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Journal for Research| Volume 02 | Issue 06 | August 2016

ISSN: 2395-7549

Energy Efficient Variable Speed High Power
Factor Three Phase Induction Motor Drive using
Combined PWM and Extinction Angle Control
Mrs. S.H. Deshmukh Ms. Medha R. Giri
Student Student
Department of Electrical Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering
SRCoEM SRCoEM

Afsana Shaik Dr. D.R. Tutakne
Student Professor
Department of Electrical Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering
SRCoEM SRCoEM

Abstract
Paper presents a new energy efficient technique of three phase AC to AC voltage control using medium frequency pulse width
modulation and extinction angle control. This technique is deployed to obtain independent control on speed and power factor of
the three phase induction motor, using four semiconductor controllable switches. The technique has been realized using AC
freewheeling switch. Power factor (PF) of induction motor reduces as it depends on the load parameters, thus induction motor
draws more current, increase stator copper losses. Increased stator copper losses of induction motor causes depreciation of power
factor and efficiency. Proposed drive maintains power factor of induction motor at unity for controllable speed of the motor.
Thus reduces current consumption of the motor at low speeds. Stator copper losses also reduce and efficiency of the motor is
improved. Advantage of proposed drive is its higher efficiency and unity power factor with simplicity of control. .If number of
motors are driven using the proposed drive, plenty of power conservation is possible.
Keywords: Extinction Angle Control (EAC), Pulse Width Modulation Control (PWM), Extinction Angle (β), Power
Factor (PF), Induction Motor (IM)
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

I. INTRODUCTION

Energy saving is energy generation. Now-a-days power conservation is an issue across the globe. Three phase induction motor is
most widely used in industries than other machines due to their advantages such as simplicity in construction, reliability in
operation, and cheapness. The speed control of such motors can be achieved by controlling the applied voltage on the motor by
the use of power electronic devices [1]. AC voltage controllers as power converters are also used as induction motor soft starter
.But this suffers from several disadvantages such as retardation of firing angle, poor input power factor, complex control
techniques and large number of switches [2]. Three phase induction motors (IM) for fans and blowers applications in industries
are mostly driven through variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF) drive that provides speed control of induction motor.
With VVVF drive, power factor (PF) of induction motor reduces as it depends on the load parameters thus induction motor
draws more current, increase stator copper losses. The proposed drive can operate induction motor with unity PF for any speed.
Thus improves PF of an industry, using this drive. In addition, it offers free wheeling in AC load. Even for the operation where
VVVF is not required with IM this drive can be installed to improve the overall PF of an industry.

II. CONTROL TECHNIQUE

Combined Extinction Angle and PWM Control
This is a novel technique that is introducing a combination extinction angle (?) control and PWM control for three phase
induction motor drive. In this technique both the control technique will be acted simultaneously. In EAC control the conduction
is started at zero crossing of the supply voltage, forced commutated at the (?? = ? − ?) and also a freewheeling path is provided
for the load current to discharge the stored energy of input voltage. In the conduction period from (?? = 0) to (w? = ? − ?),
pulse width modulation control is applied i.e. in this conduction period output voltage waveform is in the form of number of
pulses instead of single pulse in each half cycle. EAC technique is to provide leading power factor. PWM technique is used for
better power factor (lagging). By using the combined technique advantages of extinction angle control along with merits of
PWM control are employed for controlling induction motor drive, thus results in achieving unity pf for any speed and induction
motor is expected to draw comparatively less current, thus stator copper losses of three phase induction motor are reduced. If

All rights reserved by www.journalforresearch.org 17
Energy Efficient Variable Speed High Power Factor Three Phase Induction Motor Drive using Combined PWM and Extinction Angle Control
(J4R/ Volume 02 / Issue 02 / 004)

losses are reduced efficiency of motor is improved. In this technique only four semiconductor switches are used instead of six as
in phase angle control. So, complexity of circuit is also reduced.

