International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 10 | Oct -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Design and Performance Evaluation of Different Feeding Technique for
IMT Advanced (4G) Antenna
Neeraj Kumari1, Amit Kumar2
1 Assistant Professor, ECE Department, G.I.M.T (Karnal),Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra
2 Assistant Professor, ECE Department, K.I.T.M (Karnal), Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra
neerajsagwal.8@gmail.com1, amitmehla87@gmail.com2

Abstract- This paper describes the designing of rectangular in structure to assure reliability and mobility characteristics.
Microstrip patch antenna for all different feeding technique Microstrip antennas satisfy such requirements. Research on
for wireless microstrip patch antenna i.e for IMT-Advanced microstrip antenna in 21st century aims at size reduction,
(4G) applications. In this paper the antenna is resonating at increasing gain, wide bandwidth, multiple functionality and
2.2 GHz frequency range which is desired frequency for IMT- system level integration. Significant research work has been
Advanced (4G) range. The frequency range for 4G is vary from reported on increasing gain and bandwidth of microstrip
1710 MHz to 2690 MHz. The proposed antenna is designed by antennas. Many techniques have been suggested for
using all four types of feeding techniques (Microstrip line feed, achieving wide bandwidth [4-5]. Main advantage of
coaxial probe feed, proximity coupled feed and aperture microstrip antenna includes low profile easy to fabricate
coupled feed) are used. From the four feeding techniques, (use etching and photolithography), easy to feed (proximity
microstrip line and coaxial probe feeds are contacting schemes coupled, microstrip line, etc.) and easy to use in array of
whereas proximity and aperture coupled feed are non- incorporate with other microstrip circuit elements [6]. In
contacting schemes. Paper gives a better understanding of this paper four feeding techniques are compared for IMT-
design parameters of an antenna and their effect on return Advance (4G) band (1710 – 2690 MHz).
loss, S-Parameters, smith chart, radiation pattern, bandwidth,
VSWR and resonant frequency. Finally simulation is done using II. FEEDING TECHNIQUES
design software HFSS.
In its most basic form, a microstrip patch antenna consist of
Keywords- Rectangular microstrip patch antenna, S- a radiating patch on one side of a dielectric substrate which
Parameters, smith chart, radiation pattern, bandwidth, has a ground plane on the other side as shown in figure 2.1.
VSWR, resonant frequency, microstrip feed, coaxial probe The patch is generally made of conducting material such as
feed, proximity coupled feed, aperture coupled feed, HFSS. copper or gold and can take any possible shape. The
radiating patch and the feed lines are usually photo etched
I. INTRODUCTION on the dielectric substrate. Feeding Techniques are classified
Satellite communication and wireless communication has into two categories- contacting and non-contacting. The four
been develop rapidly in the past decades. Today world’s most popular feed techniques used are the microstrip line,
communication depends on wireless links. In the last few coaxial probe (both contacting schemes), aperture coupling
years, the development of WLAN represented one of the and proximity coupling (both non-contacting schemes).
principal interests in the information and communication
field. Thus, the current trend in commercial and government A. Microstrip Line Feed
communication system has been develop low cost, minimal Microstrip line feeding is a technique in which a conducting
weight, low profile antennas that are capable of maintaining strip is connected directly to the edge of the microstrip patch
high performance over a large spectrum of frequencies. This as shown in figure 1. The width of conducting strip is smaller
technology trend has focused much effort into the design as compared to the patch. This type of feeding arrangement
MPA. MPA are well suited for WLAN/WiMAX application has the advantage that the feed and patch can be etched on
system and having some disadvantage, like narrow the same substrate to provide a planar structure.
bandwidth, low gain etc. Broad banding is the main problem, However as the thickness of the dielectric substrate being
for solving this problem we proposed new structure for used increases, surface waves and spurious feed radiation
devices that require more than one frequency band of also increases, which hampers the bandwidth of the antenna.
operation. Dual-band wireless phones have became popular The feed radiation also leads to undesired cross polarized
recently because they allow using one phone in two radiation. This method is advantageous due to its simple
networks that have different frequencies. Modern wireless planar structure.
communication system also requires low profile, light
weight, high gain, ease of installation, high efficiency, simple
© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 202
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 10 | Oct -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Figure 1 Microstrip Line Feed

