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Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.engineersinstitute.com Ph. 011-26514888

EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY

HANDBOOK

&

FORMULA BOOK

for

GATE, IES, JTO, PSU’s & SSC

ELECTRICAL

ENGINEERING

Published by Engineers Institute of India

Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.engineersinstitute.com Ph. 011-26514888

EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY

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IES & all other PSUs. they have become more competitive as more and more numbers of aspirants are increasingly becoming interested in post graduate qualifications & government jobs for a secured and bright career. It would be very fruitful if the students go through this book every day.com Ph. Over the past few years.com Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. This book covers short notes and formulae for Electrical Engineering. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. Proper strategy and revision is a mandatory requirement for clearing any competitive examination. which are required for all type of competitive examinations.rkrajesh@gmail. K. It includes all the subjects of Electrical Engineering.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY A WORD TO THE STUDENTS GATE and Engineering Services Examinations are the most prestigious competitive examinations conducted for graduate engineers. which will be highly lucrative for objective and short answer type questions. We are presenting this book by considering all the facts which is required to get success in the competition. important formulae and diagrams. which will be highly beneficial at the last leg of candidate’s preparation. Rajesh Director Engineers Institute of India eii. 011-26514888 . This book will help in quick revision before the GATE. Adequate emphasis has been laid down to all the major topics in the form of Tips / Notes. With best wishes for future career R. This book has been designed after considering the current demand of examinations.engineersinstitute. This Formula Book consists of well-illustrated concepts.

SSC & Public sector examinations. 011-26514888 .com Ph. Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. IES.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY This book is dedicated to all Electrical Engineers Preparing for GATE.engineersinstitute. JTO. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.

......com Ph....... COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS ............. 011-26514888 ................... 137-168 6.......................................... 265-286 10.......................................... CONTROL SYSTEMS............ 287-308 11................................. 205-230 8.. 01-40 2...... 75-118 4...........engineersinstitute............. 505-518 Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA........... MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION ....................................... 41-74 3.................. ELECTRICAL MACHINES ... ELECTRONIC DEVICES & CIRCUITS . ELECTRICAL MATERIALS .. 119-136 5......... ANALOG ELECTRONICS .. 169-204 7......................... MICROPROCESSORS .................. 309-392 12. 449-504 14....... DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND CIRCUITS ....................... SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS .... 231-264 9............................ NETWORK THEORY .............................EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY CONTENTS 1....... ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www............. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY ......... POWER ELECTRONICS .. 393-448 13.................... POWER SYSTEMS ..............

Why GATE? In the present competitive scenario. IES remain the most sought-after careers for the engineering graduates in India. BARC and many more PSUs are using the GATE score for selecting candidates for their organizations. The exam constitutes of a written exam followed by an interview for personality test. etc. of India to manage a large segment of public sector economy which constitutes of Railroads. Students who qualify in GATE are entitled to a stipend of Rs 8. NTPC.Tech. IOCL. one can look at a salary package ranging from Rs 7lakh to 30lakh per annum depending upon specialization and performance. course. Qualifying GATE with good marks is also an eligibility clause for the award of JRF in CSIR Laboratories.000 per month during their M. Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. A combined competitive examination is conducted by UPSC for recruitment to the Indian Engineering Services. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.Tech. The GATE Advantage Many public sector undertakings such as BHEL. at IITs and IISc.E.Tech/B. where there is mushrooming of universities and engineering colleges. Public works. Better remuneration is being offered for students of M.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY Why IES? Indian engineering services (IES) constitute of engineers that work under the govt.engineersinstitute./ME as compared to those pursuing B.com Ph. the only yardstick to measure and test the calibre of engineering students is the GATE. BPCL. Power. 011-26514888 .Tech. After joining M. HPCL. A good rank assures a good job. Telecommunications.

23-26 7.com Ph. 02-05 2. L. C CIRCUITS …………. GRAPH THEORY …………………………………………………. TWO PORT NETWORKS ………………………………………. 16-18 5. 06-10 3.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 1 NETWORK THEORY CONTENTS 1. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. FILTERS ……………………………………………………………. 31-32 9. 33-36 10.. METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND THEOREMS ……………. MAGNETIC COUPLED CIRCUITS ………………………….engineersinstitute. 27-30 8.. 37-40 Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. NETWORK BASICS ………………………………………………. RESONANCE ……………………………………………………….. 11-15 4. NETWORK SYNTHESIS ………………………………………. TRANSIENTS ……………………………………………………… 19-22 6. AC FUNDAMENTALS AND R. 011-26514888 .

A = area of cross section Extension of wire to n times results in increase in resistance: R ' n2R Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. NETWORK BASICS Current: Electric current is the time rate of change of charge flow. at any instant of time.e. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. i. = resistivity.engineersinstitute. measured in volts.com Ph. 011-26514888 . dq i (Ampere) dt t Charge transferred between time to and t q idt to Sign Convention: A negative current of –5A flowing in one direction is same as a current of +5A in opposite direction. Power: It is time rate of expending or absorbing energy. P = 0 Circuit Elements: Resistor: Linear and bilateral (conduct from both direction) In time domain V(t) = I(t)R In s domain V(s) = RI(s) ρl R= ohm A l = length of conductor. must be zero. Voltage: Voltage or potential difference is the energy required to move a unit charge through an element. Algebraic sum of power in a circuit.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 1. Law of conservation of energy must be obeyed in any electric circuit.

until impulse of voltage is applied. 011-26514888 . ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. Transformer: 4 terminal or 2-port devices. It stores energy in the form of electric field and power dissipation in ideal capacitor is zero. = 2f ωC Inductor: Linear and Bilateral element t di (t ) 1 L Time Domain: v(t ) L i (t ) v(t )dt dt Impedance Z L jX L & XL L 1 In s-domain V(s) = sL I(s) V(s) I(s) = sL Inductor doesn’t allowed sudden change of current. except electrolytic capacitor which is unilateral.engineersinstitute. 1 Impedance Zc =-jXc & Xc = .com Ph. Power dissipation in ideal inductor is zero. I1 I2 + + Input Output V1 N1 N2 V2 port port – – N1 N 2 : Step down transformer N 2 N1 : Step up transformer V1 N1 I1 N 2 V2 N 2 I 2 N1 Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. Xc Capacitive reactance . It stores energy in the form of magnetic field. until impulse of current is applied. t Cdv(t) 1 Time Domain: i(t) = v(t) i(t)dt dt C 1 In s-domain: I(s) = sCV(s) I(s) V(s) = sC Capacitor doesn’t allow sudden change of voltage.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY R Compression of wire results in decrease in resistance: R' n2 Capacitor: All capacitors are linear and bilateral.