III. POWER CIRCUIT

The power circuit of the proposed technique is shown in Fig.1. In this diagram 3-phase supply is connected to stator winding of
3-phase induction motor through single phase diode bridge along with semiconductor switch(IGBT,GTO etc.) in each phase,
whereas instead of three more switches for providing freewheeling path to each phase current only one switch with three phase
diode bridge is used. This switch is connected in parallel to the 3-phase stator winding of induction motor.
Hence only four switches are used instead of six. Snubber (R-C) circuit across each of the four switch are connected to provide
dead time in between the operation of the main and freewheeling switches.
D1 D3
R
AC
S1
Va C 3 phase stator winding of induction
D4 D2 motor

D5 D7
R
AC
S2
C
Vb
D8 D6

D9
AC
D11
R

Vc S3 C
D12 D10

D13 D15 D17
R

S4
C

D16 D18 D14

Fig. 1: Power circuit of combined extinction angle and PWM controlled three phase induction motor drive

IV. MODES OF OPERATION

The operating modes of proposed drive are divided into four modes
 Active mode
 Dead time-I mode
 Freewheeling mode
 Dead time-II mode
Active Mode (Mode-I)

D1 D3
R
AC

S1 C
Va
3 phase stator winding of induction
D4 D2 motor

D5 D7
AC R

C
Vb S2
D8 D6

AC
D9 D11
R

Vc S3 C
D12 D10

D13 D15 D17
R

C

S4
D16 D18 D14

Fig. 2: Active Mode

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Energy Efficient Variable Speed High Power Factor Three Phase Induction Motor Drive using Combined PWM and Extinction Angle Control
(J4R/ Volume 02 / Issue 02 / 004)

The active mode corresponds to the ON-state period of the main switches S1 S2 S3 and during this mode of operation switch S4
remains OFF. When switches S1 S2 S3 are made ON, the current flows from the three phase supply to the three phase stator
winding through the switches S1 S2 S3 simultaneously along with forward biased diagonally opposite diodes of the bridge as
shown in Fig.2. The supply voltage appears across the terminals of star connected stator winding during mode-I.
Dead Time-I Mode (Mode-II)
When switch S1 S2 S3 are turned OFF, the stator terminals gets isolated from the AC supply .The stator current flows through
parallel snubber circuit (R-C circuit) connected across each switch (S1 S2 S3) for very short time. This short time when three
main switches S1 ,S2, S3 are turned OFF and auxiliary switch S4 is about to turn ON is known as dead time-I (mode-II) as
shown in Fig.3.

Fig. 3: Dead Time Mode-I
Freewheeling Mode (Mode-III)
The freewheeling auxiliary switch S4 is turned ON during mode-III. In this mode the three phase stator currents will decay and
circulates through three phase diode bridge rectifier. The parallel connected freewheeling switch S4 as shown in Fig.4.In this
mode, three phase load current discharges its stored energy.
Dead Time-II Mode (Mode-VI)
At the end of mode-III, switch S4 gets turned OFF and main switches S1 S2 S3 are about to turn ON. This short time interval when
all the switches are OFF is called Dead time-II (mode-IV) as shown in Fig.5. The input line current during mode-II and mode-IV
will be zero, but motor current continues to flow during all the four modes and hence circulates continuously during all the
modes. In this mode, snubber across switch S4 completes the path for the current and dead time is provided before switching on
the main switches.

Fig. 4: Freewheeling Mode

All rights reserved by www.journalforresearch.org 19
Energy Efficient Variable Speed High Power Factor Three Phase Induction Motor Drive using Combined PWM and Extinction Angle Control
(J4R/ Volume 02 / Issue 02 / 004)

D1 D3
AC
R

Va S1 C
3 phase stator winding of induction
D4 D2 motor

D5 D7
R
AC S2
C
Vb
D8 D6

D9 D11
AC
R

Vc S3 C
D12 D10

D13 D15 D17
R

S4 C

D16 D18 D14

Fig. 5: Dead Time II Mode

V. MATLAB CIRCUIT

This section presents the performance evaluation of the proposed scheme with the high frequency PWM technique by simulation
using MATLAB Simulink. The complete simulation model for soft starting and speed control of 3 phase induction motor using
IGBT is shown in Fig.6.

Fig. 6: MATLAB circuit of proposed drive
Table - 1
Simulation Parameter
Sr. No Parameter Value
1 Maximum Supply Voltage 400V
2 Supply Frequency 50Hz
3 Switching Frequency 3kHz
4 Duty Cycle 0.4
5 Load Resistance 50Ω
6 Load Inductance 10mH
High frequency fixed PWM is generated by comparing triangular wave with dc value. The switching signals have either 0
(turn off) or 1 (turn on). The load is taken as a simple R-L load. The three phase RL load represents three phase stator winding
resistance and inductance. Simulation is carried out to determine load voltages of three phases, load current and supply voltage at

All rights reserved by www.journalforresearch.org 20
Energy Efficient Variable Speed High Power Factor Three Phase Induction Motor Drive using Combined PWM and Extinction Angle Control
(J4R/ Volume 02 / Issue 02 / 004)

different extinction angle (10 degree and 25 degree). Table.1. represents the values of parameters used for simulation and
following results are obtained.

