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Paper ID 108

Copper-Gold Mineralization Characteristics of the Sungai Mak
Deposit in Gorontalo, Northen Sulawesi, Indonesia
M.Yamamoto1, A.Maulana1, 2, K.Yonezu1, K.Watanabe1 and A.Subehan3
1
Department of Earth Resources Engineering, Kyushu University, Japan
2
Department of Geology Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, Indonesia
3
PT Gorontalo Mineral, Indonesia
* E-mail:yamamoto-masanori@mine.kyushu-u.ac.jp
ABSTRACT
Tombulirato region in Indonesia, Sulawesi Island, Northern Grontalo is located in the convergent
boundary of the Eurasian plate and the Australia plate. The survey was started in the 1970s, as a result,
hydrothermal gold-silver deposit shallow low-sulfide type porphyry copper gold deposits, and hydrothermal
copper gold-silver deposit shallow high sulfide type has been confirmed. Sungai Mak deposit was estimated
as porphyry copper deposit, but detail reserch was not yet doing. In this study, object is to reveal the
Mineralization characteristics of the Sungai Mak by researching boring core and observation of outcrop.
By the observation of outcrop, malachite layer that caused by second enrichment effect, and quartz
vein that caused by hydrothermal activity were confirmed. The alteration minerals of intrusive rock identified
by thin section observation and X-ray diffraction analysis was quartz, chlorite, illite and pyrophyllite. From
observation of thin section, hornblende and plagioclase was confirmed as rock forming mineral and these
show porphyritic structure. So intrusive rock was confirmed that it is porphyry. As a result of plotted SiO2
and K2O+Na2O relationship in TAS diagram, intrusive rock was classified grano diorite. From the above
intrusive rock was grano diorite porphyry. Ore minerals, chalcopyrite, pyrite, bornite, digenite and covellite
were confirmed by microscopy and SEM-EDS analysis of polished section. From the three samples, gold
mineralization were conformed by X-ray Fluorescence Analysis. The result of plotted gold grade and copper
grade, they have a positive relation ship. This was correspond with characteristic of another porphyry copper
deposit in Tombulirato district. By characteristic of combination of ore minerals, there are boundary of
primary sulfide zone and intrusive rock in around 160 m from surface.
As a result of measurement of the gas-liquid two-phase fluid inclusions that was contained in quartz
stock work(width1-3cm), salinity is 2.4-17.8%,homogenization temperature is 282-326ºC(mode value
320ºC).In general,there are many examples that the salinity of the fluid of the copper mineralization time is
under 12wt.%, and homogenization temperature is under 320ºC in porphyry copper deposit. This was
reconciling with this study.
From these result and the fact that Sulawesi is located in the convergent boundary of the
Eurasian plate and the Australia plate, Sungai Mak deposit is recognized as part of porphyry copper deposit.

KEY WORDS: porphyry copper /Sungai Mak/ Sulawesi/Indonesia

1. INTRODUCTION Eurasian plate and the Australia plate. This study
Sungai Mak deposit is located in Tombulirato aims to reveal the mineralization characterizing of
mining area that PT BUMI Minerals has obtained the the Sungai Mak deposit by observational analyses of
Exploration Borrow & Use Permit in December rock outcrops and drill cores.
2010. According to the previous study, the geology
of the Tombulilato district is characterized by an 2. REGIONAL GEOLOGY
island arc-type volcano-sedimentary pile, >3400 m Sulawesi Island can be divided to four parts
thick and of late Miocene-Pleistocene age, which is (Fig.1). West and North Sulawesi is Volcano-
made up of submarine to subaerial basic to acid Plutonic Arc, Central Sulawesi is Metamorphic Belt,
volcanic rocks interbedded with marine and East Sulawesi is Ophiolite Belt and Banggai-Sula&
continental sedimentary rocks. The sequence is Tukang Besi is Continental Fragments. Gorontalo is
intruded by high-level stocks and dikes, and cut by composed Cenozoic volcanics and plutonic rocks.
diatreme breccias of late Pliocene and Pleistocene
age, some of which are associated intimately with 3. FIELD OBSERVATION
porphyry Cu-Au and epithermal Cu-Au-Ag By outcrop observation, 1m width of quartz
mineralization. A main compressive deformation vein (Fig.2) and malachite layer (Fig.3) was
event took place in the Pliocene. And Northern
confirmed. Malachite was seen in oxidation zone of
Sulawesi is located in the convergent boundary of the

