voice.5 Rather than saying “Blender, ON!”, 5. Dobson, Kelly. (2003-2004) Blendie. MIT Media Lab.
or pressing a button, Dobson simply made Retrieved July 2, 2011, from
blending noises. A low-pitched “Rrrrrrrrr” turned http://web.media.mit.edu/~monster/blendie/
the blender on low. If she wanted to increase the
6. Ayzenberg, Yadid and Rosalind W. Picard. Smart Phone
speed of the machine, she increased her voice Frequent EDA Event Logger (FEEL). MIT Media Lab: Affective
to “RRRRRRRRRRR!.” By bypassing interfaces Computing Group. Retrieved May 7, 2013, from
modeled on physical buttons or terminal http://affect.media.mit.edu/projects.php?id=3312
commands, Dobson’s blender exemplified the
7. Affective Communication. MIT Media Lab: Affective
notion that machines could also be built take Computing Group. Retrieved May 5, 2013, from
completely different inputs. http://affect.media.mit.edu/projects.php

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”4 17 . 2007) Missing the Point of Twitter. Charman-Anderson S.com/2008/09/07/ from being on mobile devices. (September 7.php have an ability to connect. 2011..an invisible law-netness-why-everything-wants-to-be-connected dimension floating over everyday life. from Futurist Alex Soojung-Kim Pang likens ambient http://www.. Thompson. Our devices and surroundings have References become a sort of technosocial womb.”3 by Sheldon Renan at Open Source Bridge unconference session.html Moore wrote that “it’s not about being poked and 5-6. (October 4. As we move “Companion Species” on page 29 through time and space. thoughts a higher level of connectivity.P.corante.”5 information.disambiguity. (June 19. In her book 1. This same dynamic Related Reading is becoming more prevalent for adults with the mass adoption of the smartphone. a collective Now..Ambient Awareness Ambient awareness is a way of describing the One of the things essential to being a cyborg is idea of being aware of another’s actions. We are beginning to see a new sense of time.net/brampitoyo/the-next-moores- information to “a ‘type of E. Retrieved October 2011. Blogger Johnnie magazine/07awareness-t. 2007) Disambiguity.johnniemoore. 2009) The Next Moore’s Law - prodded.6 A child in its mother’s womb receives nourishment without having to take action. ambient awareness. 2011.com/ambient-intimacy/ technology. and without specifically requesting such of connectivity “loosely but deeply entangled. from http://strange. we can increasingly “Connective Obligation” on page 31 access social and entertainment sentience via a single device. Retrieved February 19. (May 5. Moore. Renan. Johnnie. Technology writer and experiences without having to be near them and filmmaker Sheldon Renan calls this new form physically. New York Times. Sherry Turkle describes that even Professional Blog. 2007) Corante.”1 Reichelt uses the 4. Retrieved January 2011. (March 1. we can feel connected through http://www.’ . Leisa Reichelt’s Alone Together. write Reichelt. 2008) Brave New World phrase “continual partial friendship”2 to describe of Digital Intimacy.S. C. “but that we always http://www. L. from connected”.. Sheldon. Presented others to connect with. User experience designer Leisa Reichelt coined com/2007/10/04/fowa07b-leisa-reichelt the term “Ambient Awareness” to describe how Mobile devices help us experience a kind of 3.slideshare. Reichelt. from http://www. Retrieved April 7... from when we are alone.com/blog/archives/001752. says Renan. 2.nytimes. “It’s not that we’re always Johnnie Moore’s Weblog. it’s about exposing more surface area for Netness: Why Everything Wants To Be Connected. 2013. Retrieved April a feeling of loose connectedness that results 7.

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(1997) The Division of Labor in Society. P. Durkheim. the Internet can or cell phone can function as an oasis.co. London & New York: Verso mismatch that can lead to loneliness. noticed that during rapid industrialization.dailymail. anomie that Durkheim identified. frustration Books. New York: Free Press. The rise of 1.5 For life. Daily Mail. Marc Augé. French 19 .slideshare.3 session. The mismatch 2.2 3. 2013. many individuals did not feel connected to jobs. Sheldon.Anomie The term anomie refers to a “an environmental anthropologist Marc Augé coined the term state where society fails to exercise adequate “non-place” for spaces like these. 4. and rising costs of sweatshop-workers-toil-34-hour-shifts-make-iPod. a study of the in some form facilitates survival. Andrew and Jones. Presented of anomie due to inhospitable work environments by Sheldon Renan at Open Source Bridge unconference and limited access to family.net/brampitoyo/the-next-moores- Highways and airport could be considered law-netness-why-everything-wants-to-be-connected temporary sources of anomie. Renan. Richard (December 6. Coser). (1995) Non-Places: Introduction to an Divesting goals from near-term needs creates a Anthropology of Supermodernity. 15. Lewis A. 2009) The Next Moore’s Law - lead agrarian lifestyles are also prone to feelings Netness: Why Everything Wants To Be Connected. historical and concerned with of its individual members. or concerned or community and lack of access to the ability to with identity will be a non-place. Everything Sociologist Émile Durkheim popularized the term wants to be connected. Suicide: a study in between job and purpose made it difficult for sociology. Pp. connectivity anomie in his 1897 book Suicide. or life goals. modern labor forced many individuals to take (Trans. 2012. or historical. Retrieved February 19. Durkheim results in death. “If a place can be regulation or constraint over the goals and desires defined as relational. individuals to achieve their goals or purpose. Factory workers whose families 5. Durkheim. “then a space which cannot sense of disconnectedness from others in a society be defined as relational. Recent college Retrieved February 7. from http://www. The Free Press. purpose. jobs that were just as mechanical as the evolving environment around them. from http://www. connectedness lies elsewhere.html tuition drive their need to take any job possible. (June 19. 77-78 and isolation.” wrote Augé.”4 In spaces where have impact on the community around oneself. 2010) Revealed: Inside the Chinese Suicide Sweatshop Where Modern society suffers from the same problems of Workers Toil in 34-Hour Shifts To Make Your iPod. Émile.”1 Anomie describes a identity. References community. while isolation emerging industrial society in America. Emile (1997) [1951].uk/ graduates may have a difficult time finding jobs in news/article-1285980/Revealed-Inside-Chinese-suicide- the area they are interested in. Malone.

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Ballard. of how humans might inhabit the earth”.communities 2. an organization that invents a “hypothetical future for each selected structure”6 starting with a number of hypothetical developments in New 21 .html The Growthing is an example of architecture fiction by Bruce Sterling. from or explore alternate futures and histories.wired.com. 2006) A handful of dust. (January 2003) The Growthing. References Ballard’s A Handful of Dust1. Unlike architects. Bruce Sterling coined the term after reading J. Designer and filmmaker Keiichi Matsuda’s and testing alternative built forms and urban work explores aspects of augmented reality in the environments without the overhead of physically urban experience. G. http://www. Sterling. from an alternate world and explore possible effects http://varnelis. 2011) Architecture Fiction: Premonitions of the Present. Bruce. Retrieved June 2011.2 architecture. from http://hypotheticaldevelopment.net/topics_115 of a slightly different system or ruleset. Bruce.metropolismag. an essay published 1. (March 19.uk/artanddesign/2006/mar/20/ architecture. Retrieved March 2013.net.5 Other examples include work from the Hypothetical Development Organization. 2008) BLDGBLOG enters Sterling added “the field becomes almost infinitely 2009. from to suggest that it is possible to write fiction with http://www. from architecture fiction can explore how humans http://www. JG. and Metropolismag.3 and 4.com/html/content_0103/str/ “organize themselves spatially and give shape to 6. (December 31.co.Architecture Fiction Architecture fiction is a way of exploring Orleans.com/about. The by the Guardian about modernist architecture. Guardian. building and testing objects in real life. Fictional narratives allow one to enter safely into Varnelis. entail the reimagination 5. Retrieved their everyday lives. (February 9. a writers may not require fundraising. Mark. WIRED Magazine. Sterling. 3. Dery. 2009) In Defense of Architecture.com/beyond_the_ more exciting when you realize that architectural beyond/2008/12/bldgblog-enters/ projects. K. The Hypothetical Development Organization. (March 2.”4 March 2013.guardian. Varnelis. Retrieved grants or permission to simulate possible futures June 2011. http://thoughtcatalog. Thought Catalog.com/2011/architecture-fiction- premonitions-of-the-present Cultural critic Mark Dery wrote “architecture fiction anticipates the future present”. by definition. Retrieved January 2011.

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many years. or letters. 23 . Synchronous tools enable real. as one-to-many social in real time. Asynchronous across many time zones. Asae Center. Though some individuals Seen: Celebrity Practice. Asynchronous communication is different Asynchronous social networks such as from synchronous communication because Twitter allow for one-to-one or one-to-many synchronous communication is concerned communications. Alice Marwick and danah boyd (2011) To See and Be can be carried out. New York: Sage Publications. Synchronous and Asynchronous Communication Tools. 148). This is especially convenient with messages that are sent and received for celebrities. network make it possible for celebrities to time communication and collaboration communicate with fans in a way that was not in a “same time different place” mode. Ashley. to society leads to an increasing number of cfm?itemnumber=13572 ways that asynchronous communication 2.org/Resources/articledetail.asaecenter. text. In J. especially as groups interact across time zones. Julia. 1. commenting and feedback. remote by posting messaging through some medium teaching.Asynchronous Communication Asynchronous communication describes the Asynchronous communication can be useful act of communicating with another person for one-to-many communications. Retrieved January 2013. asynchronous communication remains essential for some activities.2 while asynchronous communication can be carried out over long periods of time through networks of letters or the sharing of moments References on personal devices. Knight. Weedon (Eds.1 possible before. and that stores communication in external devices coordinating personal or business schedules such as phones. The growth of network technology available from http://www.) expect almost immediate responses in Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies (pp. A paradigmatic communication began when humans began to example of asynchronous communication is externalize memories through cave painting the pen pal carrying on a conversation over and writing. A. technologically-mediated interactions.