B. Coaxial Probe Feed
The Coaxial feed or probe feed is a very common technique
used for feeding Microstrip patch antennas. The inner Figure 2 Coaxial probe Feed
conductor of the coaxial connector extends through the C. Proximity coupled Feed
dielectric and is soldered to the radiating patch, while the This method uses electromagnetic coupling between the feed
outer conductor is connected to the ground plane. The main line and the radiating patches, printed on separate
advantage of this type of feeding scheme is that the feed can substrates [7]. Two dielectric substrates are used such that
be placed at any desired location inside the patch in order to the radiating patch is on top of the upper substrate and feed
match with its input impedance. line is between the two substrates. The advantage of this
However, its major drawback is that it provides narrow coupling is that it yields the largest bandwidth compared to
bandwidth and is difficult to model since a hole has to be other coupling methods, it is somewhat easy to model and
drilled in the substrate and the connector protrudes outside has low spurious radiation. This feeding method also
the ground plane, thus not making it completely planar for provides choices between two different dielectric media, one
thick substrates. for the feed line and one for the patch to optimize the
Also, for thicker substrates, the increased probe length individual performances. Matching can be achieved by
makes the input impedance more inductive, leading to controlling the width-to-line ratio of the patch and length of
matching problems. It is seen above that for a thick the feed line. The major disadvantage of this feeding scheme
dielectric substrate, which provides broad bandwidth, the is that it is difficult to fabricate because of the two dielectric
microstrip line feed and the coaxial feed suffer from layers which need proper alignment. Also, the overall
numerous disadvantages. So to reduce these types of thickness of the antenna also increases.
disadvantages, we will study non-contactingschemes.

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Volume: 03 Issue: 10 | Oct -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

IV. DESIGNING
A. Microstrip Line Feed

Figure 5 Design using Microstrip Line Feed
Figure 3 Proximity coupled feeding for patch antenna Observation from return loss at or below -10dB as shown in
figure 6, 7, 8.
D. Aperture coupled feed 1.Resonant frequency=2.04 GHz at -21.67 dB
In this type of feed technique, the radiating patch and the 2.Band width= f2-f1= 2.09-1.97= 0.12 GHz= 120MHz
microstrip feed line are separated by the ground plane. 3. VSWR=1.08
Coupling between the patch and the feed line is made 4. Impedance Matching = 57.55ohm
through a slot or an aperture in the ground plane and XY Plot 6 HFSSDesign1

variations in the coupling will depend upon the size i.e.
ANSOFT
0.00
Curve Info
dB(S(1,1))

length and width of the aperture to optimize the result for
Setup1 : Sw eep
-2.50

wider bandwidths and better return losses. The coupling -5.00

aperture is usually centered under the patch, leading to -7.50
Return Loss (dB)

lower cross-polarization due to symmetry of the -10.00

configuration. Since the ground plane separates the patch
-12.50

and the feed line, spurious radiation is minimized.
-15.00

Aperture coupled feeding is attractive because of advantages
-17.50

such as no physical contact between the feed and radiator,
-20.00

wider bandwidths, and better isolation between antennas
-22.50
1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00
Freq [GHz]

and the feed network. Furthermore, aperture-coupled 1.00 3.00

feeding allows independent optimization of antennas and Figure 6 Return loss plot of MSL Feed
feed networks by using substrates of different thickness or 75.00
XY Plot 8 HFSSDesign1 ANSOFT

permittivity.
Curve Info
VSWR(1)
Setup1 : Sw eep

62.50

50.00
VSWR(1)

37.50

25.00

12.50

0.00
1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00
Freq [GHz]

Figure 7 VSWR plot using Microstrip Line Feed

Figure 4 Aperture coupled Feed

© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 204
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 10 | Oct -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Smith Chart 1 HFSSDesign1 ANSOFT XY Plot 16 HFSSDesign1 ANSOFT

Curve Info
9.00 Curve Info
100 90 80
110 1.00 70 S(1,1) VSWR(1)
120 60 Setup1 : Sw eep Setup1 : Sw eep
130 50 8.00
0.50 2.00
140 40

150 30
7.00

160 0.20 5.00 20
6.00
170 10

VSWR
5.00
180 0.00 0.20 0.50 1.00 2.00 5.00 0
0.00

-170 -10 4.00

-160 -0.20 -5.00 -20
3.00
-150 -30

-140 -40
2.00
-0.50 -2.00
-130 -50
-120 -60
-110 -1.00 -70 1.00
-100 -90 -80 1.80 1.90 2.00 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60
Freq [GHz]

Figure 8 Smith chart plot using Microstrip Line Feed
Figure 11 VSWR plot using Coaxial Feed
B. Coaxial Probe Feed Smith Chart 1 HFSSDesign1 ANSOFT

100 90 80 Curve Info
110 1.00 70 S(1,1)
120 60 Setup1 : Sw eep
130 50
0.50 2.00
140 40

150 30

160 0.20 5.00 20

170 10

180 0.00 0.20 0.50 1.00 2.00 5.00 0
0.00

-170 -10

-160 -0.20 -5.00 -20

-150 -30

-140 -40
-0.50 -2.00
-130 -50
-120 -60
-110 -1.00 -70
-100 -90 -80

Figure 12 Smith Chart plot using Coaxial Feed

C. Proximity coupled Feed
Figure 9 Design using Coaxial Feed
Observation from return loss at or below -10dB as shown in
figure 10, 11, 12.
1. Resonant frequency=2.1 GHz at -19.77dB
2. Band width= f2-f1= 2.13-2.03= 0.10GHz = 100MHz
3. VSWR= 1.21
4. Impedance Matching = 59.05 ohm
S Parameter XY Plot 15 HFSSDesign1 ANSOFT

