Total Quality Management Evolution

Quality- a characteristic or feature that someone or something has. In manufacturing, a measure of
excellence or a state of being free from defects, deficiencies and significant variations.

Total Quality Management
-describes a management approach to long–term success through customer satisfaction. In a TQM effort, all
members of an organization participate in improving processes, products, services, and the culture in which they
work.
Purpose- to improve customer satisfaction

History
The roots of Total Quality Management can be traced to early 1920's production quality control ideas, and
notably the concepts developed in Japan beginning in the late 1940's and 1950's, pioneered there by Americans
Feigenbum, Juran and Deming.
At that time (1940), Japan’s industrial system was virtually destroyed, and it had a reputation for cheap
imitation products and an illiterate workforce. The Japanese recognized these problems and set about solving them
with the help of some notable quality gurus – Juran, Deming and Feigenbaum.
From inspection to total quality
During the early days of manufacturing, an operative’s work was inspected and a decision made whether to
accept or reject it. As businesses became larger, so too did this role and full time inspection jobs were created.
Accompanying the creation of inspection functions, other problems arose:
• More technical problems occurred, requiring specialized skills, often not possessed by production workers
• The inspectors lacked training
• Inspectors were ordered to accept defective goods, to increase output
• Skilled workers were promoted into other roles, leaving less skilled workers to perform the operational
jobs, such as manufacturing
These changes led to the birth of the separate inspection department with a “chief inspector”, reporting to
either the person in charge of manufacturing or the works manager. With the creation of this new department, there
came new services and issues, e.g, standards, training, recording of data and the accuracy of measuring equipment. It
became clear that the responsibilities of the “chief inspector” were more than just product acceptance, and a need to
address defect prevention emerged.
Hence the quality control department evolved, in charge of which was a “quality control manager”, with
responsibility for the inspection services and quality control engineering.
In the 1920’s statistical theory began to be applied effectively to quality control, and in 1924 Shewhart made the first
sketch of a modern control chart. His work was later developed by Deming and the early work of Shewhart,

GROUP I 1

Deming, Dodge and Romig constitutes much of what today comprises the theory of statistical process control (SPC).
However, there was little use of these techniques in manufacturing companies until the late 1940’s.

In the early 1950’s, quality management practices developed rapidly in Japanese plants, and become a
major theme in Japanese management philosophy, such that, by 1960, quality control and management had become
a national preoccupation.

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the developed countries of North America and Western Europe suffered
economically in the face of stiff competition from Japan's ability to produce high-quality goods at competitive cost.
For the first time since the start of the Industrial Revolution, the United Kingdom became a net importer of finished
goods. The United States undertook its own soul-searching, expressed most pointedly in the television broadcast
of If Japan Can... Why Can't We? Firms began reexamining the techniques of quality control invented over the past
50 years and how those techniques had been so successfully employed by the Japanese. It was in the midst of this
economic turmoil that TQM took root.

The exact origin of the term "total quality management" is uncertain. It is almost certainly inspired
by Armand V. Feigenbaum's multi-edition book Total Quality Control (OCLC 299383303) and Kaoru
Ishikawa's What Is Total Quality Control? The Japanese Way (OCLC 11467749). It may have been first coined in
the United Kingdom by the Department of Trade and Industry during its 1983 "National Quality Campaign". Or it
may have been first coined in the United States by the Naval Air Systems Command to describe its quality-
improvement efforts in 1985.

GROUP I 2

Deming’s Chain Reaction
Producing high quality products and services is key for any organization that wishes to stay in business.

Improve Capture the
quality of market with
Stay in
product better Business
and quality and
services lower price

Decrea Provide
Productivity
se Improves jobs and
costs more jobs

Dimensions of Quality
In 1987 David Garvin suggested that there are eight dimensions of quality that can serve as a framework
for strategic analysis. Let’s briefly look at each of Garvin's eight dimensions.
Performance- A quality product will perform as expected by the user and as specified by the manufacturer.
If products do not do as buyers expect, users will be disappointed and frustrated. Worse still poor performing
products get negative reviews and lose sales and reputation. Product or Service Characteristics
(Examples: Vehicle – Horsepower; Service – Processing customer requests.)

GROUP I 3

) This approach places an emphasis on three aspects GROUP I 4 . the color picked indicates certain things. gears. Consistency of Performance over Time (Examples: Product – Mean time before failure.Is the product easy to service? Does the organization offer enough service support? Ease of Repair (Examples: Product – Design.) Perceived Quality. Serviceability. is a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production. or QC for short. windows and seats but only some cars have heated seats.What additional benefits will be added to the product? Will they be they tangible or non-tangible benefits? For example this could be after sales service.) Reliability.) Durability.) Quality control and Quality Assurance Quality control. Added Features/Secondary Characteristics (Examples: Vehicle – GPS.) Aesthetics. assisted parking and Bluetooth. steering wheel.Is the product appealing to the eye? Design is important for many products. or guarantees.What sort of quality perception does the marketing team want to convey in their marketing message? Will the price charged reflect the quality of the product? What brand name is going to be used and does this convey any perception of quality? Past Performance (Perceived Quality) (Examples: Company standing within industry. Service – Appearance of location. Some features will be present in all products but other features will only be found in "quality" products. For example all cars have wheels.) Conformance. Service – Auto bill pay. Service –Accessibility. Features. (Examples: Product – Compared to others. Service – Keeping pace with industry.Does your product meet with any agreed internal and national specifications? For example safety regulations and laws. etc. Online. ISO 9000 defines quality control as "A part of quality management focused on fulfilling quality requirements" (ISO 9000 is an international standard that many companies use to ensure that their quality assurance system is in place and effective.How durable is your product? Will it last with daily use? Useful Life (Examples: Product – Ability to repair. Conformance to ISO 9000 is said to guarantee that a company delivers quality products and services. Service – Variance in processing time. feel. Sensory Characteristics – Look.Is the product consistent? Will it perform well over its expected lifetime and perform consistently? Many brands have developed trust with customers because of their reputation for reliability.

