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PLANNING SUSTAINABLE CITIES

PLANNING SUSTAINABLE CITIES
GLOBAL REPORT ON HUMAN SETTLEMENTS 2009

United Nations Human Settlements Programme

London • Sterling, VA

First published by Earthscan in the UK and USA in 2009
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Planning sustainable cities : global report on human settlements 2009 / United Nations Human Settlements Programme.
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ISBN 978-1-84407-898-1 (hbk.) — ISBN 978-1-84407-899-8 (pbk.) 1. City planning—Environmental aspects. 2. Urban ecology (Sociology) 3.
Sustainable development. I. United Nations Human Settlements Programme. II. Title: Global report on human settlements 2009.
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This report documents many effective and equitable examples of sustainable urbanization that are helping to define a new role for urban planning. on the other. especially those in the rapidly growing and predominantly poor cities of the developing world. and the role of cities in causing or mitigating climate change. The report identifies a troubling trend in most cities in developed and developing countries: the growth of up-market suburban areas and gated communities. Ban Ki-moon Secretary-General United Nations . along with the increasing vulnerability of hundreds of millions of urban dwellers to rising sea levels. ethnic enclaves. Urban sprawl and unplanned peri- urban development are among the most visible consequences. Planning Sustainable Cities: Global Report on Human Settlements 2009 looks at the widespread failure to meet the needs of the majority of urban inhabitants. the expansion of the informal sector. sweatshops and informal businesses.FOREWORD The major urban challenges of the twenty-first century include the rapid growth of many cities and the decline of others. on the one hand. Strong contrasts have also emerged between technologically advanced and well-serviced economic production and business complexes such as export processing zones. coastal flooding and other climate-related hazards. Evidence from around the world suggests that contemporary urban planning has largely failed to address these challenges. and the simultaneous increase in overcrowded tenement zones. slums and informal settlements. and other areas defined by declining industry. I commend its information and analysis to all who are interested in promoting economically productive. environmentally safe and socially inclusive towns and cities. and identifies ways to reform urban planning.

to a large extent. These include strategic spatial planning. new land regularization and management approaches. in most parts of the world. as well as factors that could lead to the subversion and corruption of planning institutions and processes. and • the challenges and opportunities of increasing democratization of decision-making as well as increasing awareness of social and economic rights among ordinary people. in many parts of the world. which has exposed the limits of the private sector – in terms of its resilience and future growth as well as the ability of the ‘market’ to solve most urban problems. and planning for new and more sustainable spatial forms such as compact cities and new urbanism. With respect to the reconfiguration of planning systems. This. it is important that governments accept urbanization as a positive phenomenon and an effective means for improving access to services. the Global Report’s message is that careful attention should be given to identifying opportunities that can be built on. • increasing socio-spatial challenges. urban sprawl and unplanned peri- urbanization. as well as economic and social opportunities. especially social and spatial inequalities. socially inclusive and contributes to improving urban planning. rapid growth of small. the challenges of shrinking cities. An important conclusion of the Global Report is that. As the world becomes numerically more urban. One important message is that governments should increasingly take on a more central role in cities and towns in order to lead development initiatives and ensure that basic needs are met. To ensure that participation is meaningful.and medium-sized towns and an expanding youth population in developing nations. and. • the demographic challenges of rapid urbanization. However. urban planning needs to be institutionally located in a way that allows it to play a role in creating urban investment and livelihood opportunities through responsive and collaborative processes as well as coordination of the spatial dimensions of public-sector policies and investment. is a result of the current global economic crisis. The Global Report argues that future urban planning must take place within an understanding of the factors shaping 21st-century cities. the most obvious problem with this approach is that it has failed to accommodate the ways of life of the majority of inhabitants in rapidly growing and largely poor and informal cities. in developed nations. countries need to develop overall national urban strategies. Against this background.INTRODUCTION Planning Sustainable Cities: Global Report on Human Settlements 2009 assesses the effectiveness of urban planning as a tool for dealing with the unprecedented challenges facing 21st-century cities and for enhancing sustainable urbanization. including: • the environmental challenges of climate change and cities’ excessive dependence on fossil fuel-powered cars. as well as increasing informality in urban activities. all of them contributing towards finding a new role for urban planning in sustainable urban development. In particular. use of spatial planning to integrate public-sector functions. • the economic challenges of uncertain future growth and fundamental doubts about market-led approaches that the current global financial crisis have engendered. a number of countries have adopted some innovative approaches in recent decades. participatory processes and partnerships at the neighbourhood level. and has often directly contributed to social and spatial marginalization. and mechanisms for socially marginalized groups to have a voice in both representative politics and participatory planning processes. a number of minimum conditions need to be satisfied. older forms of master planning have persisted. current approaches to planning must change and that a new role for urban planning in sustainable urban development has to be found. There are a number of key messages emerging from the Global Report. even though urban planning has changed relatively little in most countries since its emergence about 100 years ago. Here. in many developing countries. There is now a realization that. . ageing and the increasing multicultural composition of cities. a legal basis for local politics and planning that specifies how the outcomes of participatory processes will influence plan prepa- ration and decision-making. urban planning systems have changed very little and are often contributors to urban problems rather than functioning as tools for human and environmental improvement. If urban planning is to play a more effective role as a consequence of this policy orientation. It is clear that urban planning has an important role to play in assisting governments to meet the urban challenges of the 21st century. including: a political system that allows and encourages active citizen participation. the Global Report’s central argument is that.

and • the development of ‘cities without slums’ so as to address the pressing challenges of poor access to safe drinking water and sanitation as well as vulnerability to natural hazards. The report recommends a three-step process for effectively responding to urban informality: first. third. For this reason. objectives and policies. I believe the report will not only raise awareness of the role of urban planning in striving for sustainable cities. In this. linking major infrastructure investment projects and mega-projects to strate- gic planning is crucial. This is partic- ularly the case in many developing and transition countries where curricula have not been revised to keep up with current challenges and issues. laws and regulations to facilitate informal-sector operations. Urban plans should also explicitly put in plain words their monitoring and evaluation philosophies. urban planning education should include tuition in ethics. In this context. the promotion of social equity and the social and economic rights of citizens. along with clear indicators that are aligned with plan goals. transport–land-use links are the most important ones and should take precedence. it makes more sense to focus on site plans. and. The outcomes and impacts of many large-scale plans are difficult to evaluate because of the many influences and factors that are at play in cities over time. The Global Report is published at a time when there is keen global interest in the revival of urban planning. strategies and processes. while other forms of infrastructure. Planning schools should embrace innovative planning ideas. including: • the development of sustainable energy in order to reduce cities’ dependence on non-renewable energy sources. Anna Kajumulo Tibaijuka Under-Secretary-General and Executive Director United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat) . and the ability to bring climate change considerations into planning concerns. negotiation and communication. An infrastructure plan is a key element of such strategic spatial plans. as well as of sustainability. Strategic spatial plans linked to infrastructure development can promote more compact forms of urban expansion focused around public transport. but also offer directions for the reform of this very important tool. subdivision plans and neighbourhood plans. • the development of sustainable transport in order to reduce the adverse environmental impacts of dependence on fossil fuel-driven cars. Introduction vii The Global Report identifies a number of promising trends for bridging the green and brown agendas. adopting revisions to policies. recognizing the positive role played by urban informal development. including water and sanitation trunk infrastructure. including the ability to engage in participa- tory planning. for example regular- ization and upgrading of informally developed areas. and the strategic use of planning tools such as construction of trunk infrastructure. Most urban planning systems do not have monitoring and evaluation as an integral part of their operations. • the improvement of eco-efficiency in order to enable the use of waste products to satisfy urban energy and material needs. it should be recognized that planning is not ‘value-neutral’ – for this reason. within the context of sustainable urbanization. The Global Report suggests that urban planning systems should integrate monitoring and evaluation as permanent features. Two aspects are particularly important in this process: embracing alternatives to the forced eviction of slum dwellers and informal entrepreneurs. strengthening the legitimacy of planning and regulatory systems. understanding the implications of rapid urbanization and urban informality. second. A final message of the Global Report is that curricula in many urban planning schools need to be updated. In addition. all of which are smaller in scale and more conducive to monitoring and evaluation. guided land development and land readjustment. can follow.

Naison D. Thomas Harper. UK. University of South Florida. Catholic University of Leuven. China. and Edlam Abera Yemeru (also Coordinator. and Naomi Mutiso-Kyalo. US. Federal University of Para. International Advice). Metropolitan Research Institute. with James Duminy. Sipe. Frank. Urbanos y Ambientales. WITS University. Department of Urban and Regional Planning. Winnie Mitullah. Housing Institute. AUTHORS: EXTERNAL CONSULTANTS Vanessa Watson. and Wandia Riunga. Belgium. Ambe Njoh. INTERNATIONAL ADVISERS (HS-NET ADVISORY BOARD1 MEMBERS) Samuel Babatunde. France. K. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research. South Africa (Chapter 8). José Luis Lezama de la Torre. Izabela Mironowicz. Louis Albrechts. Philip Mukungu. with Juan Demerutis. Peter Newman. Tumsifu Nnkya. UK (Chapters 5 and 7). Om Prakash Mathur. Malaysia. University of Guadalajara. Christopher Silver. Poland. . India. 3 and 11). National Institute of Public Finance and Policy (IDFC). Bruce Stiftel. Mexico. Programme of Urban and Environmental Studies. Jain. El Colegio Mexiquense. Griffith University (Australia) (Chapter 10). Canada. Daniel Kweku Baah Inkoom. Delhi Development Authority. University of Florida. Jose Julio Lima. Chief editor: Naison D. Centro de Estudios Demográficos. University of Cape Town. Ali Memon. Inge Jensen (also Task Co-manager. University of Birmingham. Vinay D. University of Chile. South Africa (Chapters 1. AUTHORS: UN-HABITAT CORE TEAM Ben C. Arimah (also Task Manager. Alfonso Iracheta. A. Nelly Kan’gethe. Hungary. Australia (Chapter 6). Nigeria. Marisa Carmona. Department of Urbanism. PREPARATION OF STATISTICAL ANNEX (UN-HABITAT) Inge Jensen. Suocheng Dong. Institute for Urban and Regional Planning. US (Chapters 2 and 3). University of Ibadan. Alain Durand-Lasserve. Wroclaw University of Technology. Curtin University. TECHNICAL SUPPORT TEAM (UN-HABITAT) Beatrice Bazanye. India. Society for Development Studies.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS MANAGEMENT TEAM Director: Oyebanji O. Thailand. Newcastle University. Julius Majale. Alison Todes. Brazil. Georgia Institute of Technology. Pamela Murage. Sociétés en Développement dans l’Espace et dans le Temps. Varoskutatas Kft. University of Science and Technology. School of Environment. Carole Rakodi. University of Lille. Andrea I. Patsy Healey and Geoff Vigar. Delft University of Technology. and Neil G. Simin Davoudi. Mutizwa- Mangiza. ARDHI University. Mexico. New Zealand. Chile. Didier Paris. Lincoln University. Lall. UK (Chapter 4). Paula Jiron. France. Agbola. József Hegedüs. The Netherlands. Chinese Academy of Sciences. Cardiff University. US. University of Calgary. India. Mexico. Institute of Development Studies (IDS). Tanzania. Appalachian State University. Resources and Development. US. Overall Report). with Michael Majale. Ghana. Nowarat Coowanitwong. University Sains Malaysia. Terence Milstead. University of Waterloo. Canada (Chapter 9). Mutizwa-Mangiza. Gora Mboup (Task Co-manager). Mark Seasons. Lik-Meng Lee. Statistical Annex). Université Denis Diderot. School of City and Regional Planning. Asian Institute of Technology. Oyeyinka.

National Bureau for Technical and Development Studies. Tumsifu Jonas Nnkya. and Kiril Stanilov. UK. Egypt. Instituto de Estudios Formacao e Assessoria em Politicas Socials (POLIS). Kenya. Cecilia Martinez. UK. UK. School of Planning and Architecture. Environmental Design and Arts and Sciences at the University of Colorado. New School University. International Society of City and Regional Planners (ISOCARP). Newcastle University. UK. Kenya. National University of Singapore. Sheffield Hallam University. Nina Laurie. Newcastle University. Acknowledgements ix University of Nairobi. University of Dar es Salaam. OTHER INTERNATIONAL ADVISERS Michael Cohen. School of Architecture. School of Geography. Federal University of Minas Gerais. UK. University of Toronto. National Bureau for Technical and Development Studies. Murdoch University. Newcastle University. Cecilia Kinuthia-Njenga. Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy. UK. Secretary General. Dina K. School of City and Regional Planning. Roberto Monte-Mor. Deike Peters. Elliott Sclar. Paul Lecroart. Italy (‘Revisiting urban planning in developed countries’). Côte d’Ivoire. Ken Breetzke. Colin Haylock. Abidjan. UK. Abidjan. Patrick Wakely. Ryder HKS. Columbia University. International Development Department. and Peter Newman. UK. Koffi Attahi. Abidjan. Clara Irazábal. Paris region. Institute for Policy and Planning. University of Nairobi. Department of Architecture and Planning. Ghana (‘Planning education in Ghana’). Daniel Kweku Baah Inkoom. Michael Majale. Director. Jean Hillier. Appessika Kouame. UK. School of Planning. University of Neuchâtel. Centro de Estudios y Promoción del Desarrollo (DESCO). Royal Town Planning Institute. Christopher Rodgers. UK. Mona Serageldin. Canada. Scott Leckie. Research and Project Institute of Moscow City Master Plan. Royal Town Planning Institute. Centre for Urban Development Studies. UK. Laura Petrella. Australia (‘Linking the green and brown agendas: A case study on Cairo. College of Architecture and Planning. Development Planning Unit (DPU). Anne Nicole Duquennois. Switzerland (‘The characteristics and outcomes of participatory budgeting: Buenos Aires. Mohamed Halfani. Newcastle University. Tanzania. Department of Urban and Regional Planning. Harvard University Graduate School of Design. Lucia Kiwala. Peru. Nigeria (‘Planning within a context of informality: Issues and trends in land delivery in Enugu. Mohamed El-Sioufi. and Belinda Yuen. University of Botswana. 1985–2020: Integrated planning in a large “urban project”’). Argentina’). Frederic Saliez. Willem K. Subramonia Ananthakrishnan. Newcastle University. Newcastle University. Secretary General. Patsy Healey. Switzerland. Global Urban Research Centre. Institute of Housing Studies and Building Research. Lars Reutersward. Displacement Solutions. Botswana. and Hinin-Moustapha Daniel. Newcastle University. Raf Tuts. University of Colorado. University of Southern California. Ted Kitchen. Newcastle University. Secretary General. Berlin University of Technology. Paul Taylor. Graham Tipple. John Pendlebury. Carole Rakodi. Robert Upton. UK. School of Design and Environment. Japan: Interactions between civil society and formal planning institutions’). Federal Ministry of Environment. UK. Cardiff University. Jenny Crawford. Luidmila Ya Tkachenko. Global Urban Research Centre. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. US (‘Revisiting urban planning in Latin America and the Caribbean’). South Africa (‘From conceptual frameworks to quantitative models: Spatial planning in the Durban metropolitan area. US. Claude Ngomsi. Côte d’Ivoire. Urban Planning and Development Agency for IAU Île-de-France. UK. Andrea I. Rose Gilroy. Poland (‘Planning education in Poland’). Maggie Roe. Uche Cosmas Ikejiofor. Peter Ngau. Pietro Garau. US. UK (‘Developing neighbourhood management capacity in Kobe. Cliff Hague. Wroclaw University of Technology. Institute for Policy Practice. UK (‘Developing participatory planning practices in Kitale. Wandia Seaforth. Cities Centre. Newcastle University. Housing and Building National Research Centre. US (‘Revisiting urban planning in the transitional countries’). UK. Egypt’). UK. Australia. Centre for Sustainable Urban Development. Eduardo Moreno. van Vliet–. Szilard Fricska. Commonwealth Association of Planners. UK. University of Waterloo. India (‘Revisiting urban planning in Southern Asia’). Newcastle University. Christine Auclair. Shehayeb. Research Newcastle Law School. Richard H. AUTHORS OF BACKGROUND PAPERS Jamal Husain Ansari. South Africa – the link to housing and infrastructure planning’). Nelson Saule Junior. Laurence Crot. National Bureau for Technical and Development Studies. Joseph Maseland. University of Birmingham. Daniel Biau. T. Brazil. Sonia Hirt. Angelique Hablis. ADVISERS (UN-HABITAT) Claudio Acioly. US. Global Urban Research Centre. Engineering Department of the eThekwini Municipality. University College of London. US. Ansa Masaud. Housing and Urban Development. Curtin University. Peter Newman. and Nick You. University of Florida. Planning and Landscape. Teckla Muhoro. Jossy Materu. Suzanne Gunn. Politics and Sociology. Xiaoyan Chen. Frank. University of Cincinnati. and Izabela Mironowicz. Côte d’Ivoire (‘Revisiting urban planning in sub-Saharan Africa ‘Francophone’ countries’). Singapore. Russia. US. Urban Design Group Leader. Filiep Decorte. US. Richard Stren. Department of Regional and Urban Planning. Germany. Nigeria’). Gustavo Riofrio. . Canada (‘Monitoring and evaluation in China’s urban planning system: A case study of Xuzhou’). Brian Williams. Aloysius Mosha. Ali Madanjpour. France (‘The urban regeneration of Plaine Saint-Denis. Schneider. and Pablo Vaggione. Newcastle University. University of Rome. Centre for Metropolitan Studies. University of Science and Technology. New Delhi. US. Brazil.

Institute of Technology in Bandung (ITB). Jamaica (‘Gender and urban planning’). Sri Lanka’). and Tommy Firman. University of South Florida. Mostafa Modbouly Nassar. NOTE 1 The HS-Net Advisory Board consists of experienced researchers in the human settlements field. US (‘Self-help. UK (‘The politics of urban regeneration in Cardiff. executive coordinator of Idoplin Limited. Melbourne. Department of Geography. Canada’). and ‘The state as enabler in urban policy-making in Colombo. and Andrea Service. Hamish Ironside. and Peter Newman. School of Architecture. The primary role of the Board is to advise UN-Habitat on the substan- tive content and organization of the Global Report on Human Settlements. Belinda Yuen. Lagos. RMIT University. a viable non-conventional urban public service delivery strategy: Lessons from Cameroon’. Dory Reeves and Bonnie Parfitt. Florida. Nigeria (‘Revisiting urban planning in sub-Saharan Africa ‘Anglophone’ countries’). Alison Kuznets. Egypt (‘Revisiting urban planning in North Africa and the Middle East’). PUBLISHING TEAM (EARTHSCAN LTD) Jonathan Sinclair Wilson. Ambe Njoh. New Zealand. Cameron Owens. University of Birmingham. Australia. Carole Rakodi. National University of Singapore. . South-East Asia and the Pacific’). Australia (‘Vauban: A European model bridging the green and brown agendas’). Curtin University. selected to represent the various geographical regions of the world. Singapore (‘Revisiting urban planning in East Asia. Indonesia (‘Planning for an extended metropolitan region in Asia: Jakarta. University of Auckland. Faculty of the Built Environment. Planning and Policy Development. Housing and Building National Research Center. Indonesia’). University of Birmingham.x Planning Sustainable Cities Kenya’). ‘Community-based and non-governmental organizations in urban development in Mexico City: The case of San Miguel Teotongo’. Don Okpala. Cairo. an alternative to traditional urban design: The case of celebration. ‘New urbanism. UK. Carole Rakodi. Canada (‘Challenges in evaluating liveability in Vancouver. Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. and Carol Archer. Jan Scheurer. School of Architecture and Planning. UK’). US’. Simon Fraser University. University of Technology.

CONTENTS Foreword v Introduction vi Acknowledgements viii List of Figures. Boxes and Tables xvii List of Acronyms and Abbreviations xx Key Findings and Messages xxii PART I CHALLENGES AND CONTEXT 1 Urban Challenges and the Need to Revisit Urban Planning 3 Urban Challenges of the 21st century 4 Main forces affecting urban change 4 Urban change 8 Why Does Urban Planning Need to Change? 10 Modern urban planning 10 The ‘gap’ between outdated planning approaches and current urban issues 11 Problems with previous (modernist) approaches to urban planning 12 Why Is there a Revived Interest in Urban Planning? 12 The role of planning in addressing rapid urbanization. evaluation and education 21 Part V – Future policy directions 21 Concluding Remarks 21 Notes 22 . urban poverty and slums 13 The role of planning in addressing sustainable urban development and climate change 13 The role of planning in addressing urban crime and violence 14 The role of planning in addressing post-conflict and post-disaster situations 14 Potentials Offered by New Approaches to Urban Planning 15 Strategic spatial planning and its variants 15 Spatial planning as a tool for integrating public-sector functions 15 Approaches to land regularization and management 16 Participatory processes and partnerships in planning 16 Approaches promoted by international agencies: The Urban Management Programme and sector programmes 16 New forms of master planning 17 New urban forms: The ‘compact city’ and ‘new urbanism’ 17 Defining Urban Planning and Identifying Normative Principles 18 Definitions of planning 18 Normative principles to guide revised approaches to urban planning 18 Organization of the Report 20 Part I – Challenges and context 20 Part II – Global trends: The urban planning process (procedural) 20 Part III – Global trends: The content of urban plans (substantive) 20 Part IV – Global trends: Monitoring.

urban governance and power relations 73 Promoting ‘good governance’ 74 .xii Planning Sustainable Cities 2 Understanding the Diversity of Urban Contexts 23 Urbanization and Demographic Trends 23 Developed and transitional countries 24 Developing countries 25 Planning implications of urbanization and demographic trends 26 City Size and Spatial Forms 27 Developed and transitional countries 27 Developing countries 29 Planning implications of city size and spatial form 30 Urban Economic Contexts 31 Developed and transitional countries 31 Developing countries 33 Planning implications of urban economic context 38 Location and Vulnerability to Natural and Human-Made Disasters 39 Developed and transitional countries 39 Developing countries 40 Planning implications of vulnerability to natural and human disasters 42 Concluding Remarks 43 Notes 44 PART II GLOBAL TRENDS: THE URBAN PLANNING PROCESS (PROCEDURAL) 3 The Emergence and Spread of Contemporary Urban Planning 47 Early Forms of Urban Planning 47 Middle East and North Africa 47 Western Europe 48 Latin America 48 East and South-East Asia 48 Sub-Saharan Africa 48 East and Central Europe 49 The Emergence of Modernist Planning 49 The Global Spread of Modernist Planning 50 Mechanisms for the transfer of planning ideas 51 The influence of modernist planning in various parts of the world 52 The Persistence of Modernist Urban Planning 56 Extent of persistence of older approaches to urban planning 56 Why modernist approaches to urban planning have persisted 57 Why modernist approaches to planning are problematic 58 Innovative Approaches to Urban Planning 59 Strategic spatial planning 60 Spatial planning tools for integrating public sector functions 62 New approaches to land regularization and management 63 Participatory processes and partnerships in planning 65 Approaches promoted by international agencies: The Urban Management Programme and sector programmes 66 New forms of master planning 69 New urban forms: ‘New urbanism’ and the ‘compact city’ 69 Concluding Remarks 70 Notes 71 4 The Institutional and Regulatory Framework for Planning 72 Planning and Governance 72 Urban governance and government 72 The challenge of urban governance 73 Planning.