-2.00 Curve Info
dB(S(1,1))
Setup1 : Sw eep
-4.00

-6.00

-8.00
Return Loss (dB)

-10.00

-12.00 Figure 13 Design using Proximity Coupled Feed
-14.00 Observation from return loss at or below -10dB as shown in
-16.00
figure 14, 15, 16.
-18.00
1. Resonant frequency=2.19 GHz at -17.90 dB
-20.00
1.80 1.90 2.00 2.10 2.20
Freq [GHz]
2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60
2. Band width= f2-f1= 2.26-2.13=0.13GHz=130MHz
1.80 2.60
3. VSWR= 1.08
Figure 10 Return loss plot using Coaxial Feed 4. Impedance Matching = 48.80 ohm

© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 205
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 10 | Oct -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

XY Plot 18
D. Aperture coupled feed
HFSSDesign1 ANSOFT
0.00
Curve Info
dB(S(1,1))
Setup1 : Sw eep

-5.00

-10.00
Retun Loss (dB)

-15.00

-20.00

-25.00

-30.00
1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00
Freq [GHz]

Figure 14 Return loss Proximity Coupled Feed
XY Plot 19 HFSSDesign1 ANSOFT
75.00
Curve Info
VSWR(1)
Setup1 : Sw eep

62.50

50.00
VSWR

Figure 17 Design using Aperture Coupled Feed
37.50

25.00
Observation from return loss at or below -10dB as shown in
12.50
figure 18, 19, 20.
1. Resonant frequency=2.27 GHz at -20.06dB
0.00
1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00
Freq [GHz]
2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00 2. Band width= f2-f1= 2.33-2.21=0.12GHz=120MHz
Figure 15 VSWR Plot Proximity Coupled Feed 3. VSWR = 1.02
4. Impedance Matching = 51.78 ohm
Smith Chart 1 HFSSDesign1 ANSOFT

100 90 80 Curve Info
110 1.00 70 S(1,1) XY Plot 9 HFSSDesign1 ANSOFT
120 60 Setup1 : Sw eep 0.00
Curve Info
130 50 dB(S(1,1))
0.50 2.00
Setup1 : Sw eep
140 40 -2.50

150 30
-5.00
160 0.20 5.00 20

170 10 -7.50
Return Loss (dB)

180 0.00 0.20 0.50 1.00 2.00 5.00 0 -10.00
0.00

-170 -10 -12.50

-160 -0.20 -5.00 -20
-15.00
-150 -30

-140 -40 -17.50
-0.50 -2.00
-130 -50
-120 -60 -20.00
-110 -1.00 -70
-100 -90 -80
-22.50
1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50
Freq [GHz]

Figure 16 Smith Chart plot using Proximity Coupled Feed Figure 18 Return Loss plot using Aperture Coupled Feed
XY Plot 10 HFSSDesign1 ANSOFT
70.00
Curve Info
VSWR(1)
Setup1 : Sw eep

60.00

50.00

40.00
VSWR

30.00

20.00

10.00

0.00
1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50
Freq [GHz]

Figure 19 VSWR plot using Aperture Coupled Feed

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 10 | Oct -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

different feeding technique and with various antenna
Smith Chart 1 HFSSDesign1 ANSOFT

100 90 80 Curve Info
110 1.00 70 S(1,1)

130
120

0.50
60

2.00
50
Setup1 : Sw eep
parameters are presented.
140 40

150 30

160 0.20 5.00 20 REFERENCES
[1] Ramesh Garg, Prakash Bhartie, Inder Bahl, Apisak
170 10

180 0.00 0.20 0.50 1.00 2.00 5.00

Ittipiboon, “Microstrip Antenna Design Handbook”, 2001 pp.
0
0.00

-170 -10

-160 -0.20 -5.00 -20 1-68, 253-316 Artech House Inc. Norwood.
-150 -30
[2].Y.-L. Ban, J.-H. Chen, S. C. Sun, J. L.-W. Li, and J.-H. Guo.
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-140 -40
-0.50 -2.00
-130 -50
-120 -60
-110
-100
-1.00
-90 -80
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Figure 20 Smith plot using Aperture Coupled Feed 313-329, 2012.
[3].Luis Inclan-Sanchez, Jose-Luis Vazques-Roy “Proximity
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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 10 | Oct -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

BIOGRAPHIES

Ms. Neeraj Kumari is an Assistant Professor in
ECE Department at Galaxy Institute of Technology and
Management, Bhaini Kalan, Karnal, Haryana.

Mr. Amit Kumar Mehla is an Assistant
Professor in ECE Department at Karnal Institute of
Technology and Management, Karnal, Haryana.

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