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fans and celebrities form parasocial relationships: The celebrity is the ultimate form of cyborg.”4 celebrity data. Celebrities on social networks create a sense of Instead of a publicist or agent managing the words intimacy in the digital space. The celebrity cannot be fully consumed. and on the social network Twitter. Instead. References Identity Production 1. the more times the viewer accesses the celebrity. One can almost of a celebrity. Latour. distributes and advertises with its audience. New York: Sage Publications. reinforcing the more their mental taste buds seek new connections and maintaining social bonds. Horton. Weedon (Eds.Celebrity as Cyborg of actors and networks. Following a famous person’s tweets over a period of time may create an equally Celebrities consist of carefully constructed valid feeling of knowing them.3 For celebrities moments augmented by makeup. 2. Hjorth network. A. filmmakers and directors. New York: Routledge. 252-265). but existing in an actor/network of connections the celebrity is minimally aware or knows little to attached to a system of production. lighting. In J.) Mobile Technologies: From Telecommunications to Media are exemplified in Callon and Latour’s theory (pp. 25 . B. and continual production and management of identity. R. distribute this network is part of an actor network 4. Twitter or Facebook. each tweet is a video. on intimacy at a distance. Donald. a celebrity can directly communicate feel like they are hanging out with a celebrity on with many fans at once in an intimate manner.1 Fans do not see the unprocessed human at any moment. The Seen: Celebrity Practice. The celebrity is an example of the production of identity through technology. Knight. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Goggin and L. is made up of many identity-producing agents. fans know a great deal about the celebrity. Psychiatry 19 (3): 215–229. Technology used to create and Media Technologies (pp. 13359569. PMID creative directors and billboard designers. In G. advertisers 3. Crawford K (2009) These foolish things: On intimacy and of both technology and humans acting on that insignificance in mobile media. (2005) Reassembling the Social: An Introduction The actor network that produces the celebrity to Actor-Network-Theory.2 and distribution. 148). reproduction nothing about the fans. Digital Celebrity A digital celebrity symbiotically produces. Alice Marwick and danah boyd (2011) To See and Be and salespeople make up this network. “…tweets serve a social function. republished in Particip@tions 3 (1) ISSN 1749-8716 agents.) other part of the network is the viewer network. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New or fan network. The non-humans actors in the network (Eds. Richard Wohl (1956) Mass each having expertise in a specific area of communication and para-social interaction: Observations identity production: hairstylists and producers.

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Some cities are beginning “Mundane Studies” on page 65 to provide open data sets that allow citizens to interface with the city’s urban information and are References encouraging developers to build applications on 1. Oregon. writable system capable of being edited and changed by its citizens.” allowed urbanist Adam Greenfield wrote that viewing citizens to geotag and report smells around a city as software allows for citizens to engage the city of Portland. (July 7.net/2010/07/frameworks-for-citizen- API for the City of Portland called PDXAPI. Urban Omnibus. Designing a read/write city can speed up civic error detection Related Reading and correction. Retrieved December could be easily used by developers. and a citizen’s job should be to make it usable by anyone through the creation 27 .) Why middleware is the key to a datasets into a single resource so that the data successful gov 2. (n. In a 2011 2011. GOSCON 2011. 2010) Frameworks for Citizen top of it. Greenfield. from Open data advocate Max Ogden worked on an http://urbanomnibus. After citizens and coauthor the environment they inhabit in a began reporting smells all over Portland. a government’s job should be to provide open data. Ogden. Responsiveness: Towards a Read/Write Urbanism.2 malleable. Ogden pointed out that while governments are good at providing data. It also provides government “Architecture Fiction” on page 21 officials and city workers an effective way of using “Equipotential Space” on page 41 data from citizens. they are not well suited to creating interfaces for that data. employed on behalf of the city. the fundamentally new way. Retrieved July 2010. Thus. “Portland Smells. Writer and One of Ogden’s apps. This helped the city to isolate and becomes a site of evolution.City as Software City as Software is the idea that a city is a of apps built on that data.org/ignitespeakers presentation on open government. from http://goscon.d. The responsiveness-towards-a-readwrite-urbanism/ API consolidated and standardized multiple civic 2. instead of a handful of people to measure.1 city commissioned Ogden to build another version of the app that allowed citizens to report The idea behind a City as Software is that the city toxic smells. Max.0. of error detection and identify toxic spills and environmental issues that improvement that is detected and corrected by individual city inspectors didn’t have the resources everyday citizens. A.

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from http://www. This technosocial relationship led us to our modern human state and continues today. Boulanger. Bookslut.1 Humans Companion Species Manifesto by Donna Haraway. We co-evolved Retrieved October 2011. 29 . Haraway considers “dogs as the most significant example of companion species.egs.edu/faculty/ meat animals. did not evolve by themselves. (August 2000) Birth of the Kennel: A Haraway. for example. In her Companion Species Manifesto. could be considered a companion species. and cared for. The European Graduate School. as humans adapt to fit the needs of the device. donna-haraway/articles/birth-of-the-kennel/ war dogs. vermin or pariah dogs. In return. protected. lab animals. they provide information. They cry.Companion Species The concept of a companion species was first References brought to into use by cyborg scholar Donna 1. wilderness animals.php alongside our companion species and our technologies. They must be upgraded. Cell phones. and must be picked up.bookslut. Haraway. They must be plugged into a wall at night to be fed. from http://www. Julie.”2 The concept of a companion species isn’t limited to animals or even to living things. They grow alongside humans and adapt to fit their needs. the historical emergence of animals who are not Retrieved June 2010. She used the term as an exploration of Lecture by Donna Haraway. connectivity and entertainment.com/ nonfiction/2004_05_002059. but who are part 2. the cyborg being but a toddler in our world of interspecies relations. (May 2004) Review of the The of a very particular historical relationship. Donna.

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Scott Campbell and possible. Cell phone researcher Richard Ling studied One boy explained that he was “bad at answering feelings of obligation in teenagers whose use of my cell phone”. at you to put that away for one day and enjoy any point in the day. many may feel participants were asked to share with the group obligated to respond to important messages or what they thought were the best and worst emails in any place and at any time. and only respond to phone calls where a land line then that person feels obligated…”2 was available. Retrieved April 20.”3 call is not responded to immediately”. one could contacted 24/7. many teens we heard from said they References feel obligated to return texts and calls as quickly as 1-3. the entire time typing his emails. Ling found the counter and walk somewhere else and come that “during the focus groups. a small number of adolescents managed others’ feelings of guilt may arise.”1 One high school girl explained: Kristen Purcell. and that he would. and that “as a result. Ling. expectations by simply limiting their availability. That didn’t used to bother me until on a family vacation. ‘‘That is one aggravating thing I find about 2011. angry or upset if a text message or phone answer.” When phones were everybody knows that this person can be limited to rooms and limited to cords. 2010) Teens and Mobile Phones. one may increasingly feel like a family meal?’ And see because like the need to stay “always on. “just leave it on phones was a part of everyday life. ‘Why is it so hard for 31 . Amanda Lenhart. my uncle. (April 20. They don’t expect necessarily a quick insulted. then you have no way of disconnecting. Pew Internet and American Life Project. teens related many back and see a missed call. Should the things about having a cell phone. from http://www. Richard.pewinternet. So people expect that stories of friends and acquaintances who get from me. It’s like. people to communicate anywhere. Now that consumer devices allow At the end of several of the focus groups.aspx you can receive like all your messages and all this. that’s what they do. doing his business. Ling found that message arrive when the person is not connected.Connective Obligation When one can access information anywhere.org/Reports/2010/Teens- and-Mobile-Phones/Chapter-3/Feeling-obligated-to-stay- phones…when it gets to the point where connected.

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Chris. (April 23.org. 2013. You can read more about to “defend” it. Portland entrepreneur Ken Westin created Retrieved May 2013. (November 8.theverge. ArsTechnica. On April 23. Associates were quick to debunk Stolen or compromised identity is an increasingly the false news before it spread. 2013) AP Twitter account hacked. 2010) Risk Reduction any other social network and if not caught quickly Strategies on Facebook. Zephoria. 2011. also known as “super. for example when Anonymous took over 33 .org/name. danah’s name and her decisions behind it at logoff”1 is an example of a risk reduction strategy http://www. With the advent of social media. Verge. from http://www.com/ GadgetTrak software that allows users to remotely security/2013/04/anonymous-hackers-take-control-of-north- track and recover stolen laptops and mobile korean-propaganda-sites/ devices. and dangerous situations. (April 4. the smartphones. boyd. com/2013/4/23/4257392/ap-twitter-hacked-claims- Entire countries’ Twitter accounts have been taken explosions-white-house-president-injured over. Welch. but it could have dangerous issue given the fact that so many resulted in a panic if not properly debunked. The devices are moved too far away from their owners. This practice. Other security software features include 3. danah*.2 practices and tools for protecting the extended self and its data. Cyborg pro-North-Korean propaganda into a criticism of Security is a phrase used to describe a set of nuclear weapons. attacker posted false claims of explosions at the White House. Jon. Brodkin. cloud storage. remote wiping of stolen machines or alarms if makes false claim of explosions at White House. The protected becomes increasingly important.zephoria. Researcher danah boyd* discovered archives/2010/11/08/risk-reduction-strategies-on-facebook. Misinformation from accounts can lead to online banking and payments. Retrieved May 2013.3 identities are shared across multiple social platforms.danah.Cyborg Security The extension of the self brings with it an entire North Korea’s Twitter and Flickr accounts changing new dimension of security concerns. from http://arstechnica. keeping one’s data and identity Associated Press Twitter account was hacked. from http://www. 2013) Anonymous hackers take control of North Korean propaganda accounts.org/thoughts/ other things.html cyborg selves. Having access to one’s Gmail or References Facebook account can allow someone to log in to 1. Retrieved June can lead to a compromised reputation among 5. Her name from posting on their wall when they’re not there is legally danah michele boyd. that some teenagers disable their Facebook html accounts when they go offline to prevent people * danah boyd chooses not to capitalize her name. 2.