Geology, Geophysics and Geotechnique 38

Y M 20120909-12 SMD057 165. Table. Geology. and copper was carried by BORING CORE SAMPLES rainwater. A total of 20 samples were collected from two drill cores (SMD057. hydrothermal activity and secondary In order to clarify the state of the subsurface. Sample Name b o rn ena r cov e ilm e d ige ziro hem cha l m o ly Y M 20120909-05 78.it was copper grade is higher than any other samples (over estimated that there are no relationship between 2%). TR. Copper ore stone of the sulfide 4.23%) was confirmed. 2009) Fig. GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF mineral dismantles. From these. ore samples that collected from drill core. Tombulilato.5 The picture of quartz vein malachite layer alteration rock (SMD057 porphyry rock (SMD057 204.70m) 4. TR.00M +++ TR.98% average grade of copper The result of XRF analysis of sample that was confirmed.00M + TR.00M ++ TR. TR.1 Ore minerals identified in the drill core rite ite a tite llite gite ite n ite n ite b den te c o py e co ru til p y ri n Sample No. From three samples. and its characteristic of mineralization.20M ++ +++>++>+ quantity of existence TR. thin section observation.4).20m and Fig.00M +++ +++ + + + Y M 20120909-15 194. we conducted XRF analysis. the other is indicated characteristics of porphyry (Fig.1 Geology map of Sulawesi 176. the fluid inclusion measurement and SEM-EDX observation. Maulana et al. From this. One is altered by hydrothermal activity and contains quartz stock work (Fig. The result of XRF there are positive correlative (Fig. Y M 20120909-16 204. Y M 20120909-10 135. after that copper is reprecipitated.3 The picture of Fig.50M ++ ++ + ++ TR. TR.5).2 X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS 3. Boundary of these characteristics was seen between 165. This result was analysis of Ore body (Fig. are fresh. SMD098) 4. samples Island (Kadarusman et al. polished section observation. TR.00m from surface. Y M 20120909-11 150. TR.70M + ++ ++ ++ + Y M 20120909-19 45. TR. enrichment was confirmed.4 The picture of Fig. gold collected from quartz vein (Fig.2 The picture of Fig.50M +++ TR.6). XRD analysis. + TR.20M +++ TR.50M +++ + + TR. The result of piloted gold and copper grade. +++ TR. Y M 20120909-13 176. Under the 176.2). 2004. there are no mineralization was confirmed (8-21ppm).3).00m. TR. high copper grade alos confirmed in another porphyry copper deposit in (2. Y M 20120909-14 183.00M ++ TR. SMD098 Y M 20120909-23 176. TR. quartz vein and mineralization.=trace the porphyry copper. ++ + TR. + Y M 20120909-08 102. TR.1 SAMPLE OBSERVATION Boring core is able to classified two types. 1 X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS OF OUTCROP SAMPLES The result of XRF analysis of boring core samples show the 0. Geophysics and Geotechnique 39 .

10).%.11). with salinities of 2. analyzed. quartz. Cv:covellite. Fig.4 THIN SECTION OBSERVATION Thin sections were made from fresh samples 4. The size of the inclusions are under 8 µm. In table1.70m) 176. Fig. Ccp:chalcopyrite.9).formed organization. Rt:rutile) 4. pyrite.7&8). Geophysics and Geotechnique 40 . Eng:enargite. fresh samples are porphyry because these formed a with an average size of about 3 µm (Fig. Ilm:ilumenite. inclusion in quartz vein Pl:plagioclase.8wt. it is estimated that there are boundary of primary sulfide zone and intrusive rock. temperature at the time of vein formation was estimated from the result of fluid inclusion measurement.) crossed nicols) (SMD057 (SMD057 204.7 The picture of Fig. In addition.00m)(Qtz:quartz. ore minerals and gangue minerals were indicated. Chalcopyrite.00m level samples). reflected light with open nicol (Di:digenite.10 The picture of fluid Hbl:hornblende) Chl:chorite.8 The picture of thin section (In plane- thin section (In plane- polarized light with polarized light with crossed nicols.11 Fluid inclusion homogenization temperature 5. Fig. chlorite. In confirmed as altered mineral. 4.00m was confirmed.4-17.3 X-RAY DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS The result of X-ray Diffraction analysis. Fig. illite and pyrophyllite were Fig. From this result and sample observation. The spot.20m and 176.6 FLUID INCLUSION ANALYSIS (under 176.9 The picture of ore mineral. digenite and covellite were confirmed as ore minerals (Fig.5 POLISH OBSERVATION Polish section is made from all samples. (Qtz:quartz.00m were by thin section observation (Fig.6 The positive correlative of gold 4. hornblende and plagioclase were confirmed taken from drillcore sample SMD057 150. Homogenization temperatures at Sungai Mak range from 282-350ºC (mode:320ºC) (Fig. bornite. As a rock forming Fluid inclusions from the quartz Tombulirato mineral. In this table big difference of combination of ore minerals between 165. CLASSIFICATION OF INTRUSIVE ROCK The intrusive rocks were classified as granodiorite to diorite in TAS diagram of Cox (1979) Geology.

