Hydraulic Structures – Structural Design of Syphon

Design of Syphon Barrels
Design barrels of the canal syphon as reinforced concrete box. The data is given below:

1. Number of barrels =2
2. Size of barrel =3 m ×2.5 m
3. Bank level =254 m
4. Drain H.F.L =253.25 m
5. Uplift at base of barrel =4.5 t/m2
6. Unit weight of dry earth =1.6 t/m3
7. Unit weight of saturated earth =2.0 t/m3
8. Weight of submerged earth =1.0 t/m3
9. Angle of internal friction in all =30º
conditions

Design
Assume the thickness of the frame 30 cm all through so that the effective length of horizontal
and vertical members are 3.3 m and 2.8 m.

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Hydraulic Structures – Structural Design of Syphon

1. Distribution factors

At joint A For A B,
2.8
For AB   0.46 For A D,
2.8  3.3
Therefore, distribution factors:
3.3
For AD   0.54
2.8  3.3 For

At joint D

For D A=0.54

D C=0.46

2. Dead loads

Consider one meter of barrel:

Depth of dry earth over barrel  254  253.25  0.75m
Depth of saturated earth  253.25  251.4  1.85m
Weight of dry and saturated earth  0.75 1.6  1.85  2  4.9t m 2

Weight of top slab (0.3 m thick)  0.3  2.4  0.72t m 2
Weight on the top slab including its own weight = 4.9  0.72  5.62t m 2

Weight of barrels per meter of length   4  3.3  3  2.8  0.3  2.4  15.6t m
Total dead load/m of length of barrels  15.6  4.9  6.9  49.4t m

Uplift per one meter length  4.5  6.9  31.05t m
Net vertical load acting on foundation  49.4  31.05  18.35t m
Pressure on foundation soil (Soil reaction) 18.35
  2.66 t m 2
6.9
Pressure acting on the base slab + uplift =Soil reaction
 2.66  4.5  7.16t m 2
Net upward pressure on the base slab  7.16  0.72  6.44 t m 2
Say 6.5t m 2

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Hydraulic Structures – Structural Design of Syphon

3. Earth pressure

The earth pressure shall comprise of the following:

a. Dry earth pressure above saturation line (from R.L. 253.25 m to R.L. 254.00 m)
b. Saturated earth pressure (from R.L. 253.25 m to R.L. 248.45 m).

1  sin  1
Corresponding to   30 , c p  
1  sin  3

Pressure at A = Surcharge due to dry earth+ surcharge due to saturated earth
 c p    254  253.25   c p  s  253.25  251.25     253.25  251.25 
1 1
 1.6  0.75  1.0  2  1 2  3.07 t m 2
3 3
Pressure at D  3.07  c p  s  251.25  248.45     251.25  248.45 
1
 3.07  1 2.8  1 2.8  6.8t m 2
3

4. Fixing moments
w 2 5.62  3.32
a. On span AB    5.1t  m
12 12
6.5  3.32
b. On span CD   5.9 t  m
12
c. On span AD
3.07  2.82 3.73  2.82
M AD    2.985t  m
12 30
3.07  2.82 3.73  2.82
M DA    3.475t  m
12 20

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Hydraulic Structures – Structural Design of Syphon

Joint C D A B
Member CD DC DA AD AB BA
D. factor 0.46 0.54 0.54 0.46
F.E.M. -5.9 +5.9 -3.475 +2.985 -5.1 +5.1
Balance -1.115 -1.31 +1.142 +0.973
C.O. -0.5575 +0.57 -0.655 +0.485
Balance -0.2622 -0.3078 +0.3537 +0.3013
C.O. -0.1311 +0.177 -0.1539 +0.151
Balance -0.081 -0.096 +0.083 +0.0708
C.O. -0.041 +0.042 -0.048 +0.035
Balance -0.019 -0.023 +0.026 +0.022
-6.630 +4.423 -4.423 +3.733 -3.733 +5.771