Participation and Politics 93 Characteristics and Forms of Participatory Urban Planning 93 Gender in Participatory Urban Planning 95 Global Trends in Urban Planning. stakeholders and planning arenas 88 Concluding Remarks 90 Notes 91 5 Planning. Agencies and Regulation 81 Planning regulation 81 The location of planning agencies and formal responsibilities 82 Decentralization and local capacity 82 Policy integration and institutional coordination 83 Plan Formulation and Implementation 85 Planning tools and resources 85 Policy communities. Participation and Politics 95 Developed countries 95 Sub-Saharan Africa 96 Asia 97 Latin America and the Caribbean 99 Factors shaping the processes and outcomes of participatory urban planning 100 Innovative Approaches to Participatory Urban Planning 101 Participation in local planning 101 Participation in city-level and strategic decision-making 102 Enhancing Participation in Urban Planning 105 An enabling political context and system 105 A strong legal basis for planning and participation 106 Understanding the pitfalls of participatory approaches 107 Sufficient resources to support participatory processes 108 Participatory mechanisms relevant to the scale and purpose of planning 108 Successful participation: Conditions and characteristics 109 Concluding Remarks 109 Notes 110 PART III GLOBAL TRENDS: THE CONTENT OF URBAN PLANS (SUBSTANTIVE) 6 Bridging the Green and Brown Agendas 113 Sustainable Urban Development: The Green and Brown Agendas 113 The green and brown agendas 114 Innovations in Achieving Green and Brown Synergies: Global Trends 115 Development of renewable energy 116 Striving for carbon-neutral cities 117 Distributed power and water systems 118 Increasing photosynthetic spaces as part of green infrastructure 119 Improving eco-efficiency 121 Increasing sense of place 122 Sustainable transport 123 Developing cities without slums 127 Addressing the Green and Brown Agendas through Urban Planning and Governance 129 Urban planning for sustainable urban development 129 Governance for sustainable urban development 130 . Contents xiii Planning Institutions and the Institutionalization of Planning Practices 75 Institutions as wider norms and practices 75 Institutions as specific agencies and organizations 76 The institutional design and redesign of urban planning systems 77 Legal Systems and the Distribution of Rights and Responsibilities 78 Land and Property Ownership and Development Institutions 80 Planning Systems.

policy or programme suitability in plan-making 173 The evaluation of plan and programme performance 174 Indicators and urban plan evaluation 176 Caveats and Considerations in the Monitoring and Evaluation of Urban Plans 178 Concluding Remarks 181 Notes 184 . Infrastructure and Exclusion 152 Spatial Planning. EVALUATION AND EDUCATION 9 The Monitoring and Evaluation of Urban Plans 171 Types of Monitoring and Evaluation 171 Current Practice in Urban Programme and Plan Evaluation 173 Evaluation of project.xiv Planning Sustainable Cities Concluding Remarks 130 Notes 131 7 Planning and Informality 132 Informality 132 Characteristics of Urban Informality 133 Global Trends in Urban Informality and Expansion 134 Asia 134 Latin America and the Caribbean 136 Africa 138 Developed and transitional countries 140 Factors Affecting Informality 142 Innovative Planning Responses to Informality 142 Alternatives to eviction 143 Regularization and upgrading of informally developed areas 144 Influencing development actors by strategic use of planning tools 145 Working with informal economic actors to manage public space and provide services 147 Responding to Informality through Planning and Governance 149 Concluding Remarks 150 Notes 151 8 Planning. electricity and telecommunications 157 Infrastructure and inclusive local planning 158 The Compact City Debate: Sustainability. the Privatization of Infrastructure Development and Mega-Projects 153 Master planning and infrastructure 153 Private-sector led infrastructure development 154 Mega-projects 155 The Influence of Infrastructure on Urban Spatial Structure and Access 155 Transport systems and networks 155 Water. Spatial Structure of Cities and Provision of Infrastructure 152 Urban Spatial Trends. sewerage. Efficiency and Inclusiveness 158 The compact city debate 158 The relevance of compaction ideas to developing countries 159 Cost efficiency and compaction 160 Contemporary Approaches to Linking Spatial Planning to Urban Infrastructure 160 Smart growth and transit-oriented development 160 Integrating land use and transportation 160 Strategic spatial planning and infrastructure planning 162 Integrated urban management and development plans 162 Strategic structure planning 163 Linking spatial planning to infrastructure planning 164 Linking mega-projects and major infrastructural developments to spatial planning 164 Concluding Remarks 165 Notes 166 PART IV GLOBAL TRENDS: MONITORING.

Contents xv 10 Planning Education 185 Historical Development of Planning Education 185 Design versus policy 185 Rationality versus deliberation 186 Master planning versus development management 188 ‘One world’ versus context-specific planning education 188 Planning Schools Worldwide 189 Regional distribution of planning schools 189 Characteristics of planning schools 189 Curriculum emphasis 191 School connections with other schools and professional networks 193 Capacity for Educational Support of Planning Practice 194 Concluding Remarks 197 Notes 198 PART V FUTURE POLICY DIRECTIONS 11 Towards a New Role for Urban Planning 201 The Main Issues for Urban Planning in Different Parts of the World 201 Global urban planning issues 201 Urban planning issues in developing countries 203 Urban planning issues in transitional countries 204 Urban planning issues in developed countries 204 The Main Findings and Conclusions of the Report 205 Diversity of urban contexts 205 The emergence and spread of contemporary urban planning 206 The Institutional and Regulatory Framework 206 Participatory planning 207 Integrating the green and brown agendas 208 Urban informality 209 Spatial structure of cities and provision of infrastructure 209 Monitoring and evaluation of urban plans 210 Urban planning education 211 Main Elements of a Revised Role for Urban Planning 211 Overarching aspects of a new role for urban planning 211 Specific aspects of a new role for urban planning 213 Contextual and Institutional Changes Needed to Make Urban Planning More Effective 215 Prioritizing an urban policy at the national scale 215 Planning legislation 215 Decentralization of urban planning functions 215 The urban planning function within municipalities 215 Monitoring and evaluation of urban plans 216 Urban research and data 216 City planning networks for sharing information and experience 216 Planning education 216 Concluding Remarks 216 Notes 217 PART VI STATISTICAL ANNEX Technical Notes 221 Explanation of Symbols 221 Country Groupings and Statistical Aggregates 221 World major groupings 221 Countries in the Human Development aggregates 221 .

2 Urban and Rural Population Size and Rate of Change 228 A.000 Inhabitants or More: Population Size and Rate of Change in Selected Cities 262 C.xvi Planning Sustainable Cities Countries in the income aggregates 222 Sub-regional aggregates 222 Nomenclature and Order of Presentation 223 Definition of Terms 223 Notes 225 Sources of Data 226 Data Tables 227 Regional Aggregates 227 A.3 Access to Services in Selected Cities 272 References 275 Index 295 .7 Transport Infrastructure 258 City-Level Data 262 C.1 Total Population Size.3 Urbanization and Urban Slum Dwellers 242 B. Rate of Change and Population Density 227 A.4 Total Number of Households and Rate of Change 246 B. Rate of Change and Population Density 235 B.1 Total Population Size.2 Population of Capital Cities (2007) 270 C.2 Urban and Rural Population Size and Rate of Change 238 B.6 Number of Urban Agglomerations 232 Country-Level Data 235 B.3 Urbanization 229 A.5 Access to Drinking Water and Sanitation 231 A.4 Total Number of Households and Rate of Change 230 A.5 Access to Drinking Water and Sanitation 250 B.6 Poverty and Inequality 254 B.1 Urban Agglomerations with 750.

8 Gini coefficient of income inequality in Western Europe.5 Innovative forms of secure tenure: Phnom Penh.2 Transit-oriented development: Development around a transit stop 162 BOXES 1.5 Planning system reform in Lombardy. Japan 83 4.7 The Urban Management Programme in Dar es Salaam.3 The 2007 Strategic Plan for Toronto.6 The principles of the Global Planners Network: New urban planning 20 2.1 The goals of sustainable urbanization 4 1.4 Integrated development plans in South Africa 85 4.5 Distribution of urban population by city size in Latin America and the Caribbean 29 2. Cambodia 64 3.3 Failure of public service provision in a rapidly growing metropolis: Lagos.9 Gini coefficients for selected cities in Latin America 35 2.5 A definition of urban planning 19 1.6 Community action planning: Participatory planning from the bottom up 66 3.1 The Garden Cities Town Planning Association and the spread of Eurocentric planning models 51 3. US 5 1.1 Average annual rate of change of urban population 24 2.8 Using planning to reintegrate displaced communities 68 3. 1995 123 8.2 Struggles between formal land rights and customary land rights in Moshi.4 Distribution of urban population by city size in North America 28 2.1 Broad-approach institutional contexts 75 4.1 Australia hit hard by mining slump 33 3.2 Private passenger transport energy use per person in selected cities.7 Distribution of urban population by city size in sub-Saharan Africa 30 2.1 Developing participatory urban planning practices in Kitale.4 Most influential urban forms from the early 20th century 11 1.3 Middle East and North Africa countries with more than 10 per cent immigrant population. Tanzania 76 4. 2005–2050 8 2. Kenya 76 4.6 Distribution of urban population by city size in Asia 29 2.9 Gender-aware urban planning 69 4. UK 62 3.2 Impact of colonial urban planning upon the structure and growth of African cities 55 3. India 119 6.1 The waste reuse agro-ecosystem of the East Calcutta Wetlands.10 Gini coefficients for selected cities in Asia 36 2.1 Designing for accessibility 156 8.1 Urban population by region. Nigeria 9 1.3 Civil society planning initiatives in Kobe.LIST OF FIGURES. BOXES AND TABLES FIGURES 1.2 Effects of economic restructuring on older cities in developed countries: Chicago. 2005 26 2. Italy 86 . Canada 61 3. mid 2000s 32 2.2 Ways of coordination for spatial development 83 6.4 Harnessing resources for delivery in Middlesbrough. Tanzania 67 3.11 Gini coefficients for selected cities in Africa 37 4.2 Shrinking cities in transitional countries 25 2.

Curitiba. ‘evaluation’ and ‘indicators’ in urban planning 172 9.4 Integrated land-use and transport system.12 The Association of Bicycle Riders in São Paulo.11 Reclaiming public spaces through reducing car dependence in Paris.1 Common forms of mega-projects 155 8. The Netherlands 87 5.6 Towards a City Development Strategy. Brazil 163 8. Romania 141 7.2 Urban planning and participation in China 99 5.7 Challenges for planning education in Latin America and the Caribbean 195 10. India 178 9. France 126 6.6 Linking mega-project development to spatial planning: Plaine Saint-Denis. Cuba 121 6.7 The City Statute.10 ‘Informal’ education on gender and planning in Mumbai. India 196 . India 98 5.4 Planning education in Europe: Diversity and convergence 192 10.3 Pioneering of sustainability education: University of British Columbia.6 Global Planning Education Association Network (GPEAN) members 194 10. Brazil 127 6.4 Environmental planning and renewable energy in Freiburg. Uganda 177 9. Brazil 101 5.4 Using citizen report cards as a strategic tool to improve service delivery. France 165 9.2 The brown agenda in cities: Some facts 115 6.3 Modes of decision-making for planning. Canada 191 10.1 The five steps of the ‘rational planning model’ 187 10.5 Linking spatial planning and infrastructure planning in Durban. Germany 117 6.2 Planning education in Poland 190 10. Curitiba.13 Impacts of resettlement of slum dwellers in high-rise apartments. Argentina 104 5. Jakarta.12 Guidelines for designing results-based evaluation systems 182 10. Indonesia 136 7.xviii Planning Sustainable Cities 4. India 119 6.5 The characteristics and outcomes of participatory budgeting.1 People’s campaign for decentralized planning. South Africa 164 8.2 Common monitoring and evaluation challenges 173 9. Canada 178 9.6 Supporting informal street traders.11 Monitoring and evaluation design strategy 181 9.2 Informal development in Mexico City 138 7.10 Indicators: Potential and constraints 180 9. Tanzania 158 8.7 Master Plan for Delhi 2021.3 Informal customary land management.2 Sustainable accessibility in Amsterdam. Nigeria 140 7. it’s the way that you do it’: Creating new sustainable centralities in the Amsterdam city-region. Indonesia 129 6. Brazil 107 6. Enugu. Brazil 124 6. India 176 9. Buenos Aires.5 Urban sewage recycling in Calcutta. Canada 125 6.6 Santiago 2010 Strategic Plan.5 Planning education in Ghana: The Nkrumah University of Science and Technology 193 10. Kerala.9 Urban planning as ‘complementary currency’ in Curitiba.1 Defining ‘monitoring’.8 Challenges in evaluating liveability in Vancouver.1 The green agenda as set out by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 114 6. Durban.7 Urban food production in Havana.8 Informal solid waste recycling in Cairo.9 An international accreditation system for urban planners 196 10.3 Renewable city models for the future 116 6.6 Energy costs of food production in the US 120 6.3 Development permit system: Protecting the natural environment through monitoring 175 9.10 Creating a walking city in Vancouver. South Africa 105 5.5 Innovative responses to informality in Brazil 145 7.3 The safer city audit in Dar es Salaam. Chile 177 9.5 The Local Urban Observatory for Jinja Municipality.14 Renewing urban governance in Indian cities 131 7.4 Empowerment of the poor for participation in decision-making 102 5. Egypt 122 6. Johannesburg. South Africa 148 8.6 ‘It ain’t what you do.1 An extended metropolitan region in Asia: Jakarta.9 Monitoring and evaluation in China’s urban planning system 179 9.8 Urban planners being sidelined from urban planning: The case of Southern Asia 195 10. The Netherlands 156 8. Bangalore.4 Informal employment.

1 The cost of regulation: Requirements to start a legal business 134 8.2 Planning and governance for sustainable urban development 130 7.2 Challenges in monitoring and evaluating urban plans 180 10.2 Political systems and the scope for participation 106 6. 2005 34 2.7 Urban population in the low-elevation coastal zone (LECZ).4 Gini coefficients trends for selected countries in Latin America and the Caribbean 35 2. meaning and purpose of citizen participation 94 5. by country 189 10.2 Urban planning schools inventory (university level).1 Definitions of various types of urban plans 11 2.1 A selection of early university-level courses in urban planning 185 10.2 Status of strategic urban planning in Latin American cities 62 4. 2005 39 2.2 Approaches linking spatial planning to urban infrastructure 161 9.6 Selected urban disasters.1 Planning tasks and tools 86 5. List of figures.2 Urban poverty measures for 1993 and 2002 using the US$1 per day poverty line 34 2.3 Proportion of urban population living in slums. 2000 41 3.1 Characteristics of the green and brown agendas in the urban environment 114 6.1 New approaches to urban planning 60 3.1 Global trends in urbanization (1950–2050) 23 2.1 The form.5 Ten most populous cities and associated disaster risk.3 Currently existing university courses on gender and urban planning 192 .1 Density and public transport access: Comparing Atlanta (US) and Barcelona (Spain) 159 8. 1906–2006 40 2.1 Key functions of urban planning indicators 176 9. tables and boxes xix TABLES 1.

LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AESOP Association of European Schools of Planning APERAU Association for the Promotion of Education and Research in Management and Urbanism BOT build–operate–transfer BRT bus rapid transit CAP community action planning CBO community-based organization CCTV closed-circuit television CDS City Development Strategy CO2 carbon dioxide CSO civil society organization EPM environmental planning and management ESPON European Spatial Planning Observation Network EU European Union FDI foreign direct investment g gram GDP gross domestic product GIS geographic information systems GNI gross national income GPEAN Global Planning Education Association Network GPN Global Planners Network GTZ Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GUO Global Urban Observatory ha hectare HDI Human Development Index HIV-AIDS human immunodeficiency virus–acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ICLEI International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives ILO International Labour Organization IMF International Monetary Fund IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ITDG Intermediate Technology Development Group km kilometre kWh kilowatt hour LECZ low-elevation coastal zone LRT light rail transit m metre MDG Millennium Development Goal MW megawatt NGO non-governmental organization OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development PPP purchasing power parity PUA participatory urban appraisal SCP Sustainable Cities Programme SDF spatial development framework SUDP Strategic Urban Development Plan TOD transit-oriented development .

List of acronyms and abbreviations xxi UK United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland UMP Urban Management Programme UN United Nations UNCED United Nations Conference on Environment and Development UNCHS United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) (now UN-Habitat) UNDESA United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UN-Habitat United Nations Human Settlements Programme (formerly UNCHS (Habitat)) UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund US United States of America WHO World Health Organization .

Most of these are to be found in the developed and especially in terms of settlement density and transportation. or 32 per cent of the world’s current urban service sector and decline in manufacturing. economy and climate change are linked: vehicle emissions however. multiple-nuclei or polycentric. Close to 1 hence growing income inequality) caused by growth in the billion people. such disasters balance tipped dramatically in favour of urban growth. and sion of. live in slums in inequitable and life-threatening conditions. will occur in smaller. But more recently.27 per cent). according to current A second major concern is the environmental impact projections. over half of the world’s products of failed urban development and planning. settlements of 100. It is predicted that. however. in terms of the ability of urban will continue to do so. of fossil fuel use in urban areas.000–250. changing institutional structure of cities and the emerging climate change will negatively affect access to water and that spatial configurations of large. A key problem is that most of the rapid urban growth Processes of globalization and economic restructuring in is taking place in countries least able to cope – in terms of recent decades have impacted in various ways on urban the ability of governments to provide. and often institutionally contribute significantly to greenhouse gas emissions and weak. An oil-based during the next few decades. Between 2007 and 2025. or facilitate the provi. the annual urban popula. and in terms of resilience impact on urban labour markets. cities. hundreds of millions of people will be vulnerable to coastal city-regions. Significantly. Moreover. and its likely Almost all of this growth will take place in developing long-term increase in cost. economic and socio-spatial One of the most significant environmental challenges at challenges that lie ahead. developing world are now located in areas threatened by tion growth more or less evenly divided between the urban floods. source has both promoted and permitted urbanization. The inevitable result has been the rapid polarization of occupational and income structures (and growth of urban slums and squatter settlements. especially in and rural areas of the world. flooding and related natural disasters as global warming increases. Future urban planning must take place within an understand- Environmental challenges ing of the factors shaping 21st-century cities. the entire global It is predicted that many new megacities of over 10 economy rests on the possibility of moving both people and million people and hypercities of over 20 million will emerge goods quickly. While the period 1950–1975 saw popula. and tion increase in developing regions is expected to be 53 its easy availability has allowed the emergence of low-density million (or 2. It also needs to recognize the present is climate change. for the first time in history. settlements in both developed and developing countries. the period since has seen the slums and informal settlements. and are directly affected by both environmental AND FUTURE URBAN disasters and social crises. The bulk of new urban growth. In are only partly a result of natural forces – they are also 2008. such and urban management with challenges that have never that four out of every ten non-permanent houses in the been faced before. environmental. There have also .000 people. Beyond this. city shrinkage has occurred in some developing countries as Economic challenges well. within cities. it will be the poorest countries and people who will be most vulnerable to this threat and who Demographic challenges will suffer the earliest and the most. In contrast. population lived in urban areas and. landslides and other natural disasters. The global use of oil as an energy regions. Responding to a post-oil era presents some parts of the world are facing the challenge of shrinking a whole range of new imperatives for urban planning. this will have risen to 70 per cent by 2050. hence global warming. especially the demographic. especially of oil. transitional regions of the world. compared to a mere 3 million (or and sprawling urban forms – suburbia – dependent on 0. urban infrastructure. which show a growing to natural disasters. private cars.49 per cent) in developed regions. whose frequency and impacts CHALLENGES have increased significantly during the last few decades. cheaply and over long distances.KEY FINDINGS AND MESSAGES KEY FINDINGS: CURRENT population. Particularly significant has been the residents to pay for such services. High urban land and The global urban transition witnessed over the last three or housing costs currently are pushing the lowest-income so decades has been phenomenal and is presenting planning people into locations that are prone to natural hazards.

The tion’ of the labour force (through an increase in part-time. Here. including in Latin in both developed and developing countries. urban planning at the local government poorer areas in both developed and developing country level has also had to face challenges from shifts in the scale cities. there has been a growing also a response to local policies that have attempted to unwillingness on the part of communities to passively accept position cities globally in order to attract new investment the planning decisions of politicians and technocrats that through ‘competitive city’ approaches. fear of crime has increased consensus’ is becoming more difficult. as well as between areas built their geographically bounded administrative roles. there have been the Latin America and Caribbean region. Johannesburg and in various ways. Santiago. separation planning. violence have also contributed to a decline in social cohesion In many poorer cities. and for more than 50 per cent of all employment in Africa and closely linked to processes of globalization. Within the last three decades. which has often been cast as a relic of the old and specialization of functions and uses within cities. urban centres and their governments has come adrift from ethnic enclaves and ghettos. government. as well ‘governance’. As the wider economic role of market gentrified and suburban areas with tenement zones. accelerated economic restructuring and led to the rapid growth of unemployment in all parts of the world. along with decentralization themselves confronted by new spatial forms and processes. Highly visible contrasts have emerged between up. especially in develop. ‘Gated and partly because of growing income and employment communities’ have multiplied in major metropolitan areas inequalities that have intersected with ethnicity and identity such as Buenos Aires. other types of high-security residential complexes. This process is leading to entirely new moved into paid employment. now taking place in unplanned peri-urban areas. In developed countries. São Paulo. sweatshops and informal businesses. and democratization. the urban dwellers look for a foothold in the cities and towns in last several decades have also seen a process of industrial locations where land is more easily available. There are also important gender dimensions to infor. and a little lower in significant transformations in local government in many Asia. with local government usually being the in developing countries. impact on their living environments. and to reduce labour and operating costs. in contract and home-based work) have made them highly fact. making them very different settings from mality: women are disproportionately concentrated in the those within which modern urban planning was originally informal economy and particularly in low-profit activities. Socio-spatial change seems to have taken place These shifts have had profound implications for urban primarily in the direction of the fragmentation. and for need to move towards rescaling to the city-region level and luxury retail and entertainment. but particularly the public sector. While become increasingly apparent in many parts of the world. urban forms as the countryside itself begins to urbanize. but trends towards ‘casualiza. urban crime and Pretoria. However. spatial forms are largely driven and an increase in conflict and insecurity in many cities. as well as the involvement of a range of non-state actors in the process of governing. In developing countries. with welfare state model and as an obstacle to economic develop- labour market polarization (and hence income inequality) ment and market freedom. with older areas of declin. reflected in growing differences between wealthier and In addition. of urban decision-making. much of this represents the playing out of ‘market forces’ in Another global trend has been in the area of cities. conceived about 100 years ago. informal sector jobs account most responsible tier. bulk of rapid urban growth in developing countries is. within cities In some parts of the world. as societal divisions urban fragmentation as middle. by the efforts of low-income households to secure land that . where there is a possibility of combining urban and rural The global economic crisis that began in 2008 has livelihoods. where they can relocation to less developed regions as firms have attempted escape the costs and threats of urban land regulations. are increasing poverty and inequality. Among the most significant challenges that urban planning The most commonly recognized change has been the has to address in the next few decades. introducing multilevel and collaborative governance has ing industry. it is participation. have been increasing. Key findings and messages xxiii been important gender dimensions to this restructuring: is affordable and in a location close to employment and other over the last several decades women have increasingly livelihood sources. which in developed countries represents a as to the rapidly expanding urban informal sector. the concept of governance has been Urban planners and managers have increasingly found promoted as a policy measure.and upper-income house. response to the growing complexity of governing in a global- izing and multilevel context. so the for the advanced service and production sector. In Socio-spatial challenges developing countries. parts of the world. ‘delivering American and Caribbean cities. expansion of the urban political system from ‘government’ to ing countries. One Institutional challenges important result of these economic and policy processes on urban labour markets has been rapid growth of the urban Formal urban planning systems are typically located within informal economy in all regions of the world. partly as a result of international holds segregate themselves into ‘gated communities’ and migration and the growth of ethnic minority groups in cities. and the logic of real estate and land speculation. Since the 1960s. as poor vulnerable to economic crises. driven largely by multilateral institu- the drivers of which often lie outside the control of local tions such as the World Bank and United Nations agencies.

and to a large extent. rather than in the interests of good planning. as well as agencies created higher level of social affluence than is the case in most devel- through initiatives funded by external aid programmes. still weak in terms of how to deal with the major sustainable In many developed countries. However. oil dependence. such as urban planning compact cities and new urbanism. being based on spatial interventions that assume a far regional development agencies. have changed significantly. There is still too much focus on expansion and intellectual exchange. including injection of a spatial or territorial from metropolitanization and informal peri-urbanization dimension into sectoral strategies. sometimes due to the very rapid rate of state- directed city-building. The other is a counteracting A number of new and sometimes overlapping movement to avoid litigation through developing negotiation approaches to urban planning have been identified in the and collaborative practices. both of which are a response to challenges of urban sprawl and sustainable Contemporary urban planning systems in most parts of the urbanization. and how these link to directive plans. environmental and strategically influence development actors. planning – for example. ethnic or racial domination and exclu- systems. but also aspects that suggest the need for caution in through several mechanisms. • Use of spatial planning to integrate public-sector In many large urban complexes that have resulted functions. Planning is sion. ways of using planning tools to activity and integrating the social. creating challenges for national and local part of a city but focuses on only those aspects or areas planning practices that are seeking to promote greater equity that are strategic or important to overall plan objectives. processes. it fails to accommodate the way of life of has been partly in response to decentralization of authority the majority of inhabitants in rapidly growing. there is an increasing mismatch between adminis- • New land regularization and management approaches. that all parties (including the private sector and civil society • Participatory processes and partnerships at the organizations) need to learn from each other about how to neighbourhood level. trative boundaries and the functional dynamics of urban which offer alternatives to the forced removal of infor- areas. commonly known as master planning. and largely from national governments to cities. often at the expense of outcomes. regions and quasi- poor and informal cities. approaches to planning urban challenges of the 21st century: climate change. the older forms of master planning have persisted. resolving planning disputes. or These new approaches to planning have many positive quali- modernist urban planning. working with development actors to manage public Approaches to the formulation and implementation of space and provide services. the principal ones being: The presence of large-scale land and property devel- opers (often linked to competitive city policies) is expanding • Strategic spatial planning. ways of economic dimensions of development. Frequently. which does not address every substantially. rapid urbanization. In some countries. oriented towards social justice and aim to counter the effects of land speculation. Furthermore. master planning is still found to be useful. special ‘partnership’ agencies that The most obvious problem with modernist planning is focus on particular development tasks. and new ideas on how plans have moved from assuming that a planning authority planning laws can be used to capture rising urban land could control how development takes place. and environmental sensitivity in urban development.xxiv Planning Sustainable Cities KEY FINDINGS: URBAN ‘community action planning’. to recognizing values. and Emergence and spread of contemporary • Planning aimed at producing new spatial forms. ‘participatory learning and action’ and . take into account the important challenges of 21st-century The legal systems underpinning planning regulation cities such as climate change. as well as to different forms of social and spatial marginalization. which include ‘participatory urban shape future development trajectories. market terms of their wider use. especially colonialism. food insecu- are being modified in many countries to allow greater flexi- rity and informality. informality. world have been shaped by 19th-century Western European planning. which are bottom up and AND TRENDS participatory. poverty and countries. One is an increase in litigation as a way of and other stakeholders in the planning of urban areas. metropolitan and that. these imported ideas were used and neglect of the underlying regulatory and financing for reasons of political. including ‘participatory budgeting’. appraisal’. This oping countries. in many developing resource depletion. and thus directly contributes to governmental organizations. Professional bodies and process. PLANNING RESPONSES • New forms of master planning. Global Report. it fails to bility and interactions. This situation is encouraging two acknowledge the need to meaningfully involve communities related responses. There is also a international and development agencies also played an strong focus on the directive aspect of the planning system important role. and sometimes because it serves the Institutional and regulatory frameworks interests of elites who often emulate modern Western cities for planning and whose actions inevitably marginalize the poor and the A variety of new agencies have become involved in urban informal in cities. leading to problems in coordinating development mal settlements. it fails to privatization. Its global diffusion occurred ties.