performance and integrity criteria. and quality relationships. This can be contrasted with quality control. QA includes management of the quality of raw materials. assemblies. services related to production. experience. Soft elements. and "right first time" Mistakes should be eliminated Who determines the Quality ? GROUP I 5 . such as personnel. and qualifications 3. quality control issues are among the top reasons for not renewing a contract. Controls include product inspection. defined and well managed processes. products and components. Elements such as controls. Today's quality assurance systems emphasize catching defects before they get into the final product. and identification of records 2. such as knowledge. Quality assurance comprises administrative and procedural activities implemented in a quality system so that requirements and goals for a product. and has been referred to as a shift left as it focuses on quality earlier in the process. comparison with a standard. This defect prevention in quality assurance differs subtly from defect detection and rejection in quality control. and to enable a company to better compete with others. integrity. Quality assurance was initially introduced in World War II when munitions were inspected and tested for defects after they were made. service or activity will be fulfilled. confidence. 2 Principles of Quality Assurance "Fit for purpose" The product should be suitable for the intended purpose. particularly work awarded by government agencies. production and inspection processes. issues which led to the defect(s) in the first place. which is focused on process output. and management. motivation. organizational culture. Inspectors will be provided with lists and descriptions of unacceptable product defects such as cracks or surface blemishes for example. where every product is examined visually. monitoring of processes and an associated feedback loop that confers error prevention. skills. whereas quality assurance attempts to improve and stabilize production (and associated processes) to avoid. 1. to improve work processes and efficiency. team spirit. . Quality assurance (QA) is a way of preventing mistakes or defects in manufactured products and avoiding problems when delivering solutions or services to customers. or at least minimize. job management. A quality assurance system is said to increase customer confidence and a company's credibility. which ISO 9000 defines as "part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled". The quality of the outputs is at risk if any of these three aspects is deficient in any way. Quality control emphasizes testing of products to uncover defects and reporting to management who make the decision to allow or deny product release. and often using a stereo microscope for fine detail before the product is sold into the external market. For contract work. Competence. It is the systematic measurement.

One is by better control and the other by raising standards. clients or customers. not by society in general. 10 STEPS of quality improvement 1. Organise to reach the goals 4. product life cycles. It is not related to cost. Provide training 5. Quality Planning and Quality Improvement Quality Planning Is the creation of an actionable plan that defines and ensures quality from concept to delivery. Collect information from those who deal with customers on a regular basis for insight on what clients expect. quality improvement is anything which causes a beneficial change in quality performance.Suitable quality is determined by product users. Carry out projects to solve problem 6. This requires setting goals ahead of time to know by which standards you will make judgments. whereas another may be viewed as having poor quality because it is not disposable. Set goals for improvement 3. For example: A low priced product may be viewed as having high quality because it is disposable. and the effectiveness of marketing campaigns to ensure there is not too much waste and profits are where they should be. Build awareness of the need and opportunity for improvement 2. Quality planning Procedure given by Joseph A Juran • Identify the customers • Determine their needs • Translate those needs into our language • Develop a product that can respond to those need • Optimize the product features to meet our and customer needs Quality Improvement is the actions taken throughout the organization to increase the effectiveness of activities and processes to provide added benefits to both the organization and its customers. and adjectives or descriptors such as "high" and "poor" are not applicable. The ISO definition of quality improvement states that it is the actions taken throughout the organization to increase the effectiveness of activities and processes to provide added benefits to both the organization and its customers. Proponents of quality management will often get feedback from lower-level employees as well. Report progress GROUP I 6 . There are two basic ways of bringing about improvement in quality performance. The evaluation should include managers looking at sales numbers. A technique for quality improvement is to evaluate progress regularly. In simple terms.

. This includes creating and implementing quality planning and assurance. Keep score 10. It also indicates that company processes should continually change to meet the needs of the market and the culture at large. Quality Costs Prior to its introduction. Total Quality Management (TQM) is a comprehensive and structured approach to organizational management that seeks to improve the quality of products and services through ongoing refinements in response to continuous feedback. This feat cannot be achieved unless an organization rates a culture off quality and no strategy and plan can be worthwhile unless it is carefully implemented. This philosophy encourages closer relationships between suppliers and manufacturers and customers. A company uses strategic planning to predict and anticipate changes in the business environment and position the company to respond. Communication result 9. as well as quality control and quality improvement. Quality Management is the act of overseeing all activities and tasks needed to maintain a desired level of excellence. It is a business philosophy that moves the responsibility of quality assurance away from designated quality managers and instead involves all members of a company. An essential idea behind strategic planning is that the product is customer value rather than a physical product or service. while cost accounting had evolved to GROUP I 7 . This is especially reflected in vision. mission and policy guidelines of an organization.7. An environment and reputation for customer value and quality is one approach to meeting the demands of customers. Companies must develop an edge in the marketplace that differentiates the organization from all other businesses. Give recognition 8. either by buying better materials or machines or by hiring more labor. Furthermore. Quality management and Total quality management Strategic Planning is a process an organization uses to prioritize and focus the efforts of the company as well as the implementation of a plan. When an organization chooses to make quality a major competitive edge. Maintain momentum by making annual Strategic planning. the general perception was that higher quality requires higher costs. it becomes the central issue in strategic planning.

[3] By classifying quality-related entries from a company's general ledger. material review. quality improvement teams. process reviews. education and training. process or service audits. which is especially important given that most people involved in manufacturing never set hands on the product. Prevention Cost 1. Internal Failure Cost: Cost associated with defects found before the customer receives the product or service. Internal Failure Cost 3. and changes in shareholder equity. External Failure Cost 2. Example: Processing customer complaints. Every time work is redone. material. re-testing. Inspection (appraisal) Cost: Cost incurred to determine the degree of conformance to quality requirements (measuring. Example: New product review. product recalls. calibration of measuring and test equipment. GROUP I 8 . Example: Inspection. Higher quality means higher cost: Quality attributes such as performance and features cost more in terms of labor. rework. the cost of quality increases. re-inspection. Obvious examples include:  The reworking of a manufactured item. Example: Scrap.categorize financial transactions into revenues. design. External Failure Cost: Cost associated with defects found after the customer receives the product or service. testing. it had not attempted to categorize costs relevant to quality. material downgrades 3. 2. 4. evaluating or auditing). and other costly resources. The “cost of quality” isn’t the price of creating a quality product or service. Quality costs or cost of quality is a means to quantify the total cost of quality-related efforts and deficiencies. such as the reprocessing of a loan operation or the replacement of a food order in a restaurant The cost of quality is generally classified into four categories: 1. The additional benefits from improved quality do not compensate for the additional expenses. Prevention Cost: Cost incurred to prevent (keep failure and appraisal cost to a minimum) poor quality.  The retesting of an assembly  The rebuilding of a tool  The correction of a bank statement The reworking of a service. management and quality practitioners can evaluate investments in quality based on cost improvement and profit enhancement. quality planning. warranty claims. supplier surveys. customer returns. Inspection (appraisal) Cost 4. expenses.

