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Canada is the second largest country in the world. Its border with the USA is the
longest border in the world. Nearly 90% of Canadians live within 200km of this
border. From east to west, Canada encompasses six time zones, stretching from
the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans.

The country is officially bilingualEnglish and Frenchwith road signs and official
documents in both languages. French is widely spoken in Quebec while English is
the business language in the rest of the country.

Ethnically diverse, Canadian culture has been influenced by global immigration.

The country views itself as a cultural mosaic where cultures join together yet retain
their original customs. Canadians have a strong sense of national identity.

Culture Overview

Cultural Essentials

Canadian culture depends upon many variables. For example, individual

behaviors are influenced by the age of the person, which part of the
country they are from, their cultural heritage and how long their family has
lived in Canada, as well as their education and socio-economic level. A
person's age also impacts their behavior with Generation X and Y (born
from 1965 2000) generally being more self-confident and technologically-
savvy than older generations.

Regional Loyalty
Most people have a stronger allegiance to their province or region than to
the country. There are regional differences that can be characterized by
very broad generalizations:

Atlantic Provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward

Island and Newfoundland): People may be somewhat reserved and
Ontario: This is the business hub and the people tend to be business-
like and conservative.
Western Canada (Alberta, Manitoba and Saskatchewan): People
tend to be open, friendly and relaxed.
British Colombia: The people are less conventional. This province is
often viewed as the Canada of the future. 8.2.2017.
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Quebec: The French region with a distinct cultural identity. People

are regionalistic and independent.
North: People have a strong pioneer spirit.

Cultural Mosaic / Multiculturalism

In the 1890s, Canada began inviting landless people from all over the
world to settle in the country. Until recently, Canadian immigration policy
continued to be very welcoming and egalitarian in its philosophy,
celebrating diversity, and offering opportunities to anyone who chose to
come and make a new life. This has created a cultural mosaic, where
individuals are encouraged to retain their cultural identities, complete with
traditions, languages and customs, upon immigration. Canadians pride
themselves on not needing to be homogenous to have a strong, peaceful

The government enacted an Official Multiculturalism Act in 1988 to

guarantee that no one would be discriminated against for any reason,
including their national origin.

Individual Focus
Although they are family oriented, for the most part Canadians are
individualistic and place a premium on clearly separating their public and
private lives. They value personal privacy and are not quick to share details
about their personal life with acquaintances in social situations, although
they may relate general information in the workplace as part of getting-to-
know-you conversation.

This reliance on themselves and belief that they can attain their goals
through working hard is manifested in several ways. For the most part,
Canadians make decisions on their own and, unless it is a team
environment, do not consult others. They allow rules and procedures to
dictate appropriate behavior and do not rely on relationships to circumvent
regulations. In the workplace, this is seen in an emphasis on deadlines
rather than relationship building.

Communication Styles
Canada is a multicultural mosaic where is it difficult to pinpoint one
communication style for the entire country. There are strong regional
differences as well as variations due to the length of time someone has
been in Canada. For example, an ethnic Chinese who lives in a Chinese
enclave in Vancouver will communicate more like someone from mainland
China than will a fifth-generation Chinese person working in Toronto.

For the most part, communication is moderately direct, although when

disagreeing, most Canadians do so with tact and diplomacy. Their
communication style is pragmatic and relies on common sense rather than

Communication styles vary between Anglophone and Francophone areas.

Francophones tend to be more indirect and more exuberant than
Anglophones. Anglophones do not generally interrupt since they generally
believe it is rude not to let a person complete their thought, whereas
Francophones may interrupt. 8.2.2017.
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Canadians mean what they say and their word is their bond. Do not say or
do something that indicates you do not trust someone or you may destroy
your relationship and future business dealings.


Canada does not have an official religion and religious pluralism is the
basis of the culture. The majority of the population are Christian, although
many are not active church attendees. Nonetheless, there remain visible
remnants of Christianity in the culture.

Increased immigration from Asia, Africa and the Middle East have given
rise to increased numbers of Muslim, Buddhist, Sikh, and Hindu

Christmas and Easter are national holidays. Both the constitution and the
national anthem make reference to an unspecified god. The French version
of O Canada, contains a reference to "carrying the cross". In some parts of
the country, Sunday shopping remains banned, although this is becoming
less common.

Role of Women

Canadian culture is changing and with it, the role of women. At one time it
was accepted that women's roles were limited to homemaker, wife, and
mother. In recent years, new opportunities have opened for women and
emphasis has been placed on equality.

Many women struggle to balance career with family responsibilities. Most

men under the age of 35 take on a greater amount of domestic
responsibilities, especially when both spouses are employed outside the
home. In an attempt to combine careers with domesticity, women may
work part-time, accept contract work, or run a business from home.

The government is striving to enhance the role of women. October is

officially designated as Womens History Month; it is a time to celebrate
womens accomplishments and their contribution to the country. The
government has also created a government agency, Status of Women
Canada (SWC), to promote full participation of women in the economic,
social, cultural and political life. 8.2.2017.
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Sexual discrimination is illegal, although biases against women in non-

traditional roles continue, especially among people over the age of 45.

During the last two decades, women have made great strides and inroads
into what were once male-dominated sectors. Even though there remains
very much an "Old Boy's Network", there are now many role models of
successful female executives.

More women (60%) than men (40%) graduate from university. Depending
upon the research, it is estimated that between 32 and 40% of women fill
managerial positions; however, they tend to be in lower-level managerial
positions than their male counterparts. Women are an increasingly larger
presence in professional fields such as business and finance, medicine,
dentistry and other health professionals, and social sciences or religion.

In early 2014 Catalyst reported that women comprised the following roles
in the workforce: CEO: 5%; Board of Directors: 16%; and Professionals:

Nearly 50% of entrepreneurs are female and their ranks are steadily
increasing. Most work in the retail and service sectors, although there are
increasing numbers of women-owned technology, manufacturing,
computer services and management consulting companies.

View of Foreign Women

Foreign businesswomen should experience few difficulties conducting
business in Canada. If they do, it is most likely an individual bias rather
than a cultural nuance.

Foreign businesswomen are expected to behave in a professional manner.

Tips for Businesswomen

Canadians admire professionalism. They will gauge a foreign
businesswomans knowledge and ability from the way she comports herself
as well as her performance. Acting in a formal and somewhat reserved
manner can reinforce your status as a serious businesswoman. Business
attire, including accoutrements, should be conservative.

In the English-speaking regions, it is a good idea to find a balance between

being open and friendly and remaining somewhat self-contained and
reserved. Qubcois, on the other hand, can be expressive speakers and
are comfortable when people use hand gestures. If you are doing business
outside of Quebec, you may wish to moderate your hand gestures if they
are particularly expansive.

Gracious manners are part of the business culture. It is common for

businessmen to stand when a businesswoman enters or leaves the room.
It is a good idea to smile and accept such acts of courtesy in the spirit in
which they are meantproper etiquette.

In Quebec, expect to be called by the honorific title "Madame", regardless

of your marital status. 8.2.2017.
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Out of courtesy, Canadians often ask business travelers about their

journey. Respond briefly and superficially. Most Canadians do not discuss
personal matters in business and they do not require a detailed response.
Likewise, it is best to shy away from asking personal questions unless you
develop a personal relationship with a business colleague. Even then, such
discussions are best held outside the office.

Establishing Credibility
When meeting someone in Quebec, the status of the person who handles
your introduction lays the foundation for the way you are perceived. Have
the highest ranking person you know (who also knows the people with
whom you will be doing business) take on this important role. Since
Qubcois admire education, include advanced university degrees on your
business card.

Introductions are less important in the rest of Canada, although a personal

referral can open doors.

Women should initiate the handshake during greetings.

Conservative business attire is the sign of a consummate professional.

Learn something about Canadian history before arriving. Canadians are

often positively disposed to doing business with people who know
something about their unique culture. Since there are strong regional
differences, do not think that success in one area of the country
guarantees success in another.

Canadians are not impressed by boasting and bragging. This is a business

culture where you are evaluated on your actions rather than on what you
say about yourself. Criticizing others' work will make you appear

Strive to speak clearly and concisely and present a well-ordered business

case. Respond honestly to questions. If you do not know the answer, it is
better to admit that than appear evasive, which may be considered a lack
of sincerity. Follow through is extremely important in Canadian business.

Going out for a quick drink after work is common in some companies. If
invited, it is a good idea to attend, even if you order a non-alcoholic
beverage. This is an opportunity to get to know your colleagues on a more
personal level. Just be sure to pay for a "round."

View of Foreigners

Canadians are proud of their multicultural society where the government

encourages the various ethnic groups to retain their language, religion,
customs and traditions. This is called a cultural mosaic and tells immigrants 8.2.2017.
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that their culture and history are important. It is estimated that over 250,000
people immigrate to Canada each year.

Most Canadians are warm and welcoming to foreigners. If they are not, it is
an individual predilection rather than a cultural nuance.

Cross Culture Tips

The following cultural observations are based on the dimensions in the

ICAM169; Cultural Model. They are designed to help you work and
understand people from other cultural backgrounds.

Please keep in mind that not all people from any given culture act the
same, but in order to describe cultural traits, we had to make
generalizations, which may not apply in some cases. Perhaps the most
important tip we can provide is that when interacting across cultures, you
need to approach every situation with an understanding of the basic tenets
of a given culture and yet remain alert to the specific cultural signals you
receive in each situation and adjust your behavior and expectations

Hierarchical vs. Egalitarian

The defining characteristics of this dimension are:

How society is structured

How power is allocated or earned
Tolerance for social mobility
How organizations are structured and run
The amount of responsibility and control employees are given

Canada is a very egalitarian society. When you interact with Canadians,

the following tips will help you.