world- regions where informal development is widespread. formal procedures for public the following overlapping trends identified in the Global participation in planning decisions have long existed. and increasing proportion of urban development in develop- over 150 cities worldwide have been involved in developing ing countries is informal due to limited planning and CDSs. distributed power and water ment of citizens or other stakeholders in decision-making. It has therefore been complemented by community embraced by cities all over the world. has been used to identify tion. Much of developed countries and has overwhelmed many cities in the future urban growth in developing country cities is expected developing world. The effectiveness of urban planning is a key determinant of while city development strategies (CDSs) have enabled the prevalence of informality in cities.and middle-income groups. a substantial develop an action plan for equitable urban growth. none are yet able to action planning (CAP). often with support from interna- tional programmes. developed and transition countries. Affordable serviced land and formal housing remains Bridging the green and brown agendas inaccessible to most urban residents in cities of developing countries. while the sector currently generates 93 per cent of informal settlements. while coping does not comply with planning regulations. Attempts to adopt participatory planning processes and • increasing photosynthetic spaces as part of green infra- revise planning legislation accordingly have been minimal in structure development in order to expand renewable many developing countries. from the local to city level. Rapid urban growth in the past 50 years has meant that Therefore a significant number of them live in housing that managing the built (or human) environment. respectively. a growing number of cities are adopt- • improving eco-efficiency in order to enable the use of ing participatory approaches to planning due to the waste products to satisfy urban energy and material widespread recognition that technocratic approaches have resource needs. Sustainable Cities and Localizing Agenda 21 fuel-driven cars. needs and priorities. given their development projects. which draws on tools and methods of water and sanitation as well as environmental degrada- participatory rural appraisal. urban communities to participate in the prioritization of urban informality in developed countries is limited. A CDS uses participatory processes to well-developed planning systems. 78 per cent of urban employment is Most of this deprivation is concentrated in urban slums and informal. These are manifest in In most developed countries. Key findings and messages xxv Participation. participatory budgeting has enabled Urban planning and informality citizen participation in municipal budgeting and spending. in cities in low. and between one America and Caribbean region is informal. developed in recent years. especially low.2 billion people lack safe sanitation About 57 per cent of all employment in the Latin and access to clean water. in many developing countries. francophone Africa. has become a significant challenge in the cities of in slums. sources of energy and local food.5 billion and 1. In spite of this. inhibiting the direct involve- • developing small-scale. Accordingly. such as the UN-Habitat-supported Urban • developing sustainable transport in order to reduce the adverse environmental impacts of dependence on fossil Management. At the local/community level. planning and politics Innovations to achieve green and brown agenda syner- gies are under way all over the world. . In contrast. Well- Report: established representative democratic political systems in these countries enable citizen participation in urban • developing renewable energy in order to reduce cities’ planning processes. PUA provides information inputs into decision-making rather than itself being a decision-making Although the sustainable urban development vision has been tool. At the city level. systems for more energy-efficient provision of services. have been tion and effectiveness of innovations. participatory urban • developing ‘cities without slums’ so as to address the pressing challenges of poor access to safe drinking appraisal (PUA). which has been employed to address agendas. wide 2. governance capacities. About 60 per cent third and one half of the solid waste generated within most of all urban jobs in Africa are in the informal sector and. the safety of women in the planning and design of safer neighbourhoods.and middle-income countries is not collected. been largely ineffective in dealing with the challenges of urbanization. A staggering 62 with environmental pollution (especially waste) and degrada- per cent of the urban population in sub-Saharan Africa lives tion. • striving for carbon-neutral cities so as to significantly A technocratic blueprint approach to planning persists cut and offset carbon emissions. To date. compared to 43 per cent in South Asia. A variety of innovative approaches for partici- • increasing sense of place through local sustainable development strategies so as to enhance implementa- patory planning. and programmes. Yet this remains tokenistic in some dependence on non-renewable energy sources. A good example of CAP is the to fully demonstrate how to integrate the green and brown women’s safety audit. Fewer than 35 per cent of the cities in to take place in peri-urban areas and expanded metropolitan developing countries have their wastewater treated. which develops actionable ideas and simultaneously and comprehensively address the different implementation arrangements based on the information facets of the sustainable urban development challenge and generated through PUAs.

often embraced by local decision-makers. including public community/official urban plan-level monitoring and evalua- investment in trunk infrastructure to influence patterns of tion in developing countries. About 60 per cent (330 schools) of these Since the late 1970s. they processes. meant that lower-income groups have had little choice of There are significant regional variations in terms of where to live and work. as opposed to physical design. However. guided land development using strategic resources for planning generally. in the transitional and developing there has been some rethinking and renewed attempts to countries. very little progress has been made so far in develop alternative policy responses to informality. social equity and participatory services to areas that would not otherwise have them. and urban planning schools. the most extensive applica- arrangements are some of the approaches that have been tion of monitoring and evaluation has occurred as part of used to avoid the harmful effects of forced eviction of both development programmes that are funded by international informal settlement/slum dwellers and informal economic agencies. Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). This negative as well as positive results. downplayed or even rejected.000 academic staff in planning developer-driven urban development – has tended to drive schools worldwide. only a spatially. While about half of all planning has been a crucial element in attempts to restructure cities schools teach social equity issues in their curricula. However. and upgrading of informal settlements and land-sharing In developing countries. In addition. managed by state organizations and implemented entrepreneurs. the accessibility–value relationship has minority of these specifically teach gender-related issues. focus on policy and social science research. and total. Even in the countries of the Organisation for public transport networks. monitoring and evaluation can produce address the challenges of informality in some cities. While these processes sometimes extend to sustainable development. can be difficult to appreciate in local governments that face mality. This has been linked to the new emphasis on urban moved from a focus on physical design towards an increased competitiveness and urban entrepreneurialism. extension of detailed planning and development control. For embracing monitoring and evaluation as integral parts of the instance. There are typically few development. cent (220 schools) are located in 72 different countries. The period since the 1980s has seen a major than half of the world’s planning schools. The electricity in particular areas reduces development costs and variations are linked to the prevalence of policy/social has also influenced patterns of growth. the availability of trunk the relative importance given to technical skills. The remaining 40 per development – through forms of corporatization or privatiza. communica- lines for water and sewerage and transmission lines for tive skills and analytic skills in planning curricula. plans has become part of practice in the more progressive because of the failure of such policies to either eliminate the planning departments of cities and regions in developed sector or improve the livelihoods of informal entrepreneurs. regularization urban planning process. Despite awareness of the importance of gender in The structure of road networks and public transport planning practice. Monitoring and evaluation of urban plans In many countries. There is less evidence of Strategic use of planning tools. energy-sapping urban challenges. Graduates from Although the private sector has tended to focus on planning schools focusing on physical design find themselves more profitable aspects of infrastructure development. However. In tion of urban infrastructure development and provision. The latter situation is involves recognizing informal entrepreneurs’ property rights. While developing countries contain more patterns of urban fragmentation and spatial inequality in than 80 per cent of the world’s population. it is not a core part of the syllabus in many systems shapes the spatial organization of many cities. after road and output. the informal sector is responsi. spatial structure of cities and There are about 550 universities worldwide that offer urban provision of infrastructure planning degrees. by local authorities. land pooling or readjustment and the gradual enforcement or monitoring.xxvi Planning Sustainable Cities all new jobs. and especially for plan planning. Because the importance of monitoring and evaluation have also enhanced the effectiveness of responses to infor. infrastructure is also increasingly seen as a key element in ble for between 33 and 50 per cent of the total economic shaping patterns of spatial development. the infor- mal economy accounts for about 16 per cent of value added. complex. Planning education Planning. they have less many countries. not many urban Partnerships with informal economic actors to authorities have fully embraced this important management manage public space and provide services have helped to tool. This type of bulk science approaches. In Central Asia. providing basic services. also impose considerable costs on the poor. priva. the ‘unbundling’ of infrastructure are concentrated in ten countries. In addition. countries. increasingly marginalized in a situation where planning tized provision of services has also occurred in poorer processes progressively require knowledge of issues related communities. informality is regarded as both undesirable and illegal. leading to ineffective government Monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of urban responses such as elimination and neglect. while the former is allocating special-purpose areas for informal activities and frequently ignored. For . legal provisions against evictions. growth of urban mega-projects. including infrastructure Urban planning education in most countries has projects. there are at least 13.

and America. oped on the basis of realistic standards. tive processes. is a vitally important role of the urban basic needs are met. Countries will planning. PLANNING Capacity to enforce urban planning regulations. Reformed urban planning systems must be shaped by. Broad policy directions should be given very high priority and should be devel- Governments. Reformed urban planning systems must fully and unequivocally address a number of major current and Specific policy directions emerging urban challenges. but. poverty. In addition. need to be reformed. the focus varies substantially in Latin planning will have to pay greater attention to small. paradoxically. It can do this areas and challenges of urbanization. economic and social opportunities. preparedness. The regulation of ingly take on a more central role in cities and towns in land and property development. while planning schools in Asia rate analytical skills access to services. one of the main reasons sector in terms of its resilience and future growth as well as underlying the failure of enforcement. urban design and econometric modelling being also need to integrate various aspects of demographic change more common than those of participation or negotiation. They are based on the the ability of the ‘market’ to solve most urban problems. Key findings and messages xxvii example. which has exposed the limits of the private opment standards are. Overall in Latin America. In developed. However. and a as most important. as well as urban crime and violence. rationalist medium-sized cities. shrinking or declin- ing cities. urban planning systems in being formulated in some developing countries. is a result of the current global developing world. through responsive and collabora- urbanization. and be I Institutional and regulatory frameworks for responsive to the contexts from which they arise. corruption at the oped and developing. technical. should increas. Yet. and corruption of planning institutions. be applied in all parts of the world. a reformed urban communication skills. as there is planning no single model urban planning system or approach that can In the design and reconfiguration of planning systems. as well as pressures that could lead to the subversion informality. both devel. transition and a number of developing countries. improve enforcement as well as the legitimacy of urban planning as a whole. in their urban planning policies. This is not a new relationships using place and territory as loci for linking idea. This is increasingly being recognized planning system. in many countries. Therefore. regulatory power needs ever before that governments accept that urbanization can to be combined with investment and broader public-sector be a positive phenomenon and a precondition for improving decision-making. through statutory plans and order to lead development initiatives and ensure that development permits. post-disaster and post-conflict reconstruction and rehabilitation. In the developing world. both central and local. In many other parts of the world. it is more important than infrastructure provision. urban planning must prioritize ment and livelihood opportunities that can be built on. urban planning should play a key role local-government level must be resolutely addressed in enhancing urban safety by addressing issues of disaster through appropriate legislation and robust mechanisms. especially in developing countries perspectives are the norm. . informality and safety. with skills such as master where planning often focuses on larger cities. the interrelated issues of rapid urbanization. as well as the rapidly ageing population and KEY MESSAGES: TOWARDS increasingly multicultural composition of cities in developed A NEW ROLE FOR URBAN countries. especially climate change. Urban planning can and should play a significant role in overcoming governance fragmentation in public A particularly important precondition for the success of policy formulation and decision-making. such as populations dominate numerically. outdated planning regulations and devel- economic crisis. especially in the and. articulated in most effectively through building horizontal and vertical some form of national urban policy. urban urban planning needs to be institutionally located in a way planning will have to play a vital role in addressing the causes that allows it to play a role in creating urban investment and and impacts of climate change and ensuring sustainable livelihood opportunities. rapid urbanization. as such. governments and civil society to meet the urban challenges More realistic land and property development standards are of the 21st century. as the world moves to a situation in which urban planning with the activities of other policy sectors. urban poverty. In particular. slums and access to basic services. followed by technical skills and then better quality of life. but this many parts of the world are not equipped to deal with these effort must be intensified and much more should be done to challenges and. since most urban planning systems is that countries should national and local development policies and related develop a national perspective on the role of urban investments have a spatial dimension. In this context. careful attention should be given to identifying invest- especially in Africa and Asia. which is seriously lacking in many developing countries. to a large extent. experience of the much more affluent developed countries Urban planning has an important role to play in assisting and are not affordable for the majority of urban inhabitants. particularly the youth bulge observed in many developing countries.

together with planning and regulatory systems on the basis of more realis- non-governmental organizations. waste and slums. Statutory plans and permit-giving carbon-neutral strategies. and should. focusing on addressing the systems dominate. unequivocally. as well as providing the authority for distributed green infrastructure strategies to expand small- conserving important community assets. Governments need to implement a number of minimum but critical measures with respect to the Many green innovations can. It is important to in both representative politics and participatory planning recognize that regulation of land and property development processes must also be established. renewable energy and urban planning systems. comprehensive set of green policies and strategies housing and property must also be put in place. resources and autonomy to I Urban planning and informality support participatory processes. industry and communi- and planning that specifies how the outcomes of ties in the development and implementation of local participatory processes will influence plan preparation and sustainability innovations and enterprises. and much public realm. urban sprawl and dependence on car-based transit. These policies and strategies The protective as well as developmental roles of include: increasing urban development density. scale energy and water systems. energy. The first approach is over the longer term is vitally important if community pursuing alternatives to the forced eviction of slum dwellers . enhancing quality of life and fundamental changes in the metabolism of cities. including planning is meaningful. in terms of their commitment and governance to effectively respond to informality: first. for synergizing the green and brown agenda in cities will not lishing a political system that allows and encourages active be possible without viable and appropriate urban planning participation and genuine negotiation. and environmental resources that would otherwise be sustainable transport strategies to reduce fossil fuel use. ensuring that local governments have sufficient responsibilities. and introducing some stabilization in land and more effective approaches to developing ‘cities without property development activity. and is committed to systems. ensuring commitment of Governments and local authorities must. as part of local economic tion is necessary for safeguarding assets. all forms of I Bridging the green and brown agendas land and property development activity. both national and local. urban local authorities should implement a the urban poor and improving their rights and access to land. Protective regula. government and funding agents to resource distribution in recognize the important role of the informal sector and order to support implementation of decisions arising from ensure that urban planning systems respond positively participatory planning processes. tiveness of combining such a regulatory approach with ment actors. on the broad planning regulation must be recognized in redesigning basis of mixed land-use strategies. including through legislation. A participation has concrete outcomes. social opportunities development that is capable of enhancing sense of place. Introducing strategies improving urban planning. principally to reduce greenhouse regulate the balance between public and private rights in any gas emissions. be compre- political and legal environment as well as financial and hensively integrated into statutory urban planning and human resources. development of a vibrant civil society and ensure that effective participatory mechanisms are put in place. adhere to the principle of equality under the law. eco- opmental intent is necessary for promoting better standards efficiency strategies. challenges of poor access to safe drinking water and sanita- tion and environmental degradation in cities of the I Participation. implemented if urban policy and planning are to effec- tage of opportunities for participation and sustain their roles tively respond to informality. considering revisions to policies. squeezed out in the rush to develop. must facilitate the tic standards. Regulation with a devel. In order to integrate the green and brown agendas in must be taken into account and mechanisms for protecting cities. regulatory systems must participation in urban planning is to be effective. is sustained not just by formal law. socially inclusive and contributes to standards and building regulations. and regulations to facilitate informal sector operations. In designing planning systems. formal and informal. These measures include: estab. and enhancing the three-step reform process is required for urban planning and capacity of professionals. as part of climate change mitigation measures. infrastructure.xxviii Planning Sustainable Cities To command legitimacy. and third. provide necessary technical nizing the positive role played by urban informal advice and incorporate the outcomes of participation into development. but also by social and cultural norms. strengthening the legitimacy and effectiveness of Governments. trans- port. in order to ensure that participation development control systems. laws planning and decision-making. including waste recycling to achieve of building and area design. covering urban design. Recent experience has also demonstrated the effec- addressing the needs and views of all citizens and invest. particularly where market slums’. decision-making. at a much larger scale. and Mechanisms for socially marginalized groups to have a voice must be broadly perceived as doing so. planning and politics developing world. second. thus also making sure that to this phenomenon. putting in place a legal basis for local politics partnerships between government. recog- skills to facilitate participation. More specific innovative and tried approaches to land The presence of well-organized civil society organizations development and use of space should be adopted and and sufficiently informed communities that can take advan. development project.

Some planning schools in developed countries do not educate students to work in different I The monitoring and evaluation contexts. better by the formal plan-making process. can in many developing and transition countries where follow. urban local site. encouraged. This should education is an attempt to remedy this and should be include clear indicators that are aligned with plan goals. regularization and upgrading of information is easy to collect. I Planning. Key findings and messages xxix and forced removal or closure of informal economic enter. including through performance measurement. given the realities of approach is collaborating with informal economic actors to local government resource constraints. The second approach is the strategic use of planning Traditional evaluation tools – such as cost–benefit tools such as construction of trunk infrastructure. for example. including rapid urbanization and urban informality. participatory urban ment can promote more compact forms of urban appraisal methods. there based on credible analysis and understanding of trends and should be increased focus on skills in participatory planning. i. some which are likely to result from new infrastructure provision. local economic development. The plan should also provide the means for protect. Transport–land-use I Planning education links are the most important ones in infrastructure plans and There is a significant need for updating and reform of should take precedence. emerging and others simply neglected in the past. The ‘one-world’ approach to planning and evaluation as permanent features. This Strategic spatial plans linked to infrastructure develop. Capacity-building short courses for world. subdivision and neigh- recognition. harmonization of development standards. and contributions by. comprehensively addressing the ecological Urban planning schools should educate students to footprints of urbanization. Urban plans should also explicitly of professional organizations and international professional explain their monitoring and evaluation philosophies. Recent interest in manage public space and provide services. also enhance understanding in a number of areas. particularly including water and sanitation trunk infrastructure. The involvement of a wide range of stakeholders is urban planning education has not kept up with current essential to the development of a shared and consistent challenges and emerging issues. avoided and focus should be on those indicators for which prises. made disasters. Use of too many indicators should be inclusive. For example. Experience has shown that this can expansion focused around accessibility and public enhance plan quality and effectiveness through insights and transport. infrastructure projects. cities and climate Regional governance structures are required to manage change. which is increasingly the case in all regions of the diversity within cities. The importance of pedestrian Most routine monitoring and evaluation should focus and other forms of non-motorized movement also requires on the implementation of site. return on investment and recognizing informal entrepreneurs’ property rights. This will lead to improved urban services that are perspectives that might otherwise not have been captured responsive to the needs of different social groups. urban crime and violence and cultural aries. informally developed areas is preferable to neglect or demoli- tion. as other experts with non-planning professional . myriad of influences and factors that are at play in communi- ties over time. strate. cost-effectiveness analysis and fiscal impact land development and land readjustment. but the infrastructure plan itself also needs to be embrace innovative planning ideas. The third assessment – are still relevant. A complementary measure is the strengthening objectives and policies. as well as improved economic opportunities and livelihoods. Such organizations and associations should be gies and procedures. networks.e. spatial structure of cities and All evaluations should involve extensive consultation provision of infrastructure with. can be achieved through. encouraged. all plan stakeholders. itate the delivery of urban services. natural and human- urban growth that spreads across administrative bound. communication and negotiation. It therefore makes more sense for monitoring To enhance the sustainable expansion of cities and facil. while other forms of infrastructure. Planning schools should approach. results-based management principles means that the use of ing special-purpose areas for informal activities and providing these quantitative tools in urban planning practice should be basic services. and a space for public discussion work in different world contexts by adopting the ‘one- of these issues. authorities should formulate infrastructure plans as key elements of strategic spatial plans. environmental conditions. and evaluation to focus on plans at lower spatial levels. The outcomes and impacts of many projects and mega-projects to strategic planning is also large-scale plans are difficult to evaluate because of the crucial. world’ approach. Updated curricula should ing the urban poor from rising land costs and speculation. In particular. Spatial planning in these contexts should provide a practising planners and related professionals have an impor- framework for the coordination of urban policies and major tant role to play in this. Linking major infrastructure investment bourhood plans. allocat. thus limiting their mobility and posing a problem of urban plans for developing country students who want to return home to Urban planning systems should integrate monitoring practice their skills. subdivision and neighbourhood plans. forces. curricula in many urban planning schools. guided analysis.

as well as sustainable urban tions. tuition should cover areas cannot be found without a good understanding of the such as the promotion of social equity and the social and perspectives of disenfranchised and underserved popula- economic rights of citizens. since effective tuition in ethics and key social values. Recognition and respect for societal differences should be Finally. urban planning education should include central to tuition in ethics and social values. as planning is not urban planning cannot take place and equitable solutions ‘value-neutral’. development and planning for multicultural cities.xxx Planning Sustainable Cities backgrounds are significantly involved in urban planning. . In this context.

PA RT I CHALLENGES AND CONTEXT .

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tively addressed if cities are to be sustainable. Urban areas issues in rapidly growing and poor cities.1). At certain times in cities in the century ahead and all of them need to be effec. urban local authorities and planning practi- feel the effects of phenomena such as climate change. But if planning is planning. This activity has been known as and economic productivity in urban areas. However. 21st-century cities problems. and inclusive. environmental sustainability or environmental objectives. upon the growth and change of cities have changed dramati- making processes and urban outcomes. in addition. A key conclusion to emerge of ordinary citizens and businesses. areas. in many parts of the world planning systems have important and highly contested debates on what forms of changed very little and are now frequent contributors to urban planning are best suited to dealing with the problems urban problems rather than functioning as tools for human This issue of the of sustainable development that urban settlements currently and environmental improvement. and that by setting unrealistic standards of land This introductory chapter outlines the main issues of and urban development. areas ingly become a priority for governments everywhere. political of achieving socio-spatial equity. necessarily need to be the case: planning systems can be Human Settlements At certain times in the last century. in both developed and developing countries will increasingly governments.1 there is no doubt that the ‘urban agenda’ will increas. The chapter first sets out the key urban and exclusion. planning is promoting urban poverty Global Report. with the latter able to address urban systems need to be evaluated and. CHAPTER URBAN CHALLENGES AND THE 1 NEED TO REVISIT URBAN PLANNING Urban settlements in all parts of the world are being influ. it was suggested that the profession of urban planning needs enced by new and powerful forces that require governments to be reviewed to see if it is able to play a role in addressing to reconsider how they manage urban futures. World Planners Congress in Vancouver in June 2006. revised. it has been argued that systems of urban planning and examples of successful urban planning need to be found challenges facing in developing countries are also the cause of many urban and shared worldwide. Over the last century. that is. there is no longer time for complacency: planning management tool ence in market forces. people holders. planning has been changed so that they are able to function as effective and considers urban seen as the activity that can solve many of the major efficient instruments of sustainable urban change. and will face in the future. urban planning2 has become to play a role in addressing the major issues facing urban a discipline and profession in its own right. Many developing countries. There are now cally. will challenges facing 21st-century cities and attaining the goals that can solve many continue to experience rapid rates of urbanization. then current approaches to planning in many parts of tutionalized as a practice of government as well as an activity the world will have to change. With of sustainable urbanization (see Box 1. will have to jointly agree on the long-term objectives have consciously and collectively intervened in the nature of urban change. and that places the creation of livelihoods at These are all factors that will significantly reshape towns and the centre of planning efforts. Given the planning as a problems of urban areas. This argument was strongly made at the joint challenges of the 21st century that will shape a new role for meeting of the UN-Habitat World Urban Forum and the urban planning. together with other important urban stake- Since the earliest days of human settlement. however. More training and education of planners need to be re-examined. decades. while at other times it has been enormity of the issues facing urban areas in the coming significant viewed as unnecessary and unwanted government interfer. food insecurity and economic instability. and by encouraging inappropriate concern and summarizes the contents of the rest of the modernist urban forms. This issue of the Global Report on Human Settlements the last century. has become insti. the for dealing with the problems far more effectively than governments. considers the importance of urban planning as a significant planning has been environmentally safe. To do this. and has evolved as a from this Global Report is that while the forces impacting complex set of ideas which guides both planning decision. if necessary. These objectives will need to include ways and form of urban areas to achieve particular social. economically productive and socially management tool for dealing with the unprecedented seen as the activity inclusive. This in turn lays the basis for the question. cannot be left only to the market or governments. where in the third section. this does not Global Report on face. tioners have to develop a different approach that is pro-poor resource depletion. unprecedented recently. There is now a of the major over half of the world’s population currently living in urban realization that the positive management of urban change problems of urban areas. which asks if and how urban planning . Governments.