which is still widely accepted in Japan. quality costs are the total of the cost incurred by: • Investing in the prevention of nonconformance to requirements. Quality costs are those incurred in excess of those that would have been incurred if product were built or service performed exactly right the first time: This view is held by adherents of the TQM philosophy. • Failing to meet requirements. • Appraising a product or service for conformance to requirements. The savings result from less rework. Quality Costs—general description Prevention Costs The costs of all activities specifically designed to prevent poor quality in products or services. scrap. evaluating or auditing products or services to assure conformance to quality standards and performance requirements. process or service audits • Calibration of measuring and test equipment • Associated supplies and materials GROUP I 9 . This paved the way of continuous process improvement among Japanese firms. but also those resulting from lost customers. Total Quality Costs As the figure below shows. and other direct expenses related to defects. Examples are the costs of: • New product review • Quality planning • Supplier capability surveys • Process capability evaluations • Quality improvement team meetings • Quality improvement projects • Quality education and training Appraisal Costs The costs associated with measuring. The cost of improving quality is less than the resultant savings: Deming promoted this view. and many hidden costs and foregone opportunities not identified by modern cost accounting systems. lost market share. Costs include not only those that are direct. These include the costs of: • Incoming and source inspection/test of purchased material • In-process and final inspection/test • Product.

Failure costs are divided into internal and external failure categories. flexibility. to the customer. The process must be a continuous way of life. and the entire company should work towards improvement in everything that they do. Examples are the costs of: • Scrap • Rework • Re-inspection • Re-testing • Material review • Downgrading External Failure Costs Failure costs occurring after delivery or shipment of the product — and during or after furnishing of a service — to the customer. and competitiveness. The TQM process involves several steps that you should be aware of to reduce manufacturing costs: GROUP I 10 . Internal Failure Costs Failure costs occurring prior to delivery or shipment of the product. Failure Costs The costs resulting from products or services not conforming to requirements or customer/user needs. efficiency. Total Quality Management (TQM) is known for reducing costs by reducing waste and improving efficiency. This represents the difference between the actual cost of a product or service and what the reduced cost would be if there were no possibility of substandard service. failure of products or defects in their manufacture. TQM is also known for improving effectiveness. or the furnishing of a service. Examples are the costs of: • Processing customer complaints • Customer returns • Warranty claims • Product recalls Total Quality Costs: The sum of the above costs.

Reduce Chronic Waste Reduction of chronic waste is something that can reduce costs in any manufacturing facility. Pursue New Strategic Thinking When you pursue new strategic thinking. 2. you know what matters to them. Develop a Continuous Improvement Strategy A continuous improvement strategy is always a good idea to have in any company. Concentrate on Prevention and Not Correction Most manufacturers seek to prevent problems from occurring rather than correcting them later. you can come up with ways to reduce manufacturing costs without investing large sums of cash. GROUP I 11 . 4.1. 5. If you know your customers. Know Your Customers You must know your customers. 3. Strategic thinking is expected of every company that engages in quality management. but your employees have to follow it. This is a more cost- effective approach. You can reduce costs by using waste reduction techniques without sacrificing quality. Companies with a chronic waste reduction strategy are typically more successful financially because they don’t waste money on excess.

7. If your approach is balanced. Use Structured Methodology for Process Improvement A structured methodology for process improvement has been proven to reduce waste.6. Learn to apply it to All Functions Ensure that your employees know how to apply the principles to all functions to reduce waste and costs within the workplace. your staff will not be exasperated with excess waste or costs. Learn to Set Actual Customer Requirements Setting customer expectations and requirements are essential to the success of the waste and cost reduction programs. or with unreasonable strategies to reduce excess wastes or costs. It’s within the best interest of the company to use the structured methodology for process improvement. Because of their dedication to the process. Use a Balanced Approach Use a balanced approach in order reduce costs within an organization. companies can reinvest in their product or service. Devise a strategy for quality management to reduce manufacturing costs. 9. This makes the company more efficient. Without knowing customer requirements. Companies such as Toyota Motor Company and Motorola have all learned to use TQM to reduce manufacturing costs. It’s best to take classes to master these principles to maximize the effects of the principles. they have learned how to produce cost effective products that are durable and cost effective. More companies are recognizing why they should adopt these principles to ensure they deliver a product that is competitive and affordable for the public. products and services improve also. 8. When costs are reduced. GROUP I 12 . you will not deliver a product that is effective in eliminating waste and cost. With efficiency. Consider this before revamping your system.

Note that if an economy car is free of defects. Companies employ many techniques to prevent defects for example statistical process control. The use of the term "quality cost" is confusing to some people. it can have a quality of conformance that is just as high as defect-free luxury car. Quality costs can be broken down into four broad groups.Definition and Explanation of Quality Costs: A product that meets or exceeds its design specifications and is free of defects that mar its appearance or degrade its performance is said to have high quality of conformance. Prevention costs support activities whose purpose is to reduce the number of defects. detecting and dealing with defects cause costs that are called quality costs or costs of quality. Preventing. training. quality engineering. The purchasers of economy cars cannot expect their cars to be as opulently as luxury cars. rather. and a variety of tools from total quality management (TQM). Four types of quality cost are briefly explained below: Prevention Costs: Generally the most effective way to manage quality costs is to avoid having defects in the first place. Two of these groups are known as prevention costs and appraisal costs. The other two groups of costs are known as internal failure costs and external failure costs. The quality costs do not just relate to just manufacturing. Internal and external failure costs are incurred because defects are produced despite efforts to prevent them therefore these costs are also known as costs of poor quality. but they can and do expect to be free of defects. they relate to all the activities in a company from initial research and development (R & D) through customer service. It does not refer to costs such as using a higher grade leather to make a wallet or using 14K gold instead of gold plating in jewelry. Instead the term quality cost refers to all of the costs that are incurred to prevent defects or that result from defects in products. GROUP I 13 . These are incurred in an effort to keep defective products from falling into the hands of customers. Total quality cost can be quite high unless management gives this area special attention. It is much less costly to prevent a problem from ever happening than it is to find and correct the problem after it has occurred. These four groups are also termed as four (4) types of quality costs.