People expect to be treated with an equal amount of respect and will

express their opinions based upon their ability to contribute rather
than their position.
As a manager or team member, plan to be inclusive.
Be aware that you cannot evaluate an individual's rank or importance
based on appearance, demeanor, privileges or status symbols.
These external manifestations of status may be absent and are often
regarded as pretentious in this environment.
People will feel empowered to demonstrate initiative and take
Don't expect deferential or special privileges based on your position
in society or the workplace.

Formal vs. Informal

The defining characteristics of this dimension are: 8.2.2017.
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The importance of appearance and demeanor as an indicator of

The importance of protocol and etiquette
The appropriate use of titles, surnames and honorifics
The appropriateness of discussing personal matters at work
Appropriate ways of meeting people, building relationships and

Canada is an informal society. When you interact with Canadians, the

following tips will help you as you cross cultures.

Overt displays of wealth or status may be considered pretentious and

Recognize that lines may be blurred-lines between socio-economic
groups, lines between personal and professional lives and status in
the organizational hierarchy.
Appearance, demeanor, and lack of status symbols may be
deceiving. These external manifestations of status may be absent
and are often regarded as unnecessary and unwanted.
Talk in moderate tones and do not do anything to call attention to
yourself. Canadians strive to fit in at all times.

Group vs. Individual

The defining characteristics of this dimension are:

The source of an individual's identity and loyalties

The relative importance of the individual versus the group
Whether legal systems will protect the rights of the individual or focus
on the group as a whole
Whether individuals prefer to work alone or be part of a group
Whether work teams operate as a seamless entity or as cooperating
The value of individual contributions vs. teamwork in accomplishing
and rewarding business goals
The roles and responsibilities of individuals to other family members
The appropriate levels of self-assertion and self-promotion within a

Canada is an individual-oriented society. As you interact with Canadians, it

will be helpful to remember the following tips:

People prefer to work independently rather than as part of a group.

Individuals will not be embarrassed to call attention to their
accomplishments. Even when working in a group, individuals will
focus on their own primary tasks rather than that of the total group.
Groups are seen more for collegiality than for sharing responsibility.
An individual's importance and self-worth is determined by their ability
to think and work independently.
As an employer or manager, provide employees with sufficient
opportunities for independent problem solving. Individuals will
respond well to being given the autonomy, independence and
flexibility to get the job done. 8.2.2017.
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Be aware that it is culturally appropriate for employees to identify

opportunities to demonstrate their abilities and "make their mark".
During meetings and presentations, individuals will strive to
distinguish themselves by speaking out.
Individual expression is encouraged and will be demonstrated in
people's appearance and behavior.

Interpersonal vs. Transactional Relationships

The defining characteristics of this dimension are:

What constitutes a relationship

What are the expectations
Whether trust is deemed critical to building social or business
What takes precedence in making a business decision: the people
involved or other more objective business criteria
The pace and degree of formalized rituals in building new
The appropriateness of mixing business and pleasure, or
professional and personal lives

Canada is a transactional-oriented relationship culture. When you have

business or social interactions with Canadians, you will want to remember
these points:

Be prepared to "get down to business" much earlier in an interaction

Avoid engaging in too much small talk or asking personal questions
in business situations.
While people may appear open and friendly, don't be offended if they
don't seem interested in knowing anything about you.
Relationships can be very transient; don't be surprised if former
mentors, colleagues, or even friends fail to stay in touch once they (or
you) have moved.
For those coming from higher relationship cultures, try to understand
that friendships where people consider themselves to be "good
buddies" have value, even though the relationships may seem
You will not have to build a relationship before commencing with
business, but you might have to engage in more legal discussions
than you would otherwise expect.
Social invitations may be casual and spontaneous.
In some cases, remarks about "getting together sometime" are well-
intentioned gestures or momentary pleasantries that may never be
carried through.

Indirect vs. Direct Communication

The defining characteristics of this dimension are:

The relative importance of verbal vs. non-verbal communication

The degree of directness or subtlety in the language
The relative importance of contextual versus tactical information in
conveying a message
The need to maintain harmony and dignity when communicating 8.2.2017.
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The degree to which a society uses conciseness and clarity versus

eloquent language when communicating

Canada is a direct communication culture. The following tips will give you
clues about how you might handle communication with Canadian

Say what you mean and mean what you say. People prefer
directness and authenticity when communicating.
Be aware that it is considered rude to interrupt when they are
speaking, also be aware that silence during a conversation may
cause locals to feel uncomfortable and pressured to bridge the gap.
Participants in a meeting will take turns speaking usually
acknowledging and continuing the point the previous speaker made.
Brevity is appreciated in all kinds of communications. This is
especially true in business.
Unlike indirect communication cultures, in direct communication
cultures the verbal message is more important than body language
and voice modulation.
Meetings are typically a forum for exchanging information, assigning
tasks or making decisions. It is not an appropriate setting for flowery
Do not be surprised if people offer direct praise, criticism or feedback,
even in a public forum such as a meeting or presentation.

Fluid vs. Controlled Time

The defining characteristics of this dimension are:

The degree to which people feel that they can control time
The relative importance of relationships vs. schedules
Attitudes towards timekeeping and punctuality
Comfort level with short range vs. longer term planning
The feasibility / appropriateness of assigning set times for social
functions or business meetings to start and finish

Canada is a Controlled Time society. The following tips will give you clues
about how you may best interact with Canadian colleagues around time

Most people consider time to be something that is within their control

and they may have difficulties when outside forces interrupt their
Since they value their time, people tend to see those who are not
prompt as disorganized or even unprofessional.
Time management skills are valued; meeting deadlines shows good
Meetings and social events may have a scheduled starting and
ending time.
Because they structure their time, it is important to schedule visits in

External vs. Internal Control

The defining characteristics of this dimension are: 8.2.2017.
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The degree to which people feel they control their environment and
destiny-or the degree to which they feel their environment and
destiny control them
Openness to change and innovation
The preference for rules and structure
Willingness to take risks
The degree to which organizational practices encourage and reward
initiative and risk taking, and allow failure

Canada is a very Internal Control society. When interacting with

Canadians, you should remember the following tips:

Change is typically perceived in a positive light, and is willingly

embraced, even if it is not easily implemented.
People are open and interested in new products, systems and
Since a great deal of initiative and flexibility typically accompanies
new ideas, change is often implemented without the amount of
planning other societies require.
Employees will prefer for managers to provide general guidelines and
resources, allowing them the autonomy and flexibility to execute the
Expect higher job and geographical mobility and consequently less
personal loyalty to one's employer. There will be a strong emphasis
on self-managing one's career.
Innovation and risk are part of the expected behavior of successful
Individuals believe that they have some control over their destiny and

Balance vs. Status Motivation

The defining characteristics of this dimension are:

The importance and value attached to professional vs. personal lives

How status and success are defined by a society
The presence or absence of government-sponsored initiatives
relating to family welfare benefits
The source of an individual's identity and self-esteem
Tolerance for blurring the lines between professional and personal

Canada is a Status-Motivation culture. When interacting with Canadians,

you should remember the following tips:

Personal identity is a mixture of family lineage, education and

personal professional achievements.
People will find that doors open more easily based on family position
and status, but gain status and respect by workplace
Highly motivated people will make significant sacrifices for individual
recognition and status, but financial achievement alone is not, in
itself, a motivator.
Social occasions are not used to achieve business objectives. 8.2.2017.
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While family background is important, people are measured on their

own achievements in gaining status.

Generational Info

Generational Overview

Generations are shaped by history, technological advances, social

changes, and economic conditions, etc. Significant events during a
generation's formative years create similar values, expectations,
perceptions, opportunities and challenges.

There are currently three generations in the Canadian workforce whose life
experiences create behavioral differences. These generations often have
different viewpoints towards many aspects of business.

Since generational study is not an exact science, social scientists attribute

different birth years to each generation, most commonly the Baby Boomers
in Canada, where demographers claim the baby boom did not start until
1952. What we provide is the most common definition, although a few
years on either side of the range is possible.

The groups are:

Generation Y: Born 1980 2000

Generation X: Born 1965 1979
Baby Boomers: Born 1946 1964

Many Baby Boomers, who are at or nearing retirement age, are remaining
in the workplace. This is not surprising since this is the generation that
made work their first priority. Until they find their next challenge, many may
prefer to remain in the workforce.

Baby Boomers

1946 1964

Seminal Events

Introduction of the birth control pill

Vietnam War and protests
Rock 'n Roll

Values 8.2.2017.
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What this Looks Like in the Workplace

Define themselves by their careers. For many, work is the most

important aspect of their life.
Tend to be process oriented and concerned about adhering to
accepted procedures. Younger generations may view them as
inflexible and wedded to antiquated ways of doing things.
Patiently waited for their promotions and expect the younger
generations to do the same.

Work Ethic

Can be workaholics.
Live to work.

What this Looks Like in the Workplace

Although they work extremely hard, they may focus on activities that
do not provide a meaningful ROI.
May be slowing down and becoming more interested in work-life

How to Manage

Tap into their historical perspective and institutional knowledge when

considering a new business case.
Foster their creative and entrepreneurial drives by allowing them to
take chances on new ventures without fear of reprisal.
Provide flexible work arrangements such as part time, work from
home, or short sabbaticals. Such arrangements can bridge the way
into retirement and facilitate the change for both the employee and
the organization.