5. Design moments
a. Span AB
Net moments at center and face of span AB
5.62  3.3 5.62  0.152
Sagging moment at face   0.15   1.33t  m
2 2
3.15
Fixing moment at face  3.73   5.771  3.73  5.68t  m
3.3
Net fixing moments at face  5.68 1.33  4.35t  m

5.62  3.32
Sagging moment at center   7.65t  m
8
3.73  5.771
Fixing moment at center   4.75t  m
2
Net sagging moment at center  7.65  4.75  2.9t  m
b. Span CD
6.5  3.3 6.5  0.152
Sagging moment at face   0.15   1.54 t  m
2 2
3.15
Fixing moment at face  4.423   6.63  4.423  6.529 t  m
3.3
Net fixing moment at face  6.529 1.54  4.98t  m

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Hydraulic Structures – Structural Design of Syphon

6.5  3.32
Sagging moment at center   8.85t  m
8
6.63  4.423
Fixing moment at center   5.53t  m
2
Net sagging moments at center  8.85  5.53  3.32t  m
c. Span AD

Sagging moment at face:
i. Due to rectangular portion
3.07  2.8 3.07  0.152
  0.15   0.61t  m
2 2
ii. Due to triangular portion
3.73  2.8 2
2.8  R D    2.8
2 3
3.73  2.8
RD 
3
Sagging moment
3.73  2.8 3.53  0.152
  0.15   0.483t  m
3 2
Total sagging moments  0.61  0.483  1.09t  m
2.65
Fixing moment at face  3.73   4.423  3.73  4.39t  m
2.8
Net fixing moment at face  4.39 1.09  3.3t  m
Sagging moment at center
3.07  2.82
i. Due to rectangular portion   3.01t  m
8
ii. Due to triangular portion
3.73  2.8 2.8
2.8  R A  
2 3
3.73  2.8
RA 
6
3.73  2.8 2.8 1.865 1.4 1.4
MC      1.83t  m
6 2 2 3
Total Sagging moment at center  3.01  1.83  4.84t  m
4.423  3.73
Fixing moment at center   4.08t  m
2
Net sagging moment at center  4.84  4.08  0.76t  m

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Hydraulic Structures – Structural Design of Syphon

Span Fixing moment (-ve) at face (t.m) Sagging moment (+ve) at center (t.m)
AB 4.35 2.9
16 mm bars@ 12.5cm c/c (up) 12 mm bars@ 10 cm c/c (down)
CD 4.98 3.32
16 mm bars@ 11.25cm c/c 16 mm bars@ 16.25cm c/c
AD 3.3 0.76
16 mm bars@ 16.25cm c/c 12 mm bars@ 25cm c/c

6. Thickness of members
Maximum moment in the barrels=4.98 t.m
The minimum effective thickness (d) required for bending moment is
M
d 
bQ
4.98 1000 100
  23.29 cm
100  9.18

Adopt 27.5 cm effective depth and 30 cm overall thickness for all members.
7. Reinforcement
a. Span AB and BE
 At face (hogging moment, -ve steel)
4.35 1000 100
At   15.38cm 2
6
1200   27.5
7
Provide 16 mm bars @ 12.5 cm c/c (up)
 At center (sagging moment, +ve steel)
2.9 1000 100
At   10.25cm 2
6
1200   27.5
7
Provide 12 mm bars @ 10 cm c/c (down)

b. Span CD and CF
 At face
4.98 1000 100
At   17.6 cm 2
6
1200   27.5
7
Provide 16 mm bars @ 11.25 cm c/c
 At center
3.32 1000 100
At   11.74 cm 2
6
1200   27.5
7
Provide 16 mm bars @ 16.25 cm c/c

c. Span AD and EF
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Hydraulic Structures – Structural Design of Syphon

 At face
3.3 1000 100
At   11.7 cm 2
6
1200   27.5
7
Provide 16 mm bars @ 16.25 cm c/c
 At center
0.764 1000 100
At   2.70 cm 2
6
1200   27.5
7
Provide 12 mm bars @ 25 cm c/c

Table: Cross-sectional area for steel bars of different diameters

Diameter  (mm) Cross-sectional area As   cm 2 
2

4
12 1.13
14 1.54
16 2.01
18 2.54

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