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Virtual worlds allow 1-3.Digital Backyard Digital backyard is a term used to describe the own bodies can do. spread out by geographic distance from Minecraft. space. But Wonderful whole new way. this generation challenges short-but-wonderful-documentary-about-why-kids-play- minecraft each other in the digital space with pranks and challenges. a tendency brought on by the fact that many travel. Unlike the real world.blogspot. Minecraft provides Playing together online in a distributed social almost unlimited virtual space for a multitude of network is a new form of backyard play. transcending geographical barriers http://magdachildstudies. the click of a button. Through these games.2 The new connected adolescence uses existing structures References and experiments with them. Interdisciplinary Child Studies.com. dispersed backgrounds to worldwide virtual Retrieved December 29. and has become very limits and offerings of a digital space vs.”1 over the world to meet and build together. especially children. understand what their 35 . Kotaku. and significantly more of the global. Children’s environments are no longer Many view it as “a newer. Minecraft is shrink the world to a tiny space with the point of a an “open world” game that allows people from all mouse. from foregrounds.html to collaborate. corroborate and express in a 4. (March 29. (February 5.com/2012/03/analysis-of- not only to play and communicate but also virtual-world-club-penguin. De Lange. or language.com/5981660/a- for humorous games. Magda. but now include the virtual out. and how to experience danger transition of exploratory youth culture from the and excitement. 2012) An analysis of the children to come together from geographically virtual world ClubPenguin. they learn how to push each other’s limits. the analog popular with people of all ages. families live in smaller spaces with less backyard space. 2012. These new worlds allow children analog backyard space to digital space. set. less expensive LEGO restricted to only outdoor and the indoor home. or build alone.3 By going above and beyond to Documentary About Why Kids Play Minecraft. children explore the extents and anyone with a computer. from http://kotaku. connect in new ways or use existing structures Retrieved June 2013. an independent game released in friends. This is to play across nation states without passports. 2013) A Short.”4 where blocks are unlimited and never run school and the local. These children’s virtual playgrounds “are 2009. The environment is accessible to almost backyard play. In digital creations. Luke Plunkett. allows anyone to build anything they like in huge and universal [while] at the same time they a virtual environment full of blocks.

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from http://www. Retrieved March 2013. 1. lead to excessive information accumulation on Individuals with hoarding disorders have found devices.html detected or treated as physical hoarding. themselves physically suffocated or trapped underneath piles of newspapers.dailymail. These factors can quickly Analog hoarding is physically noticeable. Suzannah. store content than to review. from in real life. Online storage services the act of hoarding material or information in make it easier to save. and keep every piece of trash within the walls freed from mountain of clutter after getting trapped under of their home.co. (February 2012) Compulsive hoarder. 85.1 Individuals References may hoard hundreds of cats or other animals. bags and boxes for 30 hours. or hoarding items on social bulletin boards like Pinterest without anyone around them noticing. Daily Mail. (March 27. Melinda.wsj. Beck. Files? Hoarding Goes Digital. digital hoarding may be done http://online.com/article/SB100014240527023034047045 anywhere one has access to a phone or 77305520318265602. email clients and hard drives are very easy to 37 . create and some type of digital format.uk/news/article-2271750/ Digital hoarding behaviors may not be easily Compulsive-hoarder-85-freed-mountain-clutter-getting- trapped-bags-boxes-30-HOURS.Digital Hoarding Digital hoarding is a term used to describe add information to. upload. Photos. because it is a “practice that is more hidden 2.”2 Unlike hoarding Health Journal. Digital artifacts do not take up any physical space. server or device without it getting heavier.html computer. Digital cameras. delete or destroy that same content. Retrieved December 20. 2012. This allows one to add more and more information to a hard drive. Hills. A person sitting in a coffeeshop may be compulsively saving photos or news stories. 2012) Drowning in Email. Wall Street Journal than physical hoarding.

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Pg. Smartypants. from with emails and text messages of the wearer’s http://wearcam. (2004) The World According to Mimi reality was capable of being customized and Smartypants.org/diminished_reality. and replace them 1. 9 39 . Humans routinely create their own diminished the ability for something to be taken away reality as they move through the world. diminished reality signs and ads around them. Mimi. to perceive that the objects are no longer intuitively blocking ads as they browse the there. “This allows one to find the Steve Mann and collaborators1 to describe open seat on a crowded train. The app could block out billboards. techniques to create a real-time billboard- References blocking application. The concept of diminished reality but mentally block them out in order to not was created by wearable computing pioneer interact with them. Instead of the data on street signs blocking out real or digital information in one’s being owned by someone else. Unlike augmented reality. allowing the viewer to look only at certain portions of websites. a “skill that most worked on a wearable camera and monocular of us city mice have. to reality. newspapers…”2 Mimi Smartypants calls this Mann and graduate student James Fung concept an Urban Eye Slide. Retrieved January 2011. (May 29. provides a kind of computer mediated reality. or to move to a method of using technology to block out the other side of the sidewalk well in advance undesired information from everyday life in of people handing out flyers or crappy free real time.Diminished Reality Diminished reality describes a process of altered. the EyeTap reality. one’s 2.” Humans have quickly learned them back to the viewer. One of the features as “the ability to scope out one’s surroundings of the EyeTap was that it could remove quickly but without seeming to look at objects from video in real time and send anything at all. New York: Harper Collins. Through the aid of the EyeTap. Mann and Fung used computer vision web. WearCam. delete and customize adding something to reality. Mann. the idea of allowed one to modify.org. Steve. from reality rather than the ability to only add One could be standing next to someone.” Smartypants defines it display called the EyeTap. 2001) Diminished Reality.htm choosing. ads and logos.

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In contrast. “Equipotential Space offers the possibility of real freedom”. Severino. 29. but it describes the form of the Internet perfectly. to participate as fully as possible. These sites provide us with. 14. many occupants. It is quite costly to create a persistently livable space whose form and function differ based on its users. 41 . economic and technical reality. pods. the shape of networks affect how people architectural theorists during the late 1960s interact and behave. given social. or interlocking pieces suited for one to 1. each resembling spaceships. of Severino’s Equipotential Space. Renato. the “freedom Serverino described Equipotential Space as space to shape responsive solutions to immediate needs. “This 2-3. Pg. Renato. and early 1970s conceptualized these types of “future spaces. the Internet is an Equipotential space by definition. (1970) Equipotential Space: Freedom in Architecture. that has the potential to be anything at any time. as it is comprised of fluid. Serverino’s book was about the future of physical architecture. wrote Serverino. to have a new He wrote that. but freedom in Architecture. Pg. “Instead of being planned for a solution. they were harbingers of a new era of that invisible space between machines. Equipotential Space can shape of networks through programming and be modulated at will for any purpose. and when these needs change.” Some architects even attempted to create modular futuristic spaces that could References deform at will. Severino.Equipotential Space The term Equipotential Space was coined by The digital architecture of online communities and Renato Serverino in 1970 in his book Equipotential networked spaces have shown us a full realization Space: Freedom in Architecture. New York: Praeger Publishers. New York: Praeger Publishers.”2 While the theories and manifestos of Serverino did not play out in the physical world of architecture and construction. (1970) Equipotential Space: Freedom is not freedom just to be different. editable code and the spaces between networked machines. as Serverino wrote.”3 Just as people consciously create the few specific purposes.”1 Many design.

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net/?p=291 designed to extend the ‘reach’ of human sense capabilities. The vehicle’s edges are an losing command of a body part. and when that extended self is accessed. writes Steve Fairclough. nothing new. and the vehicle itself is an extension of the foot. from the plough to the internet. Having a site crash is like suddenly edges of the vehicle. Retrieved May 2013. Retrieved October 2011. from http://www. (January 28. perception encompass the status of the systems they and sense of self automatically extend to the maintain. Pg. Inc. 2010) The Extended Nervous and artifacts. 2008) Tool Use Is Just a Trick the extension of the mental self as well. but 1.1 System administrators and ops technicians Humans and vehicles behave in the same have extended nervous systems that way.2 The extended nervous system does not just References relate to the extension of the physical self. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Science Now.physiologicalcomputing. Paul. Getting a comment on a blog post or neuroscientist Giacomo Rizzolatti of the piece of writing becomes the psychological University of Parma in Italy suggests that the equivalent of receiving a comment in real life brain treats tools as just another body part. physiological computing http://news. of their identity into virtual space. “At a of the Mind. Fairclough. Physiological Computing. from fundamental level. a feedback loop A study on monkeys and tool use led by occurs.”3 43 . extension of the self. Steve. 127. System. Our history is littered with tools 3. “This is Structure. As our technology becomes more compact. Elek.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2008/01/28-02. When one enters a vehicle. (January 6. Each user extends part sensory feedback outside the physical body.Extended Nervous System Extended Nervous System is a term used Social networks are a natural extension of the to describe the extension of perception and social and mental self. (1968) Comments and Excerpts from Urban system”. Balter.html represents an extension of the human nervous 2. Michael. we become increasingly reliant on tools to augment our cognitive capacity.

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feeling of “intense and focused concentration on what one is doing in the present moment. “typically. [experiencing] a sense that time has passed faster than normal. such as a computer or cell phone. J. Mihály and Jeanne Nakamura. (February 2010) The Problem with Wikipedia. those experiencing a state of flow may lose their sense of time. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Flow Flow describes the experience of being References completely immersed in a single activity. 90. Pg.”1 Flow involves a specific physiological feeling of being in harmony with one’s tools or project.com/214/ an experience of activity as intrinsically rewarding. The 1-2. Lopez professor Mihály Csíkszentmihály to describe a (Eds. Csíkszentmihályi.”3 45 . Munroe. XKCD.R. from a merging of action and awareness. 3. Snyder and S. term was first coined by Hungarian psychology (2001) The Concept of Flow. In addition. Randall. Retrieved June 2013. In C. and http://xkcd.”2 Those experiencing a state of flow sometimes refer to it as being “in the moment” or “wired in.” The recent phenomenon of browsing Wikipedia for hours on end is an example of a “flow state.) The Handbook of Positive Psychology.