and • the ecological footprint of towns and cities is reduced. such as understanding of the normative principles against which current or new environmental threats and climate change. and • the prevention. and indicates the numerous lie ahead and for which systems of urban management will positive roles which planning can play. • gender and disability sensitive planning and management. • a legal system which ensures competition. • social integration by prohibiting discrimination and offering opportunities and physical space to encourage positive interaction. including water supply. • appropriate regulatory frameworks. which is vital for a sustainable urban economy. 2002. these forces. rizes the contents of the main chapters of the Global Report. accountability and property rights. The fifth section summarizes some of ways in which these impact upon demographic. in the economy. Priorities and actions for economic sustainability of towns and cities should focus on local economic development. costs. attempt to manage them. socio-spatial Future urban the most important new approaches to urban planning that and institutional change in urban areas and their implica- planning needs to have emerged in various parts of the world. pp18–27. Only by dealing with urbanization within regional. global changes in the environ- ment. and post-disaster and post-conflict shaping the socio. demands. in institutional structures and Future urban planning needs to take place within an under. The social aspects of urbanization and economic development must be addressed as part of the sustainable urbanization agenda. • renewable resources are not depleted. . and then the meet new challenges. • access to land or premises in appropriate locations with secure tenure. • a healthy educated workforce with appropriate skills. Social justice recognizes the need for a rights-based approach. Chapter 4. local context shapes the impact of spatial aspects of and the final section concludes the chapter. needs to change to address these new issues effectively. • the energy used and the waste produced per unit of output or consumption is reduced. which entails developing the basic conditions needed for the efficient operation of economic enterprises. transport. oil depletion and factors that are approaches might be tested. The overarching global changes that have examples of how planning has been used successfully to occurred since the 1970s are first considered. which define and enforce non-discriminatory locally appropriate minimum standards for the provi- sion of safe and healthy workplaces and the treatment and handling of wastes and emissions. including the promotion of: • equal access to and fair and equitable provision of services. both large and small. Source: Partly adapted from UN-Habitat and Department for International Development (DFID). It also needs to recognize the Section four considers the factors that have led to a revived significant demographic and environmental challenges that interest in urban planning. These include: • reliable in infrastructure and services. developing aspects of cities and the institutional structures which and transitional regions of the world are reviewed below. The Habitat Agenda incorporates relevant principles.1 The goals of sustainable urbanization Environmentally sustainable urbanization requires that: • greenhouse gas emissions are reduced and serious climate change mitigation and adaptation actions are implemented. national and even international planning and policy frameworks can these requirements be met. cities URBAN CHALLENGES OF Main forces affecting urban change THE 21ST CENTURY Over the last several decades. This section provides have to plan.4 Challenges and context Box 1. which demands equal access to ‘equal quality’ urban services. formal and informal. with the needs and rights of vulnerable groups appropriately addressed. waste management. • financial institutions and markets capable of mobilizing investment and credit. reduction and elimination of violence and crime. For several reasons. The seventh section summa. • the waste produced is recycled or disposed of in ways that do not damage the wider environment. communications and energy supply. • non-renewable resources are sensibly used and conserved. There are also new forces and views that take place within an section offers a definition of urban planning and a set of will impact upon a revised role for urban planning. These trends in the developed. special attention needs to be given to supporting the urban informal sector. while the sixth tions for planning. • urban sprawl is minimized and more compact towns and cities served by public transport are developed. food security. In all cases. processes and in civil society have had significant impacts standing of the factors that are shaping the socio-spatial upon urban areas.

more compact and integrated cities.and pedestrian-based natural forces. only for large-scale environmental hazards. Urban settlements are increasingly becoming ‘hot recent decades have affected urban settlements in both spots’ for disaster risk. landslides and other natural disasters.’ Moreover. It’s very unfortunate. Not a single theatre. pp53–54 significantly to greenhouse gas emissions and. Urban development also results in developed and developing countries in various ways. Significantly. The authorita. requiring new approaches to the concentrated in the planning. a multitude of environmental impacts. And they’re not contributing anything to the commu- The global use of oil as an energy source has both promoted nity: it’s all ‘take.3 In developed and land-use planning regulations. Responding to a post. business to survive on it. such disasters are only partly a result of oil era. bank. such as traffic accidents. They are also the products of failed urban movement systems. placed the issue of the University of Chicago campus.The street is bombed out. This is the case not informal economy While climate change and oil depletion will funda. as they are usually unprotected by construction them highly vulnerable to economic crises. 2008. The 2007 movement networks in cities are a central concern of urban UN-Habitat Global Report – Enhancing Urban Safety and planning. garages and light manufacturing enterprises that used to dot the over long distances. hence. broken sidewalks. on the south side of Chicago. comprising throngs so dense suffer the most.28 It looks like Berlin after the war and that’s sad. The most important the US – in Harlem and the Brownsville district of Brooklyn in New York. Current forms of urbanization are pushing at rush hour that one was literally swept off one’s feet upon getting out of the elevated train the lowest-income people into locations that are prone to station. bility of moving both people and goods quickly. People don’t come into Woodlawn. and development and planning. environmental concern now is climate change. it will be the poorest countries businesses and not a single vacant lot in an 18-by-4 block area. There have been important gender dimen. by local factors and policies. Abandoned buildings. decaying neighbourhoods left to rot by the authorities since the big riots of the 1960s. but it seems that all that and the likely long-term increase in the cost of fossil fuels.2 million people per annum. the last several decades have also seen a process . negative environmental impacts through the consumption of although the form of impact has been strongly determined Urban planning in natural assets and the overexploitation of natural resources. health and the environment. from that era in August 1991: nent houses in the developing world are now located in areas threatened by floods. and its easy availability has it’s an area devoid of investments. such that four out of every ten non-perma. It’s an area devoid of hope. jazz club or repair shop outlived the 1970s. but high levels of infor- The world’s 1 billion urban slum dwellers are also far more trends towards ‘casualization’ of the labour force have made mal activity vulnerable. in the form of public transport. and you will discover a lunar landscape replicated across the black ghettos of planning concerns (see Chapter 6). women have increasingly moved into paid employment. and are kill 1. countries. but also for what and particularly in mentally change the nature of life on this planet.2 Effects of economic restructuring on older cities in The Brundtland Commission’s report – Our Common Future developed countries: Chicago. as are women. change are linked: vehicle and aircraft emissions contribute Source: Wacquant. Vulnerability to caused by growth in the service sector and decline in in a context of natural disasters is differentiated: cities with lower levels of manufacturing. US – which called for ‘development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future genera. print shops. An oil-based economy and climate neighbourhood have disappeared as well. Particularly significant has been both developed and Urbanization modifies the environment and generates new the impact upon urban labour markets. food production. or in Boston’s Roxbury and Paradise Valley in tive Stern Report27 on the economics of climate change Pittsburgh. global warming. which show a developing countries hazards. including deforestation and slope instability. take. the entire global economy rests on the possi. Security29 – makes the point that cities are inherently risk I Economic change prone due to the concentrated nature of settlements and the interdependent nature of the human and infrastructural Processes of globalization and economic restructuring in systems. children. 63rd Street was called the ‘Miracle Mile’ by local could suffer hunger. along what used to be one of the city’s most vibrant sustainable development at the core of urban policy and commercial strips. cheaply and The lumber yards. vacant lots strewn with debris and garbage. The neighbourhood counted nearly 800 the world warms. which low-profit activities urbanization and city growth are also causing. A second major environmental concern is oil supply Seventy-five per cent of it is vacant. One reason for the current global food crisis is unpredictable spikes in the cost of oil. really grows here is liquor stores. however. Here is the description of the street given to me by the only white shopkeeper left natural hazards. and permitted urbanization.30 Pedestrian and vehicle subject to. It is therefore important to take a Women are dispro- more localized food and production systems (reducing the risk-reduction approach which views such disasters as portionately ecological footprint of cities) all present new imperatives for problems of development. water shortages and coastal flooding as merchants vying for space and a piece of the pie. Woodlawn was overflowing and people who are most vulnerable to this threat who will with life as people streamed in from the four corners of the city. concludes that it will ‘affect the basic elements of life for boarded-up store-front churches and the charred remains of shops line up miles and miles of people around the world – access to water. Beyond Now the street’s nickname has taken an ironic and bitter twist for it takes a miracle for a this. thus growing polarization of occupational and income structures will be taking place resulting in landslides and flash flooding. are known as ‘small hazards’. planning of urban growth and change. Urban challenges and the need to revisit urban planning 5 I Environmental challenges Box 1. Walk down 63rd Street in Woodlawn. inequality and economic development and disaster preparedness are more sions to this restructuring: over the last several decades poverty and with at risk. take!’ Very depressing [sighs heavily]. the aged and the disabled. within a stone’s throw of tions to meet their own needs’. Hundreds of millions of people On the morrow of World War II. on the east side of Cleveland and Detroit. in north Philadelphia. allowed the emergence of low-density and sprawling urban forms – suburbia – dependent upon private cars. decaying.

smaller urban centres and in those parts of the world. particularly in developing countries. with actual UN-Habitat’s Global Campaign on Urban Governance. deregulation and decentralization.6 Challenges and context of industrial relocation as firms attempted to reduce labour cases. but promoted along with decentralization and democratization. ing countries will therefore be taking place in a context of turing and rapid growth of unemployment in all parts of the inequality and poverty and with high levels of informal activ- world. encouraging the urban industrial growth. and decades. ideal. This kind of restructuring closely linked to processes of globalization. by Africa. and into public-sector spending on participation of civil society. 78 per cent of urban employment in the Francophone Development Report emphasized the importance of strong environmental region is informal. Firms have sought lower land costs.10 outcomes strongly influenced by pre-existing local condi. as well as the involvement of a One important effect of these economic and policy range of non-state actors in the process of governing. and the number of street sector change across developing countries. 60 per cent of residents adjustment programmes providing the framework for public- work in the informal sector. accountable local subject to significant foreign direct investment. and upwardly mobile residents left the the public sector. and this sector generates 93 per cent of and effective institutions.5 izing and multilevel context. the shift was firmly entrenched when the World The most important weak. . Phnom The most commonly recognized change has been the government. and using partnerships to urban infrastructural projects and programmes. the Caribbean. ately concentrated in the informal economy and particularly The World Bank. in some parts of the world. is characterized by three strategies: decentralizing responsi- opmental states’ which have channelled resources into bilities and resources to local authorities. By contrast. job and income polarization have been less dramatic. In processes on urban labour markets has been the rapid developing countries. In these achieve common objectives. which in developed countries represents a society. making them very different settings from existence of stable. there is emphasized democratic practice and human and civil rights. key World Bank officials one third and one half of the total economic output. Central Asia. for example. however. In Latin America and driven largely by multilateral institutions. as well Penh. but is equally true in parts of the world. In had accepted that good governance was the key issue and. while United Nations agencies such as the stress the point that while there are few parts of the world United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) have that have not felt the effects of these processes. The dramatic increases in income nance worldwide and to increase the capacity of inequality that result from changing urban labour market local/municipal governments and other stakeholders to put structures are also not inevitable: a number of East Asian this into practice. yet there are strong indications that its nature From the late 1990s. and affected the US since late 2008. The principal vendors increased by 40 per cent from 2000 to 2005. or even from inner-city areas to subjected to International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World suburbs. For example. sought to advocate good urban gover- tions and local policies. In ideas were privatization. has been associated with a in low-profit activities. those countries that were within the developed world.9 mainly administrative and managerialist interpretation of Recent writings on the topic of globalization and cities good governance. UN-Habitat’s concept of good governance cities have been strongly influenced by the actions of ‘devel.4 and this was prior to the major job losses that have most responsible tier. in Cambodia. for example. four out of every five new jobs are in the a mainly economic perspective dominated. a significant proportion of which is survivalist in form. where the formal economy has always been relatively 1997. with World informal sector. climate change means new. there have been Urban planning is has been occurring in the larger ‘global’ cities of the world significant transformations in local government in many highly reliant on the and in older industrial regions. which have not been Chapter 4). however. international and cheaper labour pools and lower unionization levels by national policy interventions have exacerbated the effects of relocating to developing countries. Bank structural adjustment programmes have been more Urban residents are disproportionately affected by severely affected.6 In Mexico City. ‘good governance’ became the has changed and its scale has increased over the last few mantra for development in developing countries. The term has come to mean different things. rather than rolling back the state. to less developed regions globalization. There are also important planning was supported to the extent that it promoted this gender dimensions to informality: women are disproportion. has undergone dramatic expansion of the urban political system from ‘government’ to as a strong civil social and spatial restructuring in recent years despite low ‘governance’. particularly during 2008.1 provides an example of how economic ity. the concept of governance has been growth in the informal economy in all urban centres. The current global economic Future urban planning in both developed and develop- crisis that began in 2008 has accelerated economic restruc. international economic crises. and operating costs. Within the last three decades.7 the informal sector is responsible for between By the end of the 1980s.8 The concept of economic informality is by no as in the past. which currently employs 57 per cent of the Bank–International Monetary Fund sponsored structural region’s workers. in order to levels of foreign direct investment and little industrial response to the growing complexity of governing in a global- play a positive role growth. Here the number of working residents dropped by I Institutional change 77 per cent over past decades as manufacturing industries Formal urban planning systems are typically located within relocated or closed. those within which planning was originally conceived (see effective and largely in developing countries. launched in 2000. concern now is all new jobs. restructuring has affected older working-class areas in Chicago. much diversity in the nature of these impacts. Box 1. with local government usually being the area. During the 1980s.

recent literature25 makes the point that urban residents will have to find a way in which to engage . Many developing countries simply do not have given that efforts to secure the latter have so often failed.20 Growth in violent crime. but at the same time all planning powers were syndicates and fuelled by growing poverty and inequality. may be the world. poorer communities. The notion of context in which the power of governments to direct urban public participation in planning (see Chapter 5) has devel- development has diminished with the retreat of Keynesian oped considerably since this time. situations such as these can be extremely difficult. will be used in from an acknowledged separation of state and society. where ‘social networks which extend beyond a technical approach to urban planning. contrary to the West. urban planning will In China. commented: ‘our city grows on auto-pilot’.16 In China. government is decentralizing far more slowly. While organized and finances. planning is accepted. However. the emergence of decisions of politicians and technocrats that impact upon planning can be closely linked to a Keynesian approach to their living environments. Even where participatory government to promote urban economic competitiveness. and in which the new central actors in urban methods and techniques put forward to ‘deliver consensus’. governance does not derive continue to be ineffective or. and where civil society can be drawn on the one hand. In East Europe. In many parts of the world as well. unstructured structures intended to promote a largely depoliticized and paternalistic’.21 it decision-making power at lower levels of the administrative takes very different forms in Africa.24 power. successful participatory planning is largely condi- activities are often linked to economic boosterism. Bulgaria.18 Under such conditions. willing to debate planning ideas. and partly because of growing urban centres and their governments has come adrift from income and employment inequalities which have intersected their geographically bounded administrative role. In addition. so with ethnicity and identity in various ways. While function. As the wider economic role of minority groups in cities. In turn. planners have come to development. with regulatory kinship and ethnicity remain largely casual. urban planning at the local government societal divisions have been increasing. in order to play a by organized demands for better infrastructure or shelter. expert. but opportunistic ways by those with political and economic rather from an attempt to maintain their integration. positive role. there is a gradual increase in civil society has been a characteristic of Latin America. alternatively. It has also extent to which democracy is accepted and upheld.17 of ‘quiet encroachment’ rather than proactive community Generally. have eroded the possibilities of building social capital in ise or funds to implement new. thus and insecurity. Other researchers point to they were when been particularly difficult in those regions of the world the extent to which urban crime and violence have brought planning first undergoing a shift from socialist to democratic political about a decline in social cohesion and an increase in conflict emerged as a profes- systems. development are real estate investors and developers. review of the literature on social movements in developing Cities and towns in duced ideas of multilevel and collaborative governance. as well as a strong civil society.12 countries19 found that despite the growth of social all parts of the world The idea of urban decision-making framed by the concept of movements and moves to democratization. participation is are very different ‘city-regions’13 is becoming more common.15 In other parts of based organizations. which was state led and strongly reinforced in recognize that planning implementation is more likely to be Europe by the requirements of post-war reconstruction. and often poorly developed. planning far harder to achieve. Urban challenges and the need to revisit urban planning 7 These shifts have had profound implications for urban I Changes in civil society planning. is being inspired more by popular religious movements than ment.22 Resistance tends to take the form here decision-making environment. but civil society does East Asia. there are few urban local governments with power not always lend itself to this kind of activity. unemployment and rapid population growth. Conducting participatory planning in local planning laws. it is recognized that global from globalization in the form of growing social exclusion. the part of communities to passively accept the planning ment and market freedom. which has often been cast as a relic of the old Since the 1960s. effective and accountable local govern. whose However. Planning laws favour much of Asia.11 In cities in both developed and developing countries.23 these. The ideal of strong community- by private developments legalized later. still mediated more typically by patron–client relations places from what The issue of planning’s relationship to the market has rather than by popular activism. A wide-ranging decision-making about urban futures has rescaled and intro. but it is still highly constrained. the Middle East and system. civil society existence of stable. In fact. partly as a result of level has also had to face challenges from shifts in the scale international migration streams and the growth of ethnic of urban decision-making. in turn. This is found itself at the heart of contradictory pressures on local highly uneven across the globe. often society and has often made the ideal of participatory in a context of unfunded mandates and severe local govern. while on the other dealing with the fall-out into planning processes. with a plethora of economics. planning tioned by broader state–civil society relations. and the has found itself to be unpopular and marginalized. there has been a growing unwillingness on welfare state model and as an obstacle to economic develop. In a effective if it can secure ‘community support’. ment capacity constraints.14 urban land was privatized. One expert from Sofia. transferred to local institutions that had no capacity. often supported sion – over 100 reducing the power of local governments to control urban by increasingly organized and well-networked drug and arms years ago development. In achievable in certain parts of the world. economic and social change has. urban planning is highly reliant on the organization. as they were taken play in planning initiatives. the capital city lost about 15 per cent of one-dimensional view of civil society and the role it might its public green spaces in just 15 years. impacted upon civil poverty. There has been a tendency in planning to assume a ing on ‘auto-pilot’.

6 per cent per and Latin America at 1. Here areas and by 2050 this will have risen to 70 per cent. Note: Asia does not include collective action on the part of the poor as a way of meeting By contrast.38 In those parts of the world experiencing rapid urban Changes in economic and governmental systems. all of which are already highly urbanized. The bulk of new urban growth. And while the 20th the urban population currently live in slums in inequitable confronted with new century as a whole was a time of major urban transforma. or when satel- lite cities draw a population away from a historically Urban change dominant urban core. a key problem is that it is taking place in countries nature of civil society. compared to Asia be 2. and are directly affected by spatial forms and tion. the annual rate of change elsewhere – between 2000 and 2005. Often the sector. evenly divided between the urban and rural areas of the The issue of urbanization of poverty is particularly world. unemployment are extreme. with natural disasters.27 per cent. Urban growth rates are also more rapid here than Between 2007 and 2025. certain cities will attain 1000 sizes that have not been experienced before: new megacities of over 10 million and hypercities of over 20 million are 0 be d predicted. 2008 state is unable to occupy.32 at 2. have seen new and Saharan Africa. While megacities present management problems of Urban population by strategies that seem to work are not explicitly political. but rapid in Africa and Central. The inevitable result I Urbanization and urban growth has been the rapid growth of slums and squatter settlements Cities and towns in all parts of the world are very different – often characterized by deplorable living and environmental Planners have found places from what they were when planning first emerged as conditions.26 in decline and populations migrate elsewhere.000 which have absorbed much of the rural labour or tin N La power made redundant by post-1979 market reforms35 and continuing adverse terms of world trade in the agricultural Figure 1.5 per cent of their urban population.1 with the state if their service needs are to be met. living conditions and urban . These countries also experience high levels of poverty and unemployment. given that the bulk of urbaniza- cally in favour of urban growth. and 0. 39 cities have faced population loss between 1990 and are seen as a more realistic way in which state–society 2000.1 indicates urban population growth projections by inevitable consequences are that urban poverty and region. As residents ‘fill the space’ which the of shrinking cities. in terms of the ability of urban impacts upon processes of urbanization and urban growth. residents to pay for such services. deep control of local last three or so decades has been phenomenal. least able to cope: in terms of the ability of governments to mental and conflict-related challenges have all had major provide urban infrastructure. lost 17 to 22. Estonia. basic service needs. the period since has seen the balance tipped dramati. is ica ng d ia a pe ia ric ib an pe an As pi an ro er elo Af ce predicted to occur in smaller settlements34 of 100. Africa’s average urban of the urban population in developing regions is expected to growth rate was 3. it is the smaller cities that suffer particularly from region. and in the nature and scale of environ. 5000 2050 Urban growth will be less rapid in developed regions.8 per cent.31 It is urbanization is occurring for the most part in the absence of significant to note that the bulk of this growth will be taking industrialization and under much lower rates of economic place in developing regions. negotiated arrangements with the developed and transitional regions of the world. the restructuring of economy and society. in Latin America and the Caribbean and in transitional 4000 countries of East Europe. 2005–2050 come about as a result of the imperative for some kind of a lack of planning and services to cope with growth.49 per cent in developed regions.000 to elo ar a Eu Am C ric O ev ev e e th th Am D D 250. While the gullies and flood-prone areas that are particularly susceptible government period of 1950 to 1975 saw population growth more or less to extreme weather conditions.40 The Figure 1.37 Such shrinkage occurs when regional economies are engagement can take place. the last few decades. severe in sub-Saharan Africa. South and East Millions 3000 Asia.33 Furthermore. some parts of the world are facing the challenge Japan. Armenia and Georgia have processes nor partnerships. and life-threatening conditions. For state emerge that involve neither formal participation example. for the first time in tion is taking place under different economic conditions than history. In sub- processes. which are currently less urbanized. Most of these are to be found in the Source: UN. and in terms of coping and socio-spatial dynamics in urban settlements. over half of the world’s population lived in urban those that prevailed in Latin America and parts of Asia. The global urban transition witnessed over the often built in high-risk areas such as steep hill slopes. cities in Latvia.4 per cent per annum. In 2008.39 Such informal settlements are often lie outside the Chapter 2). coinciding with the global both environmental disasters and social crises. nor organized confrontations. but their own. growth. however.36 In the These ‘in-between’ processes are termed ‘co-production’ and US. close to 37 per cent of themselves a profession – over 100 years ago.8 Challenges and context 6000 This transition is presenting urban management and 2005 planning with issues that have never been faced before. China is expected to double its urban population from about 40 per cent of its 2000 national population during 2006 to 2030 to more than 70 per cent by 2050. 62 per cent of the urban population live drivers of which particular impacts upon urban growth and change (see under such conditions. In the developing world. in the growth.

Egypt. income inequality) ized infrastructure. which growing metropolis: Lagos. power generation and security services. in Latin population densities exceed 400 people per square kilome- American and Caribbean cities. For example. while the richest social strata seek to buy properties million to 125 million people are migrant workers. becomes questionable.43 While much of this represents the playing need for planning as a tool for local authorities to manage out of ‘market forces’ in cities. cities and towns as self-contained entities. 2006. spatial forms are largely driven the latter part of the attract new investment. the drivers of which often lie city three separate central business districts (CBDs) have in the peri-urban outside the control of local government. Some of these have now The issue of how global economic change in the last few become ‘gated cities’. allowing ad hoc checkpoints and local security arrangements to protect people and property until the access to constantly shifting economic opportunities as well morning. It is possible to contrast upmarket gentrified industry and ‘High Tech City’ for the technology sector are and suburban areas with tenement zones. p383 planned and managed accordingly. estate and mega-projects in cities across the globe. it is also a response to local policies mental concerns. In India. software technology parks cater reflected in growing differences between wealthier and for the business and social needs of internet technology and poorer areas. however. ‘Gated’ communities have multiplied million people and making up the urban agglomeration of . policing and crime-prevention Ouidah. planners and urban economic development. most households must struggle to as maintaining kinship and other networks. holds segregate themselves into ‘gated’ and high-security such as the corridor from Abidjan to Ibadan. the number of gated communities along its northern highway tripled in the I Urban socio-spatial change 1990s. service-sector investments have been attracted to and specialization of functions and uses in cities.49 Similarly. begins to urbanize. Urban challenges and the need to revisit urban planning 9 services are particularly bad (see Box 1. bases. large cities have spread out and incorporated urban fragmentation as middle. large multinational companies. ethnic enclaves similar initiatives. heritage. and Santiago. leading to continuous belts of settlement. reaching 500 by 2001. the growth of investment in real production sector. planning emerged in that have attempted to position cities globally in order to In many poorer cities. as in vast stretches of rural India. Pakistan. In Buenos Aires alone. chaotic and elite through upmarket property developments. sweatshops and infor. in major metropolitan areas such as Buenos Aires. In Africa strong urban–rural ties still exist and keep supply. ‘Competitive city’ approaches to by the efforts of low-income households to secure land that 19th century. providing full urban amenities for decades has impacted upon socio-spatial change in towns their residents with ‘private highways’ linking them and cities has received much attention.3 Failure of public service provision in a rapidly supported predominantly by the informal sector. This strategy of spatially ‘stretching the household’41 Many roads in both rich and poor neighbourhoods become closed or subject to a plethora of functions as an economic and social safety net.2). nearby towns. Nigeria tends to be survivalist rather than entrepreneurial.45 The bulk of rapid fication that both local and global processes have shaped Urban fragmentation has also been linked to urban growth in these changes. related enterprises. and the logic of real estate these pressures and to balance them with social and environ. urban policies have also tried to control the coast of Benin (West Africa) is now a densely populated area the Industrial negative effects of profit-driven development through the stretching 125km through the three historical towns of Revolution surveillance of public spaces. ‘Pharma City’ for the biotechnology ing countries. hence. In China. Around Porto Novo. As night falls. together. the drone of traffic is gradually many people in perpetual motion between urban and rural displaced by the roar of thousands of generators that enable the city to function after dark. An analysis of spatial change in developing countries managers have found themselves confronted with new Accra (Ghana) and in Mumbai (India)46 shows how in each is now taking place spatial forms and processes. West Africa. in urban policy. A self-service city has emerged in which little is expected between urban and rural areas or between urban areas.42 from municipal government and much social and economic life is founded on the spontaneous One implication of this phenomenon is that conceptualizing outcome of local negotiations. and for luxury retail and entertainment.44 Rwanda and many other poorer countries and regions. and survival is Box 1. along with the quali. In South Asian primarily in the direction of the fragmentation. China. emerged for local. most frequently found in developed countries. waterfronts.47 Significantly. São Paulo These factors have important implications for planning. a contend with expensive private letting arrangements often involving an upfront payment of two massive ‘floating population’ has emerged in which some 90 years’ rent and various other fees. In the absence of a subsidized housing sector. which can be Source: Gandy. often by with older areas of declining industry. another is that the commitment of people to particular urban locales and what happens in them becomes more tenuous. A significant feature of urbanization in both Africa The intense social polarization and spatial fragmentation since the mid 1980s have led to a and parts of Asia is the high level of mobility of the popula. ‘Modern’ urban and land speculation. In essence. has drawn attention to the mal businesses. This process is response to rapidly aim to attract global investment. This is the case in both developed and develop. efforts and immigration control. scenario in which many households – both rich and poor – attempt to provide their own water tion.48 The brought about by However. usually with special planning and servicing and ghettos. with labour cities by the construction of exclusive enclaves with special- market polarization (and. each areas Socio-spatial change seems to have taken place differentially linked to the global economy.and upper-income house. national and global businesses. Western Europe. is affordable and in a reasonable location. polluted cities in convention centres and the marketing of culture and Bangladesh. moving outright with vast quantities of cash. Cotonou and Porto Novo. fear of crime has increased tre. tourists and a residential leading to entirely new urban forms as the countryside itself growing. and areas built for the advanced service and standards. containing 70 residential complexes. Indonesia. separation cities.

