Journal for Research | Volume 02 | Issue 06 | August 2016

ISSN: 2395-7549

Correlation Studies on Physico-Chemical
Parameter and Phytoplankton in Fresh Water
Bodies of Mandya District
J.Mahadev M.Raju
College of Agriculture, V.C. Farm, Mandya, UAS, Bengaluru College of Agriculture, V.C. Farm, Mandya, UAS, Bengaluru

M.V.Muniswamappa Priyanka
College of Agriculture, V.C. Farm, Mandya, UAS, Bengaluru College of Agriculture, V.C. Farm, Mandya, UAS, Bengaluru

Nagarathna
Government First Grade college for Women, University of Mysore

Abstract
The periodicity of phytoplankton with reference to Physico-chemical and Biological parameters was undertaken from June 2014
to May 2015 in Guthal lake of Mandya. 18 Physicochemical parameter and four groups of planktonic population have been
correlated. Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyaceae are controlled by total acidity and Cyanophyceae. Bacillariophyceae are
dependent on Magnesium. Total dissolved solids, BOD and Phosphate has maximum role in controlling their growth.
Euglenophyceae and Cyanophyceae are regulated by a wide variety of physico-chemical factors of total hardness, total solids,
phosphate and BOD. The diversity of phytoplankton is important in understanding the distribution of planktonic algae in fresh
water lake.
Keywords: Phytoplankton’s, Physico-Chemical Parameters, Correlation Matrix, Freshwater Lake
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

I. INTRODUCTION

Surface water pollution has become one of the major problems across the world. Water pollution affects on plants and organism
in the water. This study is an interdisciplinary research designed to investigate all possible anthropogenic impact on the water
quality. A large number publications have appeared an freshwater regarding its suitability for domestic as well as industrial
purposes (Hosmani & Bharati 1980: 1987) depending upon the chemicals the pollutants that enter such water tend to increase
(or) decrease the saturation effect. Barring the report of Hosmani & Vasanthkumar (1996). A large number of physic-chemical
and Biological parameters such as temperature, pH, Nitrite, phosphate, turbidity, DO, BOD, COD, Bacillarophycea and
Chlorophyceae growth will have a great influence over the quality of water (Naganandini & Hosmani 1998, Verma & Mohanty
1995). The present survey was undertaken with the objective of elucidating lake water and establishing interrelationship between
various physico-chemical parameters its influence on phytoplanktons.

II. MATERIALS AND METHODS

Guthal lake situated in the southern part of Mandya district, Karnataka State, lies between 76 o 50’ E longitude and 12o 30’ north
latitude. It receives an average annual rainfall about 180 mm the catchment area about 60 acre, it has maximum depth of 7.0 mts
when full with a minimum depth of 6 mts. Selected lake is the source of water for many of the application such as drinking,
washing, irrigation , entertainment etc. The continued anthropogenic activity of the lake has not only caused the environment
pollution of lake but also contribute rapid degradation of lake. The method for collection, preservation, identification and
enumeration of phytoplankton and various methods adopted for adnalysis of physico-chemical parameters are described in detail
Fritsch (1975), Golterman et,al. (1978), Hosmani & Bharathi (1980), Trivedy & Goel (1986), APHA (1995) and Hosmani &
Vasanthkumar (1996). The sample collections were made from June 2014 to May 2015. All the data were subjected to pearsons
correlation matrix Tiwari and Ali (1987).

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The annual periodicity Guthal Lake depicted in the figure-1, shows that Chlorophyceae constituted highest of 46.45% of the
total phytoplankton population Bacillariophyceae followed by 30.76% Cyanophyceae 16.38% and Euglenophyceae lowest of
6.41%. The seasonal variation of 20 physico-chemical and four groups of phytoplankton were represented in table (1&2) and
figure (2&3). The correlation matrix are presented in table -3. 26 species of phytoplankton have been recorded of which 12
species belong to Chlorophyceae four to Cyanophyceae, eight to Bacillariophyceae and two Euglenophyceae.

