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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 10 | October-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Locally Available Hard Moorum used in Pavement Sub-base
Ashok Kumar1, Parveen Berwal2
1PG student, Dept. of Civil Engineering, IIET, Kinana, Jind, Haryana, India.
2Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, IIET, Kinana, Jind, Haryana, India.

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Abstract - Now-a-days the depletion of natural resources granular sub-base materials drains the water away which
has been a major issue in the construction sector from which enters through surface cracks.
the road segment cannot be excluded. Because of the extensive A rigid pavement usually consists of a cement concrete
road construction processes the aggregate demand is so huge slab, with a granular base or sub-base course provided
that lots of blasting, quarrying, crushing and transportation below for drainage, to control pumping, to control frost
activities are consuming a lot of energies, but also the action and to control shrink and swell of the subgrade. The
aggregate materials are depleting fast and are in short supply. rigid pavement differs from the flexible pavement in the load
On the other hand, industrial wastes, by-products and locally distribution phenomenon. In the rigid pavement, the critical
available unused materials which are considered as non- condition occurs due to the maximum flexural stress in the
conventional materials are causing environmental and slab due to the wheel load and the temperature changes
dumping problems, but can have a potential for their whereas compressive stresses are distributed throughout
application in road constructions. In the present study, an the flexible pavement. Though rigid pavements possess the
attempt has been made to utilise abundantly available gravel noteworthy flexural strength or flexural rigidity, flexible
(moorum) in the road sub-bases. Its gradation and other pavement is widely used in construction because of its
physical properties are studied by using suitable tests and smooth riding surface and lower cost of construction.
techniques. Conventional crushed aggregates are also used in
conjunction with the moorum to satisfy the desired grading for However in semi-rigid pavements bonded materials are
use in a particular layer as per the specifications of the utilized in the base or sub-base course of pavement layer,
Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. The optimum giving them higher flexural strength than the conventional
percentage of the moorum that can be used in sub-base layer flexible pavement layers. The materials for bound base or
is found to be 52%. Cement has also been used in required sub-base layer may consist of aggregate, soil or combination
quantity to get the desired strength. The physical properties of both modified with stabilizers such as lime, cement, fly ash
have been studied. It is observed that hard moorum have or commercial stabilizers to give desired strength.
excellent properties as road aggregates and can be used in the 1.1 Problem Statement
road base and sub-base applications.
Traditionally, the materials which are used in highway
Key Words: Moorum, Specific Gravity, Impact value etc.
construction are also used in other construction activities
(like buildings, industrial set ups, dams, power houses etc.).
1. INTRODUCTION Aggregates for base and sub-base use are composed of sand,
crushed aggregates, gravels or natural materials that provide
Generally pavement structures used for road the necessary strength and durability. To meet the enormous
construction are flexible and rigid. A flexible pavement demands of construction the above natural aggregate
consists of four components: soil subgrade, sub-base course, resources are heavily consumed for the construction of
base course and surface course where the vertical load roads, especially in urban markets. The extraction of
transmission takes place from the top (surface) to the aggregates from hills through quarrying operations, crushing
bottom (subgrade). A well compacted granular arrangement and transportation etc. are not only responsible for the
consisting of well-graded aggregates forms a good pavement environmental degradation in the form of loss of forest
(flexible) which transfers the compressive stresses through a lands, vibrations, dust, noise, pollution hazards etc. but also
wider area. The base layer, immediately below the surface consume a large amount of energy depleting the energy
layer provides support to the pavement transmitting the sources.
load to the layers below. The sub-base layer, below the base On the other hand, industrial wastes, by-products and
layer, not only provides the support to the pavement locally available unused materials which are considered as
structure and transmits traffic loads to the subgrade but also non-conventional materials are causing environmental and
provides frost action and drainage. The sub-base is generally dumping problems, but can have a potential for their
composed of two layers, the lower (filter) layer forms the application in road constructions. In the present study, an
separation preventing the intrusion of subgrade soil into the attempt has been made to utilise locally and abundantly
upper layers and the upper (drainage) layer composed of available gravel (moorum) in the road sub-bases. Its
gradation and other physical properties are studied by using

© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 344
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 10 | October-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

suitable tests and techniques. Conventional crushed 0.425 15-35 -
aggregates are also used in conjunction with the moorum to 0.075 0-5 0-5
satisfy the desired grading for use in a particular layer as per
the specifications of the Ministry of Road Transport and 2.1.1 Gradation
Highways. Cement has also been used in required quantity to
get the desired strength. The physical properties have been The gradation and size test is used to determine
studied. aggregate particle size distribution. Size distribution is
perhaps the single most important aggregate quality
1.2 Locally available hard moorum associated with the control of HMA mixtures. Aggregate
gradation and size affect HMA volumetric properties as well
Moorum is a fragmented weathered rock that occurs as mixture permeability and workability.
with varying proportions of silt and clay. It is a low-grade In a gradation and size analysis, a sample of dry
marginal material having the low bearing capacity and high aggregate of known weight is separated through a series of
water absorption value than that of the conventional natural sieves with progressively smaller openings. Once separated,
aggregates. India is rich in hard moorum, but the quality the weight of particles retained on each sieve is measured
differs significantly from place to place [Ransinchung. et al. and compared to the total sample weight. Particle size
(2014)]. In the present study, the locally available hard distribution is then expressed as a percent retained by weight
moorum is tried to be used in base, and sub-base layer of on each sieve size. Results are usually expressed in tabular or
pavement and cement stabilization/modification is done to graphical format.
make it suitable for use in different layers of pavement.
2.1.2 Blending of aggregates
2. METHODOLOGY
After the gradation results of moorum and crushed
The materials whether natural aggregates or industrial aggregates were obtained, blending of the same materials
wastes/by-products or locally available materials must was done by mixing different proportions of crushed
satisfy the desired physical properties and strength aggregates to meet the desired gradation (either GSB grading
parameters (for use in base or sub-base layer of road II or grading IV as specified in table 1) on a trial and error
pavement) before their application. Apart from these tests, basis and the aggregate blend for which the percentage
the materials which have a potential to affect the passing was within the desired limits was used for further
environment are also subjected to some chemical tests and tests and analyses.
characterisation to check whether they are environmentally
acceptable or not. In this work physical properties of moorum 2.2 Test Conducted on Material
and natural crushed aggregates were determined as per
respective codes, specifications and certain literature. The In the present work, different types of tests are
test methods carried out in this work are presented below. conducted on the blended mixture obtained after the
blending. Various physical properties are measured by using
2.1 Physical Properties these tests. The various test conducted on material are listed
below:
In the present work, hard moorum was used both in  Water absorption test
cement stabilised base, and cement stabilised sub-base filter  Specific gravity test
layer taking the GSB Grading II of MoRTH (2013)  Plasticity index test
specification in both cases. The crushed aggregates were  Impact test
stabilized with cement for use in the drainage layer of sub-  Combined flakiness index test
base using GSB grading IV. The desired gradation of GSB  Modified proctor test
grading II and IV as per MoRTH (2013) specification
corresponding to the standard IS sieve sizes are given in table 3. RESULTS
1.
3.1 Gradation
Table-1: Grading for Granular Sub-base Materials
IS Sieve Size Percentage passing the IS sieve The sieve size analysis results for moorum and crushed
(in mm) GSB Grading II GSB Grading IV aggregates samples are presented in the graph of sieve size
53 100 100 and mean percentage passing is shown in chart 1
26.5 70-100 50-80
9.5 50-80 -
4.75 40-65 15-35
2.36 30-50 -

© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 345
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 10 | October-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Chart-1: Graph of sieve size ~ mean percentage passing of
the moorum and crushed aggregates

3.2 Blending Chart-2: Blending of moorum and crushed aggregates to
meet the requirements of GSB Grading II as per the MoRTH
3.2.1 Blending of moorum and Crushed aggregates specifications