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”4 Hertzian Space is a term used to describe a holistic view of the electronic device and its Alvin Toffler’s 1970 book Future Shock discussed cultural interactions. there is in fact an entire wave-field 2. Marisa. Hertzian space was coined by how technology is advancing more quickly Interaction Designer Anthony Dunne and Architect than we may be able to understand. radio. or Fiona Raby to describe the “electroclimate.”5 Hertzian space is one of the pieces of this and human experiences. as well as 1. due to “too much change in too short a period of as the interface between electromagnetic waves time.. Marshall.org/2011/10/hertzian-spaces-invisible- think that we are only beginning to understand fields/ the effects and consequences of technological 3. advances.”3 4. object. 70. (1970) Future Shock. Pg. New York: McGraw Hill. They http://interartive. Media theorist Marshall McLuhan wrote that 5. Anthony.”2 References Visible light is part of Hertzian space. New York: Random “The new media and technologies by which we House amplify and extend ourselves constitute huge collective surgery carried out on the social body with complete disregard for antiseptics… For in operating on society with a new technology.1 Marisa Gómez refers to new reality that we exist in. universe. Cambridge: MIT tanning lamps.. Dunne. it is 47 . McLuhan. pointing out that this is inhabited by humans and electronic machines. television signals and UV Aesthetic Experience. medical X-rays. Retrieved January 2013 from space will assist our design practices. and that “it is an environment that must be fully understood if it is to be made habitable. Dunne and Raby Space. Toffler.” objectively look at it.Hertzian Space Everything that requires electricity gives off an not the incised area that is most affected. (2000) Hertzian Tales: Electronic Products.” Interartive: A Platform for Contemporary Art and believe that increased awareness of Hertzian Thought. Gómez. Alvin. See ref 1. and Critical Design. (1964) Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. study. It is the electromagnetic field that extends into space. entire system that is changed. Many of us no longer Hertzian Space as the “immaterial infrastructure think of the invisible wifi and cell tower signals that supports our current telecommunication that tie us together. 1st Ed. While we only see the discrete Press. (October 2011) Visualizing “Hertzian emanating from the object.

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we can simply Group members who told the best stories that search for the keyword and the computer finds riffed off of the current group topic had the the file. remember the trigger word. we can access hyperlinked October 2010. During a series of observations. Group members who shared the search through our own memories. were a frequent memory store for the group we say it’s at the “tip of the tongue.2 just as if they collective memory of others.” If we can members. Your Outboard Brain Knows All. The transition from http://www. he noticed that teenagers were 49 . YouTube videos When we forget the location of a memory. On a search engine.com/watch?v=TPAO-lZ4_hU primarily storing information inside the brain to outside the brain means that people are increasingly remembering fewer and fewer basic facts.1 Anthropologist Michael Wesch noticed that the availability of memories online was beginning to change the social patterns of social storytelling. YouTube on smartphones and laptops to tell Computers provide an additional way to their stories. then it is easy to References remember the memory. Retrieved and search engines.com/ techbiz/people/magazine/15-10/st_thompson an entire collective brain simply by entering trigger words. Library of Congress. location of an email or file.Hyperlinked Memories Hyperlinked memories describes the idea no longer only telling stories to each other of recalling memories through accessing through just their voices. (July 26. 2008) An anthropological introduction to YouTube. and the best videos gained social clout.youtube.wired. most clout in the situation. If we forget the had told a successful story to their friends. Micheal. Wesch. With the help of smartphones 2. but were using information stored on computer networks. from memories anywhere. http://www. it is possible to search the memory store of 1.

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net/the_rise_of_network_culture sharing telepresence with intimates in whom we 3. we are constituted in multiple micro-publics. an online virtual world first launched throughout the day. appearance Identity production is related to The Presentation or social class ascribed at birth. they could be very strong on the web. race. Some residents had wrote in “Postscript on Societies of Control. a seminal work by a ‘screen name’ different from one’s actual-world Sociologist Erving Goffman. A person might be a father in 2003 allows residents to build. husband in the morning. 51 .”3 Some individuals Princeton University Press. As Deleuze of a secondary virtual self. Varnelis. fly around.net Retrieved July 2011. writes that “instead of whole individuals. Pg. Tom. allowing the network to be perceived self in relation to others. Others choose not filter what they post online. inhabitants 2-3. Goffman. http://varnelis. status updates.” whether through text in blogs and news References articles.. 120.” 2 anxious offline. in evening. Kazys. or photos and video. life] me are two totally different people. from of simultaneously overlapping telecocoons. Boellstorff. may be socially of identity but rather is reduced to “dividuals. “the [Second Life] me and the [real Identity can be created in many ways online. Pg 119. person might have many identities that transition Second Life. Ibid. and an and co-inhabit a world through the creation employee or manager during the day.1 Goffman gave name can imply a role”4 Some note that although examples on how one’s identity was reproduced their real-world versions and identities may be daily based on situation and social relation. (2007) The Rise of Network Culture. Identity a true extension of their offline self. (2010) Coming of Age in Second Life are in near-constant touch. New York: Anchor Books. “The very idea of of Self in Everyday Life. As historian and architecture theorist Varnelis 1. Varnelis. As one Second Life resident pointed out. curate online identity by carefully choosing 4. roles are formed by individuals and given by a Some individuals use the web try out different community.Identity Production which moments of their lives are shared. Erving. roles that differ from the gender. instead Identity Production is a phrase used to describe using social networks as a place for their present how one manages and creates an outwardly moments and feelings. A very weak. Some whose the self is not so much constituted by any notion identities were strong online.” today separate identities online and offline. (1959) The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life.

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One. opened and used. Interstitial space allows for easy access to essential equipment by References service personnel. T. from http://www. Interstitial Space describes The marketing-based jargon term ‘cloud “an accessible space above the ceiling plane computing’ refers to networked data is stored with a floor for access and a low vertical on hard drives in server racks in remote data height to accomplish a horizontal distribution centers.. Though interstitial spaces 1. 2013.”1 Interstitial space is the unseen with jargon term “the cloud. The place where emails go after they are sent and before they are read is an example of interstitial space. or where their email goes Interstitial space is a part of the modern built when it is sent. these information-based and other functional elements reside out of interstitial spaces are only noticeable when sight in these spaces. or is in need of maintenance. (August 2012) Partly Cloudy – About Cloud Computing. 53 . Vol. HVAC.pdf The general experience of the web has nothing to do with where the information is actually stored. and Ruys. Only when a building is built. these spaces allow the Internet to function. 1994. (1990). Wakefield Research. (Ed.com/site/resources/dynamic/ additional/Citrix-Cloud-Survey-Guide.citrix. AIA.) New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. yet are essential for there is a problem with the network. electricity of architecture. they mostly Handbook of Facilities Planning. Though many people are familiar of systems. Citrix Cloud Survey Guide. Survey: Many Believe “The Cloud” Requires a Rain Coat. are these interstitial spaces 2. E. Though interstitial spaces are seldom seen. plumbing. (1994) Laboratory Design Handbook. no idea how the interstitial spaces of the Internet function. are essential to the function of everyday Boca Raton. The idea of interstitial space contributes to the almost magical nature of the Internet. FL: CRC Press. building function. Cooper. Laboratory go unnoticed unless there is a problem. Facilities.Interstitial Space In architecture. Theodorus.2 Just like the interstitial space environment. AIA. Crawley. Ruys. Retrieved Feb The Internet is filled with interstitial spaces. 2. places where we work and live.” many have space that allows places to function.

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Pg. Every time a page is accessed it’s reproduced for that current user. When one puts an item into virtual space.” Related Reading “Digital Hoarding” on page 37 References 1. Virtual space is created with every click on the web. as there is “in real life.”1 When one puts an item into a physical bag.Invisible Space Invisible Space is a way of describing the new geography created by software running in networked environments. Nigel Thrift and Shaun French wrote how the geography of technologically connected societies have changed “as software has come to intervene in nearly all aspects of everyday life. Thrift. 55 . 309. Each of these formats have no physical limitation on space. it gets heavier. and every social networking profile. Nigel and Shaun French. (2002) The Automatic Production of Space. the computer that holds it stays the same weight. Space is easily produced in virtual reality. In 2002. every document uploaded to the web. with little energy required for the replication. University of Bristol: School of Geographical Sciences.

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4 Researchers at the Rensselaer Sleep.2 electronic and sleep in school-aged children and adolescents: a review. National Sleep Foundation. Nanyang Technological University. social networking and site called “Good in Bed” about the issues news sites are formatted for quick information surrounding what they called “Junk Sleep. Michael Gradisar (2010) Electronic media use on technology use and sleep. The constant flow of unrelated information can trigger information binges. connections-communications-technology-use- such as the National Sleep Foundation Poll 3.” consumption.ntu.) Sleep Medicine (pp.5 Kim Wee School of Communication and the chemical naturally produced in the brain Information in Singapore. The nature of information hypothesized that the use of electronic on the web can also contribute to increased devices right before bed might affect sleep in media time. leading to a false sense of alertness four undergraduate students at NTU’s Wee and a decrease in melatonin production. 2013. Delaying production. 2013.sleepfoundation.sciencedaily. [Press release].edu. The students References mentioned that junk sleep was a result of both 1. media use and sleep in adolescents3 and the effects of backlit screens on melatonin 4-5. Technology Use and Sleep.htm luminous device such as a tablet.1 The students before sleep begins. Retrieved February 13. suggested not touching cell phones or laptops at least a half hour before bed. phone or 57 . In S. Retrieved July 3. the students resulting in more screen time before bed.wkwsci. from http://www. Cain. 735–742). (November 2009) The Big Bedroom Bustup @ Zouk – the devices and the content displayed on the Overcoming Junk Sleep. 2011. Both the brightness of the screen and NewsMedia/Pages/NewsReleasesArchival. In order to avoid Junk Sleep. from Polytechnic Institute found that using a self. from http://www. Chokroverty (Ed. Unlike the slowly-unfolding a negative way.org/ Several studies such as have been done on article/press-release/annual-sleep-america-poll-exploring- the use of electronics and effects on sleep. [Press Release] Retrieved February 13. They created an educational narratives of books.sg/ screens. Science Daily (August 2012) Light from Self-Luminous Tablet Computers Can Affect Evening Melatonin. Neralie. (2011) Annual Sleep in role in disrupting the body’s natural process of America Poll Exploring Connections with Communications falling asleep.com/releases/2012/08/120827094211.aspx the nature of the content on the device play a 2. http://www.Junk Sleep computer before bed tricks the brain into becoming more active instead of preparing Junk sleep was popularized by a group of for sleep.