Generation X

1965 1979

Seminal Events

Energy Crisis
Fall of the Berlin Wall
Desert Storm
Latchkey children
Dual income families; high divorce rate 8.2.2017.
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Work-life balance
Team orientation

What this Looks Like in the Workplace

Expect to build a repertoire of skills and experience they can take

with them, if necessary.
Can be suspicious of being taken advantage of.
Do not expect job security and stay with an organization as long as
they are learning and enjoying themselves.
Believe respect must be earned.
Seek collegial working relationships.

Work Ethic

Seek work-life balance.

Work to live.
Want balance now; unwilling to wait.

What this Looks Like in the Workplace

Willing to wait their turn to move up.

Want work to be a source of lifelong learning. Expect to enjoy what
they do and have fun while doing it.

How to Manage

Do not micro-manage; they work best with a hands-off management

Create an environment with a high degree of independence and
Keep you word to increase their level of trust. If something happens
and you cannot keep your word, be upfront and tell the person.
Allow room for Gen X to grow. Provide opportunities to try new things
and experiment in a protected environment.
Provide frequent communication so that they feel they are in the loop
and understand the rationale behind decisions.
Foster collaborative relationships within the work group.
Offer a variety of tasks and projects and increasing responsibility.
Provide clear deadlines and expectations.
Create opportunities to work in teams. Work relationships are
extremely important.
Provide ongoing training, mentoring and coaching. 8.2.2017.
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Generation Y

1980 2000

Other Names

Echo Boomers
Net Generation
Next Generation

Seminal Events industry
Mobile phones
9/11 global terrorism
Iraq War


Work integration

What this Looks Like in the Workplace

Expect instant gratification.

The vast majority expect to be promoted within 18 months after
taking a job.
Will leave a company if their needs are not met.
Low tolerance for boredom.
Expect work to be fun and will leave if it isn't.

Work Ethic

Work to live
Work hard as long as they are having fun.

What this Looks Like in the Workplace

Want flexible schedules and work arrangements that take into

consideration their outside interests.
Expect to be able to work at their convenience.
Define success by what is important to them. 8.2.2017.
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Want work that is challenging and meaningful.

Preferred communication style

Having been raised with computers, they look for instant gratification.
Therefore, immediate, informal communication is the ideal.

What this Looks Like in the Workplace

For written communication, Gen Y prefers instant messaging or text.

View email and memos as too slow.
Do not like meetings or even face-to-face interactions.

How to Manage

Take an interest in them as a person. Give recognition in a form that

matters to the individual. Consider new and innovative approaches
that are motivational to the individual.
Provide frequent feedback in person. When offering constructive
criticism, start with something positive.
Clearly communicate expectations and what the employee can
expect from the company.
Be transparent about career paths and their requirements.
Provide opportunities to try new skills and take on new assignments
in a protected environment.
Offer clear definitions of success and how to achieve it.
Increase internal mobility by using lateral moves and job rotation.
When delegating routine and mundane tasks, explain how this task is
relevant to the organization.
Provide access to leaders. Gen Y expects to have their voice heard
and do not like bureaucracy.
Offer increased opportunities for development.
Provide ongoing mentoring and coaching.

Country Overview

The People

Canadians are proud that their country is a cultural mosaic where

immigrants are encouraged to retain their cultural identity. In fact, the only
thing more diverse than Canadas scenery is its people. Waves of
immigration from Europe, America, Africa, the Middle East and Asia have
created the kaleidoscope of cultures. Over 6 million French Canadians live
in the eastern province of Qubec. Their motto, "je me souviens" ("I
remember"), helps keep them more French than France. Nova Scotia is as
Scottish as haggis and kilts; Vancouver has the largest Chinese population
outside Asia; domed Ukrainian churches dot the plains of Manitoba; and
Ontario has Italian street markets as well as a Shakespeare festival at
Stratford. 8.2.2017.
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The British monarch is the Head of State and appoints the Governor
General. Each of Canadas provinces elects a Lieutenant Governor and a
local legislature.

Noun: Canadian(s)
Adjective: Canadian

35,362,905 (July 2016 est.)

Population growth rate:

0.76% (2014 est.)

Ethnic groups:
Canadian 32.2%, English 19.8%, French 15.5%, Scottish 14.4%, Irish
13.8%, German 9.8%, Italian 4.5%, Chinese 4.5%, North American Indian
4.2%, other 50.9%

Note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were

able to identify more than one ethnic origin (2011 est.)

Catholic 39% (includes Roman Catholic 38.8%, other Catholic .2%),
Protestant 20.3% (includes United Church 6.1%, Anglican 5%, Baptist
1.9%, Lutheran 1.5%, Pentecostal 1.5%, Presbyterian 1.4%, other
Protestant 2.9%), Orthodox 1.6%, other Christian 6.3%, Muslim 3.2%,
Hindu 1.5%, Sikh 1.4%, Buddhist 1.1%, Jewish 1%, other 0.6%, none
23.9% (2011 est.)

English (official) 58.7%, French (official) 22%, Punjabi 1.4%, Italian 1.3%,
Spanish 1.3%, German 1.3%, Cantonese 1.2%, Tagalog 1.2%, Arabic
1.1%, other 10.5% (2011 est.)

Source: The World Factbook

Cities & Regions

Canadas topography changes significantly

across the country. There are over 2 million
lakes comprising about 7% of the land mass. It
is estimated that Canada is home to one-
seventh of the worlds fresh water. Canada
has coastlines on both the Atlantic and Pacific
Oceans, giving it the longest coastline of any

The main regions are: 8.2.2017.
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The Pacific Coast--The British Columbia coast is indented by coves

and protected from storms by Vancouver Island. It boasts the tallest
trees in Canada: Douglas firs and Western Red Cedars.
The Cordillera--From British Columbia to just east of the Alberta
border, the land is rugged with mountains and plateaus. The Rocky
Mountains, the Coastal Mountains, and several other ranges run
north to south.
The Prairies--Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba are often
described as endless wheat fields and never-ending sky.
The Canadian Shield--A huge inland sea, the Hudson Bay, extends
into the heart of Canada. Surrounding this bay is a rocky region
called the Canadian Shield. It stretches east to Labrador, south to
Kingston on Lake Ontario, and northwest as far as the Arctic Ocean.
The region is a treasure trove of minerals, including gold, silver, zinc,
copper, and uranium.
The Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Lowlands--Southern Quebec and
Ontario comprise the industrial center of Canada. About half the
population resides in this sugar maple country.
The Atlantic Provinces - Appalachian Region--New Brunswick, Nova
Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland are the smallest
Canadian provinces, together forming one of the richest fishing
grounds in the world. The Atlantic Provinces are part of the
Appalachian Mountains. The area has low, rugged hills and plateaus
as well as a deeply indented coastline.
The Arctic--The seemingly endless miles of ice and snow to the north
provide incredible, if solemn, beauty. The glacial formations predate
human life.

Ottawa, the capital of Canada, is located in the province of Ontario. With

more than 1.2 million people, it is Canadas fourth largest city, while about
90% of the area is countryside, it is also home to over 1500 companies as
well as the seat of the federal government.

Montral, Quebec, Canadas second largest city, is full of music, art, and
joie de vivre. It is the largest French-speaking city after Paris, yet only two-
thirds of the population is of French lineage. Geographically it is as close to
Europe as it is to Vancouver (on Canadas western shore), and the look
and feel of the city combines the best aspects of both continents.

There has been a significant secessionist movement in Quebec, which lost

in a 1995 referendum by 1%. Leading up to and following the separatist
movement, many companies decided to grow a presence outside Quebec
in the more populous, English-speaking Canada.

Toronto is Canadas largest city, surrounded by satellite townships and

industrial zones that comprise Greater Toronto. Home to the Canadian
stock exchange, it is both a cultural and a commercial hub.

In 1998, immigrants comprised over 40% of the Toronto population. The

city hosts an international film festival each September, has the second
largest live-theater district on the continent after New York City, and has a
thriving film industry. The Blue Jays (baseball), the Raptors (basketball)
and the Maple Leafs (hockey) are their professional sports teams. 8.2.2017.
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In Vancouver the Chinese were among the first significant wave of new
immigrants to appreciate Vancouvers beautiful setting, nestled between
the ocean and snow-capped mountains. The mild climate, glorious natural
scenery, and relaxed outdoor lifestyle all attract new immigrants each year.
With very little effort, you can indulge in a plethora of recreational activities
-- sailing, swimming, fishing, hiking, skiing, golf, and tennis.

Vancouver also claims a world-class museum and symphony orchestra, as

well as opera, theatre and dance companies at the cutting edge of the
contemporary arts. Festivals proliferate throughout its mild summer and
numerous music venues showcase up-and-coming rock bands and a
burgeoning jazz scene.


Country name:

Conventional long form: none

Conventional short form: Canada

Government type:

federal parliamentary democracy (Parliament of

Canada) under a constitutional monarchy; a
Commonwealth realm


1 July 1867 (union of British North American
colonies); 11 December 1931 (recognized by UK per Statute of

Legal system:

Common law system except in Quebec where civil law based on the
French civil code prevails

Source: The World Factbook

More Government Information

Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members in Canada
An online directory of leaders updated weekly by the Central Intelligence
Agency. 8.2.2017.
PrintView Page 19 of 52

Background Note: Canada
An overview of government and political conditions published by the U.S.
Department of State.

Links to Government Web Sites
A comprehensive directory of Canadian government web sites.