Blending of moorum and crushed aggregates was done Table-3: Blending of moorum and crushed aggregates to
to meet the requirements of GSB grading II for use in the satisfy the grading requirements of materials for stabilization
cement treated base and the filter layer of sub-base. The with cement
proportions of materials were selected for which the grading
was best fitted within the desired limits. Grading limits of materials
But in case of moorum, the fines content was found to be for stabilization with
Blending
very high and during blending it was difficult to satisfy the cement (MoRTH
limits of grading II taking the quantity of moorum more than specification)
20 % of the total weight of aggregates. So the blending of Sieve %passing %passing Moorum=52%+A10=17
moorum and crushed aggregates was tried not only to Size (L) (U) %+A6= 31%
achieve a grading as close as possible to the desired grading 53 100 100 100
of GSB grading II as per the MoRTH Specifications but also to 37.5 95 100 95.46
satisfy the grading limits of cement stabilization as per the 19 45 100 78.53
MoRTH Specifications as well as the grading requirements of 9.5 35 100 55.23
cement bound base and sub-base materials (Grading III) as 4.75 25 100 33.29
per IRC SP: 89 (2010). 0.6 8 65 -
0.3 5 40 -
Table-2: Blending of moorum and crushed aggregates to 0.075 0 10 8.52
meet the requirements of GSB Grading II
Grading II limits for
granular sub-base
Blending
materials (MoRTH
Specification)
Sieve %passing %passing Moorum=52%+A10=17%+
Size (L) (U) A6=31%
53 100 100 100
26.5 70 100 95.46
9.5 50 80 78.53
4.75 40 65 55.23
2.36 30 50 33.29
0.425 10 15 17.25
0.075 0 5 8.52
Chart-3: Blending of moorum and crushed aggregates to
satisfy the grading requirements of Materials for stabilization
with Cement as per the MoRTH Specifications

© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 346
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 10 | October-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Table-4: Blending of moorum and crushed aggregates to Table-5: Physical properties of the moorum and individual
satisfy the Grading III limits for cement bound materials for crushed aggregates
base/sub-bases as per IRC SP: 89(2010)
Property Moorum A40 A20 A10 A6
Grading III Limits for
Water Coarse 4.78 0.25 0.32 0.39 0.78
cement bound materials
Blending Absorption
for base/sub-bases as per Fine 5.12 - - - -
(%)
IRC SP: 89(2010)
Sieve %passing %passing Moorum=52%+A10=17% Specific Coarse 2.83 2.74 2.73 2.76 2.67
Size (L) (U) +A6= 31% Gravity
53 100 100 100 (Bulk) Fine 2.72 - - - -
26.5 70 100 95.46
9.5 50 80 78.53 Specific
Coarse 3.17 2.76 2.80 2.81 2.63
4.75 40 65 55.23 Gravity
2.36 30 50 33.29 Fine 2.89 - - - -
0.425 15 25 17.25 (Apparent)
0.075 3 10 8.52 Liquid
40.50 - - - 18.20
Limit
Plasticity Plastic
20.30 - - - -
Index limit
Plasticity
20.20 - - - NP
Index
Impact Value 33.52 13.01 19.84 23.01 -
Combined Flakiness
- 54.86 65.72 92.12 -
Index

Table 6 Physical properties of the combination of the
moorum and crushed aggregates for use in different
layers.
Cement treated Cement treated Sub-
Base (GSB II) 5% base Filter layer
Chart-4: Blending of moorum and crushed aggregates to
cement (GSB II) 3.0%
satisfy the Grading III Limits for Cement Bound Materials for Property
Moorum(52%) cement
Base/Sub-bases as per IRC SP:89 (2010)
+A10(17%) Moorum(52%)
+A6(31%) +A10(17%) +A6(31%)
From different trials, the optimum proportion of
Liquid Limit
moorum that can be used in base and sub-¬base was found to 21.30 21.30
(LL)
be 50 percent of the total weight of aggregates satisfying the
Plastic Limit
above grading requirements. - -
(PL)
3.3 Other Properties Plasticity
NP NP
Index (PI)
The physical properties of individual aggregates were Impact
23.17 23.17
determined following the standard procedure are presented Value
in table 5. The physical properties of the combination of Combined
aggregates (moorum and crushed aggregates) were Flakiness 67.05 67.05
determined for their use in different layers taking the Index
optimum proportions as obtained in blending and presented Optimum
in table 6. Moisture 7.11 6.42
Content (%)
Max. Dry
Density 2.42 2.39
(g/cc)

© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 347
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 10 | October-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

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