An out of control process results in defective units and may be caused by a miscalibrated machine or some other factor. Both management and workers are included in these circles. parts are delivered from suppliers just in time and in just the correct quantity to fill customer orders. such support to suppliers is vital. Statistical process control is a technique that is used to detect whether a process is in or out of control. workers use charts to monitor the quality of units that pass through their workstations. In a JIT system. allows quality to be built into products rather than relying on inspections to get the defects out. Consequently. workers can quickly spot processes that are out of control and that are creating defects. Particularly in just in time (JIT) systems. There are no stockpiles of parts. companies that use just in time (JIT) often require that their supplier use sophisticated quality control programs such as statistical process control and that their suppliers certify that they will deliver parts and materials that are free of defects. Internal failure costs result from identification of defects before they are shipped to GROUP I 14 .Quality circles consist of small groups of employees that meet on a regular basis to discuss ways to improve quality. Problems can be immediately corrected and further defects prevented rather than waiting for an inspector to catch the defect later. With these charts. Employees are increasingly being asked to be responsible for their own quality control. In statistical process control. Unfortunately performing appraisal activates doesn't keep defects from happening again and most managers realize now that maintaining an army of inspectors is a costly and ineffective approach to quality control. the part cannot be used and the order for the ultimate customer cannot be filled in time. Appraisal Costs: Any defective parts and products should be caught as early as possible in the production process. Internal failure Costs: Failure costs are incurred when a product fails to conform to its design specifications. are incurred to identify defective products before the products are shipped to customers. This approach along with designing products to be easy to manufacture properly. Hence every part received from suppliers must be free from defects. Failure costs can be either internal or external. Appraisal costs. which are sometimes called inspection costs. Some companies provide technical support to their suppliers as a way of preventing defects. Prevention costs include activities relating to quality circles and statistical process control. If a defective part is received from a supplier.

rejected products. Internal failure costs. repairs and replacements. some managers have taken the attitude. and we'll take care of any problems under the warranty. External failure costs usually give rise to another intangible cost. customer ill will. External Failure Costs: When a defective product is delivered to customer. Examples of four types of quality cost are given below: Prevention Costs Internal Failure Costs GROUP I 15 . In the past. The more effective a company's appraisal activities the greater the chance of catching defects internally and the greater the level of internal failure costs. liability arising from legal actions against a company.customers. and lost sales arising from a reputation for poor quality. These costs include scrap. external failure costs and intangible costs that impair the goodwill of the company occur due to a poor quality so these costs are also known as costs of poor quality by some persons. reworking of defective units. This is the price that is paid to avoid incurring external failure costs. Such costs can decimate profits. "Let's go ahead and ship everything to customers. and declining market share and profits. product recalls." This attitude generally results in high external failure costs. External failure costs include warranty. Missing a deadline or other quality problems can be intangible costs of quality. external failure cost is the result. They can be three or four times greater than tangible costs. These intangible costs are hidden costs that involve the company's image. which can be devastating. and downtime caused by quality problem.

The total quality cost is the sum of both. Plant utilities in the inspection area Field testing and appraisal at customer site JURAN’S MODEL OF OPTIMUM QUALITY COSTS Juran’s model for quality costs is illustrated in fig. The quality level increases when the cost of conformance (sum of prevention and appraisal cost) increases.1 the quality level increases. The figure gives a feeling that we must put up with some defects. The cost of non-conformance (failure cost) decreases as quality level improves. The lowest tip is the optimal cost. Figure 1. analysis.Systems development Net cost of scrap Quality engineering Net cost of spoilage Quality training Rework labor and overhead Quality circles Re-inspection of reworked products statistical process control Retesting of reworked products Supervision of prevention activities Downtime caused by quality problems Quality data gathering. 1. But the figure indicates that 100 percent quality is very expensive. and reporting Disposal of defective products Quality improvement projects Analysis of the cause of defects in production Technical support provided to suppliers Re-entering data because of keying errors Audits of the effectiveness of the quality system Debugging software errors Appraisal Costs External Failure Costs Test and inspection of incoming materials Cost of field servicing and handling complaints Test and inspection of in-process goods Warranty repairs and replacements Final product testing and inspection Repairs and replacements beyond the warranty period Supplies used in testing and inspection Product recalls Supervision of testing and inspection activities Liability arising from defective products Depreciation of test equipment Returns and allowances arising from quality problems Maintenance of test equipment Lost sales arising from a reputation for poor quality.1 JURAN’S MODEL OF OPTIMUM COSTS GROUP I 16 . when the quality the number of defects in the product service reduces.

1 Table 1. By spending more money on prevention a typical case study is given in table 1.1 COST OF QUALITY AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MANUFACTURING COSTS GROUP I 17 . Thereafter inspection can be reduced gradually. The first priority is to eliminate external failures.ANALYSIS FOR COQ IMPROVEMENT Management should use the COQ data to identify and prioritize improvement opportunities.

However. the result is much better as the table indicates. TQM is aimed at enabling the lowest cost of quality. the failures overall COQ came down. keeping the same level of inspection. the CEO decided to adapt TQM. In 1999. The pie chart below indicates the distribution of causes of external failures Figure 1. appraisal could be brought down drastically. Thus. the first time and every time. Efforts should be made in the same direction so that overall COQ reduces further. increasing appraisal without increasing prevention increased internal failures but reduced external failures. During 1999 when prevention was stepped up. This is certainly an improvement because external failures affect business very badly. ANALYSIS OF EXTERNAL FAILURE COSTS Similarly an analysis if an external failure was made by the organization. However. the organization decided to get into ISO 9000 and focus on prevention. Hence in the year 2001. Now both the internal failures and external failures are quite low. Vigorous efforts were made to improve quality further and di things right.During 1997.2 GROUP I 18 . the total COQ did not change. During 1997.

This analysis and the external failure analysis pointed to problems in the soldering process. Estimate the correct rating of fuse and analyze the causes of failure of fuse If all the above failures can be eliminated then the failure cost will reduce to about 10%. The process was studied and found that the lighting in assemble line needed to improvement and the operators needed training.The above pie chart gives the priorities for action to be taken as given below: 1. Wrong component placed B. Improve quality of soldering 2. Soldering failure C. the causes for internal failure costs were analyze and plotted as a Pareto Diagram.3 A. Other causes A major cause of internal failure was insertion of wrong components in PCB. GROUP I 19 . ANALYSIS OF INTERNAL FAILURE COSTS From the data available. A thorough study was required to reduce defects caused by poor soldering. Figure 1. Eliminate the cause of failure of diode D1 3.