Canadian dollar (CAD)

Economy - overview:

As a high-tech industrial society in the trillion-dollar class, Canada

resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of
production, and high living standards. Since World War II, the impressive
growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed
the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and
urban. In addition, the country's petroleum sector is rapidly expanding,
because Alberta's oil sands significantly boosted Canada's proven oil
reserves. Canada now ranks third in the world in proved oil reserves
behind Venezuela and Saudi Arabia and is the worlds fifth-largest oil

The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement and the 1994 North
American Free Trade Agreement (which includes Mexico) touched off a
dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US, its
principal trading partner. Canada enjoys a substantial trade surplus with
the US, which absorbs about three-fourths of Canadian merchandise
exports each year. Canada is the US's largest foreign supplier of energy,
including oil, gas, and electric power, and a top source of US uranium

Given its abundant natural resources, highly skilled labor force, and
modern capital plant, Canada enjoyed solid economic growth from 1993
through 2007. Buffeted by the global economic crisis, the economy
dropped into a sharp recession in the final months of 2008, and Ottawa
posted its first fiscal deficit in 2009 after 12 years of surplus. Canada's
major banks, however, emerged from the financial crisis of 2008-09 among
the strongest in the world, owing to the early intervention by the Bank of
Canada and the financial sector's tradition of conservative lending
practices and strong capitalization. Canada achieved marginal growth in
2010-15, despite the recent drop in oil prices.

Transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed
minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, 8.2.2017.
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petroleum and natural gas

Exports - partners:
US 76.7% (2015)

Source: The World Factbook

More Economic Information

Department of Finance
Economic information from the Canadian government.

Geography & Climate

Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east,
North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north
of the conterminous US

Total: 9,984,670 sq km
Land: 9,093,507 sq km
Water: 891,163 sq km

Land boundaries:
Total: 8,893 km
Border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

Note: Canada is the World's largest country that borders only one country


202,080 km

Note: the Canadian Arctic Archipelago - consisting of 36,563 islands,

several of them some of the world's largest - contributes to Canada easily
having the longest coastline in the world

Varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m

Natural hazards: 8.2.2017.
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Continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development;

cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of
air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and
produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains
Volcanism: the vast majority of volcanoes in Western Canada's Coast
Mountains remain dormant

Environment - current issues:

Metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on

agricultural and forest productivity; air pollution and resulting acid rain
severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; ocean waters becoming
contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities

Geography - note:
Second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between
Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of the population
is concentrated within 160 km of the US border; Canada has more fresh
water than any other country and almost 9% of Canadian territory is water;
Canada has at least 2 million and possibly over 3 million lakes - that is
more than all other countries combined

Source: The World Factbook

History Overview

The first inhabitants are thought to have come across the Bering
Straits from Siberia during the Ice Age. There are traces of nearly
one dozen distinct groups of Intuits (Eskimos) discovered across the
far northern regions of Canada.
About 1000 AD, Norse explorer Leif Ericsson settled a small village at
Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland. The next European to arrive was
John Cabot in 1497, who claimed Cape Breton (Newfoundland) for
the British. During the next 100 years, both French and British settled
in parts of Newfoundland. During this period, explorers moved inland
and in 1534 the Frenchman Jacques Cartier discovered the St.
Lawrence River.
During the 17th century, the French moved further inland and
expanded their Canadian trading operations under the auspices of
the New France Company. Samuel de Champlain founded the
settlement of Kebec, todays Qubec City, in 1608. This was the first
European settlement in Canada. The French colony of Ville-Marie,
current day Montral, was established in 1642 by Sieur de
Maisonneuve. David Kirbe took Qubec for Britain in 1629. In 1632
the treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Lay returned Qubec to France.
The British formed the Hudson Bay Company in 1670, which initiated
a long period of commercial, political, and strategic rivalry between
the British and the French. In 1713 the treaty of Utrecht affirmed the
possessions of the Hudson Bay, Newfoundland, and Arcadia as
British territories and Cape Breton as French. France ceded their 8.2.2017.
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claim upon Newfoundland to Britain through the Treaty of Paris in

1763. A royal proclamation imposed British institutions on Qubec. In
1774, the Qubec Act restored French civil law while retaining British
criminal law and guaranteed religious freedom for Roman Catholics,
which had been outlawed by the British.
The American Revolution ousted the British from their American
colonies (1783) and many American loyalists migrated to eastern
Canada. The border between Canada and the USA was established
from the Atlantic Ocean to the Lake of the Woods.
The Constitutional Act of 1791 divided Canada into Lower (Qubec)
and Upper (Ontario). The War of 1812 between the UK and the USA
was also fought on Canadian soil. The Act of Union created the
United Provinces of Canada in 1841. In 1849 the official Canadian
policy of bilingualism began.
The Canadian colonies became the Dominion of Canada
(Confederation) in 1867, with Sir John A. Macdonald serving as the
first prime minister. The original provinces were Qubec, Ontario,
New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. The Hudson Bay Company sold
what later became the Province of Alberta to Canada in 1869. The
Mtis, led by Louis Riel, resisted the imposition of Canadian authority
in the northwest. British Columbia joined the Confederation in 1871
and Prince Edward Island joined in 1873.
The Klondike gold rush began in 1896, bringing 100,000 people
swarming into the Yukon. In 1898 the Yukon separated from the
Northwest Territories to become a distinct territory. Alberta and
Saskatchewan joined the Confederation in 1905.
Canada entered World War I in 1914. The War Measures Act
suspended civil rights during periods of emergency. A temporary
income tax was levied in 1917 to help cover wartime expenses.
Canada joined the League of Nations at its inception in 1920. The
Balfour report defined the British dominions as autonomous in 1926.
Britains Privy Council awarded Labrador to Newfoundland rather
than Qubec in 1927. In 1931 Canada was granted full legislative
authority in domestic and external affairs with the British Crown
represented by the Governor General. The Ottawa Agreement of
1932 provided preferential trade between Canada and other
Commonwealth nations.
Canada entered World War II in 1939.
The Alberta oil boom began with the discovery of oil at Leduc,
southwest of Edmonton in 1947.
Newfoundland became the 10th province in 1949, the same year
Canada joined NATO.
The opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway turned Toronto into a major
seaport in 1959.
The Quiet Revolution pressing for special rights for Qubec began in
1960 led by Jean Lesage.
English and French become the official languages of the federal
government in 1968, and the separatist movement began when Ren
Lvesque founded the Parti Qubecois. To date, separatism still
plays a large part in Canadian politics.
The Canadian Constitution was adopted in 1982. 8.2.2017.
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The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) eliminated

tariffs on national goods between the USA and Canada. The law
passed in 1989 becoming effective 1991.
The September 11th attacks on the USA led to tightened borders and
revised immigration policies. In December 2011, Canada became the
first country to formally withdraw from the Kyoto Protocol on reducing
emissions of greenhouse gasses.
In May 2012, Quebec passed an emergency law to end Montreal
demonstrations increased tuition fees. The law spurred more
In 2012, Canada ended diplomatic relations with Iran and supported
Syrias Assad government.

Country Information



Public Holidays

Tourist Information

Social Etiquette

Meeting People 8.2.2017.
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The common greeting is the handshake. It should be firm and

accompanied by direct eye contact and a sincere smile.

Wait until invited before using someone's first name. Canadians move to a
first-name basis rapidly.

French Canadian friends may greet each other by lightly kissing on the
cheeks, once on the left cheek and once on the right cheek. They are
generally more formal than other Canadians and often reserve first names
for family and close friends. Use the formal pronoun "vous" (you) and do
not switch to the informal "tu" unless invited to do so.

Naming Conventions

Names are generally include a personal name, middle name

(optional) and surname, which is the same as the father's.
Some women adopt their husband's surname upon marriage, others
do not. It is a personal preference.
In French Canada until the 1960s, girls were given the first name of
Marie and boys the first name of Joseph.
The second name was generally that of the godmother or godfather.
The third name became the personal name that was used in
This habit is no longer in practice, but you may meet people named
under this nomenclature.
The Quebec government recommends not giving a child more than 4
first names.

Gift Giving

In general, Canadians give gifts for birthdays and Christmas. A gift can be
as simple as a card and personal note to something more elaborate for a
person with whom you are close.

Here are some general gift giving guidelines (but also check to be sure
they are permitted under company policy):

If invited to someone's home for dinner, bring a box of good

chocolates, flowers, or a bottle of wine to the hostess.
In Quebec, sending flowers in advance of a dinner party is the proper
In Quebec, if you give wine, make sure it is of the highest quality you
can afford.
Do not give white lilies because they are used at funerals.
A small gift for the children would be appreciated.
Gifts are usually opened when received. 8.2.2017.
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How Canadians Entertain

Canadians socialize in their homes, in restaurants, and in other public
places. Summer backyard barbecues are common among friends and
relatives, especially in Western Canada.

Many social events are casual and invitations may be extended verbally.

If you are invited to a Canadian's house:

Punctuality is appreciated, although a 15-minute grace period is

granted for small gatherings or parties.
When invited to dinner, you are expected to arrive on time.
Contact the hostess ahead of time to see if she would like you to
bring a dish.
Offer to help the hostess with the preparation or clearing up after a
meal is served.
Do not ask for a tour of the house. Canadians are private people and
often prefer that guests remain in public rooms.
Unless you are invited to a barbecue or other outdoor entertainment,
casual dress means a blazer for men and a nice trouser suit or
simple dress for women. It is best to err on the side of being over-
Sending a hand-written thank you note to the host and hostess for
their hospitality demonstrates good breeding.

Table Manners
Table manners are fairly relaxed in Canada, although there is a great deal
more formality in Quebec. The more formal the occasion, the stricter the
protocol. When in doubt, watch what others are doing and emulate their

Table manners are Continental -- the fork is held in the left hand and
the knife in the right while eating.
If you are more comfortable eating in the American fashion, switching
the fork between hands while eating, no one will be insulted.
Remain standing until invited to sit down. You may be shown to a
particular seat.
Do not begin eating until the hostess starts.
Do not rest your elbows on the table, although your hands should be
visible at all times.
Food is often served family-style.
You may refuse individual foods or drink without offering an
Leaving a small amount at the end of the meal is generally

Toasting Etiquette

In formal situations, the host gives the first toast.