so current varies with respect to the voltage across element. RV (Internal resistance) Current Source: In practical current source. Ideal voltmeter. N2 Transformer doesn’t work as amplifier because current decreases in same amount power remain constant. Voltage Source: In practical voltage source. It is used for simulation of equivalent value of inductance. Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. If load is inductive then input impedance will be capacitive. Gyrator: I1 I2 Ro V1 V2 R o Coefficient of Gyrator V1 R o I 2 V2 R o I1 If load is capacitive then input impedance will be inductive and vice versa.engineersinstitute.com Ph. 011-26514888 . there is small internal resistance. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. so voltage across the element varies with respect to current. there is small internal resistance.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY N1 Where K Turns ratio.

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. inductance etc.g.com Ph. Generator etc.g. is called distributed network.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY Ideal Ammeter. are not physically separate for analysis purpose. A network in which the circuit elements like resistance. A network in which all network elements are physically separable is known as lumped network. Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. Dependent Source: Voltage or current source whose values depend upon other parameters like current. (i) All independent voltage sources are short circuited. E. (iii) All dependent voltage and current sources are left as they are. The handling of independent and dependent voltage source is identical except.engineersinstitute. (i) In Thevenin and Norton Theorem (ii) Superposition Theorem Where. voltage. 011-26514888 . Ra 0 (Internal resistance) Dependent and Independent Source: Independent Source: Voltage or current source whose values doesn’t depend on any other parameters. E. Transmission line. (ii) All independent current sources are open circuited.

engineersinstitute. STATE SPACE ANALYSIS ……………………………………. FREQUENCY DOMAIN ANALYSIS …………………………. COMPENSATORS ………………………………………………. 65-68 9.com Ph. POLAR PLOTS …………………………………………………… 61-64 8. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING ………………………………. 73-74 Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA.. 011-26514888 . ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. BODE PLOTS ……………………………………………………. 45-46 3.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 2 CONTROL SYSTEMS CONTENTS 1.. 53-55 5. ROOT LOCUS ……………………………………………………… 56-58 6. TIME RESPONSE ANALYSIS ………………………………… 47-52 4. 59-60 7. BLOCK DIAGRAM ………………………………………………… 42-44 2. 69-72 10. STABILITY ………………………………………………………….

Here the output has an effect on control action through a feedback. BLOCK DIAGRAM Open Loop Control System: In this system the output is not fedback for comparison with the input. 4. In terms of performance the closed loop system adjusts to the effects of non- linearity present. Operation of this system is affected due to presence of non-linearity in its elements. As the error between the reference input and the output is continuously measured through feedback. When a designer designs. Open loop systems are generally stable. Closed Loop: 1. 011-26514888 . 2.com Ph.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 1. 3. The closed system works more accurately. Closed Loop Control System: It is also termed as feedback control system. he simply design open loop system. Open loop system faithfulness depends upon the accuracy of input calibration. 3. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. 4. Ex. Open loop system is simple to construct and cheap. Accuracy of an open loop system is defined by the calibration of input. Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. 2. Human being Transfer Function: C(s) G(s) Transfer function = R(s) 1 + G(s)H(s) Comparison of Open Loop and Closed Loop control systems: Open Loop: 1.engineersinstitute. Closed loop systems is complicated to construct and it is costly. It becomes unstable under certain conditions.

The T. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY Transfer Function: The transfer function of an LTI system may be defined as the ratio of Laplace transform of output to Laplace transform of input under the assumption Y(s) G(s) = X(s) The transfer function is completely specified in terms of its poles and zeros and the gain factor.com Ph. d (Parabolic Response) = Ramp Response dt d (Ramp Response) = Step Response dt d (Step Response) = Impulse Response dt Block Diagram Reduction: Rule Original Diagram Equivalent Diagram 1. then we can find Impulse Response directly through differentiation of that T. function of a system depends on its elements. assuming initial conditions as zero and is independent of the input function.F. is given.F. Combining X1G1 X1G1G2 X1 X 1 G 1 G2 X1 G1G2 blocks in G1 G2 cascade Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA.F. 011-26514888 . To find a gain of system through transfer function put s = 0 s4 4 Example: G(s) = 2 Gain = s 6s 9 9 If a step. ramp or parabolic response of T.engineersinstitute.

Moving a summing point ahead of block X1 X1 G X1 X1 G G G 4.engineersinstitute. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. Moving a summing point after a block 3. Eliminating a X1 X2 G feedback loop 1GH (GX1 ± X2 ) Signal Flow Graphs: It is a graphical representation of control system. Moving a take off point after a block X1 1/G X1 X1 X 1G X1 X 1G G G 5. 011-26514888 . Moving a take off point ahead X 1G X 1G G of a block 6.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 2.com Ph. Signal Flow Graph of Block Diagram: Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA.

com Ph. k Value of obtained by removing all the loops touching k forward path as th well as non-touching to each other Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA.. 011-26514888 . ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.engineersinstitute.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY pk k Mason’s Gain Formula: Transfer function = pk Path gain of k th forward path 1 – [Sum of all individual loops] + [Sum of gain products of two non-touching loops] – [Sum of gain products of 3 non-touching loops] + ……….