There should be a balance between preventing problems and developing better. he describes a leader as one who instills purposes and not one who controls by brute force. These are as follows: 1. Leaders shape. improve it” rather than “If it ain’t broke. Leadership In the book of James MacGregor Burns about Leadership. it is very important to analyze the data more closely to derive benefits to the organization. 6. Leaders have trust and confidence in the performance of their subordinates.  Enables taking steps to improve customer satisfaction. The process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of the common task (Chemers MM 2002) Characteristics of Quality Leaders There are 12 behaviors or characteristics that successful quality leaders demonstrate. They encourage collaboration rather than competition. departments or work groups are in competition. training and work environment to help subordinates do their jobs. subordinates. protect and exemplify the organization’s values. As coaches. rather than direct and supervise. 5. Leaders use the phrase “If it isn’t perfect. They emphasize improvement rather than maintenance. but no perfect. Instead. they help their subordinates learn to do a better job. 2. “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure” is certainly true. It is also true that perfection can be the enemy of creativity. 4. but it is the little ones that keep the continuous process improvement on a positive track. processes. GROUP I 20 . The COQ analysis gives the following benefits to the organization. They continually evaluate the customers’ changing requirements. A leader strengthens and inspires the followers to accomplish shared goals.  Enables cost reduction owing to steps taken for improvement based on analysis. the decision to accept responsibility lies with the individual. They provide the resources. We cannot always wait until we have created the perfect process or product. don’t fix it. It further leads to establishing goals for the organization to improve quality. rather than control. Major breakthroughs sometimes happen. there should be collaboration among and within units.  Brings out the magnitude of the quality problem in the organization. Leaders place themselves in the customers’ shoes and service their needs from that perspective. They train and coach. They emphasize prevention. they may find subtle ways of working against each other or withholding information. promote. Leaders know that the development of human resource is a necessity. However. They empower.  Displaying the results motivates employees tom improve further. They give priority attention to external and internal customers and their needs.” There is always room for improvement. When functional areas.Thus. even if the improvement is small. 3.

For example. At the senior management level. Leaders continually disseminate information about the TQM effort. They encourage and recognize team effort. Proactive people let carefully thought-about. This action is one of the leader’s most powerful tools. “What caused it?” and “How can we prevent it in the future?” are the questions quality leaders ask.ideas will be generated by people when leaders encourage them and act upon them. selected and internalized values tell them how to respond. They make it evident that TQM is not just a slogan. provide recognition to and reward individuals and teams. 12. rather than their words. GROUP I 21 . 9. Reactive people let circumstances. 11. on the eve of Operation Desert Storm. No one can make you miserable unless you choose to let him or her.the ability to choose the responses to a situation. conditions or their environment tells them how to respond. Suppliers are encouraged to participate in project teams and become involved. They continually try to improve communications. a quality council is provided and at the first-line supervisor level. They encourage. Covey Habit 1. Comparisons are given below. Proactive behavior is the outcome of conscious choice based on values whereas reactive behavior is based on feelings. They learn from problems. Leadership Concepts The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People by Stephen R. Leaders know that quality begins with quality materials and the true measure is the lifecycle cost. 8. They let the quality statements be their decision-making guide. Communication is two way-. They choose suppliers on the basis of quality. Be Proactive Being proactive means taking responsibility for your life-. Leaders walk their talk—their actions. Leaders know people like to know that their contributions are appreciated and important. Communication is the glue that holds a TQM organization together. communicate their level of commitment. Reactive Proactive There is nothing I can do. 7. They continually demonstrate their commitment to quality. not price. They establish organizational systems to support the quality effort. it is treated as an opportunity rather than something to be minimized or covered up. 10. work groups and project teams are organized to improve the process. It is not what happens to us but our response that differentiates the two behaviors. The language we use is a real indicator of our behavior. Let us look at our alternatives. General Colin Powell solicited enlisted men and women for advice on winning the war. When a problem exists.

consistency. Start by considering the examples mentioned below: • Never compromise with honesty • Remember the people involved • Maintain a positive attitude • Exercise daily • Keep a sense of humor • Do not fear mistakes • Facilitate the success of subordinates • Seek divine help • Read a leadership book monthly By centering our lives on correct principles. picture or paradigm of the end of your life as your frame of reference. I have to do that. It is the day-by-day. In order to begin with the end in mind. guidance. Leadership means doing the right things and management means doing things right.a vision of your life as a whole. Thus. If you want to have a successful organization. I choose. we create a solid foundation for the development of the life support factors of security. To build a house you first create a blueprint and then construct the actual house. Habit 2. Each part of your life can be examined in terms of what really matters to you-. You are in charge. leadership is the first creation and management is the second. Put First Things First Habit one says. The “time management matrix” is shown in table Urgent Not Urgent GROUP I 22 . Principles are fundamental truths. moment-by-moment management of your time. Begin with the End in Mind The most fundamental application of this habit is to begin each day with an image. beauty and strength through the fabric of life. you begin with a plan that will produce the appropriate end. “You’re the creator. I must. They are tightly interwoven threads running with exactness. develop a personal philosophy or creed. I will choose an appropriate response. All things are created twice-. I prefer. I control my own feelings.leadership based on values.” Habit two is the first creation and is based on imagination-. I cannot. Habit three is practicing self-management and requires habits one and two as prerequisites. wisdom and power. You create a speech on paper before you give it. Habit 3.there is a mental or first creation and a physical or second creation to all things. She makes me so mad.

3. resources. Habit 4. relationships. then to be Understood Seek first to understand involves a paradigm shift since we usually try to be understood first. a four-step process is needed.character. accountability and consequences. especially if the other party is thinking win-lose. Seek First to Understand. Determine acceptable results. report Pleasant activities Urgent means it requires immediate attention and important has to do with results that contribute to your mission. Identify the key issues and concerns. proactive people spend most of their time in quadrant II. busy work matters Time wasters Important Some mail. United Way Chairperson and parent). adapt the weekly schedule to your daily activities. Think Win-Win Win-win is a frame of mind and heart that constantly seeks mutual benefit in all human interactions. PC Pressing problems Relationship building Deadline driven projects Recognizing new Not III IV Interruptions. systems and processes. Third. First. write down your key roles for the week (such as research manager. Agreements require the five elements of desired results. Habit 5. guidelines. pressing Trivia. firefighting Prevention. the end result is usually a better way. It takes great courage as well as consideration to create mutual benefits. Second. thereby reducing the time spent in quadrant I. calls. 2. agreements. In fact. These objectives should be tied to your personal goals or philosophy developed in habit 2. Character involves the following traits: • Integrity • Maturity-. list your objectives for each role using many quadrant II activities. Win-win agreements can only survive in a system that supports it-.you cannot talk win-win and reward win- lose. Effective. Both sides come out ahead. Important I II Crises. See the problem from the other viewpoint. 4. then the alternative is no deal. GROUP I 23 . Fourth. schedule time to complete the objectives.a balance between being considerate of others and the courage to express feelings • Abundance mentality (there is plenty out there for everyone) Relationship means that the two parties trust each other and are deeply committed to win-win. Four activities are necessary to be effective. In order to obtain win-win. goals and values. It is as follows: 1. If win-win is not possible. Win-win embraces five interdependent dimensions of life-. Seek possible new options to achieve those results.