An honored guest should return the toast later in the meal. 8.2.2017.
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Women may give toasts.

Dining Out
Restaurants include a goods and service tax (GST), which is not the same
as a service charge. Some restaurants also add a service charge. If there
is a service charge, you may leave loose change or tip up to 5% if service
was exemplary. If there is no service charge, tipping between 10 and 15%
is generally considered appropriate. In more expensive restaurants, the
average tip generally ranges between 15 and 20%.

If invited to a meal at a restaurant, the person extending the invitation

usually pays. Do not argue about the check; simply reciprocate at a later

Close friends may go out and split the bill among the guests; however, this
is typically explained in advance. In such cases the bill may be divided
equally or each person may pay only for what they consumed. This is a
matter of personal preference rather than a cultural imperative.

The following tipping hints are guidelines. You can find more explicit
information on restaurant tipping in the Dining Out section above.

Restaurants: 15%
Porters: $1 per bag
Taxis: 10-15%

Approach to Time

Most Canadians see time as something that can be controlled, although

they are not obsessive about letting the clock rule their lives. For the most
part, Canadians strive to be on time for social engagements, so deviations
are more a matter of personal preference than culture. Punctuality is
expected in business.

Rather than be late, ask your hosts what time most people will be arriving.

Most cultural and sporting events start at the appointed time.

Conversation Topics

Canadians are wonderful conversationalists with broad interests who are

generally knowledgeable on a wide range of subjects. Sports (especially 8.2.2017.
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hockey), art, history, your recent vacation, and travels in other countries
make excellent topics of conversation.

Topics to avoid are differences between Canada and the USA, religion and
the differences between French Canadians and the rest of Canada. It is
best not to brag about your accomplishments, as Canadians dislike

Canadians are somewhat reserved, so it is best not to ask personal

questions unless you know someone extremely well. Many Canadians
prefer not to discuss their income or details about their home life. A good
rule of thumb is not to ask a question you would be uncomfortable
answering yourself.

Given its size, Canada is a sparsely populated country, so it should not

come as a surprise that Canadians prefer to have at least two feet between
themselves and the person with whom they are speaking. If you are from a
country where you require less personal space, try to moderate your
behavior in Canada so you don't cause offense.

Other Situations

Canadians pride themselves on their good manners and gracious behavior:

Men stand when a woman enters a room.

Men open doors for women.
Respect is shown to the elderly.
Eye contact is maintained when speaking.
People speak in moderate tones.
Except in Quebec, excessive hand gestures are avoided.

Do not drop in at a Canadian's home without an invitation. Although they

are hospitable, they consider their home to be private. Wait for an invitation
or telephone and ask if it would be okay for you to stop by.

The nicest compliment you can give in Quebec is to learn key French
words and phrases. It is the effort, not the results that are appreciated.

Casual dress does not indicate sloppy. Although Canadians wear jeans,
they do not generally do so in most social situations, except sporting
events, barbecues, or picnics. Even then, they do not wear tattered jeans.

Faux Pas 8.2.2017.
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Keep in mind the following behaviors while in Canada:

Avoid public displays of affection.

Do not use the "V for victory" gesture; it is considered rude.
Do not touch other people while speaking. This includes back-
slapping or patting on the shoulder.
Do not point with the finger, use the entire hand.
Do not use the "thumbs down" gesture.
Avoid comparing Canada with the USA.


Communication Essentials

Canada is a multicultural mosaic and it is, therefore,

difficult to determine one communication style that is
effective throughout the country. There are strong
regional differences as well as variations due to the
length of time someone has been in Canada. For
example, an ethnic Chinese who lives in a Chinese
enclave in Vancouver will communicate more like
someone from mainland China than will a fifth-
generation Chinese person working in Toronto.

There are some communication elements that are

fairly standard across the country. For the most part, businesspeople are
polite, easy-going, and somewhat informal, although business may be
more formal in Montreal.

Communication is moderately direct. Although most Canadians can

disagree when necessary, they prefer to do so with tact and diplomacy.

They are most comfortable when they are able to maintain an understated
demeanor. Their communication style is pragmatic and relies on common
sense rather than aggression. If you come from a more direct culture, you
may wish to soften your demeanor and tone so as not to appear

Communication styles vary between Anglophone and Francophone parts

of the country. Francophones are generally more indirect than
Anglophones. They also tend to be more exuberant than Anglophones.
Anglophones do not generally interrupt someone who is speaking. They
consider it rude not to let a person complete their thought before entering
the discussion. Francophones are more likely to interrupt another speaker.
Generally, Canadians enjoy debating issues. Being able to argue your
position with informed opinion will help you gain respect.

Greetings tend to be relatively informal, which demonstrates Canadians'

belief in egalitarianism. Although they respect authority, Canadians do not 8.2.2017.
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see someone senior to them in rank as superior to themselves. There is a

bit more respect for hierarchy and position in Quebec.

Key Words/Phrases
French and English are the official languages of Canada. Most people feel
comfortable speaking English; French is mostly used in Quebec.

Yes: Oui
No: Non
Hello: Bonjour
Goodbye: Au revoir
Good evening: Bonsoir
Good night: Bonne nuit
Sorry: Pardon
How are you: Comment-allez vous?
Fine, thank you: Bien, merci
Very well, thanks: Tres bien, merci
Please: Sil vous plat
You are welcome: De rien
Thank you: Merci
Thank you very much: Merci beaucoup
Sorry: Desole
Pleased to meet you: Enchant!

Spoken Key Phrases
The French alphabet, pronunciation guide, spoken phrases, and links to
more information.

Language Related Videos
Video series featuring lessons on key French phrases.
A twenty-five video series of lessons on the French language.

Using Translators
Select a translator very carefully. Early in the relationship, develop an
understanding of what you expectspecifically. Be clear that you wish the
translation to be exact, rather than what the translator thinks each party
wants to hear.

To be on the safe side, you may want to meet with the translator prior to
your appointments so that the person learns your accent and can be
exposed to any technical or non-familiar terms that may be used.
Developing a thorough relationship with your translator enables them to
argue your points with a level of confidence they might not otherwise have.
Have your translator explain to you the most elementary of basic
courtesies. 8.2.2017.
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Non-Verbal Language

Canadians expect to be taken more at their word rather than their non-
verbal expressions. They try to "say what they mean and mean what they
say" but they are a little more moderated than people from the United
States in their tone.

Non-verbal expressions are not as important in the

way Canadians communicate except as they add
emphasis to a message or are part of an individuals
personal communication style. However, making eye
contact during conversation adds to the credibility of
the message and sustained eye contact throughout a
conversation is expected. Try to maintain eye-contact
as that is a sign of sincerity. Smiling is also an
important non-verbal cue that you are listening and enjoying the

Canadians prefer some personal physical space between people when

conversingabout arms length (the distance of an outstretched arm).

Mail & Telephone

Letters / Email
The letter is rapidly being replaced by email in Canada.

While in many respects Canada is an informal country, it retains some

vestiges of British formality. Letters should be addressed using the
persons honorific title and surname, unless you know the person well. If
you dont know the persons name, "Dear Sir / Madam" is appropriate.
Language should be relatively formal, though if an existing relationship
already exists, it is appropriate to acknowledge that, for example by saying
how much you enjoyed your game of golf with Bill on his last visit.

The proper way to close a letter will, again, depend on how well you know
the person. The most common ending for a business letter to someone
with whom you dont have a personal relationship is "Yours Faithfully" or
"Yours Sincerely". If you know the person well, you might close the letter
with "Kind Regards.

The language used in email may be less formal than a letter, although it
is important to open with a greeting, and close with "Regards", "Best
Wishes", or "Kind Regards". While the opening line may be personal in
nature, inquiring how someone is or whether they enjoyed the holidays, the
business objective should be expressed briefly and succinctly. Language
used is designed to communicate clearly although the occasional
colloquialism or sporting analogy may also creep in.

Most companies encourage employees to maintain a level of 8.2.2017.
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professionalism in their email communications and many have policies

governing the use of inappropriate content. It is a good idea to remember
that an electronic paper trail can be very revealing, and to avoid writing
anything you would not want another party to read.

Canada is a relatively informal culture, so expect to be on first-names
terms with all but the most senior members of an organization. In many
cases, you may have to go through a secretary or P.A. (personal assistant)
to reach a senior level executive. Treat this person with the utmost respect,
as they function as the gatekeeper to the individual youre trying to access.

Canadians are generally comfortable discussing subjects at length and

even making major decisions over the phone. As a country that has
a bilingual region, they tend to be understanding of the fact that you may
be communicating in a second language. Canadians will be amenable
to an email or fax to clarify decisions and next steps.

Voicemail is extremely common. When leaving a message, speak slowly

and clearly and leave all of your contact details. Conference calls and
video-conferencing are both common, but take into account when
scheduling that Canada covers multiple time zones.



Handouts should be in English and French.

Handouts may be given at any stage of the presentation.
Handouts should provide additional details, background data, or
charts and data to substantiate what is presented.

Presentation Slides/PowerPoint:

Presentation materials should be spell-checked for British spelling.

Keep A/V slides simple and easy to read.
To emphasize a point, intersperse charts and graphs.
Use diagrams and pictures when possible rather than words.
Pictures of Canadian nature and the Canadian flag are especially
engaging to the audience.
Slides should be an outline; not the presentation.


Many Canadians will not interrupt a speaker, since this would be a

breach of etiquette.
Others might politely ask for clarification if they are unsure what was
Francophones are more likely to interrupt another speaker. 8.2.2017.
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Most will follow your instructions if you ask the audience to turn off
their mobile phones.