All rights reserved by www.journalforresearch.org 39
Correlation Studies on Physico-Chemical Parameter and Phytoplankton in Fresh Water Bodies of Mandya District
(J4R/ Volume 02 / Issue 06 / 008)

Fig. 1: The annual Periodicity of Phytoplanktons of Guthal lake

The maximum population density of Chlorophyceae was observed highest number during summer (17760 org/lt) Scendesmus
Quardicauda, Chlorella vulgaris, Euastrum luetxemuellen, similarly reduced during winter and monsoon seasons (11340 and
6300 org/lt) Scenedesmus dimorphos, Scenedesmus armatus are poorly represented, Closterium lumula, Euastrumluetxemulen,
onchonema compaclum were observed throughout the year of study. The maximum Bacillariophyceae are represented in higher
during winter season Nitzschia obtuse, Coconies placentula appears in three seasons. The minimum density of Acanthes inflata
was obtained in summer (840 org/lt). Singh (1960) & Munnavar (1970) on critical examination observed that water having high
average concentration of free Co2 have abundant Euglenophyceae. The present study Euglenophyceae were poorly represented
probably due to low carbon dioxide in lake. Zafar (1967) attributed the occurrence of Euglenophyceae to be inversely related to
Cyanophyceae. Cyanophyceae were also not presented in good number in the lake study, Oscillotoria, Arthospira prevailed
throughout the year. A large number of physico-chemical and biological parameters like, temperature, pH, Nitrate, Phosphate,
Turbidity, DO, BOD, COD and Bacillariophyceae growth will have a greater influence over the quality of water, similar
observation were made by Naganandini & Hosmani (1998), Verma and Mohanty (1995). Over all investigation maximum
development of phytoplankton was observed during winter (62120 org/lt) and minimum during monsoon (13020 org/lt). Kumar
& Dutta (1991), Anjana, et, al.(1998) estimated that the intensity of phytoplankton has greater during summer, post monsoon
and winter.
Significant correlation was established between physico-chemical parameters and phytoplankton. Chlorophyceae are
controlled by total acidity. Bacillariophyceae are dependent on TDS, Phosphate and BOD. Similarly temperature, pH, DO,
Magnesium, Nitrate and Nitrite have a significant role in controlling the population of Bacillariophyceae in this lake.
Cyanophyceae had the lowest limits and it regulated by the total acidity and Chloride. Euglenophyceae except Euglena acus and
lepocinclis ovum are controlled by wide variety of physico-chemical factors including total hardness, total dissolved solid,
Phosphate and BOD. The amount of Phosphate and total dissolved solid were the most significant parameters in accelerating the
growth of Bacillariophyceae. Total hardness, total dissolved solid and Phosphate are three significant parameters controlling
growth of total plankton in this lake.

IV. CONCLUSION

Guthal lake of Mandya is less organically polluted, only Nitzschiapalea as an indicator with low sensitivity values. Among the
four groups of organism Euglenophyceae and Cyanophyceae were more affected by the physico-chemical parameters. Acidity,
TDS, BOD, Phosphate, total hardness, Co2, Nitrate and total solids are controlling the growth of phytoplanktons. The study
reveals that there is human disturbance in the lake in the form of entry of untreated sewage and needs to be treated before letting
it into the lake. Phytoplanktons and Physico-chemical parameters important tool in detection of pollution.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Authors are thankful to the Dr.S.P. Hosmani, Professor & Head of the department of Bio-Technology, Mahajan’s College,
Mysore, authors also thankful to university of Agriculture Sciences, Bangalore, College of Agriculture, V.C.Farm, Mandya and
University of Mysore who have helped in providing facilities for conducting research work.
Table1: Seasonal variation of Physico-chemical and Biological parameter in Guthal lake of Mandya District (All the parameters measured in
mg/l except air temperature and water temperature)
Seasons
Sl. No Parameter
Summer Monsoon Winter
1 Air Temperature 32.00 25.00 23.00
2 Water Temperature 32.00 26.00 21.00
3 pH 08.40 8.2 8.10