Some mega-regions are transnational. across the US and Europe in the early part of the 20th Because of this. such as ular individuals55 in Western Europe and the US in the late Buenos Aires-Montevideo. The adoption of urban now includes the cities of Maracaibo. Ebenezer Howard’s of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa in the Indus Valley (in present- Garden City attempted to recreate English village life day Pakistan). dating back to 3500 BC. with social. and the Inca civiliza- established the ideal of the ‘modernist’ city. ancient civilizations such as the the beauty of the countryside into the towns.52 Chinese settlements from 600 the preservation of a traditional way of life that was essen- BC were planned to align with cosmic forces. ethnic minorities and traders. the term directive plan is used to refer to that aspect of the planning The planning of urban settlements has been taking place since system that sets out future desired spatial and functional the dawn of civilization. This legal concept – justified on the basis of the the attractiveness of these kinds of locations for poor house. with ity to be carried out by trained experts with relatively little this zone extending 150km or more from the core city. Chile and Argentina developed in many parts of the world. In Latin America. The objectives were social: the separation of land uses. Guatemala and Belize. Colombia. Caracas. The urban settlements emerged (see Box 1. both in terms of the who were able to use it as a way of maintaining property planning emerged in natural hazards to which these settlements are exposed and prices and preventing invasion by ‘less desirable’ lower- the latter part of the the environmental damage that they cause. For example.58 which came to tion in modern Peru and the Andean regions of modern be highly influential internationally and still shapes planning Ecuador. the primary legal way.and high-income groups ‘Modern’ urban mental issues are particularly critical. Urban ‘visions’ put forward by partic- Janeiro. brought about by the suburbia are to be found in these ideas. Some have argued that the seeds of later and polluted cities in Western Europe. it is in these areas that environ.56 First. These kinds of areas are city once it attained its ideal end-state. economic or political matters lying hoods. where they can escape approach to planning. with some terms specific to certain cities in Western regions of the world. which in turn showed remarkable resilience countries is now taking place in the peri-urban areas as poor through the 20th century. however. was already well developed in terms of its were specific to the time and place from which they urbanity by 6000 BC (see Chapter 3). involved the production of master plans. The first known planned settlement patterns and relationships for an urban area. narrow towns in Africa exhibited some form of rudimentary planning streets and mixed-use areas should be demolished and as well.10 Challenges and context Lagos. residences on a rather different form. it these sprawling urban peripheries. it is predicted that 40 per cent of urban outside the scope of planning. show evidence of through bringing ‘green’ back into towns and through planned street networks. largely in response to rapidly growing. and even if that capacity tool for implementing these visions was the land-use zoning did exist. Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz and Cumana. ordered and highly controlled.1 lists the main terms in use. The objectives were also aesthetic: bringing America and the Caribbean. Planning was a technical activ- growth in China up to 2025 will be in peri-urban areas. . ments. rapidly growing. largely that planning can be used as a means of social and economic in response to exclusion is not new. planning was seen as an the costs and threats of urban land regulations. Le Corbusier held that the ideal sophisticated systems of urban planning. drainage and sewage systems. urban dwellers look for a foothold in the cities and towns There are several characteristics of this modern where land is more easily available. Aztec civilization in modern Mexico. Slums.53 In Latin tially anti-urban. architect Frank Lloyd Wright promoted ideal cities in the form of low- ‘Modern’ urban planning emerged in the latter part of the density and dispersed urban forms.51 It is involvement of politicians or communities. Second. chaotic own small plot. few could afford to pay for such services. planning in this part of the world as a state function can be Valencia. in the form of tower blocks with open space ‘flowing’ between them. In fact. century. For example. scheme.3). given the form of settlement. Within the last century. a range of different terms have been chaotic and polluted PLANNING NEED used to describe plans. Europe TO CHANGE? with a broad definition of each. Barquisimeto. rational need for separating conflicting land uses – origi- holds is that they can avoid the costs associated with formal nated in Germany and was adopted with great enthusiasm and regulated systems of urban land and service delivery. Table 1. showing a detailed view of the built form of a referred to as informal settlements. The idea 19th century. blueprint plans or serviced and unregulated. of Old Jericho was dated at 7000 BC and Catal Hüyük. While the master impossibly costly to plan and service in the conventional plan portrayed an ideal vision of the future. and where exercise in the physical planning and design of human settle- there is a possibility of combining urban and rural liveli. in The ideal urban forms that master planning promoted present-day Turkey. with each family on its 19th century. the Maya civilization in the ideas of architect Le Corbusier in the 1920s and 1930s modern Mexico. and land uses separated into mono- Modern urban planning functional zones. In the early 20th-century US.50 19th century were to shape the objectives and forms of The bulk of rapid urban growth in developing planning. and controlling their size and growth. particularly by the middle. WHY DOES URBAN Over the years. In this chapter. attributed to the rise of the modern interventionist state and and the corridor in Brazil is anchored by São Paulo and Rio de Keynesian economics.54 Several pre-colonial city was neat. income residents. that make up the bulk of what is layout plans. planning has taken replaced with efficient transportation corridors. Bolivia.57 In France. the coastal corridor in Venezuela Industrial Revolution (see Chapter 3). almost entirely un. however.

Master plans have also been called ‘end-state’ plans and ‘blue-print’ plans. 1960s (UK): informed by the 1963 report by Colin Buchanan (traffic in more participatory. citizens are still excluded from the planning and all urban movement will be car based.1 Type of plan Description Definitions of various types of urban plans Master plan These are spatial or physical plans that depict on a map the state and form of an urban area at a future point in time when the plan is ‘realized’. Strategic spatial plan The terms ‘structure plans’ and ‘strategic plans’ are closely related. • New towns. cars and pedestrians are separated from each other. this did not prevent these forms of planning from spreading to almost The most influential urban forms have been: every part of the world in the 20th century through processes of colonialism. The idea of master planning has been subject to major • Urban renewal (1930s onwards):‘slum’ clearance and rehousing projects following Radburn critique in the planning literature. planning systems and the nature of 21st-century cities. General plan Another term for a master plan. in a more conceptual way. buildings and space use. Assumes planning. ethnic or racial domina. and assigning to the landowner (which may also be the state) certain legal rights and conditions pertaining to the use and development of the land. but also seen as a tool of development in lagging regions. settlements was frequently bound up with the ‘modernizing • The neighbourhood unit. the desired future direction of urban development. Regulatory planning Refers to the rights and conditions set out in the zoning plan. but also with nity facilities. Taylor. depicting details such as roads. Directive or development plan A more generic term referring to structure or strategic plans. flexible. The assumption is that every household will eventually own a car the world. public spaces and boundaries. In many parts of longer-distance traffic. exchange (see Chapter 3). along with legal requirements pertaining to the process of allocating or changing land-use rights. and later post-colonial. circa 1900 (UK): wide buffers of open space surrounding a town or city to planning. In the past. this layout is characterized by cul- within the Western liberal tradition of private property de-sacs and superblocks free of traffic. Destination plan or building plan A plan for a specific area where substantial change is anticipated. 1928 (US): closely related to garden cities. In these contexts. made. minimizing conflict between cars and pedestrians by confining arterial routes the control of urbanization processes and of the urbanizing to the periphery and discouraging through-traffic. tion and exclusion rather than in the interests of good • Greenbelts. As Sources: Hall. 1998 the previous section has indicated. 1920s (US): low-density expanses of open space. low densities and large plots of land. single-family units. Usually underpinned by a zoning system. with the state maintaining control over the full public facilities and shops are located on pedestrian networks and embedded in open space. Comprehensive City Plan Term used in China to describe an urban master plan (1989 City Planning Act). 1988. this term also suggested that wholesale clearance of the existing city should occur in order for the new comprehensive plan to be realized. including aspects falling under • Urban modernism: new urban developments following Le Corbusian ideas of tower-blocks planning and zoning ordinances. there is now a large disjuncture between prevailing very high levels of car ownership and affluence. usually in the context of a wider strategic or ‘structure’ plan or ‘scheme’. govern. has persisted to date. Provides a rationale for urban traffic management and the problems of traffic But in many regions. structured around As a result of the persistence of older approaches to urban car movement systems. indicating uses and building norms for specific plots. planning of urban cities or new towns) beyond the belt. Comprehensive plan Reflects the belief that the planning system should plan towns (or large parts of them) as a whole and in detail. and the latter term is now more commonly used. exercise of these rights. serviced with community facilities and shopping malls. A strategic plan is a broader-level selective (or prioritizing) spatial plan. urban areas are now . (war and post-war UK): as a regional response to a perception of problems of growth in major cities (de-concentration). 1920s onwards: undefined and extensive areas of residential development on the approaches and current urban issues urban periphery. radial road networks were used for reasons of political. ‘floating’ in open space and connected by parkways. and particularly in developing congestion by creating a hierarchy of roads with different functions. market expansion and intellectual • The garden city. circa 1900 (UK): small. At the lowest level of countries. and to separate it from new satellite towns (garden planning systems. low densities. While the origins of master planning were strongly Box 1. curving routes. rights. focused on commu- and civilizing’ mission of colonial authorities. world it has been replaced by processes and plans that are • Road hierarchies. Particular decision-making processes accompany the production of a strategic plan. The ‘gap’ between outdated planning • Suburbia. social communities. self-contained satellite towns. and urban modernism. assumption that this layout will create population. the early 20th-century idea of master planning the hierarchy an environmental cell (or residential area) carries only local traffic on ‘local and land-use zoning. Land-use zoning Detailed physical plans or maps showing how individual land parcels are to be used. Most colonial. and aesthetic. usually showing. detached dwellings. and in some parts of the or neighbourhood unit layouts.4 Most influential urban forms from the early 20th century influenced by values in developed countries. These ideas fitted well with urban modernism process or informed only after planning decisions have been and the two strands became closely interlinked. separation of incompatible land uses. Frequently. these imported ideas large plots of land. Colonialism was a very direct vehicle for diffusing prevent it from expanding outwards. At higher levels. strategic and action oriented. Layout plan or local plan These are physical plans. used together to promote modernist distributors’. towns). Ideally the zoning plan aligns with the master plan. Urban challenges and the need to revisit urban planning 11 Table 1. often at a local scale. district and primary distributors (freeways) carry passing and urban environments. ments also initiated a process of the commodification of land • Radburn layout.

but the resultant chaotic growth of cities and world’ zoning ordinances are instrumental in creating infor- environmental crises compelled the re-establishment of mal settlements and peri-urban sprawl. therefore. they can be approaches – have often focused only on the directive selectively mobilized to achieve particular sectional or politi. and marginalization. with the process of decentralization in many parts not well integrated within governance systems and tends to of the world. The possibility that INTEREST IN URBAN ipatory.12 Challenges and context highly complex. Many cities in developing countries now problem is an obsession with the physical appearance of cities display the relics of planned modernist urban cores. urban informality is condoned by governments often still drives master planning can leave it at odds with as it allows them to avoid the responsibility of providing community priorities and can impede implementation. of some parts of cities in ways that may exclude the poor. commercial and A further aspect of planning that needs to change in residential enclaves. aspects of planning. Unrealistic planning regulations can force in some parts of the The most obvious problem with master planning and urban the poor to violate laws in order to survive. additional In sum. in many parts of the world. low capacity to implement plans. In China. through urban management long as the planning provisions are in place. but was formally rehabili- excluded to areas where they can evade detection – which tated in 1989 with the City Planning Act. Another is that as planning systems – for example. and a that city governments themselves are producing social and growing gap between plan and reality in rapidly growing and . and thus directly contribute WHY IS THERE A REVIVED that are more partic. thus been missed. and in most places planning legislation was to secure land and shelter due to the elitist or exclusionary retained in the post-colonial era. urban planning is Moreover. modernist planning also finds itself out of synchrony with Planning laws have sometimes been used to evict political shifts to ‘governance’. One reason might aspects of planning to be de-linked from the regulatory or Colonialism was a be that planned modernist cities are associated with being land-use management system. flexible. planning legislation. therefore. Significantly. the ‘popularity’ of planning has waxed One is that the system is strongly enforced. urban master capacity to enforce the ordinance. people living in such circumstances could comply with strategic and action zoning ordinances designed for relatively wealthy European PLANNING? oriented towns is extremely unlikely. urban planning such conditions. and environmental hazards.63 In negative impacts upon the people who have to live under territories affected by Western colonization. planning are not only inappropriate for addressing the new.59 In some parts The top-down. inappropriate and ‘first neo-liberal era. There is a further tendency for the directive often strongly defended by governments. but in some circumstances may be directly contribut- Problems with previous (modernist) been subject to ing to the exacerbation of poverty and spatial approaches to urban planning major critique. world it has been modernism is that they completely fail to accommodate the replaced by way of life of the majority of inhabitants in rapidly growing. Alternatively. or to influence the land use and development system to continue business as usual. These forms of planning. society and business groups that they should be involved in and from the budgeting process. In many countries. there is a growing expectation from civil operate in isolation from other line-function departments. attempts to reform planning systems elites who wish to be viewed in this way. leaving the land-use management cal interests. located institutionally.60 There are. Two outcomes are possible here. but processes and practices of the actions of other line-function departments in space has modernist planning preclude this. Inappropriate and outdated nature of urban land laws. as the following section indicates. complex and rapidly changing factors that are affecting urban Master planning has areas. suffered a severe crisis of legitimacy in the post-communist With the first alternative. and have thus been attractive to governments and spatial plans very difficult. Planning ignored as simply unachievable.61 It could be argued. in which case it will be planning was a central pillar of communist ideology. rapidly changing entities. to social and spatial marginalization. processes and plans largely poor and informal cities. however. Institutionally. shaped by a range spatial exclusion. as well as the potential to influence the It is surprising. decentralization and democratization. the municipality may not have the burgeoning cities. making the implementation of directive for diffusing West’. Its potential to coordinate planning processes. people have to step outside the law in order colonial powers. with the two often in differ- very direct vehicle modern. it was cannot afford to comply with the zoning requirements are abolished under Mao Tse-tung. together with elite. Over the last century. The plans and planners. as a result of of local and global forces often beyond the control of local the inappropriate laws and regulations which they adopt. developer-driven. which have highly planning across the region in the post-2000 period. which required the would usually be an illegal informal settlement in the peri- production of master plans to guide the growth of China’s urban areas. older and conven- problems with the persistence of older approaches to tional forms of urban planning persist.62 In Eastern Europe. that these outdated forms direction of those departments concerned with urban infra- of planning persist in so many parts of the world. opponents or as justification for land grabs. upon city functioning and upon the environ- was introduced as a central function of government by ment. technical and expert-driven approach that of the world. services or land rights. rather than valuing and building on the social capital that is surrounded by vast areas of informal and ‘slum’ settlement frequently created in poor or low-income communities. and are structure. and people who and waned in various parts of the world. with development and with ‘catching up with the ent departments. Older forms of modernist planning have many parts of the world is the way in which it has been little relevance for either of these forms of development. In effect.

and are issues which ‘the planning before development by focusing on the future market’ will not resolve.67 This will entail improv- vention to fundamentally change the nature of cities. To this end. the private sector and civil society groups. world. resulting (in the case of developing sources to facilitate community financing and the mobiliza. respond to the effects of climate change require that cities . approach to planning. climate Planning will have to play a significant role in provid. and ing the performance of city authorities to manage the this implies the need for planning. reshape and refocus slum upgrading programmes are community led. national and local promote the interests of business. although countries have responded between their contributions’. there is no ensuring sustainable urbanization. as well as the provision of The role of planning in addressing rapid education. and resource shortages and costs – particularly of ing alternatives to the formation of new slums. As countries rapidly urbanize. population each day. access to employment. healthcare. Policies designed to ‘roll back’ the state and give identifying the existing and potential roles of the various more control to markets saw planning reorganized to stakeholders. given the conventional forms fuel and food. Too often. the livelihoods of the poor. negotiated planning systems so that they respond to current urban and participatory in order to avoid conflicts and safeguard priorities. the ‘golden age’ of planning in the post-war of current slum dwellers by providing adequate alternatives and Keynesian era was replaced by attempts to weaken and to new slum formation? Planning can ensure that slum sideline planning under the New Right politics of the 1970s upgrading programmes are participatory. has given cause for great concern.65 Moreover. The sustainable development into planning primarily through the failure of governments to do this in the past has resulted in Agenda 21 frameworks. Both adaptation and mitigation measures to tion. Achieving sustainable cities and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). productive and inclusive cities. who include the poor. and other urbanization.107 new urban dwellers are added to the world’s urban entail leveraging a variety of local/domestic and international Rapid urbanization.64 But this was to change again in the late 1990s well as the international community. The second will 193. The goal of sustainable question that new urban growth should be planned. needs of low-income populations. The next sections show process of urbanization and future urban growth through how planning can be an important tool in addressing some of effective land-use planning. This figure is issue of sustainable urbanization becomes crucial since expected to double in the next 30 years if no firm action is unplanned urbanization will constrain the sustainable devel- taken. which seeks to contributing to climate protection requires planned change substantially improve the lives of at least 100 million slum to the way in which cities are spatially configured and dwellers by 2020 through alternatives to new slum forma. Given that the upgrading of slums is a more expensive opment of cities. This would also require Rapid urbanization. finance and property authorities. they demand state inter. urban poverty and slums social services within these areas. This requires and 1980s.66 Planning can also ensure that differently to the need to reorganize. Apart from the techni- as it became clear that unplanned and market-led urban cal aspects of slum upgrading. and for their servicing. the bulk of these new urbanites will be Worries about the environmental impacts of urban develop- poor and therefore will not be able to meet their accommo. and capacity-building. 1990s. The finding that culture and lifestyle of the community. These are all issues that have significant impli. as speculators. The fact that 17 have also refocused per cent of cities in the developing world are experiencing attention on The role of planning in addressing annual growth rates of 4 per cent or more suggests that planning sustainable urban development significant land and infrastructure development will have to and climate change take place to accommodate this growing population. A key question that arises is: how can In the developed countries of Western Europe and urban planning contribute to improving the living conditions North America. Essentially. ment were behind the revival of interest in planning in the dation and service needs through formal mechanisms. it is the major new challenges programmes in developing countries involve little meaning- of the 21st century that are currently leading to a worldwide ful dialogue with those affected. anticipated doubling of urban population over the next of urban planning cations for the spatial structure and functioning of cities and generation. a key role of planning would development was having serious and negative environmental be to ‘assess ways in which the relative strengths of each and social impacts. serviced. the close to 1 billion slum dwellers worldwide. The first of these will require making land and trunk infrastructure available for low-income housing in agreed locations. planning can play a key role in achieving Target 11 of the towns and villages. however. urban poverty and countries) in a new city the size of Santiago or Kinshasa each tion of local action. In many parts of the return to an interest in planning: rapid urbanization. Planning is now again seen as important stakeholder group can be combined to maximize synergies in this part of the world. the growth of slums month. and mobilization of resources the issues that cities will have to confront. cities need to apply the principle of persist towns. older and change. Urban challenges and the need to revisit urban planning 13 poor cities turned planning into a generally discredited Addressing the slum challenge requires a new function – a situation that still persists in some countries. with the United Nations Conference on Environment Governments will have to take the lead in directing service and Development (UNCED) introducing the concept of and shelter delivery for the growing urban population. slum upgrading Undoubtedly. Urban urbanization is liveable. Urban planning can play a vital role in process than planning ahead of development. urban poverty and the growth of slums enacting realistic and enforceable regulations that reflect the have also refocused attention on planning.

Urban planning can help mainstream climate change considerations into urban development processes. Urban planning can design and management are also contributing causes. Experience has shown that it is important for safety Rapid urbanization. appropriate urban and lighting. communities. the planning which results in chaotic and inefficient development. and gaps in the regulatory framework. In Latin America and the Caribbean. large-scale destruction identifying hazard-prone areas and limiting their use through of buildings and infrastructure that might have to be recon- land-use zoning.71 There are realization of this potential role is part of the reason for a also advisory documents available at both national and local revived interest in urban planning. conflicting claims them more hazard resistant. planning and management policies. peaceful and prosperous society. urban crime. it is important to promote human surveil. setting out the goals of the planning central role in drawing the attention of governments to the system in relation to urban safety. and developing and enforcing local climate protection institutional capacity to plan. measures. used spatial planning to poorer urban residents and overcoming spatial marginaliza. and ensure an effective transi- walls and buildings without active street frontage can also tion to sustainable development. change. as well as natural and human- For instance. It has also been efficient use of limited local physical. protecting Urban planning can play a crucial role in post-conflict situa- forest. internally dikes. UN-Habitat has played a government level. increase the capacity for disaster prevention and mitigation. and the retrofitting of existing structures to make displaced persons. UN-Habitat.68 Planning also plays a role in over the same plot of land or house. tax incentives and the relocation of structed outside formal channels. system plays an important role in determining building codes dysfunctional land management and land administration and materials specifications. and urban renewal Climate change is a global phenomenon. has developed a Reports published to date focusing on the escalating urban number of planning and design suggestions. as well as more processes a long way towards reducing fuel demands. This entails providing basic services and infrastruc- play a pivotal role in climate change mitigation and adapta. The UN-Habitat urban trialogues in terms of providing good accessibility to both wealthier and approach. planning design and gover- . police architectural liaison officers made disasters. with all six of the Global Safer Cities Programme in African cities.74 development this way in many cities in developing countries Post-disaster situations offer urban planning a unique remains a challenge.72 Besides. Mixed-use higher-density developments It is clear that urban planning has an important role to with integrated public space systems are preferable. in the UK. as part of its need to address these issues. returnees and refugees. homeless. poor planning. give rise to crime and violence in cities. urban planning can contribute to crime local issue. Post-conflict societies are characterized by weak ones. CCTV surveillance and patrols. ture and improving the living conditions of city dwellers. But they can also process. and in the most recent particularly by communities. opportunity to rethink past development practices. The role of planning in addressing post- Responding to climate change has important implications for conflict and post-disaster situations urban planning: steering settlement away from flood-prone coastal areas and those subject to mudslides. It also allows for urban development transport. play in addressing major urban issues of the 21st century. tion strategies. Large mono-functional areas such as can ensure that programmes and projects undertaken after open-space parking and industrial areas are likely to be disasters address the long-term development objectives and deserted at certain times and. technical and suggested that cities planned in this way are more equitable financial resources. cleaning and waste removal. illustrated in Somalia. agricultural and wilderness areas and promoting new tions. These include crisis and the need for intervention. protective devices such as systems. appropriate urban policy. Urban areas contribute to climate change prevention through better management of the urbanization through resource use in urban activities. Planning can also strengthen the While there are numerous social and economic factors that capacity to manage natural and human-made disasters. and large-scale ambiguity Urban planning can residents from hazard-prone areas. are some of the most important of these. management of markets and public ways. High blank needs of the affected areas. climate principles to be factored into all urban design and planning. signage called for good urban governance.14 Challenges and context are planned differently. Urban The role of planning in addressing planning can contribute to post-disaster rehabilitation of urban crime and violence human settlements. Retrofitting existing car-based cities with public stable. encourage crime. help reintegrate conflict-displaced communities back into tion. growth of slums. but a deeply schemes. report. invasion of land by the poor.and pedestrian-based movement systems would go effective coordination of donor assistance. unsafe. post-conflict lance of public spaces and the design of parks and public governments and external support organizations in address- situations spaces so that they are well lit and well integrated with other ing disaster-related activities. human. Furthermore.69 However. A are available to advise planners and designers. improve the sustainability of human settlements and effectively prepare communities against threats and risks. access to help. conflicts. urban planning activity-generating uses. absence of a strong rule of law. These reports have planning for mixed use and activity in public places.70 At and strengthen coordination and networking among play a crucial role in the design level. urban poverty. the possibility of controlling urban cities.73 Introducing urban help mainstream Ideas about compact and public transport-based cities planning in post-conflict situations is a crucial step for sound climate change are ways in which cities could impact less upon climate urban development and can contribute to creating a more considerations into change. hence. non-governmental organizations (NGOs).