76-78 2. 117-118 Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. BINARY AIRTHMETIC …………………………………………. 011-26514888 .. ADCs AND DACs ……………………………………………… 113-116 10.engineersinstitute. DIGITAL LOGIC CIRCUITS ……………………………………. NUMBER SYSTEM & CODES …………………………………. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.com Ph. COUNTERS ………………………………………………………… 103-105 8. 83-89 4. MEMORIES ……………………………………………………….. 90-95 5. LOGIC GATES ……………………………………………………. 96-100 6. SHIFT REGISTERS ……………………………………………… 101-102 7. 79-82 3. SEQUENTIAL CIRCUITS ……………………………………….EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 3 DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND CIRCUITS CONTENTS 1.. DIGITAL LOGIC FAMILY ……………………………………… 106-112 9.

y1 y2 ) r (A)10 A x2 r 2 x1 r x0 y1 r 1 y 2 r 2 Hexadecimal to Binary: Convert each Hexadecimal digit into 4 bit binary. 011-26514888 . (110101.com Ph. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.C)16 . (0101 1010 1111)2 (5 AF )16 5 A F Binary to Hexadecimal: Grouping of 4 bits into one hex digit.11) 2 0011 0101 (35.1100 Octal to Binary and Binary to Octal: Same procedure as discussed above but here group of 3 bits is made.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 1. Other codes to Decimal Conversions: ( x2 x1 x0 . contents ‘r’ different digits and they are from 0 to r – 1. NUMBER SYSTEM & CODES Number System and Codes: A number system with base ‘r’. Decimal to other codes conversions: To convert decimal number into other system with base ‘r’.engineersinstitute. Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. divide integer part by r and multiply fractional part with r.

1100. Binary code to Gray code: + + + + MSB 1 0 0 1 0 Binary MSB 1 1 0 1 1 Gray Gray code to Binary code: Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. 1101.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY Codes: Binary coded decimal (BCD): In BCD code each decimal digit is represented with 4 bit binary format. 011-26514888 .com Ph.engineersinstitute. Gray Code: It is also called minimum change code or unit distance code or reflected code. Eg : (943)10 1001 0100 0011 9 4 9 BCD It is also known as 8421 code Invalid BCD codes Total Number possible 2 4 16 Valid BCD codes 10 Invalid BCD codes 16 10 6 These are 1010. It is unweighted and self-complementing code. and 1111 Excess-3 code: (BCD + 0011) It can be derived from BCD by adding ‘3’ to each coded number. 1110. 1011.

EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY Alpha Numeric codes: EBCDIC (Extended BCD Interchange code) It is 8 bit code. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. (i) (r – 1)’s complement. To determine r’s complement: (r–1)’s complement + 1 First write (r–1)’s complement and then add 1 to LSB Example: Find 7’s and 8’s complement of 2456 7777 5321 2456 1 7's complement 8's complement 5321 5322 Find 2’s complement of 101. Complements: If base is r then we can have two complements.com Ph. Hamming code is most useful error correcting code.001 For 2’s complement add 1 to the LSB 010.engineersinstitute. BCD code is used in calculators.001 1 2'scomplement 010. (ii) r’s complement. 011-26514888 . counters.010 Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. It can represent 128 possible characters.110 1’s complement 010. To determine (r–1)’s complement: First write maximum possible number in the given system and subtract the given number. Parity Method is most widely used schemes for error detection.

133-136 Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA.com Ph. MICROPROCESSOR BASICS …………………………………. 120-124 2. 011-26514888 .engineersinstitute. 8085 INSTRUCTIONS …………………………………………… 125-132 3. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 4 MICROPROCESSORS CONTENTS 1. 8086 BASICS ……………………………………………………….

8085 MPU: 8 bit general – purpose microprocessor capable of addressing 64 K of memory. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.com Ph. Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. fabricated using VLSI technology.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 1. Microcontroller: A device that includes microprocessor. MICROPROCESSOR BASICS A Microprocessor includes ALU. register arrays and control circuits on a single chip.engineersinstitute. 011-26514888 . memory and input and output signal lines on a single chip. Architecture of 8085 Microprocessor 1.

Otherwise it is reset. E. when the result is zero otherwise it is reset. Auxiliary Carry (AC): In an arithmetic operation If carry is generated by D 3 and passed to D 4 flag is set. the flag is set. otherwise the flag is reset. L low order register. Otherwise it is reset.engineersinstitute. H high order register and C. Flags: 5 flags Flag Register: D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 S Z AC P CY Carry Flag (CY): If an arithmetic operation result in a carry or borrow. Sign Flag (S): Sign Flag is set if bit D7 of the result is 1. requires a +5V single power supply and can operate with 3 – MHz single phase clock. otherwise it is reset. B. Zero Flag (Z): Zero Flag is set to 1. D. H and L. Program counter (PC): It is used to store the l6 bit address of the next byte to be fetched from the memory or address of the next instruction to be executed. It points to memory location in Read/Write memory which is called as stack. E. Parity Flag (P): If the result has au even number of 1s. Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. Stack Pointer (SP): It is 16 bit register used as a memory pointer.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY It has 40 pins. C. 011-26514888 . 8085 programming model: It has six general purpose register to store – 8 bit data. Accumulator: Is an 8 bit register that is used to perform arithmetic and logic functions. D. It can be combined as BC. the CY flag is set.com Ph. DE. 2. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. These are B. and HL to perform 16 bit operations.

com/publication Call us at +91-9990357855 Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. For online purchase visit www.engineersinstitute. This book is available at all major book stalls. 011-26514888 .com Ph. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 8085 Signals: Address lines: There are l6 address lines AD0 AD7 and A8 A15 to identify the memory locations.engineersinstitute.

EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY

5

ELECTRONIC DEVICES &

CIRCUITS

CONTENTS

1. SEMICONDUCTOR BASICS & ENERGY BANDS ………… 138-144

2. JUNCTION DIODE …………………………………………………. 145-148

3. VARIOUS SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES ……………………… 149-152

4. CLIPPERS AND CLAMPERS ……………………………………. 153-154

5. BJT (BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR) ……………….. 155-157

6. FET (FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR) ………………………… 158-164

7. FABRICATION OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS …………….. 165-165

8. THYRISTOR ………………………………………………………... 166-168

EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY

**1. SEMICONDUCTOR BASICS & ENERGY
**

BANDS

Thermal Voltage: VT (Voltage Equivalent of Temperature)

T

VT volt

11600

Standard room temperature (300 K) VT 0.0256 voltagesVT 26mV

The standard room temperature corresponds to a voltage of 26 mV.

Leakage Current (I o )

Also called minority carrier current or thermally generated current.

In silicon it is in nano ampere range and in germanium it is in micro ampere range.

Io doubles for every 10ºC. For 1ºC, Io increases by 7%.

Io is proportional to the area of the device.