If using an interpreter, meet in advance to go over the presentation

Ask the interpreter to verify that any visuals and examples will be
Have the interpreter explain if any hand gestures could irritate the
Make eye contact with your audience; do not focus entirely on one
Use proper grammar, pronouncing words clearly and distinctly.
Pause frequently to allow for translation or understanding.
Avoid using hyperbole, exaggeration or self-promotion.
Minimize slang, jargon, sporting analogies, and idiomatic expressions
since they may not be readily understood.
Monitor the audiences body language to see if you should re-state
something in a different manner.
Do not plan a working lunch with French Canadians.
If you use acronyms, explain them.
Speak in a straightforward manner. Use common sense arguments.
An eloquent yet concise speaking style is preferred.
Moderate expressive hand gestures if possible.

Opening the Presentation:

Welcome the audience.

Introduce yourself (name, position, and company).
Opening with a culturally appropriate joke or humorous story can
facilitate developing rapport.
Begin with an overview or agenda. Tell the audience the
presentations structure.
Include the estimated time of the presentation.
Begin with the business advantage of what you are about to discuss
and a big picture overview.

Body of the Presentation:

Presentation styles vary by organizational culture; more traditional

companies may prefer more formality than newer or high-tech
Presentations should be well-organized, succinct and to the point.
When presenting a new concept, provide some brief historical
Provide supporting documentation including facts and figures.
Demonstrate how your idea has worked in the past.
Emphasize details and explain the practical implications of your
Explain how the recommended solution solves an existing problem.
You may compare your companys product to the competition. Do not
denigrate your competitors. 8.2.2017.
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Closing the Presentation:

You may present a summary at the end of the presentation, although

many prefer to provide the next steps.
End with something for the audience to think about or consider.
Thank the audience.
Leave time for a Q&A session.
Generally, Canadians enjoy debating. Being able to argue your
position with informed opinion will help you gain respect.


In Canada, dates are generally written in the day, month and year format
with either dashes or slashes between each number. If the day or month is
less than 10, including leading zeroes is optional. The year may be written
in two or four digits. Example: July 9, 2011 could be written 09-07-2011 or

Government entities often write the date in the year, month and day format
with a dash between each number. Example: 2011-07-09.

To ensure there is no confusion, you may want to spell out the name of the
month. This leaves no ambiguity as to what is the day and what is the

The 24-hour clock is a timekeeping convention where the time of a day is
the number of hours since midnight. The 12-hour clock divides the day into
two periods (midnight to noon and noon to midnight), each with 12 hours.
Thus, 2 o'clock in the afternoon would be 14:00 in the 24-hour clock.

French-speaking Canadians generally communicate using the 24-hour

clock while most English- speaking Canadians use the 12-hour clock with
the a.m./p.m. designation to denote day or night. Hospitals and timetables
use the 24-hour clock to avoid confusion.


Language & Phrasebook 8.2.2017.
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Postal Services

Radio & Television

Business Protocol

Meeting & Greeting

Shake hands with everyone at the meeting upon arrival and

Handshakes should be firm and confident.
Maintain eye contact while shaking hands.
Honorific titles and surnames should be used until invited to move to
a first-name basis.
Professional titles are seldom used since most Canadians consider
them pretentious.
However, academic titles are important in Quebec and may be used
with the honorific Monsieur or Madame.

Business Cards

Business cards are exchanged after the initial introduction.

In Quebec, have one side of your business card translated into
Present your card so the French side is readable by the recipient.
In Quebec, include any advanced degree on your card.
Examine any card you receive before putting it in your card case. 8.2.2017.
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Business Attire

The way a businessperson dresses conveys their professional image and

their respect for the people with whom they conduct business. As such,
what we report is the conservative approach to business attire for a
country. Appropriate attire varies within countries based on location, event,
and individual organization culture. Some industries and companies may
have less stringent requirements. Before embarking on an international
trip, it is generally a good idea to check with the local office to determine
what the appropriate dress code is in a specific location.

Business dress is somewhat conservative.

Men should wear dark-colored (charcoal gray, navy blue or black),
conservative business suits with white shirts.
In summer and spring, suit colors may be lighter, perhaps beige,
medium gray or blue.
Women should wear either business suits or conservative trousers
with jackets.
High-technology and entrepreneurial companies often adopt business
casual, although it is best to err on the side of conservatism and wear
a business suit for the initial meeting.
In Quebec, business dress is conservative yet elegant, with emphasis
on good quality accessories.


Here are some general gift giving guidelines (but also check to be sure
they comply with company policy):

Business gift giving is not part of the Canadian culture.

If you chose to give something, it should be modest and not overly
It is acceptable to give something at the conclusion of negotiations or
the completion of a project.
Christmas is an accepted time to give business gifts.
Good gifts include desk accessories, a paperweight with your
company logo, or a book about your home country.
Inviting a business associate out for a meal is considered a nice gift.

Business Entertaining

Entertaining is often a vehicle to continue business discussions.

However, it is best to wait for your host to initiate business topics.
Business dinners are more social- than business-oriented. 8.2.2017.
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Wait to be told where to sit in Quebec, there is often a protocol to be

followed. Spouses may be included in evening business
entertainment. If so, business will not be discussed.
If invited out to a pub, everyone is expected to pay for a round of
If you host a business meal, do not overshadow the hospitality you
have received.
The person extending the invitation usually pays.
If you are hosting the meal, make payment arrangements in advance
to avoid haggling over the check.
Toasting usually only occurs at formal meals.

Standard rules for buying a round or shout:

A round or shout is where one person pays for the drinks of the other
members of the party. Once the drinks have been drunk, another member
of the party pays for the next round. Every member of the party is expected
to buy the same number of rounds. Buying out of turn is considered to be
putting on airs while not buying a round is deemed rude.

Like splitting the bill at a restaurant, there is no consideration given to any

member's financial status, background, or gender.

Business Hours

Offices: 9:00am5:00pm Monday to Friday

Stores and shops: 10:00am6:00pm Monday to Saturday
Shopping malls: 10:00am9:00pm Monday to Saturday
Supermarkets: 8:00am6:00pm or 9:00pm Monday to Saturday
Banks: 10:00am3:00pm Monday to Friday. Some branches in major
cities may be open on Saturday morning.

Business Meetings

Meeting Essentials

Structure: Agendas are commonly used,

although how they are used varies by
company, region of the country, and the
personal preferences of the leader.
Role of Leader: The leader agrees to and
introduces the agenda, facilitates the meeting,
maintains the pace, and develops the action
plan, if one is needed. 8.2.2017.
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Purpose: Meetings may be held for many

reasons. They may be to communicate
information or decisions, to reach a
consensus, or to allow everyone to provide
their opinion.
Who attends: The participants vary based on the type of meeting. In
general, people with a vested interest in the outcome are invited as is
anyone who can add critical information about the subject matter.
Who participates/speaks: Participants are expected to be involved if
they have something to say. They may disagree, but will generally do
so with tact and diplomacy.

Like most cultures where time is viewed as a resource that can be used or
wasted, most Canadians begin meetings with a minimal amount of small
talk. Expect to spend a few minutes after the initial greetings exchanging
pleasantries before business is discussed. There may be more time spent
on relationship-building in Quebec. Meetings are generally well-organized
and adhere to time schedules.

Meetings are generally informal and relaxed in manner, even when serious
subjects are discussed. When meeting with Anglophones, meetings are
more democratic and all participants are allowed to contribute to the
discussion if they have something worthwhile to add. Meetings with
Francophones, who have a greater respect for hierarchy and position, may
include less involvement of lower level employees, whose only role may be
to corroborate information.

Agendas are common. They may be distributed in advance so that the

participants are prepared to discuss the subjects under review. However,
the handling of the agenda is largely dependent upon the personality of the
company and the leader and other participants. Some companies may
follow the agenda item-by-item, while others may use it as a springboard to
further discussions.

Meetings may be used to review situations, make plans, and communicate

decisions. Depending upon the corporate culture and subject matter,
participants may represent a variety of levels. Participants freely express
opinions and decisions may be altered as a result of input
from participants.

Canadians generally strive to communicate clearly, although Anglophones

may temper their statements with tact and diplomacy. Francophones are
generally impressed by verbal eloquence coupled with logic.

Meetings generally end with a summary and an action plan for participants
to execute. A meeting is only considered successful if a set of actionable
items or decisions are agreed upon.

When presenting information, it is important to have facts and figures to

substantiate claims and promises. Feelings are not considered important in
business. It is better to state information with the words "I think" rather than
"I feel". 8.2.2017.
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Scheduling Meetings

Appointments are required and should be made 1 to 2 weeks in advance

by telephone, fax or email.

Arrive on time. In most cases, the people you are meeting will be on time
as well. In fact, many will apologize for keeping you waiting, even briefly.
French Canadians may be a bit more casual about punctuality, although
they appreciate foreign visitors arriving on time.


Agendas are frequently used; however, how they are used depends
largely on the region and the specific company.
If you want to include something on the agenda, forward the
information in advance. It is rude to attempt to add something to the
agenda during the meeting.
Some leaders address agenda items point-by-point while others view
them as a guideline to discussions. It is best to follow the lead of the
most senior Canadian.

Conducting Meetings

For the most part, Canadians are direct communicators who are not afraid
to ask probing questions. At the same time, they are reticent to discuss
their personal lives with business associates. They expect people to speak
in a straightforward manner and to be able to back up their claims with
examples. They do not make exaggerated claims and are suspicious if
something sounds too good to be true.

Canadians mean what they say and their word is their bond. Do not say or
do something that indicates you do not trust someone or you may destroy
your relationship and future business dealings.