abandoned when a new political party or mayor comes into • are flexible rather than end-state oriented and fixed. aims to replace 3 approaches to land regularization and management. ture. approaches to urban planning (see Chapter 3). new approach focuses on decentralized solutions. achieving urban- strategic plan promoted a ‘compact’ urban form and are still experimen- related MDGs. there has been extensive criticism of this consisting of frameworks and principles. The 4 participatory and partnership processes. opportunity to places.78 The highly diverse and dependent upon stakeholder influ- ‘Barcelona Model’ has since been ‘exported’ to other parts of ence or local policy directions. These other parts of the world. The spatial plan is linked urban planning approaches as ‘cross-cutting’ programmes. Spatial planning as a tool for integrating The new approaches are grouped under seven broad public-sector functions categories: The problem of integrating different functions of urban government has become a common one. with an attempt to apply it in Buenos Aires79 highlighting the need for caution when transferring planning This section briefly reviews the most important of these ideas to very different contexts. new planning ideas are still experi- for urban projects. approaches. provided a framework for a set of local urban projects which tal or have only been • play an integrative role in policy formulation and in had a strong urban design component. This Global 6 new forms of master planning. frequently changed or discontinued. The spatial plan also provides guidance tions offer urban agencies. It has been adopted by several cities common elements: in Eastern Europe76 and a number of Latin American cities. some emphasize planning process and others outcomes. management tool firmly at the top of the global urban agenda. sustainable development. and sometimes these are combined. Where the strategic plan is not budgets. then • are stakeholder or community driven rather than only there may be little to prevent the strategic plan from being expert driven. while recognizing that planning approaches have to There is considerable overlap between these categories. which in the context of Europe are often planning a unique mental or have only been tried out in a limited number of ‘brownfield’ urban regeneration projects and/or infrastruc. heritage and environment to be incorporated within important to overall plan objectives. potentially important role for spatial planning. some see tried out in a limited urban management by encouraging government depart- this approach to strategic planning as largely corporate number of places ments to coordinate their plans in space. Most of these new planning initiatives have elements tural projects. and does not affect land rights. rather than detailed spatial design. rethink past devel- in common.80 which introduces regional spatial strate- ment.77 • are occasionally linked to political terms of office. places this 7 planning aimed at producing new spatial forms. and planning around economic development goals with certain • focus on the planning process. power because to continue it might be seen as giving credi- • are action and implementation oriented through links to bility to a political opposition. and Report. conventional land-use planning with spatial planning. although it is possible to discern international borrowing of these ideas. to a planning scheme or ordinance specifying land uses and Post-disaster situa- often with the encouragement of international development development rights. and broad and approach and. In some cases. In Barcelona (Spain). as is usually the case. One problem has been that the new strategic plan is often • are strategic rather than comprehensive. a variant of strategic spatial • contain objectives reflecting emerging urban concerns – planning claimed significant success and represented an for example. To a large extent they have been shaped by the regional context from which they have emerged. with the outcomes being social and environmental objectives attached. However. Urban challenges and the need to revisit urban planning 15 nance to address urban safety and security. and they try to address what have been clear Strategic spatial planning has since found its way to opment practices problems in traditional master planning systems. environmental important shift away from master planning. projects and city-wide or regional infrastruc- integrated with the regulatory aspect of the planning system. . A strategic spatial planning system While conventional master planning continues in many parts commonly contains a directive. gic means focusing on only those aspects or areas that are health. The new UK 2 new ways of using spatial planning to integrate govern- planning system. A city-wide New planning ideas protection. change significantly in order to meet this challenge. city global positioning. the world. POTENTIALS OFFERED BY Strategic spatial planning and its variants NEW APPROACHES TO Strategic spatial planning emerged in Western Europe during URBAN PLANNING the 1980s and 1990s75 partly in response to the problems of master planning. gies and local development frameworks. which focuses on urban planning. social inclusion and local identity. as well as 5 approaches promoted by international agencies and a desire to integrate the functions of the public sector and addressing sectoral urban concerns. and this is seen as a 1 strategic spatial planning and its variants. crime and safety. There is also a The plan does not address every part of a city – being strate- new tendency for concerns such as gender. a long-range spatial plan of the world. consequently. attempts to find new conceptual spatial ideas.

municipal Participation and public–private partnerships have become finance. However. to promote however. and to tie local government the political context (a political system that encourages plans to implementation through action plans and budgets. New planning ideas suggest alternatives to the 1986 by the Urban Development Unit of the World Bank in partnerships have removal of informal settlements. but nonethe- development planning (IDP) system in local government. especially the peri-urban areas. ‘urban management’ approach. Potentially. can lead to better design of urban local government rather than being the responsibility of only projects and can allow for participants’ concerns to be incor. The most important of these have been: . In South Africa. urban infrastructure and urban poverty. Urban regeneration in Cardiff84 is a land regularization and management has been how to good example of how a coalition between the political elite address the issue of informality. objective was to promote socially and environmentally approaches sustainable human settlements and adequate shelter. and particularly with the approaches discussed in this Global Report. urban environment. now UN-Habitat) and funded by elements in innova. there has been some gies. It focused on Participatory processes and partnerships providing technical assistance and capacity-building in five in planning key areas: urban land. largely by international development agencies. the purpose of the new spatial best-known innovative participatory approaches is participa- plans – ‘shaping spatial development through the coordina. Strategic spatial longer-term horizon. Yet it is now well recognized that such an approach the achievement of high-quality urban design. require agencies: The Urban Management policies. have a resources or skills to provide this. and to reduce urban poverty and social exclusion. Research shows that this is not a simple solution however. integration has been a central goal of the new integrated A rather different form of participation. ests was central to explaining the success achieved. this approach can neglect social inclusion. areas. processes in local government decision-making. the planning system by those involved The Urban Management Programme (UMP). developing countries these have often developed around year political cycle. In The IDP is a medium-term municipal plan linked to a five. At the city scale. departmental process that can be detached from local political culture. and forums to discuss how the budget should be spent in their application of performance criteria’. including public infrastructure provision when municipalities lack the vision and the spatial development framework. well-resourced and attempts.82 less very prevalent. very different from the purpose of the previous land-use Citizens participate and vote on the municipal budget in plans – ‘regulating land use and development through desig. is the largest global urban programme to date. one department. followed by and cut across traditional disciplinary and professional community action planning. The tive planning and provide services. to empowered local governments. In common important elements in all of the innovative planning with other recent ideas in planning. An unresolved issue. which first occurred in Porto Alegre in Brazil tion of the spatial impacts of sector policy and decisions’ – is and has since been attempted in other parts of the world.16 Challenges and context inject a spatial or territorial dimension into sectoral strate. are usually regarded as as in Cardiff. either regional or thematic ‘assemblies’. equal- undesirable and in need of eradication and/or planning ity and sustainability objectives. Frequently these involve found its way to redeveloping urban brownfield sites. In developed countries. New regularization approaches require an attitudinal shift in government to Approaches promoted by international recognize the potentially positive role of informality. The expanding informal and private-sector commercial property development inter- areas of cities in developing and transitional regions. urban plans. active citizenship and that is committed to equity and In 2006 UN-Habitat disengaged from the programme and redress). concerns in communities and stakeholders). of working with development actors to manage public space UNDP. established in public–private in informality. dependent upon certain preconditions relating to strategic thinking in planning. is public–private partnerships. There is also recognition that achieving environmental success with participatory urban appraisal and the more sustainability will require sectoral interests to work together inclusive participatory learning and action. where the profit- other parts of the Approaches to land regularization oriented aims of the developer are aligned with the aims of world and management municipalities for modernization. they often take the form of private-sector planning and invest- planning has since ment in urban projects. is exactly how the new spatial plans align with the which can be imposed everywhere83 and is not a technical development control system. the legal basis for participation (processes and transferred the work to local anchor institutions. simply worsens poverty and exclusion. Successful participation is. or issue-specific.81 As a result. and require efforts to improve the support Participation and for. there have been (skilled and committed professionals. although aspects of the plan. and informed and organized promote particular sectoral. and ways Settlements (UNCHS. attempted to promote participatory porated within strategies. and form local nation of areas of development and protection. laws and regulations that are adapted to the dynam- Programme and sector programmes ics of informality. tory budgeting. and legitimacy of. it attempted to shift the participation in planning can empower communities and responsibility for planning and development to the whole of build social capital. At the neighbourhood scale. everyday service delivery and control. one of the boundaries. economic restructuring and The most challenging issue for urban planning in terms of physical regeneration.85 outcomes are legally specified) and available resources Over the last couple of decades. ways of using planning partnership with the United Nations Centre for Human become important tools to strategically influence development actors.

small and informal businesses. This position world. While low-density. gender. In Brazil. retail and government services cluster innovative ways inter-sectoral and long-range visions and plans for cities. age. programmes. • The Healthy Cities Programme: initiated by the World the poor. new urban master planning deals with the existing • The Safer Cities Programme: initiated by UN-Habitat to city to develop tools to tackle these problems in just and tackle the escalating problem of urban crime and democratic ways. defined centres and continue. Its vision sprawling cities are the norm in most parts of the world. These spatial forms have been mainstreaming issues in local government and planning. The linking of urban that result from these planning processes. Urban containment policies • The Global Campaign for Secure Tenure: launched by are common. high-built densities. there are further issues that have gained some There has been far less attention paid to the urban forms prominence in the planning literature.87 and ways of using planning to social inclusion. master planning and the urban poor by market forces. although this Global Report. ‘new’ master plans concerns in their plans. and varying transport options. are seen as different from the old ones in that they are • The Sustainable Cities Programme: a joint initiative by bottom up and participatory. compact form.86 To conclude. It offers a In some parts of the world. instrument for land management applied to areas with a • The Disaster Management Programme: established by ‘public interest’: existing favelas and to vacant public land. or the nature of planning with infrastructure is the subject of Chapter 8 of the regulatory frameworks underpinning them. urban planning to be pro-poor and inclusive. This is a legal of local authorities. to promote within the city. Yet. the ‘compact city’ approach argues for medium. women’s safety audits and women’s Seaside.88 One important new regulatory tool has violence by developing the crime prevention capacities been the special zones of social interest. How to conduct planning in the peri- there are some exceptions. there has been a reaction against urban plans by UN-Habitat in 1999. Urban challenges and the need to revisit urban planning 17 • The Localizing Agenda 21 Programme: this emerged New forms of master planning from the 1992 Earth Summit agreements. it aimed to improve the conditions a growth boundary or urban edge designed to protect natural of people living and working in slums and informal resources beyond the urban area and to encourage densifica- settlements by promoting security of tenure. status. but these instruments are as the means to introduce or strengthen environmental being used in innovative ways. promoting and maintaining conducive urban development environmental health conditions by involving all actors New urban forms: The ‘compact city’ and agencies. New urbanism adheres to similar spatial principles In some parts of the and the establishment of innovative systems of tenure but at the scale of the local neighbourhood. is enabled to participate productively and scale. secure social housing. . regardless of wealth. particularly those relating to important new concern. libraries.90 At the city-wide religion. there disasters. Mixed-use environments and good It specifically promoted the involvement of women in public open spaces are important. the new objectives that are urban areas of developing countries has become an informing strategic planning. The view Programme (UNEP). designed to build capacities in is that while conventional urban planning strives to achieve environmental planning and management through an ideal city.91 Facilities such as are being used in tive – and encourages local governments to produce health. but these Cities Alliance – a joint World Bank–UN-Habitat initia- edges. especially as places for decision-making. and have been implemented in Gender-specific participatory governance tools such as the form of neighbourhoods such as Celebration Town92 and gender budgeting. oriented towards social justice UN-Habitat and the United Nations Environment and aim to counter the effects of land speculation. important in the future. ‘new urbanism’ issue-specific • The Global Campaign on Urban Governance: launched concerns in urban During recent years.to positively in the opportunities that cities have to offer. from which illegality and informality are urban local authorities. banned. around key public transport facilities and intersections to • Gender responsiveness: the promotion of gender maximize convenience. traditional master planning and multi-year support system for selected secondary cities regulatory systems continue. can only be realized through changes in address climate change is likely to become increasingly regulatory frameworks and systems of land rights. it is worth noting that most of these ideas focus on procedural aspects and new ways in which In addition to these agency-driven. aged negotiation as an alternative to forced eviction. It UN-Habitat to assist governments and local authorities intervenes in the dynamics of the real estate market to Over the last couple to rebuild in countries recovering from war or natural control land access. against down-raiding and speculation that would dispossess have been attempts. hearings have been developed. issue-specific planning can be integrated within governance processes. pedestrian-friendly streetscapes. race or urbanist’ forms (see Chapters 6 and 8). strongly promoted in the US. an attractive public regulatory systems • City Development Strategy (CDS): promoted by the realm. and protect of decades. was to realize the inclusive city – a place where every- there is growing support for the ‘compact city’ and ‘new one. traditional that minimize bureaucratic lags and the displacement of promotes a vision of cities with fine-grained mixed use. it attempted to encourage modernist forms89 and urban sprawl. by international Health Organization (WHO) for the purpose of improv- ing. often implemented through the demarcation of UN-Habitat in 2002. It encour- tion inside it. mixed housing types.

This Global Report seeks to stress that urban parts of the world. The French term urbanisme and the Spanish urbanization • Does the planning system recognize. now including the activity of urban and inclusive and to acknowledge the important role of the contexts within planning. and new planning systems and planning systems can be assessed. It puts forward a defini- While the activity of urban planning is recognized and tion of urban planning that attempts to capture the newly practised in most parts of the world. are and groupings on planning processes and outcomes? situations in which communities and households plan. does it have the ability to which it operates environment as an important concern of government has promote global charters such as the MDGs? vary greatly resulted in the term ‘environmental planning/management’. attempts to change conventional • Does the planning system recognize. Even the term used to describe the activity of planning In this Global Report the following principles are varies: spatial planning. Planning systems in differ- which described it approaches must be fully embedded in the institutional and ent parts of the world may meet these principles in different as an activity of socio-economic contexts within which they operate. the emergence of informality? Linked to this. city planning. It then proposes a set of ent political. civil society and • Does the planning system facilitate urban built forms economic actors are highly integrated. agreements on human and environmental justice? Can Earlier definitions of urban planning which described it recognize the ‘rights’ of urban dwellers to the city? it as an activity of government also require modification in some parts of the world. In many cities. vary significantly Global Planners Network (GPN): a network of 25 profes- and there are debates on this within regions and countries. This set of principles can be found in most parts of the world. physical posed as questions that can be used to interrogate urban planning. cultural. current and impending environ- relations rather than just physical factors and are closer to mental and natural resource issues and natural hazards the term development planning.18 Challenges and context DEFINING URBAN The following definition is put forward as a reflection of the concept of urban planning93 that has been used in this PLANNING AND Global Report (see Box 1. IDENTIFYING NORMATIVE PRINCIPLES Normative principles to guide revised approaches to urban planning This section undertakes two tasks. also coincides closely with those recently put forward by the and perceptions of what it should achieve. progressive national constitutions and international to include both the natural and built environment. and planning systems: development planning are English-language terms in use. Are the outcomes of such dialogues clearly translated service and develop their own areas. Different urban issues. By contrast. which could then be introduced in all anywhere. land-use planning. Some cities or regions may have particular world While urban planning as a form of governmental practice priorities or values not reflected here. differ- of the activity across the globe. to be practised in most ity of government have resulted in terms such as ‘urban participatory. in into planning documents and regulations? countries such as China where state. and aligned with. Rather. consequences of all urban projects? urban planning is More recently. And in China the terms and threats in ways that promote sustainability? Does it master plan. (public) management’. It would therefore be incorrect to reason for this is to avoid putting forward any new or revised assume that a single new model or approach to planning ‘model’ of planning that could supposedly be applied could be developed. sometimes referring to environment in the broadest sense. and ongoing public dialogue between various partners Also possible. urban planning can and infrastructural systems that are environmentally still be described as an activity of government. town (and regional) planning. redistributive. property developers • Does the planning system facilitate and encourage open now play a bigger role in urban planning than does the state. and have the ability to respond to. Some of these require modification Definitions of planning principles may be more appropriate in certain contexts than in some parts of the in others.4). sional planning institutes (see Box 1. government also and different methodologies and outcomes. socio-economic and of partnership between the state. The system in different ways. pro-poor. economic and institutional systems. gender sensitive parts of the world. • Is the planning system backed up by. against which planning different cultures and value systems all shape the planning systems in various parts of the world can be assessed. and have the recognized and physical planning to be a more strategic and integrated activ- ability to promote social justice – in particular. the private sector and civil spatial diversity at all scales? society organizations. its role and form. the approach taken here is to Earlier definitions of conditions and dynamics are highly variable in different parts suggest a list of normative principles against which all urban planning of the world (see Chapter 2). comprehensive city plan and detailed plan are provide for the recognition of the ecological While the activity of in current use. and have the (to make urban) refer more broadly to economic and social ability to respond to. To complicate matters further.5). using different institutional structures and processes. where states are weak and ineffective. The change from ‘government’ to • Does the planning system fit within the constitutional allocation of powers and functions? ‘governance’ in liberal democracies has meant that urban planning is now often initiated and carried out in the context • Does the planning system recognize. ways. and normative principles or criteria. . the contexts within emerging conception of planning as well as the varied nature which it operates vary greatly.

activity. strategic infrastructure investments and principles of land-use regula- and from both wealthy and poor communities? Has it tion. • Are there close linkages between planning practice. enforced through land-use • Does the planning system acknowledge the important control and centred in the state. monitoring and evaluating urban plans. consider how plans are implemented. achieve local economic development and slum future. occur. with ‘the where of things’. national consultants? Nonetheless. whether static or in movement. Current perspectives recognize the institutional shift from role played by informality. At the core of urban planning is a greater and lesser degrees of flexibility – for example. • Can the planning system cope with the need for both for example.6 The principles of the Global Planners Network: of spatial coordination and promotion of policies. the 8 develop appropriate planning tools. refer to the ‘planning system’ rather than just to the tasks undertaken by planners. from the business sector areas of settlement. regional plans and policies are extremely important in 2 achieve integrated planning. and the need to flexible to act on the opportunities presented by infor.e. and the planning 9 be pro-poor and inclusive. urban region or wider territory and to translate • Is there sustained support for the planning system from the result into priorities for area investment. but can also take steps merely a matter of short-term political expediency. and significant intersections and nodes that are physically co-located social inclusion exist. therefore.org/ and practices? .5 A definition of urban planning inclusion? Can the system recognize and support the making of ‘places’ that reflect local identity. who are in touch with current issues Source: www. environmental management and quality of life. It is recognized that planning is not only undertaken by professional urban and regional been adopted for sound reasons and not because it has planners (other professions and groupings are also involved). and to be more flexible where population and Planning is also now viewed as a strategic rather than a comprehensive. professional organizations of planning. Earlier views defined urban planning as physical design. but is expected to be able to project a to reach it? transgenerational temporal scale. land-use management? Is there a mechanism for this Source: adapted from Healey. or where market externalities within an area). etc. tation as interrelated processes. This economic factors are rapidly changing? implies selectivity.g. or inter. it is appropriate to been imposed by outside donor or aid agencies. • Does the planning system include an approach to 4 plan with partners.globalplannersnetwork. including clear 5 meet the subsidiarity principle. have the capacity and resources to produce sufficient skilled graduates. urban (and regional) planning has distinctive concerns that separate it from. and planning: that properly aligned and integrated national and 1 promote sustainable development. capacity and resources to undertake this task? 7 ensure access to land. and planning itself is fundamen- strategic spatial plans and the system of land laws and tally concerned with making ethical judgements. Planning also highlights a developmental movement from the past to the (e. the necessarily wider scope of planning beyond land use. education systems? Do the planning education systems 10 recognize cultural variation. city.) and networks in an area. especially in relation to infrastructure investment. the interrelations between different activities and for protection (of the environment. and a focus on that which really makes a difference to the fortunes of an • Does the planning system have the ability to promote area over time. hence. from politicians. new and upgraded government. it does not just present a the articulation of policies through some kind of deliberative process and the judgement of future vision but can also take steps to reach it)? collective action in relation to these policies. terms of achieving well-performing urban areas? 3 integrate with budgets. indicators of plan success? Do institutions have the 6 promote market responsiveness. including slums and informal government to governance (although in some parts of the world planning is still centred in settlements. in many cities? Is it able to be sufficiently the state). the to be able to implement firm controls where the need protection of special ‘places’ and sites. mal practices and groups and by community-based Urban planning is therefore currently viewed as a self-conscious collective (societal) organizations (CBOs) and NGOs? effort to imagine or re-imagine a town. • Does the planning system consider plan and implemen. and New urban planning implementation? • Is there recognition that urban planning systems have The Global Planners Network (GPN) puts forward the following ten principles for new urban limitations in terms of achieving all of the above. This future imagination is not not just present a future vision. Urban challenges and the need to revisit urban planning 19 sustainable and supportive of local livelihoods and social Box 1. linked to budgets and The term ‘planning’ also implies a mode of governance (a form of politics) driven by decision-making systems (i. It implies that it is possible to decide between appropriate actions now in terms of upgrading) as well as control? This implies that it does their potential impact in shaping future socio-spatial relations. economic planning or health planning. a neutral technical • Is there alignment and synergy between directive and exercise: it is shaped by values that must be made explicit. concern with space (i. Planning is not.e. 2004 linkage? • Is there alignment and synergy between urban plans and broader institutional visions that may be captured in public documents such as a CDS? • Is the planning system institutionally located and embedded so that it can play an effective role in terms Box 1. conservation measures. heritage. cultures Definitions of planning have changed over time and are not the same in all parts of the and needs? world.

the very within urban settlements that planning needs to take different contexts account of: differences structured by levels of development. . The chapter examines the issue of urban governance capacity and the different arrangements The purpose of Part I of the Global Report is to provide an that have emerged to undertake planning: these affect plan introduction and background to the need to revisit urban formulation and implementation in important ways. These on experiences documented in both the planning and traditional differences are partly regional: both urban conditions and development fields. Planning systems in many parts of the world are Chapter 5 examines the issue of participation and in need of change. the reason for a review of urban planning variable. This chapter has explained the important new point of emphasis in this chapter is that the institutional and forces that are affecting urban settlements in all parts of the regulatory frameworks which shape planning are highly world and. planning activity is explored. Older and traditional approaches Part II – Global trends: The urban planning tended to focus on the separation of land uses. The rest of this chapter has technical and expert-driven activity to one which views it outlined the definition of planning used in this report. promoting ‘aesthetic’ environments. It examines debates on the premise of this approaches to planning have often failed to consider. drawing Global Report is that respond to. This responding to global and local environmental challenges. political forces that have shaped planning systems. in turn. or categories as well). for planning poverty. the institutional. are part of a wider gover- to see if current approaches are able to address new urban nance context influenced by history and place. in frameworks. inequality. This chapter discusses technical. More recently. Chapter 2 highlights these differences in order of urban plans (substantive) to emphasize the point that there can be no one model of Over the past decades there have been important shifts in planning which can apply in all parts of the world. and this chapter has summarized some of politics in planning. this new area of urban planning. It considers how a planning are increasingly important.. hence. The important issue of the legal context of report and to summarize the issues they cover. challenges. traditional forms of planning still ‘green’ and ‘brown’ agendas in cities. approaches to planning and the kinds of urban issues which urban plans deal with. An government and non-governmental actors in policy formu- An important important premise of this Global Report is that traditional lation and implementation. the very different contexts for planning. planning that appear to hold promise. or difficult issue of public participation in planning. and the relationships between tions that are to be found in various parts of the world. and as a process of societal consultation. Three of the most important background to the emergence of urban planning and new issues – environment. regulatory More recently. A key planning. However. expert-led and top-down form of planning emerged how urban planning can promote sustainable urbanization by in developed countries at the end of the 19th century. respond to. the tasks it performs and the tools available to implement these This Global Report is divided into six parts. opment. etc. explains trends in urban politics and how these provide a Chapter 2 describes the very different urban condi- framework for government. tional contexts of planning. It examines the main purposes of planning. informal urban activity and infrastruc- approaches. Parts I to V tasks. and how the different institu- tions undertaking land and property development operate in Part I – Challenges and context relation to this context. It provides a framework for understanding the institu- consist of 11 chapters while Part VI is the Statistical Annex. negotiation and finally proposed a set of normative principles against which consensus-seeking has been profound. This chapter current urban planning systems can be assessed.20 Challenges and context ORGANIZATION OF Chapter 4 examines the complex and highly variable institutional contexts within which the activities of planning THE REPORT take place. and planning have often and developing parts of the world (and within these how the potentials of participation might be achieved while failed to consider. In approach to planning then spread to other parts of the world. planning to new forms that emphasize participatory decision- Planning and environmental management often operate in making processes and the need for flexible plans that can different government silos and with different policy and legal respond to changing economic and social forces. This chapter shows persist. given that they. This chapter aims to explain these processes and many ways in which the two agendas can be reconciled if differences and to identify the innovative approaches to sustainable urban development is to be realized. The emergence of environment and natural Chapter 3 explains the emergence and spread of resource availability as key issues for cities and urban contemporary forms of urban planning. and the Chapter 6 links planning and sustainable urban devel- processes of decision-making in planning. there has been a shift from this earlier form of and technical preconditions are still being developed. There are also important differences avoiding its pitfalls. The shift from a view of planning as a the emerging new approaches. and differences in forms of human Part III – Global trends: The content settlement. regulating process (procedural) built form. It then examines trends in institutional and ture planning – are dealt with in this part. and there are frequent tensions between the many parts of the world. and the tensions that can arise It is useful at this stage to introduce the chapters in the within these. different issues have The purpose of this part of the Global Report is to provide a required attention in planning. and achiev- ing efficient traffic flow. The chapter examines what might be approaches to socio-political systems are remarkably different in developed more appropriate and pro-poor approaches to planning.