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speech inputs after having trained the algorithm and handwriting recognition. More recently. T.std. The program would first Hill. Researchers at Cornell University The program then classifies new input based created a search engine prototype. machine learning with known inputs. Retrieved October 2011. on the input seen before. from http://www-users. (1956) An Inductive Reference Machine. A program is first trained analysis. An example of a machine learning system is Technical Research Group.Machine Learning whether a person is present in future images with reasonable accuracy. (1997) Machine Learning. University of Minnesota. titled previous interactions on the site. 2012) 10 Questions a person present in the frame as the negative with Facebook Research Engineer Andrei Alexandrescu. Ajay Joshi.1 techniques to improve spam detection and Ray Solomonoff published the first report on deliver relevant articles to users based on non-semantic machine learning in 1956.2 Solomonoff References was a pioneer in algorithmic probability. Machine Learning is a process of training a Machine learning can be applied to many fields computer algorithm to properly classify future including natural language processing. Anoop Cherian and Ravishankar Shivalingam. The http://www. 2. input. New York: McGraw security camera feed. and “learns” the patterns has been applied to create search engine through one or more statistical methods. algorithms. followed by several images with a Server-Side Magazine. Andrei. publishing several papers on the subject in 1. from person in the frame as the positive input. be trained on several known images without 4. Solomonoff.3 computer vision. of the 1960s. It wasn’t until the late 1970s that Computer Science. Dept.com/news/10-questions- program would then be able to determine with-facebook-research-engineer-andrei-alexandrescu/ 59 . (2009) Machine Learning in Computer Vision.pdf 2. Machine Learning which was able to improve its results over time is used for many applications.pdf whether a person is present in images from a 3. STRIVER. Retrieved March 2013.umn.com/~rjs/indinf56.cs. MachineLearningTut. including based on which results the visitor clicked on. Alexandrescu. Retrieved October machine learning started emerging as a more 2011.4 An Inductive Inference Machine.edu/~cherian/ppt/ focused field of study in computer vision. a method used by computers Facebook engineers also use machine learning to identify images. and sentiment with sample data. from a program that can be trained to recognize http://world. J. R. (January 29.serversidemagazine. Mitchell. Pg.

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It is the life or death of a brand. Wordplay.) Edinburgh the moon landing. George. all in one.com/ columns/wp42. whatever gets into a person’s mind first is fixed in place and is very difficult to write over with a later memory. In 2010. Mckay. Wiley. and Cornwell.2 Brands wage wars over mental real estate.Mental Real Estate Mental real estate is a way of describing the References amount of “space” one has in one’s mind. McAlister. credited with creating the modern image of Santa Claus. Bettina. and 1.Mental. Ideology and Popular Culture. Terry. (2010) how much of it is taken up by one idea. (Pg 5.html and found that they could correctly speak the brand name affiliated with a given logo. Veteran screenwriter Terry Rossio calls mental real estate the “most valuable real estate in the world. and Marketing.Real. interviewed 38 Australian children ages 3-5 Retrieved August 3. Anna R.”3 61 . Rossio.Estate. A good brand name is memorable through cultural resistance--and Santa Claus. In S Whiteley (Ed. (2008) Consumption. 2. from http://wordplayer.) generations. Christmas and summer. T. Children’s Brand Symbolism Understanding.1 Coca-cola’s advertising has significantly affected American Culture. brand. (2000) Mental Real Estate. In Psychology or other substance.” Mental real estate of consumers is the highest commodity for marketing departments. Sometimes. The mental real estate that one has when the word “tissue” is mentioned is taken by “Kleenex” but not “Puffs. Coca-Cola is affiliated with Christmas. coca-colanisation. 2013. before they could read. a cross-University study 3. University Press.

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Shiels. 2008) “@dtan just reported an in which many communities share the same earthquake in Beijing. (May 11. When @dtan reported the earthquake.” Tweet. the World Cup and musician Michael where everyone connected to a social network Jackson’s death are examples of micro- or culture experiences a certain moment or singularities.Micro-singularity A micro-singularity describes a moment Japan. Wonder how large it is? Off to check out USGS site. Retrieved August 2013. Global http://news. BBC News. always connected to the same thoughts.8 on the Richter scale hit China.edu/faculty/vinge/ Every large newsworthy event presents a misc/singularity. Scoble.000 followers. This phenomenon 2. from information at the same time. from have access to real-time information. Vinge. Vernor.uk/2/hi/technology/8120324. a earthquake that mathematics professor and science fiction measured 7.1 Several of those who experienced the earthquake were Twitter users. regardless of http://twitter. Robert. (June 26. Though John Von Neuman spoke about the The Internet reported a slow-down when “ever accelerating process of technology” Jackson’s death was announced.co.2 and its eventual convergence in the 1950s.sdsu. Retrieved July 2013. It’s not that everyone is earthquake itself. Just like a collective Tech Reporter Robert Scoble was able to consciousness. 2009) Web slows after Jackson’s will only increase as more and more people death.com/Scobleizer/status/809121152 topic interest.stm events bring on temporary micro-singularities 3. Haiti and 63 . Earthquakes in China. the term singularity was popularized by On May 11th. about new releases in a manner that most closely resembles a collective consciousness. Retrieved July 2010. from http://www-rohan.html potential micro-singularity.bbc. Maggie. (1993) The Coming Technological network is rapidly saturated. Fans of Apple products learn thought almost simultaneously.3 network has access to the same information The news traveled more quickly than the at the same time. Singularity: How to Survive in the Post-Human Era. including @ In a micro-singularity. 2008. writer Vernor Vinge in 1993. all media reach dtan. everyone on an information rebroadcast the message to 40. but any sufficiently large news story can be quickly References pushed through a network so that the entire 1. a saturation point.

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”2 New York: Harper & Row. a behavior that would seem the extraordinary drew “disproportionate entirely bizarre only 10 years ago in 2003. The mundane relates to how technology is 4.mundanebehavior. theoretical attention from researchers. C.org/sfra-review/289. Brooks.” Brekhus argued that at a time in 2013. (2000) Mundane Manifesto.) that while there were many deviance SFRA Review 289 (Summer 2009) (pp. (2009) Mundane SF 101. taken for granted and how this affects the way we interact with technology on a day-to-day basis.” in which he called is no longer a big deal to see commuters on a for “analytically interesting studies of the bus or train stare into small screens for hours socially uninteresting. These comprise the experiences of everyday reactions diminished as telephone usage life.Mundane Studies Mundane Studies is a term used to describe usage caused concern. Brekhus.” His manifesto sought to pave Mundane Behavior.”1 Brekhus suggested 2. supernatural fear the study of the events and systems that and uneasiness for the public at large. S. 13–16). Berkeley: University of California Press. Studying everyday life is important in became a social norm.sfra. causing the telephone to take been defined and re-created constantly by “five decades to reach 10% of the households technology. Retrieved journals to “explicitly analyze socially unusual October 2010. Fischer. (1992) America calling: A social history of the telephone to 1940. Retrieved July 2013. Calvin. while the Web took only five years that one can understand how much things to reach the same level. Wayne. from a way for an “explicit social science of the http://www.org/issues/v1n1/brekhus.3 Technology adoption changing societies. Rich. it “A Mundane Manifesto.pdf behavior” there was no “Journal of Mundane 3. especially ones that have was still slow. In the 1870s the landline telephone 65 . In K.”4 have changed from one year to the next. It is only by studying the everyday in America. Because we’ve slowly become accustomed In 2000. J. Hellekson (Ed.htm unmarked (mundane). sociologist Wayne Brekhus published to mobile phones and small glass screens. Behavior to explicitly analyze conformity. from http://www. Journal of “social reality.” and References that it ultimately hindered the real picture of 1. (1975) Telephone: The First Hundred Years.

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3 understand. and draw accent-in-hilarious-video/ inferences. of text. it is well agreed today that while the goal of Retrieved October 2011. (February 1. “processing” is very deliberate. from http://www. Forbes.Natural Language Processing Natural Language Processing. parts of speech of each word in a sentence. and should There have been some limitations of these not be replaced with “understanding”. A full NLU System would be 3. spoken words to written text.encyclopedia. that goal has not yet been publications/03nlp. and a relatively including producing a summary of a block well-solved problem is part-of-speech tagging. 2009) Natural Language Processing. 1-2. is a that NLP systems cannot. where a computer can correctly identify the handwriting recognition.org/ NLP is true NLU. 2013) Siri Fails to able to paraphrase an input text. text into another language.1 Although the field of NLP was originally References referred to as Natural Language Understanding (NLU) in the early days of AI. and machine translation. (January 27. Center for Natural Language Processing.com/sites/ carolpinchefsky/2012/02/01/siri-fails-to-understand-scottish- about the contents of the text. both spoken and the goal of NLP. from http://www.forbes. or slang information. despite the fact 67 . of themselves. The goal of NLP is to accomplish human-like Siri and Google Now are examples of systems language processing.cnlp.2 There are many other written.pdf accomplished. optical character recognition.lis. The choice of the word that use NLP to interpret human requests. Carol. A common NLP task is translating applications of natural language processing. sentiment analysis. translate the Understand Scottish Accent in Hilarious Video. Pinchefsky. as systems. answer questions Retrieved May 2013. namely the inability for Siri to a computer can only process and correlate interpret people with heavy accents. NLU still remains from human languages. field of computer science that deals with text draw inferences from text. Xiaoyong Liu. or NLP. while only a human can terms. While NLP has made serious inroads into accomplishing goals 1 to 3.