VI. SIMULATION RESULTS

The simulation result in fig.7. are the gate pulses for all the switches (S 1 S2 S3 S4) at extinction angle 10 degree obtained by
comparing triangular wave of 3khz with dc value of 0.4. PWM pulses obtained for switches S2 and S3 are phase shifted by the
pulses of switch S1 by 120 degree and 240 degree respectively. Switch S 4 operates in complementary to all the three switches, so
the pulses obtained for it are complementary to the pulses obtained for the three main switches.

Fig. 7: Gate pulses for extinction angle at 10 degree
Result obtained in fig.8.are the waveform for the three phase load voltage with an extinction angle 10 degree and PWM of
3khz frequency.

Fig. 8: Load voltage waveform for three phases at extinction angle 10 degree
The result obtained in fig.9. shows the waveform of instantaneous load current for phase A, from which fundamental value of
load current can be derived and it can be seen that current is leading supply voltage of phase A by a minimum value of phase
angle. Thus the obtained power factor will be near to unity.

Fig. 9: Load current and supply voltage waveform at extinction angle 25 degree

All rights reserved by www.journalforresearch.org 21
Energy Efficient Variable Speed High Power Factor Three Phase Induction Motor Drive using Combined PWM and Extinction Angle Control
(J4R/ Volume 02 / Issue 02 / 004)

Results in the Fig.10 Show the pulses of switches S1 S2 S3 S4 with extinction angle 35 degree.

Fig. 10: Gate pulses for extinction angle at 25 degree
Results obtained in fig.11.are the waveform for the three phase load voltage with an extinction angle 25 degree and PWM of
3KHz frequency.

Fig. 11: Load voltage waveform for three phases at extinction angle 25 degree
The result obtained in fig.12. shows the waveform of instantaneous load current for phase A, from which fundamental value
of load current can be derived and it can be seen that current is leading supply voltage of phase A by a some value of phase
angle. Thus the obtained power factor will be leading.

Fig. 12: Load current and supply voltage waveform at extinction angle 25 degree

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Energy Efficient Variable Speed High Power Factor Three Phase Induction Motor Drive using Combined PWM and Extinction Angle Control
(J4R/ Volume 02 / Issue 02 / 004)

VII. FFT ANALYSIS OF LOAD CURRENT OF PHASE A FOR EXTINCTION ANGLE 10 DEGREE

Figure 13 shows FFT analysis of load current of phase A for extinction angle of 10 10 degree and figure 14 shows the FFT
analysis of load current of phase A for for extinction angle of 25 degree. It has been observed that THD for 10 degree is 25.8%
and THD for 25 degree extinction angle is 33.3%.

Selected signal: 2 cycles. FFT window (in red): 1 cycles

2

0

-2

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04
Time (s)

Fundamental (50Hz) = 2.575 , THD= 25.85%
100

80
Mag (% of Fundamental)

60

40

20

0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000
Frequency (Hz)

Fig. 13: FFT analysis of load current of phase A for extinction angle 10

Selected signal: 2 cycles. FFT window (in red): 1 cycles

2

0

-2

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04
Time (s)

Fundamental (50Hz) = 2.42 , THD= 33.20%
100

80
Mag (% of Fundamental)

60

40

20

0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000
Frequency (Hz)

Fig.14 FFT analysis of load current of phase A for extinction angle for 25

VIII. CONCLUSION

In the proposed drive desired range of voltage and highpower factor control are obtainable by controlling the extinction angle
and PWM control simultaneously. Best results are obtained for extinction angle for 10 degree. In the proposed scheme induction
motor is expected to draw comparatively lesser current than VVVF and conventional phase angle controlled drive. The stator
copper losses are expected to reduce due to increase in power factor and reduction in magnitude of stator current.

REFERENCES
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[3] Bilal Saraçoğlu “Supply power factor and load current harmonic performance improvement of three phase AC voltage Controller,” Scientific Research and
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