All rights reserved by www.journalforresearch.org 40
Correlation Studies on Physico-Chemical Parameter and Phytoplankton in Fresh Water Bodies of Mandya District
(J4R/ Volume 02 / Issue 06 / 008)

4 Free Carbon Dioxide 33.00 11.00 11.00
5 Dissolved Oxygen 03.65 5.27 4.87
6 Phenolphthalein Alkalinity 00.00 0.00 0.00
7 Total Alkalinity 350.0 225 275.0
8 Total Acidity 01.50 1.40 2.50
9 Total Hardness 196.0 236 160.0
10 Calcium 53.70 51.2 38.84
11 Magnesium 40.87 39.98 31.92
12 Chlorides 24.14 78.1 51.12
13 Total Dissolved Solids 230.0 220.0 202.0
14 Phosphates 0.115 0.136 0.112
15 Nitrate 0.025 0.064 0.130
16 Nitrite 0.160 0.18 0.18
17 COD 5.20 4.90 3.20
18 BOD 2.84 2.35 2.44
Table - 2
Phytoplankton Population (Mg/lt) in Guthal lake
Sl. Seasons
Name of Group & Species
No. Summer Monsoon Winter
Chlorophyaceae
1 Scenedesmus quardicauda 1260 840 840
2 Scenedesmus dimorphus 840 420 420
3 Scenedesmus armatus 420 - 420
4 Pediastrum duplex 840 - 1680
5 Coelastrum cambricum 420 - 840
6 Chlorells vulgaris 2560 - 2100
7 Ankistrodesmus falcatus 840 - 420
8 Closterun lumula 840 2100 840
9 Euastrum luetxemuellen 1680 1680 1260
10 Onchonema compaclum 420 420 840
11 Cosmarium maculatum 840 840 1260
12 Starurastrum tetracerum 840 - 420
Total 17760 6300 11340
Cyanophyaceae
13 Anabaena Oscillarioides 2520 - 2100
14 Spirulina Nordstedtii 840 - 420
15 Oscillatoria Subbrevis 2520 840 1260
16 Arthospira Lenneri 420 - -
Total 6300 840 3780
Bacillariophyaceae
17 Nitzschia Obtuse 2100 420 28980
18 Navicula Rhomboids 1680 1260 1680
19 Synedra Ulna - - -
20 Epithemia Lerex - - -
21 Cymbella Leptocerus 2100 840 1260
22 Pinnularia Smpteri 2160 1260 840
23 Coconies Placentula 4200 2100 12600
24 Acanthes Inflata 840 - -
Total 12180 5880 46620
Euglenophyaceae
25 Euglena Acus 1080 - 420
26 Lepocinclis Ovum 840 - -
Total 2920 - 420
Total Phytoplankton 39160 13020 62120
Note: “-” indicates Absence
Table – 3
Correlation Coefficient (Phytoplanktons and Physico-Chemical parameters in Guthal lake.
Phytoplankton Groups
Physico-Chemical Characteristics
Chloro-phyceae Cyano-phyceae Bacillario-phyceae Eugleno-phyceae Total Phytoplankton
Air Temperature 0.371 0.710 0.559 0.912* -0.334
Water Temperature 0.292 0.649 -0.649 -0.626 -0.441
pH 0.256 0.620 0.654 0.856 -0.444
Free CO2 0.559 0.843 -0.370 0.978* -0.127

All rights reserved by www.journalforresearch.org 41
Correlation Studies on Physico-Chemical Parameter and Phytoplankton in Fresh Water Bodies of Mandya District
(J4R/ Volume 02 / Issue 06 / 008)