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an electronic virtual pet from http://mediacommons. Retrieved October 2011. from pushing a lever were far more driven to Retrieved October 2011. this kind of reward require a response. from compulsively push the bar in hopes of receiving a http://mindhacks. often to death.html 69 . (November 30. (March 09. Linda.huffingtonpost. (September 1. (April 20.com/2006/09/19/why-email-is-addictive- reward. a participatory architecture that demands This tangled web of social obligations increased compulsive interaction or attention.2 Skinner called this compulsive behavior and-what-to-do-about-it/ intermittent reinforcement.net. She coined the term “Email Apnea” to References describe the unconscious process of holding one’s 1.com/2012/07/18/ diablo-3-death-chuang-taiwan-_n_1683036. 2007) Diagnosis: Email breath checking email. 2010) Cultivated One early example of a panic architecture is the Play: Farmville.org/content/ encased in a plastic egg shape. Stone. 2013. Patrick A. consider the computer as a tool. 2013. Retrieved July like nature of virtual farming game Farmville 2013. Snyder. Stone. The intermittent nature of emails and social networks invite people 3. (July 2012) Diablo 3 Death: Teen Dies creature at rapid intervals. in-game time and kept users coming back to Email accounts list many items at once that the site. Lindastone. Accessed March 31. The Tamogotchi. Daniel. from Email and social networks are just a few examples http://lindastone. Tech writer Leisa Reichelt structure can lead to ‘binge gaming’ where users discovered that simply looking at emails throw play for hours or days at a time.”4 a series of systems addicted-to-email-and-smartphones/ to remind the self to take breaks. Lindastone. and Tom Stafford.F.1 Apnea.com/intermittent-reinforcement-are-you- “conscious computing. Tamogotchi pocket pet.Panic Architecture entangling users into “a web of social obligations”5 in a similar way by exposing ‘needs’ of virtual items such as crops and animals. Linda. breathe. Mediacommons. Webb. Matt.3 Linda Stone’s solution is what she calls http://factoidz. 2013.futureofthebook. At its most extreme. The Tamogotchi cultivated-play-farmville pocket pet prodded users into caring for a virtual 6. (September 2006) Why email is Addictive and What to do About it. 2010) Intermittent Reinforcement: Are You Addicted to email and Smartphones? to obsessively check to see if new email or content Factoidz. Liszkiewicz. Mindhacks. Retrieved March 31. Skinner’s experiments on behaviorism found that rats who got irregular food rewards 2.net. Retrieved March 31. Huffington Post.net/2012/04/20/conscious-computing-36/ of systems that inspire panic and dedication. and 4. After Playing Game For 40 Hours Straight.6 users into a kind of panic or state of suspended breathing.net/2009/11/30/diagnosis-email-apnea/ B. from http://lindastone. causing dedicated Panic architecture is a term used to describe users to “care for” these systems on set intervals. J.com. from is there. 5. 2012) Conscious Computing. from http://www.

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Research has shown that many adults with high levels 3. when Cambridge: Harvard University Press. and 71 . The period between 9-10 years old. It requires critical phenomenon of an imaginary friend.5 To the interface designer. building wireframes is related to paracosmic immersion. Robert Silvey. (1992) The House of Make-Believe: Children’s Play and the Developing Imagination.3 1. sure they have imaginary friends. invent different types of users. make on childhood creativity and problem-solving. Taylor. and imagining alternate realities. Cohen. A Michigan State University lives. is 2. Interview with software developer Max Ogden in economy. elaborated private society or even an anticipating how a certain user or group alternative world. Marjorie. Singer.”7 study revealed that many MacArthur Fellows References Program recipients had paracosms as children. “if you have a 9-10 year old.Paracosmic Immersion Paracosm is a term used to describe the see through their eyes. Oxford University Press. Ogden. kids have the most paracosmic activity.2 “The moral of the story is this. MacKeith. 2010.6 British psychologist David Cohen. was first described by a researcher for the Synthesizing these variables together is a BBC. adds Portland. (2001) Imaginary Companions and the Children Who Create Them. Singer. (1992) The incredibly important in a child’s life. with later research by process helped by those who are good at British psychiatrist Stephen A. July 31. imagination and creativity. Jerome L. “an thinking.” Ogden Paracosms are often mentioned in articles concludes. Oregon.. London: Routledge. David and MacKeith.4 says Development of Imagination: The Private Worlds of Childhood. Properly designing an interface requires a designer to try on different personas. Dorothy G. of paracosmic activity in childhood grow up to participate more readily in the creative 4-7. open data advocate Max Ogden. Stephen. or they will Some scholars believe paracosm play indicates have boring desk jobs for the rest of their high intelligence. analysis..”1 The concept of a paracosm of users might approach design problems.

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3 Someone who uses a landline phone and writes letters as primary forms of communication Some pieces of software or hardware persist instead of adopting new methods is an example simply because they were introduced to a large of someone with path dependence. 2. the individual’s path the best method of data input. it takes an external change with large References enough magnitude to get an individual to change their behavior.3. Oregon Once an individual. cases. prevalent starter method for typing education. David. The tendency of individuals to use the same systems “QWERTY keyboard was designed to slow down over time instead of adopting new ones. No. of the American Economic Association.syr. the Papers and Proceedings of the Ninety-Seventh Annual Meeting individual may be more likely to make a transition. The American Economic Review. group or culture becomes in 1985. In many distribution and uptake to replace the mouse. the World’s Fastest Typist. (May 1985) Clio and the Economics of QWERTY.” we still use it today. a key-arrangement designed devices may exist. as QWERTY is the most to start over and start doing things another way. Though more efficient input is DVORAK. from http://rcranger. uses to using cell phones and text messages. Barbara Blackburn. Path dependence describes why most keyboards 2.1 reluctance to change it. (pp.edu/ famhist/blackburn. Though a mouse does not provide forms of communication.mysite. Vol. 2013. alternative devices dependence makes it difficult to transition to such as chorded keyboards did not achieve enough these new and unfamiliar methods. public to stick with the same devices over decades Frequently-used keys are placed in positions that of technological change and development blocks are easiest to reach. 332-337). DVORAK keyboards allow the adoption of alternative technologies. the uptake of DVORAK accustomed to doing things one way. 75. even when offered a more The most popular alternative to QWERTY efficient alternative.htm 73 . it is difficult has always been slow.Path Dependence Path dependence is a term used to describe the efficient arrangement of frequently-used keys. the tendency for the general to minimize finger movement while typing.2 Despite this. Paul A. If an individual’s social group 1. Retrieved still come with QWERTY layouts instead of a more August 19. for sustained typing speeds of up to 170 WPM. Though cell number of people with their first experience with phones and text messages may be more efficient a computer. Path typing to avoid mechanical typewriter hammers dependence describes a person’s behavior and from jamming. as achieved by Barbara Blackburn of Salem.

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2009) Douglas Engelbart. Competitors followed suit.com/blog/?p=89 2. Bill. Author Unknown. (December 5. the computer mouse persisted and later proliferated into the References mass computer market. PDFs ones.pushclicktouch. Derouchey. persistent and adoption. http://www. Push Click Touch. architecture is about market-driven development. from environments.2 It wasn’t until Apple released touchscreen products and the “magic trackpad” in the early 2000s that the computer mouse began to lose its dominant hold on the general public. (January 11. Apple computer’s touch devices were the first challenge to a long period of architectural stagnation. 2011. Retrieved July 2. Some persistent architectures provide a standard and the tendency for markets to stagnate around with which many people can communicate over working technologies instead of shift to better time without worrying about compatibility.i- (point of sale) touch screens. regardless of solution to data manipulation and input but rather programming language the website was written a step toward a better input device. and Powerpoint files can be read by the most Mouse inventor Doug Englebart did not expect popular operating systems. and web browsers the mouse to be a permanent or long-lasting allow us to view most websites. Retrieved April 1.1 Instead. Programmer. 2013. such as the touch screen. which is behavior-driven. With the exception of a few systems like as POS I. the general public found it very easy to change behavior and adopt many mobile devices with touchscreens instead 75 . the mouse stuck programmer.html as the default user interface for decades.Persistent Architecture Standard-issue computer mice and keyboards are of a mouse. from http://www. and examples of persistent architecture. 2007) iPhone: Future of the on desks in home and professional computing Button. or direct input in. becoming a mainstay 1.info/history/people/497-doug-engelbart. Once an alternative input method such as the touchscreen was sufficiently developed. Unlike path touchscreen-based products soared in production dependence.

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com/about. TED. http://www.” while other prosthetics enhance new platform. Pistorious became the first athlete to compete Some prosthetics. and the long jump.”1 We all use World Records in the 100 meter. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.4 One pair is made entirely is a replacement or addition to the body. Retrieved capability to see.sciencedaily.”6  our experience of the world above the norm.html trouble at times. be it shoes.com/?PageID=13008 77 . The of clear glass and another of woven carbon-fiber. Mullins used the The Össur.com/ grown on to him and they still give him much talks/aimee_mullins_prosthetic_aesthetics. Retrieved Feb 2. God. simultaneously making history and raising normalizing. Oscar Pistorius. Sigmund.2 2.php Prosthetics and Empowerment 6. (March 2013) Human Brain Treats Prosthetic Devices as Part of the Body.com/ dictionary/prosthesis brain treats our prosthetic devices as part of our bodies. 44. Aimee.htm In Civilization and its Discontents. Phones and computers are mental and sensory References  prosthetics. 2013.ted. 2013.aimeemullins. but those organs have not 4. When he puts on all his auxiliary organs he is truly magnificent. Freud. from http://www. Össur Orthopaedics Corporate Site. (March 2009) It’s not fair having 12 pairs of legs. and these devices extend our 1. the 200 meter.”3 Those without the means to constantly upgrade are forced to deal with 5. from http://www. while others are solely functional.merriam-webster. Retrieved February 2. (1931) Civilization and its Discontents. such as prosthetic legs or “using prosthetics running blades in the Olympic cochlear implants.ossur. Mullins. hear and understand. Sigmund Freud 3. some form of prosthetics every day. Retrieved February 2013. are considered restorative or Games. wrote that man has “become a kind of prosthetic Vienna: Internationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag. Prosthesis. Science Daily. Aimee Mullins Biography.5 Prosthetics and athletes glasses or smartphones. Flex-Foot® Cheetah®. from outdated software and user experience. Some prosthetics are made headlines in 2012 when South Africa’s Oscar cosmetic.com/ releases/2013/03/130306221135. term prosthetic comes from the ancient greek Her carbon-fiber ‘cheetah’ legs helped her to set word prósthesis.Prosthetics The word Prosthetic describes any object that pairs of prosthetic legs. 2013. and our February 2. from Double amputee Aimee Mullins has over a dozen http://www. from http://www. Retrieved Drawbacks of Prosthetics August 2013. Pg. meaning “addition. as they bring a user to a societally the debate over fairness and equality to a whole defined “norm.