pathos is the empathy you have with the other person’s communication and logos is the logic or reasoning part of your presentation.preserving and enhancing the greatest asset you have.they are quadrant II activities. All four dimensions of your nature should be used regularly in wise and balanced ways.” They as a group created more music than each individual created after the group broke up. validated and appreciated. In his book. Ethos is your personal credibility or character. to the degree that they do not. The spiritual dimension is your commitment to your value system. they will not rise above the animal plane. Next to physical survival is the greatest need of a human being of psychological survival-. emotionally as well as intellectually. While this activity does not require time. Covey states that correct principles are natural laws and that God. Empathic listening is the key to effective communication. Together. The social and emotional dimensions of our lives are tied together because our emotional life is primarily. it does require exercise. When there is a genuine understanding. The first five habits build toward habit six. Sharpen the Saw (Renewal) Habit seven is taking time to sharpen the saw so that it will cut faster. The essence of empathic listening is not that you agree with someone. It is renewing the four dimensions of your nature-- physical. Renewing the physical dimension means following good nutrition. is the source of them and also the source of our conscience. mental and social/emotional.ethos. affirmed. rest and relaxation. The second part of the habit is to be understood. how they feel etc. It focuses on learning how the other person sees the world. spiritual. The mental dimension is continuing to develop your intellect through reading. Synergy Synergy means that the whole is greater than the parts. but not exclusively. Synergy occurs when people abandon their humdrum presentations and win-lose mentality and open themselves up to creative cooperation. pathos and logos. we can accomplish more than any of us can accomplish alone. developed out of and manifested in our relationship with others. Definition of Total Quality Management (TQM) GROUP I 24 . seminars and writing. It is personal PC-. Covey uses three sequentially arranged Greek words-. These three dimensions require that time be set aside-. people reach solutions that are better than they could have achieved acting alone. which is you. It is that you fully and deeply understand the person. the Creator and the Father of us all. This can best be exemplified by the musical group “The Beatles. and regular exercise. He submits that to the degree people live by this inspired conscience. Habit 6. Renewal comes from prayer. Habit 7. meditation and spiritual reading. It focuses the concept of win-win and the skills of empathic communication on tough challenges that bring about new alternatives which did not exist before. they will grow to fulfill their natures.to be understood.

Purchasing agents GROUP I 25 . Every effort should be made to reduce and then eliminate acceptance sampling. This necessity is revealed by almost all of Deming's fourteen points. from supplier to customer. The goal is to have single suppliers for each item to develop a long-term relationship of loyalty and trust. Without innovation you can never lead. Understand the Purpose of Inspection Management should understand that the purpose of inspection is to improve the process and reduce its cost. Where appropriate. Customer satisfaction is the number one priority because dissatisfied customers will not continue to purchase nonconforming products and services. Provide for long-term needs rather than short-term profits. For most of the parts. because price has no meaning without quality. Total Quality Management (TQM) refers to a quality emphasis that encompasses the entire organization. If you just try to meet the competition. 2. The quality initiative has to start at the top and many traditional views have to be substantially altered. it should be replaced by never-ending improvement using statistical techniques. the quality and productivity will improve. The Deming’s philosophy Deming’s philosophy is given in 14 points. We can no longer live in the days when quantity was more important than quality. The rest were developed and the original ones modified over a period of three decades. Organizations should seek never-ending improvement and refuse to accept nonconformance. Set the course today in order to be in business tomorrow. Top management and everyone should learn the new philosophy. Statistical evidence is required of self and supplier. 3. Most of these points were given in a seminar for 21 presidents of leading Japanese industries in 1950. 4. Create Constancy of Purpose for Continual Improvement of Product and Service Management should demonstrate constantly their commitment to this statement. A management commitment to a complete transformation of the current (bad) practices is absolutely necessary for survival and competitive success in this new economic age. Learn and Adopt the New Philosophy A change is necessary in the old management methods which are no longer effective for today's business environment. mass inspection is costly and unreliable. The organization should concentrate on defect prevention rather than defect detection. you will not survive in the new economic age. Stop Awarding Business based on Price Alone The organization should stop awarding business based on the low bid alone. thereby providing improved products and services. By improving the process. Mass inspection is managing for failure and defect prevention is managing for success. Stability combined with innovation leaves the consumer more satisfied and the manufacturer assured both of new customers and of the old customers’ willingness to return. What has to be clearly appreciated before any attempts are made at implementing Deming's philosophy is the level of corporate cultural change required. to become more competitive and to provide more jobs. 1. TQM stresses a commitment by management to have a continuing companywide drive toward excellence in all aspects of products and services that are important to the costumers.

indicate clearly what the next step should be and supply the necessary experience for the future. the community and the environment. They can also provide the basis of what Deming calls a system of profound knowledge. any system that results in an “I win. The focus is on preventing problems before they happen. Some Theory of Knowledge GROUP I 26 . Proper appreciation of the system can only come from adequate understanding of the capability of the system and that. Variation is expected. Knowledge of (or Appreciation of) the System and the Theory of Optimization Emphasis should be laid on the optimization of the system rather than the sub-optimization of the subsystems. should be trained in statistical process control and require it from suppliers. 6. but there should be a continual striving for its reduction using control charts. The aim should be for everybody to gain (win-win) in the long run company. Institute Training on the Job Each employee should be oriented to the organization’s philosophy of commitment to never- ending improvements. which brings us to the need for the third ingredient. According to Deming. As Walter Shewhart says. Then the capabilities of the system can be assessed and reliable predictions made. All this can only be achieved with the aid of statistical theory. in turn. what the system's controlled and uncontrolled components are and how stability can be attained. Improve Constantly and Forever the System of Production and Service Management should take more responsibility for problems by actively finding and correcting them so that quality and productivity are continually and permanently improved and costs are reduced. customers. Training and education are the cornerstones of greater consistency. Some Knowledge of Statistical Theory (or the Theory of Variation) Adequate knowledge of uncertainty and its different sources (special and common) will reveal whether the system is stable or not. knowing exactly what is expected from them. can only come from the second ingredient. b. The majority of the techniques needed are easy to learn and implement immediately. a necessity in the training curriculum of any manager. shareholders. employees. suppliers. They should follow the materials throughout the entire life cycle in order to examine how customer expectations are affected and provide feedback to the suppliers regarding the quality. Management should allocate resources to train employees to perform their jobs in the best manner possible. c. The four ingredients of the system of profound knowledge which are necessary to learn and practice are as follows: a. you lose” structure is less than optimal. Everyone should be trained in statistical methods and these methods should be used to monitor the need for further training. 5. Responsibilities are assigned to teams to remove the causes of problems and continually improve the process. They can provide a basis for action. A continuous program of on-the-job training needs to be instituted and this should include managers. price has no meaning unless a measure of quality is purchased at the same time. Investment in proper training of all new employees will ensure that the newcomers will immediately start contributing to their full capacity.