Advantages of smaller Io:

(i) Suitable for high temperature applications

(ii) Good Thermal stability

(iii) No false triggering

**Energy Gap: Difference between the lower energy level of conduction band (CB)
**

E C and upper energy level of valance band (VB) E v is called as energy gap.

Metals: VB and CB are overlap to each other.

This overlapping increases with temperature.

e is both in CB and VB.

Insulators: Conduction band is always empty. Hence no current passes. Band

gap: 5 eV – 15 eV.

Semiconductor: Energy gap is small and it is in range of 1 eV.

At room temperature current can pass through a semi conductor.

Energy Gap Ge Si Ga As

Eg T 0 7.85 eV 1.21 eV XX

Eg T 300 K 0.72 eV 1.1 eV 1.47 eV

Energy gap at temperature T

For Ge Eg(T) 0.785 7.2 104 T

For Si Eg(T) 1.21 3.6 104 T

Energy gap decreases with temperature.

dv volt

Electric Field Intensity

dx meter

drift velocity v m2

Mobility of charge carriers

electric field intensity sec

Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.engineersinstitute.com Ph. 011-26514888

EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY

Mobility Vs curve

< 10 3 constant

10 10

3 4

1/ 2

1

10 4

**So drift velocity: V d Vd 1/ 2 Vd constant
**

Mobility indicates how quick is the e or hole moving from one place to another.

Electron mobility > hole mobility

Mobility of charge carriers decreases with the temperature.

T m

Mass Action Law: In a semi conductor under thermal equilibrium (at constant

temperature) the product of electrons and holes in a semiconductor is always constant

and equal to the square of intrinsic concentration.

[no po ni2 ]

no Concentration of e in conduction band

Po Concentration of holes in valance band

ni Intrinsic concentration at given temperature

ni2

Majority carrier concentration =

Minority carrier concentration

Eg

Intrinsic concentration n AoT e

2

i

3 2 KT

**ni is a function of temperature and energy gap.
**

Einstein’s Equation: Relation between diffusion constant, mobility and thermal

voltage.

Dn D P

VT KT

n P

D

The unit of is volts. Where, D n e diffusion constant

D p Hole diffusion constant

Diffusion and Drift Current:

**Diffusion Current: It is defined as migration of charge carriers from higher
**

concentration to lower concentration due to concentration gradient.

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In Semi Conductors nqn pq P Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. Total current density in a semi conductor J Jn Jp (Total current) (Current carried by e ) (Current carried by holes) Jn Jn Jn current due to e e drift current density e diffusion current density dn For e J n nqn qDn A / cm2 dx dp For holes J p pq p qDp A / cm2 dx e – diffusion length Ln Dn cm Hole diffusion length LP DP cm Conductivity In Metals: Metals are uni-polar.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY Drift Current: It is flow of current through the material or device under the influence of voltage or electric field intensity. so current is carried only by e nqn In metal.com Ph. conductivity decreases with temperature.engineersinstitute. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. 011-26514888 .

.... ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.... OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS …………………………………… 192-204 Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA......... 170-171 2. 188-191 7..EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 6 ANALOG ELECTRONICS CONTENTS 1.......... 172-175 3... BJT & TRANSISTOR BIASING …………………………………. 011-26514888 .... SMALL SIGNAL ANALYSIS …... FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS ………………………………………… 184-187 6.. MULTISTAGE & POWER AMPLIFIERS ……………………… 176-178 4. OSCILLATORS ………………………………………………………....engineersinstitute.. VOLTAGE REGULATOR & RECTIFIERS …………………….... 179-183 5..com Ph.

EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 1. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. I I z max I L min I I z min I L max Vi VL For satisfactory operation of circuit I I z min I L I z min I L Rs The power dissipated by the Zener diode is Pz Vz I z Rectifier: To convert a bi-directional current or voltage into a unidirectional current or voltage Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. VOLTAGE REGULATOR & RECTIFIERS Voltage Regulator Circuits: VNL -VFL % Regulation = ×100% VFL VFL Full load current = I FL = RL VNL -No load VFL -Fullload Smaller the regulation better is the circuit performance. Zener Voltage Regulator Circuit: Since Zener diode is conducting VL Vz VBr VL IL R L Vz I z R z I I z IL If Zener current is maximum then load current is minimum and vice versa. 011-26514888 .com Ph.engineersinstitute.

6% Ripper factor = 1.57 Peak inverse voltage = Vm TUF = 0.engineersinstitute. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. Vdc m Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. Vdc Im Vm RMS value of current and voltage: I rms .EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY rms value of AC component Ripple factor: r DC value 2 V r rms 1 Vdc rms value Vrms Form factor: F r F2 1 dc value Vdc Peak value Crest factor = RMS value DC power output Rectifier Efficiency = 100% ACpower input TUF (Transformer utilization factor): DC power output TUF = AC rating of transformer Half Wave Rectifier: Average value of current and voltage Im Vm Idc .21 Frequency of ripple voltage = f Form factor = 1.286 Full Wave Rectifier: Average value of current and voltage: 2Im 2V Idc . 011-26514888 .com Ph. Vrms 2 2 Efficiency 40.

The current in the secondary winding of transformer is in opposite direction in two half cycles.engineersinstitute.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY Vm Im RMS value of current and voltage: Vrms . 011-26514888 . ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. in each of the cycle inverse voltage appear across diode gets shared. Hence net DC current flow is zero. 4. 3. The current in both the primary and secondary of the transformer flows for entire cycle. No center tapping is required in the transformer secondary. I rms 2 2 Efficiency 81.com Ph.48 From factor = 1.2% Ripper factor = 0.11 Crest factor = 2 TUF = 0. Hence the circuit can be used for high voltage application.692 Frequency of ripple voltage = 2f Peak inverse voltage = 2Vm Bridge Rectifier: All the parameters are same as full wave rectifier except Peak inverse voltage = Vm Transformer utilization factor = 0. As two diode currents are in series.812 Advantage of Bridge Rectifier: 1. Hence it is a cheap device. 2. Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA.