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“Body in the Philippines and another person enters. “are he will probably stand right next to you. Pg. Boston: Houghton culture’s communication patterns.”4 These customs differ greatly from distance. 79 .” according to Hall. Hall.”2 socially acceptable proxemic practices in the Paralanguage mainstream cultures of the United States. Engleberg. contributing to 70% of a Communication Principles & Strategies.. paralanguage takes the form of response time 4. Social distance movie theater surrounded by empty seats between people is reliably correlated with and an Indian enters. Mifflin College. and are a form of auxiliary Global Business Basics state that in “much of communication. Morrison and Conaway’s report and cultural groups. Isa N. non-verbal References communication such as stance. and non-verbal communications Anchor Books. Edward T. in words. (2006) Working in Groups: paralanguage. (2000) The and shared information such as pictures. Terri and Conaway. If you are sitting in an Indian and pitch of a person’s voice. 133. such as subtle changes in the sound the local custom.Proxemics Proxemics describe the space around a Cultural Differences person in a given social structure or situation. such as gestures and clothing make up 3. In Industry Week. it’s just or shifts. people gravitate towards other people. he is likely to sit next physical distance. spatial 1-2.3 Online. New York: distance. Wayne A.. Cleveland: Penton posts and other creations of self not expressed Media. was first introduced by Edward T. That unintentional reactions to sensory fluctuations person doesn’t want to speak to you. Hall in his For example. spacing and posture. if you are alone in an elevator book The Hidden Dimension1 in 1966. Proxemics as a concept Asia. Morrison. The concept of proxemics is a part of paralanguage. Interpersonal space differs from country Proxemics are part of the tacit rules of culture to country. In real life. wall Problems of Proxemics. as are intimate and personal to you. (1966) The Hidden Dimension.

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com/wiki/Track_Your_Happiness 81 .com/up/faq interested in longitudinal data collection. from data can provide useful feedback about one’s http://aaronparecki. Others track individual data with the express from http://www. sleep and meals.3 Sousveillance: Inventing and Using Wearable Computing Devices for Data Collection in Surveillance Environments. Nolan. About Us. Wellman. as collected Data Collection. Mann. self community.4 This information could be used to see correlation of multiple datasets. allowed the quantified self movement to and what they were doing. Jawbone’s Up Band tracks personal-data-collection steps.com/articles/2012/10/28/1/low-friction- activities over time.Quantified Self behavior. Barry. 2012) Low Friction Personal correlated with other datasets. sleep patterns. Track Your Happiness. Sensors in behavioral trends not normally accessible on a wearable technology are able to gather speed.2 later. time of day.trackyourhappiness. Retrieved January 2013. participants received a series of graphs The opportunity of the quantified self lies correlating happiness with this data over not in the sensors themselves but in the time. (2003) for wearers related to these inputs. Jawbone UP FAQ. 1(3): 331-355). Three months proliferate. These individuals often use their data as a feedback loop in order to improve their Quantified self describes the practice of overall health or an aspect of their lives. References These statistics are valuable when they are 1. Aaron. mood or weight. Steve. and are jawbone. Three times a day. Retrieved January 2013. Some individuals track for 3. Retrieved July 2013. where they were. 5. using technology to track statistics and data The Harvard Track Your Happiness Project is one about one’s life in an attempt to visualize and example of short-term survey that examined understand more about one’s behaviors over emotion and external variables over a three time. Quantified self technology allows one to month period.org/about. see http://caseorganic. Ontario. To see an intent to use that data to modify personal example of results from this project. from https:// the excitement of gathering data. out a quick survey of their current happiness The advent of low-cost wearable technologies level. producing “insights” 2. In There are two major trends in the quantified Surveillance & Society (pp. Parecki. Jason. daily basis. (October 28. who they were with. participants gather data using low-friction methods1 that were prompted by their smartphone to fill are non-invasive or disruptive to everyday life.

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google. Energy.androidscience.html that resembles a human but is not quite 4. Google employs “bots” to index webpages and present them to searchers. search bar. 33–35.com/theuncannyvalley/ someone when confronted with an technology proceedings2005/uncannyvalley. Frank Baum’s 1907 Ozma of perform a single function very well. 2008. better known as robot Androids.R. the third book in the famous Wizard of Oz Honda’s ASIMO. Googlebot.org/wiki/robot controls. or a “mechanism guided by automatic 1. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. iRobot’s Roomba vacuum series. Wiktionary.Robot The word robot comes from the 1921 science shape or form but preform invisible functions fiction play “R. a wind-up mechanical man found by the The best robots are those that are shaped to protagonist in L. Unlike Oz.py?hl=en&answer=182072 Humans are surrounded by robots every day.U. Mori. incite an “uncanny valley”3. Retrieved October human.com/dictionary/ Many human-shaped robots. cleaners are shaped to perform the single task Merriam-Webster defines robot as a “machine of vacuuming by containing only the features that looks like a human being and performs essential to the task instead of trying to various complex acts (as walking or talking) of replicate an entire human. 2012 describe the eerie and unsettling response of from http://www. 2011. from http://en. but the majority of bots are not.4 Unlike the human-shaped image of a robot. The for anyone who enters information into a first robot in literature could be the Tik-Tok. Masahiro (1970) Bukimi no tani the uncanny valley. Retrieved October 2011. Google Webmaster Tools. (Japanese). 7. from http://support.” by Karel Čapek1. search engine bots have no definite 83 . Robot. many of them unseen.merriam-webster.wiktionary. Robot. Retrieved August 4. a human being”.”2 Some robots are made to resemble humans. a “device that automatically References performs complicated often repetitive tasks”. 2. from http://www.com/webmasters/bin/ answer. Retrieved December 30. a term originally coined by Masahiro Mori in 1970 to 3.

Secondhand Cyborg
“Hey, can you Google that for me?” References
The term Secondhand Cyborg describes a 1. Karlson, Amy K. Brush, Bernheim A.J., Schechter, Stuart.
(April 2009) Can I Borrow Your Phone? Understanding
person who uses technology through someone Concerns When Sharing Mobile Phones. Microsoft Research.
else. Examples include borrowing a cell phone Proceedings of CHI 2009. Association for Computing
or asking someone to look something up Machinery, Inc. Retrieved March 2013, from http://research.
microsoft.com/pubs/77555/PhoneSharingCHI2009.pdf
online.
The advent of the personal cell phone makes
individuals increasingly reluctant to let
strangers borrow their phone. This is due
to the increase in personal information and
identity stored on individual devices.1 People
used phones in two ways before the cell
phone. Landlines were owned by households
and stored in specific rooms in ones home.
Public telephone booths were accessible by
people on the go. Booths provided temporary
privacy for individuals who wished to have
a private conversation in public. Personal
information was stored in black books,
address books or in one’s brain. The advent
of the mobile phone shifted the storage of
connections from external books and one’s
brain into the phone itself, making the device a
much more valuable and personal object.

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Hess. References 1. S. In C. the user. looks at the phone in their hand or the computer at their desk. and subscription plans. When looking at all of this objectively. H. New York: Routledge. Mentor (Eds. and sighs. (1995) On Low-tech Cyborgs. H.1 After noticing this. Gray.) The Cyborg Handbook (pp. Figueroa-Sarriera. David. the user is locked into a never- ending series of upgrades. purchase cycles. 371-78). especially over a period of time that begins with the user completely uninvolved with technology. 87 .Sighborg The term Sighborg is used to define a person who has become a low-tech cyborg through gradual adaptation and acquisition of technical capabilities and external prosthetics. looking back on their historical freedom from technology.

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com/2012/07/physical-assault-by-mcdonalds-for. the form factor of Mann’s devices. Mann more recently for being physically removed from received a PhD in Media Arts and Sciences from a McDonald’s restaurant in France for wearing a MIT in 1997. Rhodes. Retrieved January electronics. and work. (2001) A brief history of wearable in high school in the 70s. Chris Aimone. Bradley.edu/wearables/lizzy/ equipment to class.5 His research and activities can be wearable camera attached to a heads up display.2 At MIT he bristled with computing. wearing many pounds of computing 2013. up displays and the hydraulophone.mit. MIT Wearable Computing.org. Mann. including his 2001 book. from http://alumni. Cyberman. Digital Destiny and Human Possibility in the is a living laboratory for the cyborg lifestyle.imdb. He Age of the Wearable Computer which provides a is one of the more prominent members of the popular culture view of day-to-day cyborg life. IEEE Computer Society. 66–73). Steve Mann authored more than 200 5. (1997) An historical account of the that streamed images to a webpage in near real ‘WearComp’ and ‘WearCam’ inventions developed for time3 allowing others to comment on Mann’s applications in Personal Imaging. cyber security and cyborg law. Steve. Mann.mit.org and eyetap.blogspot. In The First International whereabouts. Mann believes computers should be designed References to organically fit human needs rather than 1.edu/~steve/ publications. Cyborg: 89 . EyeTap Personal Imaging Lab.media. http://www. equipment that was heavy 30 years ago is now virtually invisible on 4.Steve Mann Dr. Moore’s Law continuously reduced Symposium on Wearable Computers: Digest of Papers. (pp. stationary technology.html#1981b the “Wearable Wireless Webcam.html Mann first experimented with wearable computing 2.” a mechanism 3.1 found online at wearcam. MIT Alumni. wearable computing community.media. In 1994 Mann introduced timeline. born 1962.4 Mann’s work neurologist Ariel Garten have worked most closely touches a wide range of disciplines from implant with him on machine vision for wearable heads technology to sousveillance (inverse surveillance).com/title/tt0301145/ Dr. Steve. Retrieved January 2013. (2012) Physical assault by McDonald’s for requiring humans to adapt to traditionally wearing Digital Eye Glass. He is known privacy. IMDB. Of his many CYBERMAN. was released the same year. Canada. James Fung. from the frames of his glasses. Retrieved January 2013. from http://eyetap. from http://www. in Ontario. Steve Mann. Steve. Mann. a feature film about his life and collaborators. Retrieved January 2013. Dr.