Outside of Quebec where communication is often animated and

expressive, hand gestures and body movement are minimal; the only
touching between business associates is the handshake. If you are
accustomed to using sweeping hand gestures while speaking, you should
moderate this behavior outside of Quebec. 8.2.2017.
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In Quebec, use the formal word for you ("vous") unless invited to move to
the informal "tu". Coworkers at the same level often use first names when
speaking to each other, but revert to surnames when speaking in front of
other people. This follows the more formal customs of the French

Management Styles


There are regional differences in how quickly relationships develop. If you

watch your Canadian business colleagues and follow their lead, you will
avoid unnecessary blunders. It's a good idea not to raise business topics
until your colleagues do.

Most Canadians are transactional and do not require long-standing

relationships in order to do business. Canadians prefer to develop good
working relationships based on equality and mutual respect. In Quebec
there is a preference for knowing the person with whom you conduct

As a rule, French Canadians are proud of their culture and heritage. They
take pride in their language and speaking it well. If you do not speak
French, offering an apology may help develop the relationship. Learning
key phrases demonstrates an interest in maintaining a long-term

Canadians are somewhat reserved, especially with people they do not

know. Thus, it is advisable not to appear too forward or overly friendly. Do
not raise your voice in a business. Gracious good manners are important.

Management Essentials

If you were to think about the most important cultural attributes that you will
see operating in business in Canada, they would be:

Individual interests
Transactional relationships
Direct communication

Since Canada is a cultural mosaic where immigrants are encouraged to

retain their ethnic heritage, the business behaviors you observe may vary 8.2.2017.
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depending upon the cultural heritage of the person involved and how long
they have lived in Canada.

It is important to treat everyone with respect and deference. In Quebec,

there is a bit more regard for titles and hierarchy than there is in other parts
of the country.

Canadians are generally somewhat reserved and formal in their behavior,

especially in Quebec. Direct communication with straightforward and
concise speech is appreciated. In Quebec, the person with whom you are
speaking guides the formality of the communication.

Risk Tolerance

Businesses in Canada have a relatively high tolerance for risk as long as

they have sufficient time to perform solid evaluation and analysis before
making a final decision.

Canadians do not rush to adopt something merely because it is new; they

must be convinced that there is a benefit that will ensue from adopting the
new process. At the same time, they are open to new ideas and are willing
to consider them.

Although careful risk analysis is expected, it is done to protect the

organization, not as a way to protect the person reaching the decision.

Impact of Generations on Risk Tolerance

Since they are not accustomed to failure, Gen Ys can be risk averse. They
may prefer to have decisions come from a team so that the risk is mitigated
among a group and they do not have to accept individual responsibility.

At the same time, Generation Y do not see any process or procedure as

sacred and believe that most processes can be improved upon. Since they
live in the here and now, they are less interested in maintaining a certain
way of doing something simply because it has historically been done that

Since they were raised to be self-reliant, Gen X can be extremely risk

tolerant. They are also highly entrepreneurial. They adapt well to change
and are not lulled into a sense of security with the status quo. They enjoy
brainstorming and coming up with new solutions to old problems.

Schedules & Deadlines 8.2.2017.
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Canada is a controlled-time culture where adherence to schedules is

expected. If someone misses a deadline, Canadians will review the
situation to determine if the failure is due to something the employee could
have controlled or if environmental circumstances intervened. If it is the
former, Canadians will see the failure as a deadline is a sign of poor time
management, inefficiency and a breach of trust.

For the most part, Canadians appreciate that others may be depending
upon them to meet a time commitment and they strive to avoid
disappointing a colleague. They also understand that circumstances can
intervene to make an original deadline not possible and are able to adjust
schedules as necessary to accommodate changing situations.

Since Canadians respect schedules and deadlines, it is not unusual for

managers to expect people to work late and even give up weekends in
order to meet a deadline. Since the majority of the workforce is highly
motivated and hardworking, they may take on extra hours without any
prodding from their manager.

Timetables and schedules are created and followed, but they are modified
and adjusted due to unanticipated events or changes in the environment.
This can be off-putting to people from countries that believe it is vital to
adhere to plans.

Decision Making

Company Structure
Company structure in Canada may vary by region as well as company
size. Many organizations have moved to less hierarchy and flatter
structures although there are also some that retain hierarchical structures.

Regardless of the type of structure, most organizations develop policies

and procedures that spell-out how certain situations are to be handled. For
the most part, Canadians adhere to these published statements.

Managing Employees
Canada has an egalitarian culture, which means that for the most part
employees are expected to express their opinions in a polite and respectful
manner. In Quebec, which is more hierarchical, there is a greater respect
for rank and authority and less discussion with employees prior to reaching
a decision. However, in high-tech or more entrepreneurial companies,
Quebec management style is similar to the rest of Canada.

Managers strive for consensus and make a concerted attempt to get

everyone's input before reaching a decision, although the manager or
someone at a senior level generally makes the ultimate decision.

Managers praise employees, although not generally in public. 8.2.2017.
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Subordinates expect their efforts to be recognized and rewarded.

Generation Y and the rapid evolution use of technology has made it
important that companies adopt a more personalized approach to
employee feedback and create new policies that support a modern

In general, information flows in all directions and managers often seek the
advice of technical experts. Managers tend to see themselves as
facilitators whose job is to assist their subordinates to produce their best

Managers are becoming more transparent about career paths, provide

more opportunities for employee development, increase employee mobility
via lateral moves and job rotation, and recognize achievement in a manner
that is meaningful to the employee.

Impact of Generations on Managing Employees

The age of the employee can materially impact the best way to manage
employees are confident in their ability to do well. When managing
employees born between 1965 and 2000 (Generations X and Y), consider
the following:

Explain how their role fits into the organization. Many from these
generations need help in seeing the value in their work.
When delegating routine or mundane tasks, explain how this task is
relevant to the organization.
Do not micro-manage. At the same time, do not abdicate all
responsibility. Provide frequent communication so that employees
feel they are in the loop and understand what is expected of them.
Focus on results rather than procedures and processes.
Provide frequent feedback. When offering constructive criticism, start
with something positive.
Offer a variety of tasks and projects and increasing responsibility.
Provide opportunities to try new skills and take on new assignments
in a protected environment.
Provide ongoing training, mentoring and coaching.
Offer clear definitions of success and how to achieve it. Gen X and
Gen Y will quickly move to another company if they feel there is no
future for them.
Take an interest in the employee as a person. Give recognition in a
form that matters to the person. Consider new and innovative
approaches that are motivational to the individual.
Offer Generation Y training on basics of dealing with others and
customer service.

Decision Making
As you would expect in a large country with wide regional differences, the
decision making process can vary markedly within Canada. In general,
perhaps as a result of the diverse population, there is a great deal of
emphasis placed on transparent decision making.

In most cases, decisions are not reached unilaterally. Instead, they are 8.2.2017.
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made after consultation with key stakeholders or others who will be

impacted by the decision.

In many organizations, decision making is delegated to the lowest possible

level within the organization for routine decisions. The more important the
decision, the higher up in the organization it is made. In many
organizations, decisions that impact the entire organization require several
reviews and agreement.

In general, decisions are based on facts and figures as well as organization

processes and procedures. They tend not to be based on the personal
sentiment of the decision maker.

Team Focus

Despite being individualistic, Canadians generally work well in teams.

Team members are generally chosen based on their expertise and
skillsets. Many organizations utilize teams when working on a project.
Teamwork has become so important in most industries that there are
university courses devoted to the subject.

Team members are expected to contribute to discussions. There may be

healthy competition between team members. Rather than discourage this
behavior, team leaders use this energy to develop creative solutions.

It is common for the team leader to delegate tasks or responsibilities and

then let team members work independently and without intervention. Micro-
management by the team leader is viewed negatively.

Praise should be given to the entire group as well as to individuals, since

Canadians expect their individual contributions to be recognized.

Impact of Generations on Team Focus

Create opportunities for Generation X employees to work in teams. Work
relationships are extremely important to them and being part of a team
expands their work network.

Generation Y employees like to work on teams and see them as an

opportunity to foster collaborative working relationships.


Canadian business schools teach the merits of win-win negotiations, which

conform to the culture's beliefs of fairness and equality. Canadians are
generally uncomfortable with a win-lose negotiating strategy. 8.2.2017.
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Canadian organizations often use a team to handle negotiations. The size

of the deal may impact the number of people on the team.

Canadians spend a great deal of time gathering information and preparing

before beginning negotiations and expect the other side to have done the
same. They believe that such advance work allows both sides to enter the
negotiations with a clear idea of where they are going and what they

For the most part, Canadians are somewhat reserved. They avoid
emotional displays and rely on a veneer of politeness to guide them in
finding a solution that satisfies both parties. This is not a culture where
hyperbole or hard-sell techniques are particularly effective.

It is important that someone on the negotiating team have decision making

authority or advises the limits of their authority at the outset. Unless told
otherwise, Canadians will presume that the lead negotiator has the
authority to close the deal.

Most English-speaking Canadians take a linear approach to negotiations

and prefer to discuss one item completely before moving on to the next
one. French Canadians may discuss items in a less structured manner.

In general, negotiations proceed at a swift pace. Although somewhat

cautious, Canadians think of time as money and prefer not to waste it on
meaningless discussions. It is often possible to complete negotiations in
one trip with email or telephone follow-up.

For the most part, Canadians are not fond of bargaining. They expect the
initial price offered to be realistic. It is unusual for them to move more than
10% from their initial offer. Financial discussions come towards the end of
the negotiations. It is rude to raise the discussions prematurely.