It can help one to understand people and the interactions between one person and the other (all people are different) and between a person and the system.I wish we could. As Deming says. possible physical harm. Adopt and Institute Modern Methods of Leadership In this new economic age. there is no substitute for knowledge. but the question can only come from theory. d. Experience may provide the answer. Some Knowledge of Psychology When it comes to managing people. It is caused by a lack of job security. Break Down Barriers between Departments and Individuals Management should optimize the efforts of teams. Experience and example are of no help in management unless studied with the aid of theory. among departments. poor supervision and not knowing the job. Today's leaders should do the following: • Lead and motivate by example rather than fear • Teach and counsel rather than judge and supervise • Use mistakes to learn from rather than to blame • Understand the difference between random and special variation (so that people in need of special help are recognized) • Promote teamwork and mutual trust • Provide innovative methods to accomplish the improvement 8. Barriers exist internally among levels of management. Management can begin by providing workers with adequate training. and ignorance of organization goals. within departments and among shifts. Externally. Their various abilities should be identified and properly utilized for the benefit of the company. they will provide ideas for improvement. they exist between the organization and its customers and suppliers. Fear is caused by a general feeling of being powerless to control important aspects of one’s life. productivity and the performance of people and processes are improved. which can also teach the management about the psychology of change and the difficulties associated with it. Drive Out Fear and Create Trust and a Climate for Innovation Management should encourage open. These barriers exist because of poor communication. performance appraisals. In this climate. work groups and staff areas to achieve the aims and purposes of the organization. fear can be eliminated and people will work for the general good of the organization. supervisors should be more than just overseers. 9. effective communication and teamwork. good supervision and proper tools to do the job. one needs some knowledge of psychology. There is no knowledge without prediction and theory.” Indeed. as well as removing physical dangers. Transformation can come with the aid of theory. Variety among different people should be regarded as an asset and taken advantage of rather than as an inhibiting factor. It requires awareness and respect for differences between individuals. When people are treated with dignity. can only be attained through appropriate training. Driving fear out of the workplace involves managing for success. This knowledge. 7. like any other associated with the system of profound knowledge. ignorance of the GROUP I 27 . This reveals the need for the fourth ingredient. “We don't install Knowledge . Modern leadership means continually ensuring that quality.

” Arbitrary objectives not accompanied by a road map to help in their accomplishment can be counterproductive. without a method. Attitudes need to be changed.” Indeed. They never helped anyone to do a better job. GROUP I 28 . Multifunctional teams. communication channels opened. management will need a long-term perspective.” “Do it right first time” and “Increase productivity by 10%” are not going to achieve anything. Eliminate slogans which demand zero defects and new levels of excellence without providing the methods. Most of the causes of low quality and unsatisfactory productivity are beyond the power of the workforce. or if the equipment is in need of better maintenance and calibration? Verbally insisting that somebody should be a quality worker is at best patronizing and at worst the cause of frustration and resentment. it would be better if MBO or MBR (management by results) were replaced with MBIO-. All the different areas should work together. for example. is defective. They belong to the system and can be dealt with by changing management practices. not harder. project teams organized and training in teamwork implemented. Quotas and work standards focus on quantity rather than quality. Management should provide and implement a strategy for never-ending improvements and work with the work force to reflect the new policies. Posters and Exhortations for the Work Force Exhortations that ask for increased productivity without providing specific improvement methods can handicap an organization. They encourage poor workmanship in order to meet their quotas. They do nothing but express management’s desires. probably purchased on the basis of its (low) price tag. Goals should be set that are achievable and are committed to the long-term success of the organization. This objective should always be a real consensus rather than a top-down mandate. an objective which is not specific in detail in the form of a numerical target in isolation. 11. Management by numerical goal is an attempt to manage without knowledge of what to do. management should learn the capabilities of the processes and how to improve them. such as used in concurrent engineering. can somebody make something right first time if the incoming material. are a burlesque. are an excellent method. processes and services. fear and personal grudges or jealousies. especially when it is obvious that the insistence does not originate from a quality manager. competition. To break down the barriers. Quotas should be replaced with statistical methods of process control. Improvements in the process cannot be made unless the tools and methods are available. If there are problems of high defect rates and low productivity. Instead of management by objective. They do not produce a better product or service because the workers are limited by the system. How. “Management by numerical goal is an attempt to manage without knowledge of what to do. management should learn and institute methods for improvement. and in fact is usually management by fear. it should be that of constancy of purpose for continuous quality improvement of products. If there is an objective to be set. Eliminate Numerical Quotas for the Work Force Instead of quotas. According to Deming. 10.management by improvement objectives. It should be supported by continuous training and sustained cooperation involving everybody from the top manager down. slogans such as “Zero defects. Eliminate the Use of Slogans. organization’s mission. Internal goals set by management. People should be given the means to “work smarter.