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one for each degree on the color wheel. The associating and seeing specific colors when Eyeborg device had the unique capability thinking of or seeing letters and numbers.”1 Synesthesia is a relatively When Harbisson told cyberneticist Adam uncommon in humans. affecting an average Montandon of his condition. the Cyborg Synesthesia inability to see color. “Most color- for Harbisson. Richard Cytowic. Montanton built of one in 2000 individuals. German systems administrator technological-induced synesthesia. a hereditary vision disorder Prof. Peter König at the University of 91 .4 capabilities to the device as well as making devices for others with monochromatism. author Harbisson demonstrated this synesthetic of The Man Who Tasted Shapes.6 He anticipates bringing even more in front of his eyes associated with taste.Synesthesia Synesthesia describes a “condition in which that only allows him to perceive black and one type of stimulation evokes the sensation white. while eating. As of 2012.5 or hearing color. This allowed him to “hear a grapheme synesthetes perceive the alphabet symphony of color” as well as “listen” to faces in their own color scheme. Dr. The different kinds of synesthesia. Harbisson’s Eyeborg possessing a different hue. There are an increasing number of cases of In Fall 2004. even synesthesia describes the phenomenon of those beyond the range of human sight.”3 device allowed him to perceive 360 different Other synesthetes report literally seeing sound hues. Some Udo Wächter began wearing a directional notable examples include Daniel Kish’s work as sensing belt dubbed the “Feelspace belt” a blind psychologist who uses echolocation to as part of a research project to investigate “see” by clicking his tongue. called the “Eyeborg” in a TED talk in meeting a man who. to record color and convert it into sound Not all color preferences line up. with each letter and paintings.2 There are many an assemblage for the colorblind artist. saw points July 2012. describes device. Color-grapheme device allowed Harbisson to hear colors. the effects of long-term stimulation with Neil Harbisson has the rare condition of orientation information on humans led by achromatopsia. of another.

Retrieved April 22.html buzz. (May 2005) Universität direction he was facing. feelSpace: Report of a Study Project. Bolton P. (2012) Learning. Adam.com/browse/ Synesthesia 2.reference.adammontandon. Cambridge: MIT Press. 3.7 The Feelspace belt was lined with Shapes. or “haptic compass” kit called the North Paw. (August 2003) The Man who Tasted 92 . (pp. Wächter’s sixth sense of direction even feelSpace_finalReport. Osnabrück wore the Osnabrück. (March 2007) Mixed Feelings. In Psychological Science. Retrieved August. This belt allowed him to feel a http://www. Wired Today. 13 piezoelectric pads than encircled his waist Retrieved February 2013. from north at any given moment would constantly http://www. Retrieved April 22. 2013. University of Cambridge. letting Wächter always know which 7. Witthoft. Baron-Cohen S. Synesthesia (cont’d) Osnabrück. from http://www. 1996.net/projects/northpaw/ Noisebridge. 5.com/talks/neil_harbisson_i_listen_to_color.html DIY Feelspace. 2011. Memory. Sunny. Smith-Laittan F. a hackerspace in Toronto. Cytowic.25(9):1073-9) Cambridge: Department of Environmental Psychology.9 References 1. The piezoelectric motor that was facing Retrieved February 2. from when worn.uni-osnabrueck.wired. from http://dictionary. Bains. In Perception. (1996) Synaesthesia: prevalence and familiality.8 8. The company operates out of 9. North Paw. Colourblind Eyeborg Colours to Sound. a hackerspace in San Francisco. Nathan and Jonathan Winawer. Harrison J. from http://cogsci. 2011.com/wired/archive/15.de/~feelspace/downloads/ 2004.com Unabridged. (June 2012) I listen to color.ted. and hacklab. Synesthesia.com/neil-harbisson-the-cyborg/ sense of direction no matter which direction he 6. Montandon. 4. Dictionary.pdf carried itself into his dreams. TEDGlobal. Harbisson. Institute of Cognitive Science Department of belt for six weeks straight starting in the Fall of Neurobiopsychology. Canada. Neil. Burt L.04/esp.to. Richard E. faced. California. from http://sensebridge. Retrieved April 2011. and Synesthesia. a company called Sensebridge sells a Magazine. 2013.

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Joseph. Stefan. (2000) Liquid Modernity. Michael. Notes on the Social Organization of Cultural Anthropology. Rhizomes. Mizuko. (1982) Interaction Ritual: Boellstorff. 94 . (1983) Berman. (1999) Interface Culture. into Air: The Experience of Modernity. Nomas. Donna. Additional Reading Ito. Hankamer. Virpi. Douglas and Best. Haraway. Erving. Lease. Marc. Anderson. Oulasvirta. Simians. Zygmunt. Augé. (2002) Feed. Williams. Kuorelahti. Russ. (2003) The Haraway Reader. Poster. Helmreich. Goffman. Kazys. Schizos. (2012) Networked Publics. Andrew. Tamminen. (2000) Handbook of Methods of Places. New Species. Downey. T. (1963) Behavior in Public Bernard. Genes & Us. (1991) Cyberspace: First a Newly Wireless Society. Mark (2004) Consumption and Digital Commodities In the Everyday. Sakari. Jaana (2005) Interaction in 4-Second Bursts: The Fragmented Nature of Attentional Leonard. Roto. Moore. (2008) After Culture . (2010) Coming of Age in Essays on Face-to-Face Behavior. (1997) Bots: The Origin of Resources in Mobile HCI. Gary Lee. Bauman. M. a Science of Simulation. (1995) Non-Places: Introduction to an Anthropology of Supermodernity. Steps. Artificial Life. Haraway. Stephen. Marshall. Second Life Johnson. Erving. (1965) Cramming More Varnelis. (2003) A New Set of Social Rules for Benedikt. Steven A. Gatherings. (1982) All That is Solid Melts Deluze and Guattari. Goffman. Dogs. Kellner. Donna. Reflections on the Apparition of Anthropology in Sarah (1995) Cyborg Anthropology. Antti. Tom. Gary (1999) Between Nature & Culture Cyborgs. Gordon E. Dumit. Components Onto Integrated Circuits by Gordon. Jorge.

Additional Reading cont’d Plant. Chris Hables. Biocca. Joanna (Eds. Smith.) (2005) The Prosthetic Impulse: From a Posthuman Present to a Biocultural Future. 95 . (1998) The Skin of Culture: Investigating the New Electronic Reality. Bruno. Horst. Luce. (1993) Ubiquitous Computing. (2004) On the Mobile. Weiser. (2007) Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. Derrick. Durkheim. Latour. Lakoff. in the 19th Century. Marquard and Morra. (1997) The Cyborg’s Dilemma . (1997) Suicide. Pierre (1988) The Practice of Everyday Life. Wolfgang. Daniel. Turner. Emile. Frank. (1986) The Railway of Mobile Telephones on Social and Individual Journey: The Industrialization of Time and Space Life. (2006) The Cell Phone: An Anthropology of Communication Gray. Michael. (1995) The Cyborg Handbook. De Kerckhove. Sadie. Giard. (1999) Philosophy in the Flesh. de Certeau. Mark. Victor. George. (1967) The Forest of Symbols. Heather and Miller. the Effects Schivelbusch. Mayol. a Study in Sociology.Progressive Embodiment in Virtual Environments.

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CyborgAnthropology. The site is lists.com is meant to connect CyborgAnthropology. the same software that Wikipedia.cyborganthropology. and curriculum that can be used by like to contribute any of these items. papers. Aaron Parecki created a visual theme for the site. To reflect this. and the digital world. films and film reviews. org runs on. conferences. If you’d books.com welcomes many different people across multiple contributions in the form of book reviews. tools and pieces of critical analysis. Anyone is free to edit and add to the site. 97 . cyborganthropology. as well as a number of custom plugins. journal articles. the field of Cyborg Anthropology must be a flexible field capable of absorbing. glossary terms. a collection of journals.com A Digital Resource Site Submissions CyborgAnthropology.com/contributing In the same way that the Internet grows and changes. or anyone. cultural change.com is a Wiki.com runs on MediaWiki. please go to cyborganthropology. have ideas on what to contribute. journal field of Cyborg Anthropology itself. disciplines as well as those involved in the conference listings. classifying and understanding new phenomena.

There is far more to explore and discover. she has been featured in Forbes. In 2010. Since then.com) 98 . You can read more about the author at http://caseorganic. WIRED. and many other publications. When Case stumbled upon the newly formed field of Cyborg Anthropology in college. Case founded Geoloqi.com Photo Credit: Aaron Parecki (aaronparecki. a software company that made location-based mobile software for developers and businessess. This book is a brief glimpse into some of the subjects related to the field. Case grew up knowing that technology would play an increasingly important role in everyday life. Inc. both in the United States and around the world. she knew she had to learn more. About the Author Amber Case has been exploring and speaking about the field of Cyborg Anthropology since 2005. She was named a National Geographic Emerging Explorer in 2012. Geoloqi was acquired by GIS software maker Esri in 2012. and was always looking for new ways of understanding its relationship with people..

Oregon to focus on her own work. During the summer she would take over the family garage and turn it into a painting studio.com 99 . feeling. She drew in all the margins of her spelling worksheets. things our wonderful minds experience: imagination. After attending college at a state school she moved to Portland. On several occasions she received permission to use the big stapler in the office to reassemble the classroom’s drawing books’ disintegrating pages. To her. illustration is best suited for those things that cannot be photographed. and wonder. You can read about the illustrator at http://simplykumquat.About the Illustrator Maggie Wauklyn has been interested in art ever since she could hold a crayon. her work focuses on the emotional essence of the subject rather than a realistic depiction. Deftly sitting astride the line between representation and abstraction.

but without the words. cars and laptops have turned us into cyborgs. an inspirational starting point for designers. we have no idea what we are doing. researchers. Call me old fashioned. Photo by Daniel Root Amber Case • caseorganic. This book is an appetizer for an emerging field of study.com . live and play? How do our tools influence the way we interact with the world? Technology is intertwined with almost every aspect of our lives. In order to navigate this new terrain of our own making. and how humans are changing through the use of technology. panic architecture. we deserve a language for describing and conceiving it. developers. the quantified self. This book explores topics such as junk sleep. hyperlinked memories. “ What it means to be a human being is changing in a digital age. Cyborg Anthropology is a way of exploring how we live as a connected species. . students. Our cell phones.Douglas Rushkoff What does it mean to have an online persona? How is technology changing the way we work. and anyone who wishes to explore the symbiotic relationship between technology and culture.