Dissolved Oxygen -0.741 -0.947 0.137 0.999* -0.115
Total Alkalinity 0.628 0.886 -0.289 0.992* -0.041
Total Acidity -0.991* -0.962* -0.450 0.804 -0.659
Total Hardness -0.846 -0.563 -0.917 -0.238 -0.988*
Calcium 0.069 0.461 -0.785 0.743 -0.6.6
Magnesium 0.278 -0.128 0.950 -0.468 0.842
Chlorides -0.899 -0.999* -0.144 -0.961 -0.386
Total Dissolved Solids -0.785 -0.473 -0.954* -0.134 -0.999*
Phosphates -0.563 -0.187 -1.000** 0.169 -0.968*
Nitrate 0.078 -0.326 0.868 -0.637 0.176
Nitrite -0.559 -0.843 370.00 -0.978 0.127
COD -0.046 356.0 -0.851 0.661 -0.693
BOD -0.829 -0.538 -0.929 -0.208 -0.992
** Significant at p< 0.01, *Significant at p< 0.5

Fig. 2: Seasonal variation of Physicochemical and Biological parameter

Fig. 3: The annual total Phytoplankton Population (Org/L) in Guthal Lake, Mandya.

All rights reserved by www.journalforresearch.org 42
Correlation Studies on Physico-Chemical Parameter and Phytoplankton in Fresh Water Bodies of Mandya District
(J4R/ Volume 02 / Issue 06 / 008)

REFERENCE
[1] Anjana S., Gujarathi., & Kanhere, R.R. (1998): Seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton population in relation to abiotic factors after fresh water pond at
Barwini (M.P.) Poll.Res.17 (2) : 133-136
[2] APHA, AWWA, WPCF (1995) Standard method for the analysis of water and waste water and sewage 19th ed. APHA INC Washington DC
[3] Fritsch (1975) The structure and reproduction of the algae. The syndics of Cambridge University press euston road, London.
[4] Golterman, H.C., Clymo, R.S.,& Ohstad MAM (1978) Methods for physical and chemical analysis of fresh water 1 BP Hand book No 8 Black well
scientific publication.
[5] Hosmani, S.P., & Bharathi, S.G (1980) Limnological studies in ponds and lakes of Dharward, comparative phytoplankton ecology in four water bodies of
Dharwar. Phykos 19(1): 27-48
[6] Hosmani, S.P.,& Bharathi, S.G (1987) Species diversity indices as a measure of water pollution Act a Botanica India 15(3) 20: 322
[7] Hosmani, S.P.,& Vasanthkumar,L (1996) Calcium carbonate saturation index and its influence on phytoplankton. Poll.Res.15 (3) : 285-288
[8] Kumar.S., & Dutta, S.P.S.(1991) Studies on phytoplankton population Dynamics in Kunjawar pond Jammu, Hydrobiologia-7 : 55-59
[9] Munnawar, M (1970) Limnological studies on freshwater ponds of Hyderabad India 11. Hydrobiologia 35: 127-165
[10] Naganandini,M.N., & Hosmani, S.P (1998) Ecology of certain inland water of Mysore District. Occurrence of Cyanophycean Bloom at Hosakere lake.
Poll. Res 17 (2) : 123-125.
[11] Phylipose, M.T. (1967) Chlorococales ICAR, New Delhi.
[12] Singh, V.P.(1960) Phytoplankton ecology of the inland water of Uttarpradesh, Proc.Sym.Algol ICAR, New Delhi.
[13] Tiwari & Ali. M (1989) Ground water of Nuzvid town regression and cluster analysis of water quality parameters. Env. Poll 9: 13-18
[14] Trivedy and Goel (1986) Chemical and biological methods for water pollution studies. Environmental publication. karad P 94-96.
[15] Verma, J.P., & Mohanty, R.C. (1995) Phytoplankton and its correlation with certain physico-chemical parameters of Danmukundpur road. Poll.Res 14 (2) :
233-242
[16] Zafar, A.R (1967) Limnological studies on freshwater ponds of Hyderabad India IV. The Bio censose periodicity and species compostion of unicellular and
colonial phytoplankton in polluted and unpolluted environments. Hydrobiologia 45 (1) : 1-32

All rights reserved by www.journalforresearch.org 43