Negotiations end with a lengthy, legal contract that spells out terms and
conditions. Changes are generally not made once the contract is signed,
unless both sides agree.

Many Canadian companies emphasize profit over market share.

Moving There

Advice and Tips for Moving

Customs Regulations 8.2.2017.
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Entry Requirements

Getting Around

Getting There

Safety & Security

Emergency Numbers

Emergency Telephone Numbers

To reach emergency services from a local phone, dial: 911

Emergency Numbers

Emergency Telephone Numbers

To reach emergency services from a local phone, dial: 911

Safety Precautions

Today, we think of political situations as causing safety concerns, but

ordinary crime, weather and geographic problems also pose risks. The
wise traveler is cautious about hurricanes and earthquakes along with hotel
fires, pickpockets and spontaneous political demonstrations. Terrorist
attacks and kidnappings have simply brought all security concerns to our
awareness. With the exception of the emergency telephone numbers, this
information is compiled for travelers in general and will apply in varying
degrees to your destination and personal situation. 8.2.2017.
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Before You Go

Take time to get all of your financial and personal records in order,
including preparing a will.
Talk with a trusted family member or friend about what types of
emergencies might arise in your absence, and what to do in those
Think about the small (and large) disasters that could occur at home
during your absence and be sure there is someone prepared to assist
Make copies of all of your travel documents (including detailed
itinerary with contact numbers) and be sure two people have easy
access to them.
Do the same with crucial health documentation.
Be sure someone knows where you will be and how to contact you in
emergencies at all times.
Find out the services your company offers to you in case of
emergency; obtain and make several copies of important emergency
company contact numbers to keep and give to all members of your
family who might need them.
Be sure you have enough of your prescription medication so you are
all right if you cannot get a refill right away; take an extra pair of
glasses if you wear them.

So many variables go into being safe, and many of them revolve around
understanding the specifics of where you are. Be sure to learn details of
your location -- how to dress, where you can go and where to avoid, how to
act in public, how to carry yourself, and who to be watchful of.

Seek information from cultural experts and local nationals whom you have
confidence in. When in comes to your safety, dont be afraid to ask.

Hotel Safety

Know how to call for help AND what to say.

Do not display your guest room key unnecessarily.
Lock your door and do not answer it until you feel comfortable that
you know who it is.
Dont let strangers into your room.
Use the room safe or hotel safe deposit box.
Hide personal documents, valuables and other important items.
(Remember to safeguard your passport.)
Read the fire safety information and know what you would do if you
need to evacuate. Know exactly where the nearest fire exits are.
In the event that you might need to leave your room quickly, keep
your room key, your glasses (if necessary), a pair of shoes and some
money by your bedside.
Travel with a flashlight.
Women traveling alone will have different issues depending upon the
mors of the society youre visiting.
As a rule, be extremely cautious and circumspect. 8.2.2017.
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Find out all the gender-based restrictions and abide by them.

Use a hotel known for its security and be sure that whatever
type of transportation you use, it is reliable and safe.
Ask hotel concierge or front desk manager to assist you
whenever you have questions about your safety. (They will also
arrange for you to have help, if you wish walking you to your
room very late at night or escorting you from a parking lot to the
hotel lobby).

The following websites offer specific advice for women:

Travel Tips for Women

Best Women's Travel Tips
Her Own Way: A Woman's Safe Travel Tips
Tips for Solo Women Travelers Women Travelers

Travel Tips

Crowded Situations

When youre in crowded places, be very careful to guard your

property at all times.
Carry as few valuable items with you as possible when you know
youre going to a crowded area. For example, expensive cameras,
PDAs and cash are easy targets.
Watch out for pickpockets who will try to distract you in many different
ways while taking your money. Even groups of children can be
working together to divert your attention while one will steal your

Safety in Your New Home City

Learn about your host country and culture. This is not only wise for
business and social purposes, but is extremely important so you can
understand what may be offensive or negligent behavior.
The more you know about your location, the safer youll be; certainly
understand written and unwritten laws and codes of conduct.
Use your Embassy. These people are here to help you.
Embassies Around the World
Even if you are living in a relatively safe country, always be sure that
close family or friends have accurate contact information so they can
find you quickly.
For helpful information: Helpful Tips
If you are living in a high-risk location, your company should have
guidelines for your safety. Be sure you have 24-hour hotline numbers
and appropriate contacts who can assist you.
No matter where you livehigh risk or low risk countriestodays
world is volatile, and you never know when a potentially dangerous
situation can develop. Keep informednot only with your countrys
published data and warnings, but by identifying sources of local
news, reading local papers and telling your local friends to keep you

Emergencies 8.2.2017.
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In an emergency that requires help by your government, such as a

lost passport or the need for money because yours has been stolen,
contact: Embassies Around the World
Make sure you know the name of the firm your company has selected
for medical emergencies and evacuation services. International SOS
provides emergency medical and evacuation services for individuals
and companies. You might want to contact: International SOS to see
if you qualify for some of their services.

Security Issues

Security is not simply a state-of-mind, nor is it a stroke of luck. Keeping

yourself and your family safe anywhere you gowhether it is an extended
trip within hours of your home or a long-term assignment halfway around
the worldrequires planning and active follow-through.

Clearly the length of time you spend and the geographic and political
profile of the countries youre living in--or traveling to--will make a
difference in your level of preparedness. Nonetheless, practicing common
sense based upon knowledge of your location will help you. Dont
underplay the importance of understanding what is culturally
appropriateit may help you avoid some difficult situations. With the
exception of the emergency telephone numbers, this information is
compiled for travelers in general and will apply in varying degrees to your
destination and personal situation. Always check to see what services your
company may offer to you.


In an emergency that requires help by your government, such as a

lost passport or the need for money because yours has been stolen,
contact: Embassies Around the World
Make sure you know the name of the firm your company has selected
for medical emergencies and evacuation services. International SOS
provides emergency medical and evacuation services for individuals
and companies. You might want to contact: International SOS to see
if you qualify for some of their services.

Prepare For Your Destination

Read about security and safety issues in the countries youll be

traveling to or living in.
For the most current, up-dated information, we recommend the
following government sites as quite comprehensive and easy-to-
Australian Travel Advisories
Canadian Travel Advisories
UK Travel Advice
US Travel Warnings 8.2.2017.
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Read about other precautions you should take for weather- and
geographic-related concerns. For example, keep enough cash on
hand so you will be all right if there are power failures and ATM
machines dont work.
Be sure you know how to contact (and get to) your countrys
Embassy and Consulate wherever you are travelingyou need the
location details, phone and hours of operation. Embassies Around
the World
See if there are any health-related issues in the countries to which
youre traveling. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has in-
depth information regarding all regions of the world.

Be sure you know how to call for help in an emergency. You may need to
reach the police, fire and other emergency personnel. Be sure you know
the words to use in the local language.

En Route

Protect your passport; it is one of the most valuable items you

possess--so protect it as you would cash, credit cards and other
valuables. If it is lost or stolen, report it immediately to the nearest
appropriate Embassy or consulate.
Avoid calling attention to yourself by wearing fancy jewelry or carrying
other expensive items.
Whenever possible carry valuables and important prescription
medications in your carry-on luggage; do not pack valuables in your
checked luggage.
Do not leave laptops, computer bags or other luggage unattended at
any time.
Be able to answer questions about your luggage and be able to open
all suitcases and packages immediately, if asked.
Use your business address on your luggage tags, if possible.
Be sure to respond completely to requests by security officials and
avoid comments about security that could be misinterpreted.
When youre on the plane or train, read safety literature and be sure
you know where emergency exits are located.
For general information when you are en route, the U.S. State Dept.
offers a wide-range of information to travelers of all nationalities:

Moving Around Safely

Always remain alert.

Avoid disturbances and loud arguments. When they occur, quickly
walk the other way.
Dress conservatively. Your interpretation of this guideline needs to be
based on local practices and customs. Attire you may think is
perfectly acceptable, may not be so youll be well served to learn
what is appropriate. Otherwise, you could run the risk of being
misinterpreted and perhaps becoming a target if your clothing is
provocative or offensive.
Ostentatious jewelry will also draw attention to you. 8.2.2017.
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Learn about transportation in your locationwhats safe and what

can be problematic and when. Trains, subways, buses, independent
taxi cabs may pose specific problems. Find out before you go if it is
preferable to hire a private driver and car. Contact your Embassy for
detailed information.
You should also ask your company about specific transportation
guidelines theyve established for your safety.
Avoid areas where you can become a victim of crime, such as poorly-
lit streets, alleys, and deserted train stations.
If you drive, keep your doors locked and windows closed, and never
pick up hitchhikers.
Be wary when you are alone in lifts. Get off if someone suspicious
gets on.
If you find yourself alone in a train car or compartment after everyone
else leaves, you may feel safer moving to an occupied car. Identify
the location of the emergency alarm system.
Experts say that if someone does attack you, give them your
valuablesmoney and passportand do not fight back.
Be sure to know enough of the language to call for help. Consider
marking and tagging the pages of a phrase book with these types of
important phrases.
Even when you have a mobile phone, learn to use the local pay
phones and keep change with you.

Know Where Youre Going

Ask people in the hotel what areas you should avoid.

When you have a specific location youre going to, ask colleagues or
people who work in the hotel if there are things you should know
about that area.
If you cannot speak the local language, carry the card of your hotel or
your address with you at all times--as well as your destination
Make others aware of your specific whereabouts, even when youre
going to business appointments.

*Sources: U.S. Transportation Security Administration

Settling In

Accommodation 8.2.2017.
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Arrival Procedures


Eating Out


Family Corner

Health and Safety


Money and Banking

Nightlife 8.2.2017.
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Social Clubs

Sports 8.2.2017.