Z TRANSFORM ……………………………………………………. LAPLACE TRANSFORM ………………………………………… 222-224 7. 215-218 5. 206-209 2. 225-228 8.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 7 SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS CONTENTS 1.. FOURIER TRANSFORM …………………………………………. LTI SYSTEMS ………………………………………………………. 213-214 4. BASIC PROPERTIES OF SIGNALS …………………………. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. 210-212 3. 229-230 Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA.. 219-221 6. DISCRETE TIME SIGNAL SYSTEMS ………………………. DISCRETE FOURIER TRANSFORMS ……………………….com Ph.engineersinstitute. 011-26514888 . FOURIER SERIES ………………………………………………….

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.r. When 1. Shift the signal by unit towards right side. 2. Compress the signal by 5 times.engineersinstitute. 3 3. This is also called as time advance. 011-26514888 . y-axis.r.r. expand the signal. compress the signal. 5 Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. BASIC PROPERTIES OF SIGNALS Operations on Signals: Time Shifting: y (t ) x(t ) Shift the signal towards right side by | | when 0 .t. First rotate the signal w. 3 Eg. y (t) = – x (t) Rotate the signal w.t. Time Scaling y(t ) x( t ) When 1. y-axis. Shift the signal left towards side by | | when 0 . This is also called as time delay.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 1.com Ph. It is mirror image of signal. x-axis. y(t) = x(–5t + 3) y (t ) x 5 t 5 Steps: 1.t. Time Reversal y (t) = x (–t) Rotate the signal w.

011-26514888 .engineersinstitute.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY Standard Signals: Continuous time signals Impulse signal (Direct Delta Function) . t 0 Unit Ramp signal: r (t ) t u (t ) t . t0 Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. t 0 u (t ) 0. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. t0 & (t )dt 1 Properties of Impulse Signal (i) x(t ) (t ) x(0) (t ) (ii) x (t ) (t to ) x (to ) (t to ) 1 (iii) [ (t )] || (t ) (iv) (t ) dt 1 (v) x (t ) (t t o ) x (t o ) (vi) x (t ) * (t to ) x (t to ) Unit Step signal: 1. t 0 (t ) 0 . t 0 r (t ) 0 .t0 x(t ) 2 0 . t 0 Parabolic signal: At 2 x(t ) u(t ) 2 At 2 .com Ph.

com Ph.engineersinstitute. 011-26514888 . | t | a Signum Signal: 1. t0 unit parabolic signal x(t ) 2 0 t0 . t 0 sgn(t ) 2u (t ) 1 sgn u (t ) u (t ) Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. t 0 x(t ) sgm(t ) 1. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY t2 . | t | a x(t ) a 0. Unit Pulse signal: 1 1 (t ) u t u t 2 2 Triangular signal: |t | 1 .

. RANDOM PROCESSES .…………………………. 247-248 5. 232-238 2.. ANTENNA THEORY .. 253-255 8.. OPTICAL COMMUNICATION ……………………………… 260-264 Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 8 COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS CONTENTS 1. SATELLITE COMMUNICATION …………………………… 258-259 10. 249-250 6.. INFORMATION THEORY ……………………………………. 011-26514888 . RADAR …………………………………………………………….... DIGITAL MODULATION SCHEMES ………………………. 239-244 3.…………………………………………. NOISE ………………………………………………………………...engineersinstitute..... 245-246 4. 256-257 9.com Ph.... PULSE MODULATION TECHNIQUES ……………………. ANALOG MODULATION ………………………………………. 251-252 7. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.

Integration of different communication system is possible. The interference of noise and other signals can be reduced by changing the frequency of transmission. Size of antenna required for receiving the wave is reduced if signal is transmitted at high frequency.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 1. Amplitude Modulation Amplitude Modulated Signal: AM may be defined as a system in which the maximum amplitude of the carrier wave is made proportional to the instantaneous value (amplitude) of the modulating or base band signal. ANALOG MODULATION Modulation is the process of placing the message signal over some carrier signal to make it suitable for transmission. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. Many number of signals can be transmitted simultaneously by selecting the carriers of different frequencies.com Ph. 011-26514888 . Need for Modulation: 1. x m ( t ) Am cos m t xc ( t ) Ac cos c t x(t ) Ac [1 Ka xm (t )]cos ct where = KaAm x (t ) Ac cos c t Ac K a xm (t ) cos c t where = modulation index xm (t ) message signal x (t ) A c cos c t A c cos m t cos c t Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. 4. 3. 2.engineersinstitute.

011-26514888 . Efficiency of Amplitude Modulated System: PSB 2 AM 100% AM 2 100% Pt 2 Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA.5 Pc for =1 and this is maximum power that amplifier can handle without distortion. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.com Ph.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY Frequency spectrum of AM wave: Bandwidth = 2 f m Frequency band from f c to f c f m is called as upper sideband Frequency band from f c f m to f c is called as lower sideband Amax Amin Amax AC [1 ] Amin AC [1 ] Amax Amin Amax – maximum amplitude Amin – minimum amplitude Power Relations in AM wave: Ac2 2 Ac2 Ptotal = Pcarrier + PLSB + PUSB Pcarrier PLSB PUSB 2 8 Ac2 2 Ac2 2 Ac2 2 Ptotal Ptotal 1 Pc 2 8 8 2 Maximum power dissipated in AM wave is PAM= 1.engineersinstitute.

engineersinstitute. m 2 Bandwidth = f m Transmitter Power Pt PC 4 Power saving 83..67% (for = 1) Single Sideband Modulation (SSB): In this technique.....EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY For satisfactory modulation 0 1 Current relations in AM wave: 2 2 Pt 1 Pc I tIC 1 Ic 2 2 Multi-tone Modulation: When carrier is modulated simultaneously by more than one sinusoidal signal..com Ph. 2 Bandwidth = 2 f m Transmitted Power Pt Pc 2 Power saving = 66.. Double side Band Suppressed Carrier modulation DSB-SC: s(t ) Ac cos ct cos mt modulation index A c carrier amplitude In DSB-SC the carrier signal is suppressed at the time of modulation. Only side- bands are transmitted in modulated wave. Resultant Modulation Index = 12 22 32 ... 011-26514888 . ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.. along with modulation carrier one side band gets suppressed from AM modulated wave.3% Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. s (t ) Ac m (t ) cos 2 f c t Ac mˆ (t ) sin 2 f c t ( t ) is Hilbert transform of message signal..