they will grow to the fullest extent of their job. Adventurous and bold change management The essential requirements of change and change management are: GROUP I 29 . Ten (10) Strategies for Top Management 1. Restoring pride will require a long-term commitment by management. everyone in the organization will be working for the common good. Take Action to Ensure Top Management’s Permanent Commitment to Accomplish the Transformation Management has to accept the primary responsibility for the never-ending improvement of the process. Managers should be aware of this change and should themselves be appropriately trained to take advantage of it. Otherwise. Being proactive may be considered to be an in-born quality. By restoring pride. b. They have to foresee what will happen in the future and take advance action to prevent the occurrence of the problems as prevention is always better than cure. 12. Encourage Education and Self-Improvement for Everyone What an organization needs are people who are improving with education. the competitor will. Self-improvement for everyone should always be encouraged and ever. changes in product design and machinery. and innovative techniques. A long-term commitment to continuously train and educate people should be made by management. Management should give employees operational job descriptions. It has to create a corporate structure to implement the philosophy. 2. When workers are proud of their work. e. Inadequate training is provided. 13. Everyone should be retrained as the organization requirements change to meet the changing environment. Workers do not know how to relate to the organization’s mission. Management should be committed.” d. and stress the workers’ understanding of their role in the total process. They are being blamed for system problems. 14. but it can be developed by anybody who is willing to put in that extra effort. Things change fast. Deming’s 14 points and the organization’s mission should be the foundation of the education program. Inadequate or ineffective equipment is provided for performing the required work. provide the proper tools and materials. Remove Barriers that Rob People of Pride of Workmanship Loss of pride in workmanship exists throughout organizations because of the following reasons: a. Proactive management The leaders have to be proactive. Poor designs lead to the production of “junk. A cultural change is required from the previous “business as usual” attitude.broadening opportunities for the workforce should always be provided. f. Encourage continual training to keep up with new developments. c. A barrier for people on salary is the annual rating of performance. Punitive supervision exists. involved and accessible if the organization is to succeed in implementing the new philosophy.

it is normal part of business life. 5. not detection and testing. • Be bold the other perquisite for change management are boldness. They should visualize the improvements needed and make every effort to achieve it. Boldness is very essential for making bold decisions for improvement. leave alone how to do? 2. Take right decision • Plan the decision – weigh the pros and cons • Foresee the impact of the decision on the organization • Take opinion of the right people • Involve the concerned (employees who will be affected by the decision) • Implement the decision • Persist Why people don't Do It Right the First Time? Why things are done wrong? 1. self. It may be required for many purposes from fighting lethargy among employees to guarding against vested interested 3. He does not get appreciated when he does it right. Crosby addresses the need to change management's perception of and attitudes about quality.confidence or self-esteem. Croby's approach focuses on doing things right the first time and every time. He has found it as a common attitude among mangers to believe that error is inevitable. The employees does not know what to do clearly. 7. This calls for adventurous decision-making and high self-esteem among the senior management. not doing it right the first time may result in not doing it right ever. Probably his seniors have trained him to do the wrong way. He believes there should be no reason for planning and investing in strategies that are designed in case something does not conform to requirements and goes wrong. Do it right first time (dirft) This concept was advocated by Philip Crosby. He may not have the right tools to do a good job. He stresses that the way to manage quality is by prevention.• Be Adventurous. he is not motivated enough to do it right the first time 3. He believes management creates most of its problems through its attitudes and practices in terms of what is rewarded and supports in an organization. He is not proud of the job he is doing. any product that falls within its design specifications is a quality product. Problems of not Doing it Right 1. and one needs to cope with it. If he knows how to do. There is no place in his philosophy for differing levels of quality or categories of quality. 4. He does not have necessary education or training to know to DIFT. In some cases. 6. To Crosby. thereafter GROUP I 30 .

Continuous preventive action Corrective action is post mortem prevention is better than cure one shot prevention is not good enough. Demotivates employees 5. disposal etc. KEEP ON ACCUMULATING . Brings down the reputation of the organization 7. CARING FOR SMALL THINGS . Leads to unnecessary expenditure 3. Forces the organizations to buy additional components to take care of defects in the process. Causes hassles to employees and customers 6. 10. accounting. 5. 7. Increases the failure costs 4. 2. 9.Every employee should take care. 4. Increases scraps leading to more cost on account of storage. continue to improve 10 build a virtual organization TQM Implementation Introduction GROUP I 31 . maintain every tool whatever may be its cost or importance. Ensure economic performance Importance of economic performance quality should increase productivity also talk about success in economic performance stakeholders will understand economic better. The productivity gets affected due to holding up of the process to correct the defective product shunting from place to place for fault diagnosis between employees as to who or which machine caused the defect.The management should allocate time to communicate with junior employees. Practice manage by walking around 8 measure success 9 never rest on laurels. Leads to schedule slippages 8. wastage of supervisor's time and the top management's time in resolving deputes.Accumulation of small gains needs unending enthusiasm of every employee in the organization 6. Care for little things and accumulate gains COMMUNICATING WITH JUNIOR EMPLOYEES .

In every meeting of QC. the results achieved through the implementation of TQM should be studied. team. The framework for TQM implementation should facilitate this and involve every employee. The top management always leads the implementation of TQM. Select consultant . PDSA TQM Implementation The important actions taken during each phase of PDSA are given below: Plan *Establish objectives *Establish a plan that will facilitate achieving the goal * Establish a measurement system Do *Plan for implementation and measurements *Implement the plan on pilot basis Study *Compare the results with the objectives *Identify gaps *Analyze the causes for gaps and exceptional results.The CEO will be able to convince the workers and the jubior employees about practicing TQM quite easily as they tend to have an open mind. GROUP I 32 . 3.Planning the strategy as to how the organization is going to get into TQM. which should be embedded in each employee. improve the plan and carry out PDSA again Planning Phase of TQM 1. Corporate Strategic Planning . will be able to put forth the new ideas to change the organizational culture. 2.Do phade starts * Study Phase of TQM . division. TQM Tools and Techniques TQM involves application of the right in the organization for the continuous improvement of quality. etc. TQM is based on self-control. Apply PDSA for Improvement Each improvement action has to be planned and executed following the PDSA cycle: * Do Phase of TQM . Announcement .Consultants having advantage of being independent. if any Act *Standardize the procedure that met or exceeded the goal *If there were gaps.

80 percent of Success will be due to Personal Contact 4. Consultive and Participative 3. Recognition . Accumulative Small Gains 5. 2. Authoritative and benevolent. Select Process for Improvement * Improving quality * Reducing defects * Increasing productivity * Reducing quality cost * Improving uptime of equipment Getting Things Done 1.Inside and Outside 6.The plans for implementing TQM should be confirmed. Persist Barriers to TQM Implementation * Lack of top management commitment * Lack of employee involvement * Lack of clarity in vision * Wrong consultant * Not involving customers and suppliers * Not investing adequate resources * Tough competition leading to frequent price war GROUP I 33 .* Act Phase of TQM . Build credibility.Authoritative. Praise and Punish .Both employees and suppliers will lead to accelerated implementation of TQM.