urban development has identifies the main principles of innovative planning that been driven by ‘mega-projects’ that impact upon infrastruc. Global factors interrelate with there is a poorly developed tradition of plan monitoring and local particularities. Transport. These fragmented. water. monitoring and main factors that are now affecting urban settlements in all tion. it examines the changes that would need to spatial planning and infrastructure provision is crucial to be in place or the initiatives that might be supportive to achieve efficient. It dependent forms. or support. Evaluation systems are common in most between early 20th-century Western European and North developed countries and larger urban centres. and urban planning presents a potential tool . CONCLUDING REMARKS often at a disadvan- evaluation and education This chapter has introduced the idea of revisiting urban tage as there is a This part of the Global Report discusses two areas that poorly developed planning. and the realities of rapid urbanization. to planning and the the urban population and the sustainability of urban ecologi. and local histories. might stimulate ideas elsewhere. as well as the concepts. on the other. mixed-use through the next century. which. principles and parts of the world. and it documents the effective: monitoring and evaluation. and the nature and form of these Building on the previous chapters. and planning educa. Chapter 10 discusses planning education. It notes that in some parts of the world. generation of planning practice in the light of changes under ments of planning regulations. evaluation. but are also the most difficult to debates that framed planning education as it grew in the service and plan. It suggests that in plans deal with ment of efficient. promote new approaches to planning. Urban planning is often at a disadvantage as homogeneous urban places. development of tertiary-sector urban planning education sprawling and un-serviced areas are now some of the fastest worldwide. Its purpose is issues which urban telecommunications systems play key roles in the develop. the final part of the shifts in approaches contribute significantly to the degree of marginalization of Global Report explores the future policy directions neces. professional institutions and suggests directions for change. contexts. have changed very slowly. Planning The serious nature of all of these urban challenges effectiveness is strongly influenced by the expertise of the requires action. The chapter documents the dwellers now live in the peri-urban areas. It then draws out what the main efficiency and liveability far more than low-density car. Urban settle. electricity and Chapter 11 is the concluding chapter. although the actual form tural systems and urban change in important ways. there is growing interest in the develop- informality and environmental change. they are still not producing urban plans. The chapter first summarizes the and public transport-based urban forms support urban key findings of the report. to outline a new role for urban planning. kinds of urban cal systems. This exclusion of large way. groups and professionals. sary to make urban planning more effective. However. It notes that while many of these factors Chapter 9 considers the monitoring and evaluation of affect settlements globally.) are also important is required if life in urban settlements is to be tolerable for the development of liveable cities. More recently. and the degree to which planning schools world- Many of the urban poor in developing countries cannot wide have the capabilities needed to lead the next afford to live in planned areas or conform to the require. sewerage. etc. the whether planning education is attuned to changing urban majority of city-builders and operators. evaluation parts of the world. who are informal. This gap models of evaluation. trained professionals who manage and produce planning particularly (but not only) in developing countries. in many the public sector. has ment and use of indicators to enhance urban policy rendered many planning systems ineffective and sometimes decision-making and performance measurement. to produce very evaluation. Urban planning is Part IV – Global trends: Monitoring. planning takes nize that planning activity depends upon the inputs of many place within the formal structures and legal systems of sectors. health services. but in develop- American ideas about ideal urban environments. Other many parts of the world a ‘paradigm’ shift in urban planning amenities (schools. Finally. are processes and products. This chapter examines government. This chapter gap that has emerged between current urban dynamics and explains the evolution of programme and policy evaluation in planning legal and institutional systems. as many informal urban demands on professionals. Compact. and often does not cater for. It explains why it has become necessary to recon- potentially give support to planning and help it to be more tradition of plan sider the future of urban settlements. By contrast. although newer approaches recog- becoming increasingly informal. decades there have Part V – Future policy directions ments everywhere are spatially shaped by their been important infrastructural systems. having a positive impact as they are often uncertain about the Understanding these recent urban changes highlights the effectiveness or efficiency of their interventions. elements of a more positive urban planning might be. It assesses the capacity of educational and these trends raise for a revised urban planning. and lays out the key philosophical and practical growing parts of cities. slum growth. Chapter 8 links planning with the spatial structure of Over the past cities and the provision of urban infrastructure. sustainable and inclusive cities. This chapter examines the issues which 20th century. This they would take will always be fundamentally influenced by chapter concludes that a much closer connection between context. Planners find it difficult to argue that their work is different urban places facing different kinds of urban issues. destructive. on the one ing countries there are obstacles that preclude planning hand. Urban challenges and the need to revisit urban planning 21 Chapter 7 considers the fact that urban settlements. healthy and sustainable cities. planning educa- proportions of the urban population in developing countries tion has not kept pace with changing urban conditions and has given rise to new urban forms.

secondary towns in West (by 1944) in terms of establish- 87 Allen. 1999. 90 Jenks et al. 2002. Geddes. It has also with accepted practices of urban management. 93 Derived from Healey. 2008a. tested. 76 Hirt and Stanilov. 2001. Africa are hardly growing as ing modernist urban principles. 2001a. Irazábal. 9 UN. 11 Beall. 81 Nadin. UN. 45 Irazábal. 63 Hirt and Stanilov. this approaches to planning are deeply embedded in the institu- chapter has emphasized the potentials of urban planning and tional culture and norms of a place. to contribute to planning that can solve urban problems. 39 UN-Habitat. 2002b. 67 UN Millennium Project. 2008. 41 Spiegel et al. 2007a. 10 Details of the Global Campaign 33 Yuen. 2008. 2008. 50 Irazábal. the earliest critiques of these particularly in the work of 61 Fernandes. 2007a. p194. 1998. 1988. 73 Augustinus and Barry. 2000. 15 Hirt and Stanilov. this chapter has not attempted to urban planning recent years. 2008a. found in UNCHS (2000) and everywhere. 2008b. 5 Shatkin. 2006. forms. Mumford. 2008. 2003. 36 Hirt and Stanilov. 2008. 14 Hirt and Stanilov. 2008b. 2007a. 2007a. 30 UN-Habitat. 72 UN-Habitat. 3 UN. 2008a. 2005a. 2008. 2006. 2003. 92 Njoh. and Williams et Planning Association. 44 Kipfer and Keil. 89 See Jacobs (1963) for one of pedigree in planning. 80 Reflected in the Planning and 6 Irazábal. 82 Harrison et al.1. 17 Leaf. people migrate to larger settle. 1999. With this in mind. 64 Healey. 47 Ansari. Section IV. 2008. p9. 59 Berrisford and Kihato. they will have model or approach discussed some of the new approaches that have emerged in little effect. 2006. p85. 2008. 2004. 2005a. p239. 78 Marshall. 2008. Burgess. Compulsory Purchase Act of 7 Hirt and Stanilov. sion is that there is no single model or approach to urban NOTES 1 UN-Habitat. 2008a. 1992. 48 Qadeer. 2006. 2004. places. not because they offer themselves as ‘models’ to set out an ‘answer’ to the question of what should urban that can solve urban that can be imposed on any context. 56 Taylor. 2008. in large cities as well as medium-sized and small urban 25 Mitlin. 57 Taylor. on Urban Governance can be 34 This is not the case ated in 1928 and later strongly 84 Rakodi. 2008b. pp89. 40 UN. 2003. but because they planning be like? Rather. and 60 Yiftachel. 2004. 66 Payne. 2002. 55 Hall. 28 Sheuya. An important conclu. Bocquier (2004) show that was an important document 86 UN-Habitat. 2000. 79 Crot. pvi. 2004. 2008a. it has offered a set of normative problems contain ideas which can be useful in different kinds of urban criteria against which existing planning systems can be areas with different kinds of problems. Habitat. 26 Mitlin. 2005b. al. 46 Grant and Nijman. and is used 23 Davis. 2008a. 2003. cited in 52 Ansari. 2008. 2008. 2004a. Table I. 49 Attahi et al. 2008b. 2000. 16 Logan. 77 Steinberg. 2005. UN-Habitat (2002a). p241. 51 Yuen. 2008. where necessary. p136. 85 UN-Habitat. 2008. 68 Irazábal. initi. Beauchemin and influenced by Le Corbusier. 2 The term ‘urban planning’ has 2003. 53 Yuen. ‘Just City’. UN-Habitat. 2007. 71 UN-Habitat. 2005. 2005. 1999. 2008. 58 The Charter of Athens. Jenks and Abercrombie and the Regional 37 UN-Habitat. 1996. 2007a. 1998. 2008. Kyessi. 1998. Global Report as ‘city planning’ 22 Bayat. 38 UN-Habitat. 241. 2008. 2008. 2005. 2008. 31 UN.22 Challenges and context that can be reformed. 2004. 75 Albrechts. 32 UN. 54 Irazábal. . 12 Brenner. 2006. 91 Grant. 2006. 27 HM Treasury. 65 UN-Habitat. 2005. 62 Friedmann. 2008. 2008. throughout to refer to planning 24 Leaf. 2008b. 8 Attahi et al. 83 Crot. 70 UN-Habitat. 2004. 2002. 29 UN-Habitat. Unless new finding solutions to these problems. 18 Devas. and ‘town planning’. 1996. For this reason. and articulate closely There is no single the cases where it has been used to good effect. 2008. 74 UN-Habitat. 43 Marcuse. 2008. 69 See Fainstein (2000) on the 19 Walton. 35 Davis. 2004. 88 Souza. 2007a. 2008a. 2008 and Chapter 5. 2008a. 20 National Research Council. 4 Wacquant. 2008. 42 Yuen. 13 Noting that this idea has a long ments. the same meaning in this 21 Irazábal. 2006i. how they meet these criteria may vary considerably.

4 61.0 40. level of economic development and poverty. As shown in Figure 2.1 37.7 90. 2008.1).2 65.0 Africa 32 107 373 658 1233 14.6 More developed region 427 702 916 995 1071 52.5 25.4 Levels of urbanization remain low in vulnerability to natural and human-induced hazards.1.3 83. slowed down to the current average annual In light of the above observations. Evidence in this 1950 and 2007.5 88. are of cantly from one 70 per cent of the world’s population is expected to live in paramount importance in revisiting urban planning and region to another urban areas by 2050. where urbanization tions are discussed with respect to developed.7 47.0 74.5 70.0 43.0 86.1 The world began experiencing unprece- the view of urban problems as being essentially uniform dented rates of urbanization in the early 20th century. This period witnessed a quadrupling of the Global Report suggests that this view is flawed and partly world’s urban population from 0.7 38.8 Latin America and the Caribbean 69 198 448 575 683 41.3 85.2 across the world partly underlies efforts to create universal Urban growth rates averaged 2.2 Table 2. mediated by globalization and location. Region Urban population (million) Percentage urban 1950 1975 2007 2025 2050 1950 1975 2007 2025 2050 World 737 1518 3294 4584 6398 29.2 69. While the level of urbanization in devel- dimensions of urban diversity are examined in this chapter: oped countries had reached 50 per cent more than half a urbanization and demographic trends.9 73. urban growth rates are higher in Africa and Asia than in other regions of the world. determining the ways in which it should be reoriented and The world’s urban population growth rates have.5 67.3 billion.7 billion to 3.8 Asia 237 574 1645 2440 3486 16.1 Oceania 8 13 24 27 31 62. Perhaps more planning initiatives are unlikely to succeed without an The urban contexts noteworthy is that in 2008. and countries until 2019.2 Europe 281 444 528 545 557 51.4 billion people. focusing on the consequent DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS challenges that urban planning should address.5 71. As briefly Less than 5 per cent of the world’s population lived in cities indicated in Chapter 1 and elaborated upon in Chapter 3. in which planning population living in urban areas exceeded 50 per cent.8 53. URBANIZATION AND cantly from one region to another.1 66.7 North America 110 180 275 365 402 63. transitional levels compare favourably with those of developed countries.4 57. these dimensions of urban diversity and its planning implica- The only exception is Latin America. thus accounts for the failure of urban planning in many countries.7 72.0 27.8 per cent.6 per cent per year between urban planning approaches and models. the proportion of the world’s adequate understanding of the diversity of urban contexts. recent years.8 51. This chapter examines the nature of these differences.8 81. spatial and economic occurs differ signifi- trend is expected to continue as 6.4 Global trends in Source: UN.1 78.8 24.0 Less developed region 310 817 2382 3590 5327 18.3 This Collectively. increasing the level of urbanization from 29 per cent in 1950 The underlying premise of this chapter is that urban to 49 per cent in 2007 (see Table 2. size. a century ago.2 67.2 76. CHAPTER UNDERSTANDING THE DIVERSITY 2 OF URBAN CONTEXTS The urban contexts in which planning occurs differ signifi. city size and spatial century ago. pp3–5 urbanization (1950–2050) . this level will not be attained in developing forms.0 71. Each of developing regions when compared to developed regions. or about factors.3 49. in strengthened in order to make it more relevant. demographic.4 79.2 83. the following rate of 1.2 61. and developing countries.9 76.

3 million growing at less that 1 per cent annually. its municipal the population live in cities (see Table 2. declin- North America ing. Here.5 per cent). and this is The pace of urbanization in Oceania declined sharply from expected to decline to 0.54 per cent between 1975 and 2007. been declining since the 1960s.8 million. Japan experienced rapid rates of urban growth in developed countries. Chicago. the exodus resulted in the erosion of the tax base of many cities. as 86 per cent of the now a significant and very visible feature of many North population is expected to be urban by 2050. as well as Pittsburgh. Rates of urban planning challenges in developed countries with urbanization in Japan have. However. immigrant stock was 5. 1950 to 1990.1).12 Multicultural composition is expected to continue. and as indigenous people pursue urban-based opportunities. the concentration of workers in industrial centres. tion growth in the region. which respectively.1.1). which lost between 48 and 51 per cent of their population.7 Europe witnessed an increase urban growth in than that of natural increase (40. did not result in a corresponding decline in North America’s 0 urban population as there were enough immigrants to 1950– 1960– 1970– 1980– 1990– 2000– 2010– 2020– 2030– 2040– 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 replace departing urban residents. More recent accounts reveal that . For example. many cities experienced population decline. the concentration of people for a long time.84 per cent between Prior to the 1970s. as indicated in Figure 2.11 1 The exodus from cities. In 2000. 2 which lost 59 per cent of its population. Los Figure 2.000 people.1). the urban growth rate had plummeted to 0 per cent for most cities. Major cities in the US such as 4 Oceania New York. about 74 per cent of a net gain of more than 960. Cleveland and Detroit.1 Developed and transitional countries Angeles County lost 1.14 An important of towns. with at least 100.24 Challenges and context 6 I North America Africa Asia Currently. The average growth rate I Oceania and Japan between 1975 and 2007 was 0. 2. albeit slowly. dropping from 1.6 This presents new urbanization following the end of World War II. Currently. while the county received The process of urbanization is much more advanced in the change of urban enough international migrants to offset this loss and register population developed regions of the world.8 Major factors explaining this growth include Aboriginal Australians) and the Maori indigenous people. and the need for some cities expand and incorporate previously rural areas or as the to serve as national political/administrative capitals. These groups were confined to the rural areas were typically raw material sites. The Current and expected urban growth in the developed overall trend of urban growth in Australia and New Zealand world will be due mainly to international migration from has been slow. Urban population growth is. the rate of urban population growth is low. However. This trend is Source: UN. 2008 revenue suffered a decline.2 million of its population during the Average annual rate of first half of the 1990s. 81 per cent of North Americans reside in urban 5 Europe areas – making it the most urbanized region in the world Latin America and the Caribbean (see Table 2. between 1970 and 2000. Per cent 3 However. however. experienced an ‘urban explosion’ in population between 1910 and 1950. Zealand. Philadelphia and Detroit. specializing in the domestic and international indigenous people in cities has been increasing as cities distribution of finished goods.000 inhabitants from about a developed countries but often ignored group in Australia’s and New Zealand’s dozen at the beginning of the 19th century to more than diverse population consists of the indigenous Australians (or 150 in 1900. However.3 per cent between 2025 and 2050. Eastern Europe experienced significant 1950 and 1975 to 0. like those in Australia and New respect to multicultural urban contexts. since the 1930s. Australia’s Western Europe began experiencing significant levels of International migra.10 rates of urban growth.15 international financial centres for the new industrial age.16 countries now accounts for a sizeable proportion of popula- The 1980s witnessed a rapid deceleration in urban growth. or 18 per cent of the urbanization between the mid 18th century and 1914.13 The contribution made to population as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution and the about one third of growth by immigration (59. of urbanization in developed countries is high.5 of urbanization stands at 71 per cent and is projected to International migration thus accounts for about one third of reach 76 per cent in 2050. Examples of such cities include St Louis.8 per cent. I Western Europe International migrants account for a significant proportion of Oceania’s urban growth.5 per cent) in 2008 was higher growth of colonial empires. partly tion … accounts for country’s population.9 Urban population growth in Western Europe has been I Transitional countries declining since 1950. in significant numbers. By 2000. with as many as two-thirds of the International migration from Eastern Europe and developing cities in the region growing at rates exceeding 3 per cent. with nearly half of the cities in both countries developing or poorer countries – on average. the level people migrate to developed countries each year. and stabilized thereafter (see Figure 2. given that immigrant incomes are generally low. While the level American cities. the population of in port cities.

Between 1950 emergence of a strong middle class. sprawl and traffic congestion in large urban centres. New Delhi. as for the 2007 to 2025 period. The urban population of Asia increased fivefold during the last 27 years: from 237 million (17 per cent) in 1950 to 1. It has been –0. 0 Two related demographic trends are noteworthy in –0.13 countries lives in urban areas (see Table 2. All of these pose major extent and rate of urbanization.2 Rate of urbanization region.6 per cent for 2025 to many countries have become the recipients of foreign direct 2050. rising rates of mortality and decreasing fertility rates.4 growth rate experience by several cities. as manifested in the I Asia increasing proportion of people aged over 60. where the urban population increased from 41 population will be 65 or older by 2050. from an annual average of 3.2 urban population and affected many aspects of urban transient since the country serves as a gateway for migrants Shrinking cities in living. The –1.8 witnessed a decrease in their population between 1990 and –1.27 Second is the urbanization is per cent in 1950 to 78 per cent in 2007.21 These two Asia is home to approximately 3. and 1.19 Figure 2. Developing countries are thus experiencing the investment. This is. Colombia and Argentina – are Sub-Saharan Africa is the least urbanized.2 per accompanied by a change in consumption habits.2 decline in urban population was a result of increased migra. but most rapidly about 80 per cent urbanized. The average 2.1).000 – about 6 per cent of the total this had increased to 35 per cent by 2005.22 While the region’s four largest I Sub-Saharan Africa countries – Brazil. This decreased to 2. a consid. Understanding the diversity of urban contexts 25 Eastern European cities have actually been declining during 0.6 observed that 75 per cent of Eastern European cities –0. challenges.0 2005. There are three specific trends that have implications With the exception for urban planning in the region. among others.7 billion people. expected to decline to 2. The collapse of the Soviet Union contributed to the decline in Haiti. This has resulted in heightened demand region occurred between 1930 and 1970. making it the most accentuation of socio-economic class disparities and the much lower in urbanized region in the developing world.6 per cent between 1975 and in increasingly wealthy cities such as Shanghai. A further decrease of 1. Jakarta. Mumbai.25 By 2050.23 The largest number of inter. 0. the level of Caribbean. The process of urbanization in Asia is driven mainly by annual growth rate was 3. the region will be 48 and 60 per most of the migrants come from its poorer neighbour: cent urbanized. Urban population growth in the region has been countries. per cent of the region’s population lived in urban areas. negative economic trends. –1. This trend has been developing countries and 1975.20 The second remarkable demographic trend seeking entry into the US.29 Urban growth rates have . and constitutes planning in transitional countries. one of the most rapidly urbanizing regions of the world.18 First is the negative population –0. the level of urbanization is much lower in developing areas. between 2007 and 2025.4 per cent is envisaged Zhuhai and Shantou (China).2 transitional countries.24 In Mexico. transitional countries experienced by the region during the last few decades is Source: UN. the region’s urban growth rate stood at 4. air-conditioning units.26 First.2 presents a sample of such cities. an increasing trend of the Latin America I Latin America and the Caribbean towards ageing already marks the demographic profile of and Caribbean Urbanization has been remarkable in Latin America and the some countries. Urbanization is also linked to 2007. Mexico.17 Although emigration to Western 0.5 per cent (see Figure expected to grow to 67 per cent by 2050.1).8 the last half decade. only 11 45 to 60 per cent urbanized.65 billion Developing countries (41 per cent) in 2007. 2008 the rapidly ageing population. 24 per cent of the Chinese region. particularly cent. Most of the urban growth in the Bangkok and Seoul.3 per cent economic transition and increasing levels of globalization. for private cars. This can be attrib. mainly in the form of the outsourcing of fastest rate of urbanization worldwide. Guatemala and Guyana are still less than half urban.4 Yerevan Sofia Prague Tbilisi Budapest Lodz tion to the European Union. Shenzhen.4 erable amount of international migration occurs within the 0. while countries such as Cost Rica. but national migrants (500. region in the world. the smaller ones are only about urbanizing.28 It is projected population) is concentrated in the Dominican Republic – that by 2030 and 2050. rural–urban migration. or more demographic trends have serious implications for urban than 60 per cent of the world’s population. This is per cent to the present rate of about 2. it is expected that more With the exception of the Latin America and Caribbean than two-thirds of the population will be living in urban region.6 1990–1995 1995–2000 2000–2005 Europe has increased significantly since the 1990s. international migrants are typically Figure 2.1 per cent between 1975 and rural–urban migration. About 44 per cent of the population of developing declining since the 1990s. respectively. 2007. new forms of housing Countries within the region differ remarkably in the and retail space. Countries such as Argentina. manufacturing of consumer goods by parent companies in uted to high levels of natural increase and an increase in developed countries. however. ranging from environmental pollution to urban Chile and Uruguay were already highly urbanized by 1950. During the 1950s. For example.

financially weak munici. In many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. poor agricultural preceding sections. poor demand for housing and urban services. inadequate water and power supply. most of the other countries were still most severe of anti-urbanization measures from an earlier predominantly rural.000 in developed countries.107 new city dwellers are added to the issues that will dominate the region’s urban planning agenda world’s urban population daily. Another Urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa is driven mainly by demographic feature relates to international migration. the level of residency permits (Hukou) for those wishing to reside in Middle East and North Africa countries with urbanization is expected to reach 70 per cent by 2030. high levels of rural–urban migration. this has not led to higher levels of youth employ- and 1970. proliferation of slum and squatter settle- ments. youth bulge: about 65 per cent of the region’s population is background.35 Such high levels of unemployment among young remain high. also robbing countries of their most productive population. Even the ized during the 1970s. ization process as a whole is viewed. needs to respond to the rapid pace of urbanization. contributing to increasing levels of urban poverty and placing Planning implications of urbanization a severe burden on the limited health infrastructure within There are significant and demographic trends cities. given rise to the impression terized by considerable diversity.34 While countries within the region positive phenomenon and a precondition for improving Source: UN. linked to at m rd w ra Isr hr yp Li les Q ba O Ku Jo iA Ba C Le Pa ud networks of public infrastructure. and a better quality of life for a country’s population. The epidemic is planning for multicultural contexts. Levels of urbanization are diverse throughout people are often associated with various negative conse- the region. in some quarters. population. in ways that address both ied Sa up the mitigation and adaptation demands of environmental cc O . Qatar and the United Arab negative events such as conflicts and disasters. the region’s period of Chinese history were not able to stem the flow of Figure 2. while that urbanization is a negative process that should. despite the enforcement of While urban growth is projected to decline. 7 and E a e ar a ain s an l ait an n ae bi ru by UA tin no 8. among the most significant challenges of urban planning today and in the next few decades is how to address 10 the housing.30 Such conditions have led to the widespread urban- ization of poverty – typically manifested in the proliferation I Urbanization as a positive phenomenon of slums and informal settlements.32 people to the cities. The Emirates.37 The task of providing for I Middle East and North Africa such large numbers is quite daunting. This translates to 5 million for some years to come. the rapidly increasing pal authorities incapable of providing basic services. and. These are some of the A total of 193. In China.26 Challenges and context been equally high. 2006b have invested more in education than most developing access to services. and so are urban growth rates. urbanization is increasingly being seen as a 2005 under the age of 30. quences. but a necessity. urban growth will cent. in some Bahrain. planning implica. 20 Thus. international migrants significantly outnumber the HIV/AIDS pandemic currently ravaging the region has also local population (see Figure 2.3 per cent. dynamics has. rapid urban. For example. a floating population of about 80 million to 120 more than 10 per cent A prominent demographic feature of the region is the million resided in cities ‘illegally’ in 2000. water supply and sanitation needs of a rapidly 0 urbanizing population. There are significant planning implications associated with tions associated with ization is taking place within the context of economic the urbanization and demographic trends identified in the … urbanization and stagnation or low economic growth. including crime and general delinquency.33 cities. While ment. the Migrants constitute a significant proportion of the region’s reclassification of rural areas. policy. and the absence of coherent urban planning very pressing needs of the youth and the aged. averaging over 5 per cent between 1955 regions. including the ways in which the urban- demographic trends performance. and degrading 30 environmental conditions. in some countries. and currently standing at 3. Kuwait and Qatar were already 80 per cent urban. 60 Urban planning within the context of rapid urbanization is not a luxury. This has not worked.3 level of urbanization increased from 27 to 58 per cent. particularly in Africa and 70 Asia. 90 I Planning for urban growth 80 Closely related to the foregoing is the imperative that urban planning in developing countries. as youth unemployment currently stands at 25 per projected to decline in the years ahead.31 Between 1950 and 2000. natural increase. economic and social opportunities.39 High levels of urban growth 50 Millions in the absence of adequate planning have resulted in 40 spiralling poverty. As will be shown in Chapters 6. and the specific and governance.38 Against this immigrant population.36 In Kuwait. new urban dwellers per month in the developing world and 500. rising unemployment. Emphasis on these Urbanization in the Middle East and North Africa is charac.3). this requires delivery of urban land at scale. This calls for ingenuity in affected urban growth in various countries. way. be curbed or halted.