(1975): Volcanism and plate tectonics in the Indonesian island arcs: Tectonophysics. characteristics and regional the Western Sulawesi Arc exploration for gold in the volcanic arcs of North Sulawesi. 50. T . and Darius. M. 35. CONCLUSION Activity:Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences . Leeuwen. (2004): Geochemistry and Wilson. P. Dora. (1990): associated with contrasted Neogene magmatism in Geological setting. 105. The mineral Bulagidun prospect:a copper. and mineralization type.. 105-140 Ueno. M. S. Indonesia: Economic Geology. 1989 for plutonic rocks). Eastern Part of the Odemis-Kiraz Submassif. Maximum copper grade is 2. Geochronology of Orthogneisses in the Derbent (Alasehir) Area. 225p. R.M. Priadi. A. 26. which are Exploration. 221-256 I would like to express my appreciation to PT Gorontalo Mineral Mines for permitting our Sillitoe. (1979): Tectonics of the Indonesian 400ºC and 500ºC. 257-278 typical ore minerals of porphyry copper deposit. Southeast Asian Earth Sci. I. Sulawesi. Indonesia. O. Indonesia: Jounal of Geochemical Exploration. S.T(1982):Hydorothermal synthesis of minerals in the system Cu-Fe-S and their phase equilibrium at Hamilton.. gold and tourmaline assemblage observed in the Sungai Mak region bearing porphyry and breccia system in northern include chalcopyrite.岩石鉱物鉱床学会誌. Indonesia: Journal of Geochemical Sugaki. Satir.. and (after Cox et al. G. The estimated value of salinity and metamorphic evolution of the South Sulawesi temperature at the time of vein formation by fluid basement rocks complexes.S..37-61 The results of this study indicate that the Lowder. Parkinson. Geophysics and Geotechnique 41 . covellite. 1979.Phil. (1999): Tectonic setting of porphyry Cu-Au. Ktakaze. A. E. 73. Reston.7(2/3):113-129 Fig.. North Sulawesi. G. hydrothermal alteration. the Sungai Mak deposit can be identified to be of porphyry copper Perello.(1992): Geological setting and styles of mineralization.D. (2004). US Geological Survey.% and 282-350 ºC (mode: Thesis. L. C. Indonesia. T. 1078. S. geochemistry and is 1.. epithermal Cu-Au-Ag mineralization of the ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Tombulilato district. (1978): Geology Sungai Mak deposit displays characteristics and Exploration of Porphyry Copper Deposits in corresponding with porphyry copper deposits. Tectonophysic. M. porphyry Cu-Au. pyrite.2%. Miyashita. and Wilson.13. 50 . Menderes Massif: Pan-African Magmatic 6.. Maruyama. and a Lubis. Katili. van Leeuwen.. and average grade Maulana. Zhivko Budinov for his support during field work. Canberra.4-17. A. 165- 188 Kavalieris. H. A. north arm of Sulawesi. B... O.. W. adapted by Candan. J. I. Prihatomoko.257-269 Region: U. M. Soeria-Atmadja. C. (1994): Geology. S.3. Geological Survey Proffessional Paper. Kadarusman. 345 Geology.. 3-41 enjoyable.. O. bornite. (1994): combination of Cu-Au mineralization. and molybdenite.8 wt. Indonesia: Journal of Geochemical digenite. North Sulawesi. 320ºC). K.(Fig. J. James. Chen. O. inclusions is 2. J. A. A. H.1%. A. REFERENCES and Kavalieris. From these results. and Ishikawa. R.were divided into grano-diorite. Digdowirogo..A and Exploration.12 Nomenclature diagram for plutonic rock from the Sungai Mak Koralay. 14). Mo and related mineralization Carlile. F. arsenopyrite. 392: 55-83. J. and John Dow. Several of these characteristics are: a porphyritic 628-644 intrusive host that includes hornblende as phenocryst. Indonesia.. (2009): Petrology.. Petrology. geochemistry and paleogeographic reconstruction of the East Sulawesi Ophiolite.. The Australian National University. I would also like to thank Mr. S. V. (2010): Porphyry Copper Systems: fieldwork and for making it very comfortable and Economic Geology.

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