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.engineersinstitute.com Ph.M. Phase shift method/Phase discrimination method C.V. Third method/Weaver’s method Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. Product Modulator B.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY Vestigial Sideband (VSB) modulation: In this modulation one side band and vestige of another sideband is transmitted. AM Modulators: For Generation of AM or DSB/Full carrier wave A. via F. Vocal signal transmission of T. Filter method/frequency discrimination method B. It is also used for high speed data signal and facsimile. Switching Modulator For Generation DSB-SC wave A. It is used for transmission of video signal in television broadcasting. Square Law Modulator C. 011-26514888 .

266-267 2.engineersinstitute. 268-271 3.. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES ………………………………. 011-26514888 . ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. TRANSMISSION LINE …………………………………………..com Ph.. ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS …………………………………….EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 9 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY CONTENTS 1.. MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS ……………………………………. COORDINATE SYSTEMS AND VECTOR CALCULUS …. 282-285 7. 277-281 6. ANTENNAS ………………………………………………………… 286-286 Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA.. MAGNETO STATIC FIELDS …………………………………… 272-274 4. 275-276 5.

A (r A r ) (sin A ) r r 2 r sin r sin Curl of vector: The curl of vector A is defined as A and result is vector quantity. 011-26514888 . aˆ x aˆ y aˆ z For Cartesian: A x y z Ax Ay Az a r a z a For Cylinderical: A z A A Az a r a θ a 2 r sin θ r sinθ r For Spherical: A r Ar rA r sin A Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA.A x y z 1 1 A A z For Cylindrical: . ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.engineersinstitute.A and result is scalar quantity.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 1. COORDINATE SYSTEMS AND VECTOR CALCULUS Vector Calculus: Gradient: The gradient of scalar V is written as V and result is vector quantity. A x A y A z For Cartesian: . V V V For Cartesian: V aˆ x aˆ y aˆ z x y z V 1 V V For Cylindrical: V aˆ ρ aˆ aˆ z z V 1 V 1 V For Spherical: V aˆ r aˆ aˆ r r r sin Divergence: The divergence of vector A is written as .com Ph.A (A ) z 1 2 1 1 A For Spherical: .

( A) 0 Curl of gradient of a scalar field is always zero ( V) 0 The vector field is said to be solenoidal or divergence less if .engineersinstitute.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY Laplacian of Scalar: Laplacian of scalar field V is written as V. A. A 0 A vector field is said to be irrotational (or potential) if A 0 A vector field is said to be harmonic if 2 V 0 A ( .A) A Divergence of a curl of vector is always zero . dl ( A) . A) 2 A . 2 A (. The result is a scalar quantity. ( B) Divergence Theorem: It states that total outward flux of vector field A through closed surface S is the same as volume integral of the divergence of A .ds . ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. It is the divergence of gradient of V. A dv s v Stokes’ Theorem: It states that line integral of a vector field A over a closed path is equal to surface integral of curl of A. (A B) B .com Ph. A . 011-26514888 . 2 V 2 V 2 V For Cartesian: 2 V 2 2 2 x y z 1 V 1 2 V 2 V For Cylinderical: 2V 2 2 z 2 1 2 V 1 V 1 2V For Spherical: 2V r sin r 2 r r r 2 sin r 2 sin 2 2 Laplacian of Vector: It is a vector quantity. ( A) A . ds l s Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA.

MEASURING INSTRUMENT CHARACTERISTICS ……. CLASSIFICATION OF ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS… 290-295 3. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.. 288-289 2.. 302-302 6. CRO (CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE) ………………… 307-308 Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. AC BRIDGES ……………………………………………………… 296-298 4.engineersinstitute. 011-26514888 . 303-303 7.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 10 MEASUREMENTS & INSTRUMENTATION CONTENTS 1. MEASUREMENT OF POWER & WATTMETERS ……….. MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE ………………………. TRANSDUCERS ………………………………………………… 304-306 8. 299-301 5.com Ph. Q-METER ………………………………………………………….

105.com Ph. Repeatability: It is degree of closeness with which a given input is repeatably indicated for a given set of recordings. Reproducibility: It is degree of closeness with which a given value may be measured repeatedly for a given period of time. It is design time characteristic. 102. Drift: It means deviation in output of the instrument from a derived value for a particular input. Errors: 1. Sensitivity: It is ratio of change in output per unit change in input quantity of the instrument. It is design time characteristic. It can be improved by recalibration. Absolute Error/Static Error/Limiting Error: A Am AT A m Measured value of quantity of actual value A T True value of quantity or nominal value Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. 103. Precision: It is a measure of the degree to which successive measurement differ from one another. 104. 011-26514888 . Most precise value is 103 Resolution: The smallest change in measured value to which the instrument will respond.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 1. High precision does not mean high accuracy.engineersinstitute. MEASURING INSTRUMENT CHARACTERISTICS Generalized Measuring Instrument: The block diagram of generalized measuring system may be represented as: IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS: Accuracy: Closeness with which an instrument reading approaches the true value of the variable being measured. It is improved by re-calibrating the instrument. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. A highly precise instrument may be inaccurate. Ex: If reading are 101.

Full scale] x Error due to combination of quantities: 1. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. x2m n 1 m 2 X x1 x2 CLASSIFICATION OF ERRORS: Standards of EMF: (a) Saturated Weston cell is used for Primary standard of emf. x [% r . 4. maximum current drawn is 100 A. Error due to product or quotient of quantities x1 1 X x1 x 2 x3 Or or x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 X x x x 1 2 3 X x1 x2 x3 X x x 3.com Ph.01864 volt.engineersinstitute. Its emf is 1. Error due to Sum/Difference of quantities X x1 x2 X x x x x % r 1 1 2 2 X X x1 X x2 2. 011-26514888 . Composite factors X x1n .EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY A Am AT 2. Relative Error: r AT AT A 3. Percentage Error at reading ‘x’: Full Scale Reading % r . Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. Percent Error: % r 100 AT Instrument Error is generally given in percent error. It contains CdSO 4 crystal and its internal resistance is 600 to 800 .

EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY (b) Unsaturated Weston cell is used for secondary standards.com Ph. Example: Cesium 133.engineersinstitute. hydrogen maser etc. Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. Its emf is 1.0180 to 1. Rubidium crystal is used as secondary standard of time and frequency. 011-26514888 . Standard of Time and Frequency: Atomic clock is used as primary standard of time and frequency.0194 volt and does not have CdSO 4 crystal. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. Quartz. using Bifilar winding. Standard of Resistance: Maganin (Ni + Cu + Mn) Nickel 4% Magnese 12% [High Resistivity and low temperature coefficient] Copper 84% Inductive effect of resistance can be eliminated.

INDUCTION MACHINES ………………………………………. 365-381 5. SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES………………………………… 347-364 4. DC MACHINE ……………………………………………………… 331-346 3.com Ph.engineersinstitute. TRANSFORMER…………………………………………………… 310-330 2.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 11 ELECTICAL MACHINES CONTENTS 1. 382-392 Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. FRACTIONAL KW MACHINES ………………………………. 011-26514888 . ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.

These are used for high power applications. 3. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. 2200 / 1100 V 6.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 1. TRANSFORMER Definition: A transformer is a static device that transfers electrical energy from one electrical circuit to another electrical circuit through the medium of magnetic field and without the change of frequency. 3. In shell type. Cross-sectional area of the middle limb is twice to that of outer limbs. 2. Amount of copper required is less. These are suited for high voltage. small kVA rating. 2. only middle limb is provided with winding and the windings are surrounded by core.com Ph. 5. Cost of insulation is less.engineersinstitute. 011-26514888 . In core type construction. For a given output and voltage rating. Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. Construction of Transformer: Core Type: 1. Cross-section area of both limbs is equal. it requires less iron but more copper. 4. These are used for low power applications. Shell Type: 1. both the limbs are provided with windings and the core is surrounded by windings. For example: 15 kVA. 4.

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. Let the flux is represented as. d Emf induced in primary winding. In transformer electrical energy is transferred due to mutual induction between primary and secondary winding. 400/230 V Principle of Transformer Action: Figure (i) A transformer works on the principle of electromagnetic induction between two (or more) coupled circuits or coils. The direction of induced emf is given by Lenz’s law which states that emf will be induced in such a way that it opposes the cause which has produced it. Emf equation of Transformer: Referring to figure (i). According to Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. E1 = emf induced in the primary winding E 2 = emf induced in the secondary winding and N1 . N 2 are the winding turns. 011-26514888 .EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 5. E1 N1 dt d E1 N1 (m sin t ) E1 N1 m cos t dt E1 (E1 )m sin(t 90º ) rms value of emf induced in primary winding (E ) (E1 ) rms 1 m 2 (E1 ) rms 2 f N1 m …(i) d Similarly. For Example: 150 kVA. These are suited for large kVA ratings but low voltage. m sin t By Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. emf induced in secondary winding E2 N2 dt Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. an emf is induced in a coil if it links to changing flux.engineersinstitute.com Ph.

011-26514888 . Any change in the secondary current of the transformer causes a change in primary current so that the flux remains constant. From figure (i) we have.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY E 2 N2 m sin(t 90º ) N m (E 2 ) rms 2 2 (E 2 ) rms 2 f N 2 m …(ii) E1 E 2 From equation (i) and (ii). (iii) The permeability of the core of transformer is infinite. (iv) Efficiency is 100%. 2 2. a 2 V2 E 2 N 2 I1 Key Points: 1.. Infinite permeability of the core signifies that no magnetizing current is required for establishment of flux. Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA.com Ph. E1 V1 and E2 V2 V1 E1 N1 I Hence.engineersinstitute. 3. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. N1 N 2 i. Emf induced in the windings are radians ahead by the core flux.e. Ideal Transformer: Properties (i) Resistance of the windings of transformer is zero. (ii) Magnetic leakage flux is zero. voltage per turns are equal in primary and secondary windings.

ADMITTANCE & IMPEDENCE MODEL OF NETWORK 410-413 7. TRANSMISSION LINE ……………………………………….engineersinstitute. TRAVELLING WAVES ………………………………………. 433-438 13. CIRCUIT BREAKER …………………………………………. 427-430 11. 417-418 9. 431-432 12.. 398-405 4. 443-444 15.com Ph. FUNDAMENTAL OF ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM … 394-396 2.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 12 POWER SYSTEMS CONTENTS 1. 445-448 Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. 439-442 14. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. ECONOMIC LOAD DISPACTCH …………………………. CORONA …………………………………………………………. 414-416 8. PER UNIT REPRESENTATION …………………………… 397-397 3. 011-26514888 . HVDC-HIGH VOLTAGE DC TRANSMISSION ………….. SAG AND TENSION …………………………………………. 406-406 5. FAULT ANALYSIS …………………………………………… 419-426 10. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY ……………………………. LOAD FLOW STUDIES ………………………………………. CABLE & INSULATOR ……………………………………… 407-409 6. POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION ………………………….

com Ph.engineersinstitute. = angle between F & d Energy: It is capacity to do the work.6 106 J 1 2 Kinetic energy (KE): mv (Jules) 2 Potential Energy (PE): Mgh (Jules) Thermal Energy: Internal energy present in system by virtue of its temperature. w = energy dt dt Unit : Watt 1 Watt 1 J / s Note: Electric motor ratings are expressed in horse power (hp) 1hp = 745. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 1.d cos Where F= force applied . Electrical energy generally expressed in kilo watt hours (kwh) 1 kwh 3. 011-26514888 . Electric parameter: Let v 2V sin t Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA.7 W and also 1 metric horse power = 735 Watt.186 J Power: it is time rate of change of energy dw du P u = work. Unit : watt second 1w s 1Joule 1N m Newton meters Electrical energy : It is energy that is in charged particles in an electric field. d = displacement. FUNDAMENTAL OF ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM Work done = F. Unit : Calories 1 Cal 4.

com Ph. i I S = P+jQ = VI cos + jVI sin = VI* (for this relation Q will be positive for lagging VAR) Where S = complex power or apparent power P = Active power Q = Reactive power For balanced 3 phase system P 3 | VP || I P | cos P 3 | VL || I L | cos P Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. 011-26514888 . ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.engineersinstitute.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY i 2I sin(t ) where v = instantaneous value voltage i = instantaneous value current V = rms value of voltage I = rms value of voltage In Phasor representation v V 0 .

Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.t.r.5 AV3 (watt) = air density (1201 g/m3 at NTP) V = Wind speed in (m/s) A = Swept area by blade (m2) Load Curve: It is graph between the power demands of the system w.81 m/s2 W = discharge rate (m3/sec) h= head of water Tidal power P = gh2 A/T (watt) Where h = tidal head A = area of basin T = period of tidal cycle Wind power P = 0. to time.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY Q 3 | VP || I P | sin P 3 | VL || I L | sin P where VL = line voltage VP = phase voltage VL Note: in connection VP & IP IL 3 IL connection VP VL & I P 3 Hyrdo power: P = gWh(watt) Where = water density (100 kg/m3) g = 9.engineersinstitute.com Ph. 011-26514888 .

small hydro. Demand Factor = Connected load energy consumed is a given period 2. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. Diversity factor Maximum demand on power station Average demand 5. demand Actual energy produced 7. Load factor Maximum load sum of individual max demands 4. Average load Hours in that time period Average demand 3. pump storage Operational factors : Maximum demand 1.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY Figure: Typical daily load curve (i) Base Load: The unvarying loads which occur almost the whole day. Designation Capital cost Fuel cost Typical Type of plant capacity annual load factor Base load High Low 65-75 Nuclear.com Ph. 011-26514888 .engineersinstitute. (ii) Peak load: The various peak demands of load over and above the base load. Reserve Capacity = Plant capacity . thermal Peak load Low High 5-10 Gas based.max. Plant use factor Plant capacity hours (the plant has been in operation) Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. Plant Capacity factor Installed capcity 6.

4. Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA.com Ph. 011-26514888 .engineersinstitute. annual load factor etc. Load factor can be defined for a period such daily load factor. Both factors should be high for economical use. 3.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY Note: 1. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. 2. monthly load factor. Practically diversity factor is greater than 1. Practically load factor is less than 1.

.......... 501-504 Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. 011-26514888 .... INVERTERS ……………………………………………………… 478-490 19.. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.. PHASE CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS……………………….... POWER SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES……………………...com Ph.. 450-461 17....EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 13 POWER ELECTRONICS CONTENTS 16... 491-496 20. POWER ELECTRONICS DRIVES . 462-477 18... AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER AND CYCLO-CONVERTERS …………………………………….. CHOPPERS ……………………………………………………….. 497-500 21..engineersinstitute..

com Ph.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 1. Forward Blocking Mode 2. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. Key Points: 1. Forward Conduction Mode Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. In power electronics. POWER SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Definition: Power electronics deals with control and conversion of high power applications.engineersinstitute. Four Modes of Switching Action: 1. 2. 011-26514888 . the devices are utilized as switch while in signal electronics devices are used as switch and amplifiers. Power semiconductor devices should be capable to withstand large magnitudes of power with high efficiency.

Power Diode Heavily doped layer Lightly doped layer Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 3.engineersinstitute. Reverse Blocking Mode 4. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. Reverse Conduction Mode Note: TRIAC supports all 4 modes of switch.com Ph. So it is used as AC switch. 011-26514888 .

EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY VI Characteristic: Reverse Recovery Characteristics of Power Diode: Important Points: 1 (1) Q R trr I RM 2 di IRM (2) [ta trr ] dt trr Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA.engineersinstitute. 011-26514888 . ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.com Ph.

011-26514888 .com Ph. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 1 (3) The reverse recovery time (trr ) decides the switching frequency of diode. f trr Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) VI Characteristic: IL = Latching current IH = Holding current Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA.engineersinstitute.

. (i. Important Terms used with SCR: 1. 011-26514888 .engineersinstitute. it regains it’s forward blocking capability) Note: * IL 2. forward blocking.4 IH Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.com Ph.e. 2. forward conduction and reverse blocking mode. Holding Current (I H ) : It is that value of the anode current below which SCR is turned off.e. Latching current (I L ) : It is defined as the minimum value of anode current which must be reached so that SCR remains on even after the gate signal is removed.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY Important Point: SCR supports three modes of switching i.

011-26514888 . CONDUCTIVE MATERIALS ……………………………… 512-514 25.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 14 ELECTRICAL MATERIALS CONTENTS 22.engineersinstitute.com Ph. ELECTRIC MATERIALS & PROPERTIES ……………. 515-518 Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. MAGNETIC MATERIALS …………………………………. 508-511 24. STRUCTURE OF MATERIALS …………………………… 506-507 23. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.

Na 3. 011-26514888 . STRUCTURE OF MATERIALS 1.engineersinstitute. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.com Ph. Mg Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. Fluorspar 2.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 1. Simple Cubic (SC): Distance between adjacent atoms d SC a 2 r Coordination number = 6 1 No of atoms per unit cell = 8 corners part 1 8 Packing efficiency = 52% Example Polonium. Gold Hexagonal Closed Pack (HCP): Coordination number = 12 1 No of atoms per unit cell = 12 3 4 12 Packing efficiency = 74% Example Cd. Body Centered Cubic (BCC): 3 Distance between adjacent atom d BCC 2r a 2 Coordination number = 8 1 No of atoms per unit cell = 8 1 2 8 Packing efficiency = 68% Example Fe. Face Centered Cubic (FCC): a Distance between adjacent atoms d FCC 2r 2 Coordination number = 12 1 No of atoms per unit cell = 8 3 4 8 Packing efficiency = 74% Example Cu. Silver. Cr.

) (2.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY Different types of unit cell Type of unit cell Volume of unit cell Cubic a3 Tetragonal a 2c Orthorhombic abc Hexagonal 3 3a 2 c 2 Crystallographic Plane and Miller Indices: Miller indices are used to specify directions and planes and it could be in lattices or in crystals. Miller Indices for plane A B C OA OB OC h . 0) Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.engineersinstitute. 011-26514888 .k . OA OB OC Example: 1.com Ph. 0. OA h 2 OA 2 OB k 0 OC 0 ( h. k .

) (1. k . k . OA h 1 OA OB k 1 OB OC 1 OC ( h.com/publication Call us at +91-9990357855 Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA.EE FORMULA BOOK SAMPLE COPY 2.com Ph. 011-26514888 . OA h 1 OA OB k 0 OC l 0 (h. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www. 1) 3. 0. 0) This book is available at all major book stalls. 1. l ) (1. For online purchase visit www.engineersinstitute.engineersinstitute.

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