this could trigger anti-immigrant resent. It is predicted that by ings. Understanding the diversity of urban contexts 27 change. huge swathes of vacant housing units. Conflicts around religious build- proportion of the youth population. transportation and other facilities for the elderly. South America. thus contributing to the problem of urban sprawl. Jakarta. The problem is less severe in Western groups have different expectations and demands of cities Europe. between 1960 and 1990. will have to pay particular attention to the needs of this segment of the population. as unmanaged or chaotic urban growth is a significant planning will need to seek the right balance between obstacle to the sustainable development of towns and cities. about 63 per cent of the urban population in managed social facilities. In such settings. Beijing.44 During the same period. If not One factor that accounts for urban sprawl in devel- properly managed. burial arrangements.42 The demographic Planning for a youthful population places particular demands 52 per cent of the world’s urban population resides in cities trends with the most on urban development in terms of the need for education and towns of less than 500. A similar picture is far-reaching implica- and training facilities. planning has to ing rural land and previously independent municipalities. This is particularly the case in Africa. live in transitional and such cities. or uncontrolled context where the local tax base is severely eroded. respectively. the Middle East. where. oped countries is economic prosperity. Copenhagen’s population I Urban planning and cultural diversity density declined by 13 per cent. In the case of developed countries. to identifying alternative uses for abandoned Collectively. abandoned The physical expansion of urban areas either through metro- homes and areas. as far diversity could also make participatory processes around back as the early 1900s. cultural and expanded its land area by more than 60 per cent. recre. megacities developed countries I Planning. Cultural mix also places new demands An important demographic trend in developing countries on urban planning to mediate between conflicting lifestyles that has implications for urban planning is the relatively large and expressions of culture. People from different ethnic.8 per cent residing in urban population requires innovation41 as a rapidly ageing megacities. For instance. For expand spatially. oped countries is that urban densities have been declining. cent of the world’s urban population. Cities such as Nonetheless. Amsterdam experi- urban areas in all parts of the world are increasingly becom. Central Asia and the CITY SIZE AND SPATIAL Pacific Islands. Cultural diversity has important implica- adequately managing the urban development process as a tions for how built environments are managed. politanization. international Metropolitanization entails the conversion of rural land into migration renders the features of shrinking cities and ageing urban uses and the engulfment of adjacent municipalities by less extreme when compared to transitional countries. Despite the attention they command. these factors present problems of merging of previously non-adjoining towns and cities. ation. cultural groups seeking to preserve their identity in cities and the need to avoid extreme forms of segregation and I Urban planning and the youth urban fragmentation. There is the possibility that cultural sprawl has been more severe in North America. they tend to ageing population urban population decline and an ageing population. Urban planning will also need to devise ways of (see Chapter 5). as different socio-cultural tion owned cars. decline and an tions for planning in transitional and developed countries are As cities experience demographic growth. Urban whole. a significant segment of the popula- planning issues more difficult. as well as investment in sports and painted for developed and developing countries. if The world’s urban population of 3. building aesthetics are issues that urban planners increas- ing countries will be under the age of 18.3 billion is unevenly unemployed. While the youth can form the most energetic and innovative segment of the population. while its area increased by Increasing waves of international migration have meant that 25 per cent.40 Urban planning ingly have to tackle. distributed among urban settlements of different sizes. large cities to constitute new metro-areas. major challenge for urban planning in all parts of the world. and a declining support base for commer. but ing multicultural. peri-urbanization or urban sprawl presents a cial activities and public facilities. 51 per cent of their urban population. as 54 and tions for planning in recreational facilities. 60 per cent of those living in urban areas of develop. with just 9. ritual animal slaughter and 2030.43 address the challenges of population outflow.000 people. industrial restructuring and offshore relocation Bangkok. peri-urbanization (which often appears chaotic) in others. urban shrinkage and ageing – cities with over 10 million people – are home to only 9 per are urban population The demographic trends with the most far-reaching implica. religious backgrounds now live together in cities. Kolkata. where rates of car ownership that had been attained . Planning for an ageing small-sized cities. enced a 10 per cent reduction in its population density. The problem of urban ment and violence. as well developed countries is concentrated in intermediate and as commercial and industrial facilities. A common thread running through cities in devel- population places increased demand on healthcare. Manila and São have left many older industrial and mining towns without a Paulo have expanded spatially to engulf swathes of neighbour- viable economic base. they can be a source of social disruption. Lagos. where the youth account for a sizeable FORMS proportion of the population. Cultural diversity The planning challenges arising from urban shrinkage has important impli- in both developed and transitional country contexts range cations for how built Developed and transitional countries environments are from determining how to meet the cost of underused infra- structure. result- dealing with deteriorating buildings and infrastructure in a ing in metropolitanization in some cases. One consequence of this process is the transitional countries.

45 Another determinant of urban sprawl is govern. In general. countries or regions such people. 25 was in this category up until 1995.57 The centralized decision-making structure permitted 5 the state to establish compact. but became a casualty of the shrinking city syndrome.46 previously deemed to cause sprawl now seem insignificant.49 Western Europe is Urban sprawl has contributed to the high number of experiencing I Western Europe cars. prompting the well-off to largest city – Sydney – has a population of 4. By 2000. This tends to Distribution of urban 12 per cent of the urban population of the US. to some 15 extent. which has transportation systems. p229 that 500.7 million) and Osaka (11. Vancouver and Toronto.000. principles of urban design. St Petersburg. the city of Edmonton in Canada annexed a problems associated with urban expansion. The need to number of adjacent jurisdictions. highly dense cities with functional public transport systems. Moscow is dominant and 20 constitutes a primate city in the region. such as population growth. and 1990. most extensive sprawl – Calgary.000 accounting for 37 per cent of the urban Beach and Golden Bay-Singleton disappeared and became parts of Melbourne. as traffic I North America congestion and pollution have worsened. Russia.47 Australia. For growth of cities and towns. southern and western megacities: Tokyo (35. In North America. Zealand. Furthermore. urban sprawl was increasing at twice Despite the absence opment of the core areas of many Western European and the rate of urban population growth in the US. Collectively. in 1982. but more stringent in Western Europe.4 Angeles – qualify as megacities.4 million) – and no urban agglomeration with a popula- Percentage of urban population tion between 5 million and 10 million. Adinga Source: UN. The Netherlands. Bellbowie. which made suburban living afford. several US cities – Akron.53 Japan is the only country in the region with growth of affluent as Belgium.56 40 I Transitional countries 35 The transitional countries have only one megacity – Moscow 30 (10. Most cities in consumption and alteration of ecological structures in North with urban expan. northern Italy. A major feature of North 1970s. households. which has been attributed ment policy. which has been more tolerant in North to permissive land-use planning and the growth of affluent America. pollution. 56 per challenge for urban planning is complicated by the fact that cent of new commuting between 1998 and 2006 was to jobs some of the factors.58 The absence of real 0 estate markets ensured the allocation of land use by the state >10 million 5–10 million 1–5 million 0.48 Canada the slow growth of their relative compactness. in comparison to Australia. Adelaide and Mandurah. Ireland.55 For example. Western Europe is experiencing instance. length of paved roads. cities is urban economic growth facilitated the development of functional sprawl. Hurstbridge.50 Urban sprawl also sion inhabitants. the Paris region. Portugal The blueprint that guided modern city development in and the Madrid region have significant sprawl problems. with small-sized cities of less syndrome’. These cities contain about the population living in peri-urban areas grows. that were outside the Munich metro-area.5 million instead of free market mechanisms. fuelling a trend toward Cleveland – lost population but grew spatially between 1970 North American metropolitanization in some areas of the region. eastern. these City size features produced densely packed and highly regulated cities . For example. New currently has three of the world’s ten urban areas with the cities and towns.28 Challenges and context in the US during the 1930s were not reached until the population (see Figure 2. fuel problems associated Western Europe does not have any megacities. thereby doubling its land commute – a consequence of sprawl – is a feature of many area and increasing its population by 100. respectively. traffic congestion and inefficient use of land. Throughout the region. distances travelled. Cincinnati and A major feature of degree of spatial restructuring. A greater complicate municipal governance. In New Zealand. Consequently.54 In Australia. urban sprawl has become a major planning concern.51 The Western European cities. 2008. only two cities – New York and Los cities are expanding and blurring urban–rural boundaries as Figure 2. as opposed to Western European. Western Europe contain between 500.000 and 1 million America over the past two decades. The permissive land-use density of some inner-city areas. The concentration of political and economic power in this city and.52 The imperatives of globalization have dictated a For example. population growth has intensified the Australia has no city of more than 5 million inhabitants. Despite the absence of megacities and the slow entails territorial expansion through annexation.3 million). with Las of megacities and Japanese cities before the era of the automobile explains Vegas being the fastest growing metropolitan area. households Germany.3 million planning and the relocate to suburbs.5–1 million <0.4). New Zealand and Japan after World War II adhered The main adverse effects of urban sprawl have been air more to North American. Brisbane. in Leningrad during the Soviet era prevented metro- 10 politanization. American cities is urban sprawl. I Oceania and Japan been attributed to able. The devel. annexation population by city size proportion of the urban population resides in agglomerations and consolidation are resulting in the ‘disappearing towns in North America of less than 5 million people. in Munich. Canada and the US.

in addition to ring in Mumbai. The reforms have also led to the privatization of public housing.000 inhabitants not only recorded the fastest urban growth in the region (2. p224 Cities in this category have experienced remarkable growth. leading to the I Latin America and the Caribbean formation of enormously extended mega-urban regions that A major feature of Latin American urbanization is the gigan.5–1 million <0. Despite the relatively high concentration of the mega-urban region. Second is the trend towards suburbanization and sprawl.67 This has contributed to low-density suburban growth.60 First is the displacement of low-income families and lower-level Percentage of urban population retail business from the inner city to low-cost neighbour. City size . region. 2008.4 per cent) lives in cities of less than 1 million inhabitants.5). 59 per cent of the urban population reside in complex planning and governance problems within the in Asia cities of less than 1 million inhabitants (see Figure 2. have developed along infrastructure corridors radiating over tic nature of cities in the region. cities of less than 500. Buenos Aires.61 A greater proportion of the urban City size population (61. and an abundance of recreational facilities. p227 their population as the suburbs have increased since the planning agenda within the region to focus on the key issues 1960s. Seoul and Manila since those of megacities. Asia is the region with the most megacities (eight if Japan is Distribution of urban structure and service delivery costs. is illustrative.66 For example.870 square kilometres. Developing countries are also experi- encing problems related to peri-urbanization. Understanding the diversity of urban contexts 29 with dominant centres. 20 nal structure of urban areas. and this has heightened socio-spatial stratification of urban space. Mexico City has encroached upon municipalities in two states. 60 per cent of population by city size developing countries have been decreasing demographically in Latin America and the region’s urban population live in cities of less than 1 the Caribbean while their suburbs continue to expand spatially. 60 ties.6).63 A significant trend in Asia is that urbanization is occurring beyond metropolitan borders. sometimes into different provinces. has escalated the cost of public infrastructure provision and 0 >10 million 5–10 million 1–5 million 0. 2008. 30 palities. Buenos Shanghai mega-urban region.5–1 million <0. For instance. which occupies an area of 7500 square Distribution of urban region’s urban population in megacities and the high level of kilometres. as private investors develop 30 exclusive high-income suburban enclaves.5 million service delivery.5 million reside in such cities. Despite this. There has been an increasing relocation of population. 14. industries and services from city 10 centres to the periphery since the 1990s. Source: UN. relating to small.59 The political and economic reforms initiated during the 1990s 50 are gradually altering this structure in several ways.4 per cent of their urban population >10 million 5–10 million 1–5 million 0. retail shopping facili. Core areas of cities in excluded and ten if included).5). I Asia Figure 2. 40 hoods on the urban fringes.65 50 A noticeable feature of the region’s urban agglomera- Percentage of urban population tions is that they have expanded beyond their established 40 boundaries. 20 10 Developing countries While developing countries contain 14 of the world’s 19 0 megacities. public housing. while Buenos Aires covers 30 different munici. In particular.62 The case million people. while 10 per cent reside in megacities (see of Mexico City. What this portends is a need for the urban Source: UN.69 These new spatial configurations have created population by city size urban primacy. the Beijing mega-urban region.and medium-sized cities.68 These include the world’s largest megacities – Mexico City.1 per cent of the region’s urban population (see Figure extending over 16. and the Jakarta Figure 2. 1981.64 The region has four of the long distances from core cities. but were the destinations of nearly half of all new urban residents from 1990 to 2000.6 2.6 per cent 60 per year). Another phenomenon with implications for municipal governance and planning in the region is the inter. in turn. only 8. Similar phenomena have been occur.5 peri-urbanization has contributed to the escalation of infra. São Paulo. which. occupying an area of over Aires and Rio de Janeiro – which collectively accommodate 6340 square kilometres. whose core wards have lost 45 per cent of Figure 2.

and spatial form Distribution of urban tively. Jeddah cities.22 million) and Bursa (1. In other cases. This process has led to the emergence of new settlement forms. medium-sized cities. tional human settlements have been dramatically but this is expected to change in 2010. million) are gradually becoming part of a large metro-area The second feature is towards increasing levels of around Istanbul.75 producing. are engulfing surround. Bangladesh. in the process. congestion and environmen.74 As part of what has come to be known as ‘oil I Sub-Saharan Africa urbanization’.9 million and 10. In the United countries have tants.77 land that is affordable and in a reasonable location. resulting in outward sprawl from their respective centres.72 Sub-Saharan the private development of public urban places.7 current regulatory frameworks are able to respond to effec. to the detriment of other towns and erations and metropolises. inhabitants. Many large cities are spreading out at a are 200km apart. Mecca. where vast stretches of rural with a population of over 1 million people. sub-Saharan Africa does not have any megacity. It is these sprawling urban peripheries.71 Sprawl of this to 19 in 2005. small and medium cities are urban- 30 izing faster than the large metropolises. 20 urban planning efforts in developing countries have focused disproportionately on the problems of large metropolitan 10 areas. when the population transformed. and the need to recognize and 60 build upon urban informality. in the process. whole cities have been developed on artificial focused dispropor.5–1 million <0.5 million where urban planning could play a major role could include City size making such cities more attractive for its inhabitants and . This process is largely informal and is will merge in the foreseeable future to constitute a single driven by the efforts of low-income households to secure gigantic Nile metropolis. and squatter settlements. the process has been rather problems of large A distinguishing feature in city growth in sub-Saharan spontaneous. It is also in these areas that most include the need to pay greater attention to small. Urban primacy poses complex planning challenges.6 million. a variety of novel urban forms. as in metro-Cairo. 2008. which rose from 2. leading to continuous this continues. Specific areas 5–10 million 1–5 million 0. metropolitan growth of both cities is remarkable pace and. It is projected that the region will contain at nature explains the unique mixture of rural and urban land least 24 cities with more than 1 million inhabitants by 2010. there is a real possibility that the two cities belts of settlements.7 shows that over two-thirds of the islands configured in the likeness of palm trees and the tionately on the urban population reside in small and intermediate cities. which started in the 1950s. respectively. Similarly. then they should form part of the urban planning agenda for 0 developing countries in the 21st century.76 For example. problems such as urban sprawl. which peri-urbanization.3 traditional walled settlements coexist with modern districts thereby further in 2000. especially sprawl and unplanned peri-urbanization. Rabat and Sana’a. China and Indonesia. 50 I Small and intermediate urban centres The discussion in the preceding section shows that more Percentage of urban population 40 than half of the urban population in both developed and developing countries live in cities of less than 500.73 This is indicative of the disproportionate concen. activities. population. which neither the existing structures of government or Planning implications of city size Figure 2. almost entirely The main planning implications associated with the size and population by city size un-serviced and unregulated.9 per cent of the region’s urban Arab Emirates. p222 urban growth is taking place. In the case of Cairo and Alexandria.8 in 1950 to 6. previously tradi- At present. thereby further fuelling the problem of urban primacy.30 Challenges and context This process of urbanization is leading to entirely new I Middle East and North Africa ruralopolitan urban forms70 through the densification of The Middle East and North Africa contain two megacities – rural areas under population pressure as the countryside Cairo and Istanbul – with 11. If small and medium cities are to fulfil their potential. fuelling the problem tration of people. In some cases. where metropolitan areas. and Riyadh have developed into urban agglomerations with particularly because of its tendency to contribute to populations of between 1 million and 5 million residents. In 2000.and Source: UN. This is the case in India. If ing rural land and adjacent towns. Africa is urban primacy. In addition. and at least 6 cities with a minimum of 5 million inhabitants by 2015. the cities of Izmit (0.2 tal degradation. world map. the region had 16 cities Pakistan.000 inhabitants. Despite the demographic importance and potential role of such cities. which are home to 5. that make up the bulk of spatial structure of cities discussed in the preceding sections in sub-Saharan Africa unregulated settlements. which increased lands are being engulfed by expanding cities. Figure 2. investment and resources in the Rapid urban growth has produced large urban agglom- of urban primacy largest city of a country. the necessity of arresting or directing the spatial expansion of cities.1 million begins to urbanize. use in this region. the transformation has entailed Urban planning of Lagos is expected to reach 10. efforts in developing Africa currently has two cities in excess of 5 million inhabi.

economy. a reality confronting cities in oped countries rise to its highest level in recent times. I Planning and urban informality A key issue that 21st-century urban planning in developing Developed and transitional countries countries will have to contend with is the increasing levels of Although a far cry from the conditions that existed during informality associated with contemporary urban patterns. increase in food prices in 2008. Second. including decentralization and strengthening of CONTEXTS local democracy and civil society. unemployment.79 By October 2008.1 per associated with circumstances. The issue of urban informality is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 7. Formalization areas. subprime mortgage markets in the US.85 The orderly ideals prescribed by conventional urban planning. with large increases observed in countries to be relevant and serve the greater good. the World provision of public transport and other trunk infrastructure. processes often have destroyed livelihoods and shelter. services and real developing countries scarce resources through economies of scale. as well as in the tourism. The global with the increasing arising from the unplanned nature of contemporary urban. benefited from their role as major financial hubs in a global several implications tion of land.7 levels of informality ization. Under these per cent in 2007. The challenge for planning is not to prevent US$25 trillion from the value of stock markets globally. crime.80 urban growth. This creates a worst recession since World War II. finance. social exclusion. the global ent land tenure systems.3 per cent in 2009. the crisis had erased around and energy. particularly land countries. in most countries. This is expected to increase to 7. invariably lead to the spread to financial institutions in other developed inefficient utilization of scarce resources.83 Furthermore.84 Moreover. Bank estimates that the number of poor people increased by as well as effective planning and governance in cooperation between 130 million and 150 million on account of the with adjoining local authorities and in the context of differ. construction. the Industrial Revolution. 7 and 8. rate and location of such growth. and efforts to formalize the informal very negative consequences on the economies of urban sector have largely been unsuccessful. housing construction and the alloca. as well as improving municipal governance. is occurring within the context of . However. the effects of The current global of urban development – extensive peri-urban development globalization have varied remarkably. planning is faced with the challenge of cent in 2009.81 This implies that less peri-urbanization in Africa or metropolitanization in Asia and funding will be available for urban development and capital Latin America – are all products of either inappropriate or projects.86 This developing world cities. and Income inequality within developed countries has have exacerbated exclusion. automotive and manufacturing for Urban planning in economic development and for maximizing the utility of export industries. given segregation and persistent pockets of destitution and poverty that the informal is often the norm rather than the excep. First. and provision of urban services – are informal. the damage quickly sion. tion. only caters Europe. as economic growth is huge gap between actual urbanization outcomes and the expected to contract by 3. but particularly in Urban agglomerations provide opportunities for socio. For urban planning in developing has affected most countries. economic and physical problems. up from 5. communication and URBAN ECONOMIC other forms of infrastructure. and other social pathologies are re- taking on forms that are largely informal. The year 2008 I Planning and urban expansion witnessed the virtual collapse of the global financial system. estate sectors – all of which are closely associated with the will have to contend these opportunities are often outweighed by the problems economic well-being of cities and towns. marginalization and poverty in been widespread and significant since the mid 1980s. which is driven mainly by international migration. These challenges are addressed in economic crisis could exacerbate the rise in income inequal- Chapters 6. aged in various sectors of the economy. especially urban sprawl. therefore. but to devise mechanisms for directing or The current global recession has several implications controlling the timing. The process of city growth in many developing countries is homelessness. worsening economy has seen unemployment in many devel- Informality is. poverty levels are expected to rise and will patterns including upgrading of informal peri-urban settlements. Some cities have recession has of informal settlements. problems such as poverty. Others have suffered gravely following the late for urban areas On the other hand. Consequently. global economic growth is expected to Urban sprawl – whether suburbanization in North America. Some forms of spatial expan. Understanding the diversity of urban contexts 31 investors78 by improving transport.82 Third. following the increase in the rate of contemporary urban addressing the many social.8 per cent in 2009. for urban areas. higher levels of unemployment are envis- ineffective planning regulations. it must Canada and Germany. Global urbanization is taking place within the context of the worst economic recession since 1945. I Western Europe Urbanization in Western Europe. are increasingly common in cities of developed countries. unemployment rate for 2008 was 6 per cent. be compounded by rising food prices. ity being witnessed in many parts the world. developed countries are suffering their for a small segment of the urban population. urban identify innovative ways of dealing with informality. In addition. The spatial expansion of cities is an inevitable consequence Although the current economic crisis had its roots in the of urban population growth. Various key aspects emerging in developed countries. with developing countries. Indeed. especially in developing countries. urban planning takes place within the 20th century de-industrialization of North America and realm of the formal sector and. shrink by 1.

Finland.1. the rising levels of per cent). The average Gini coefficient destitution in urban areas.87 The contraction in occurring between October 2008 and March 2009.89 Countries with high levels of inequality include of around 0. with a Gini coefficient of 0. however.2 per cent in 2009. investment in is expected to contract by 6. the US economy has entered its deepest households and residing in inner-core. ity. squalid. Economic growth within the region is which time the unemployment rate had reached 8. Economic growth in 2009 is expected to Two major outcomes of the global economic crisis in this decline by 2. cities are areas.15 0. distributive similar to those of developing country cities such as Abidjan. As shown in Figure 2. Italy. region are the decline in economic growth and rising levels respectively91 and.4 and 2. Washington. The unemployment rate for the Euro area is blacks (13.90 The among developed economic recession in both countries will affect urban areas I Oceania and Japan countries in many ways.8 and 2.4 and 4.3 per cent) and Hispanics (11. For instance. New Orleans. of unemployment. Greece and Spain.0 per cent. turned levels of unemployment. and 11. and New York experience the highest levels of inequality. lost. communities in Australia are vividly described in Box 2.50. countries inequality among developed countries. income inequality into a full-fledged recession towards the end of 2008.9 per cent).8 0. with 3. mid nd an ur ar lan lan lan lan ug Ita U w an e ed st Sp lgi m bo m rla re or rt er Fin Ice Ire Au Fr Sw en er Be G Po 2000s m he N itz G D xe et Sw Lu N Source: OECD. DC.10 Figure 2. which commenced in 2007. Sweden. Large metropolitan such as Demark. with Germany.32.2. run-down The US has one of recession since the Great Depression.7 per cent compared to whites (7. to their home countries. as predicted to reach 10.93 Since December 2007.30. with urban areas contributing dispropor. The areas such as Atlanta. both of which have implications for urban tionately to gross domestic product (GDP). had fallen by 20 per cent at the end of 2008.1 million jobs have been Italy and the UK experiencing negative growth rates of 5. pace.5 per cent in the US and Canada.8. respectively.6.25 0. and redistributive capacity of the national and local welfare Nairobi.45 0.95 thus.94 Unemployment is also While the levels of in 2010. the and segregated neighbourhoods characterized by higher the highest levels of economic downturn. by cial conditions. indicating universal access to The US has one of the highest levels of income public goods and services. 0. the UK. Miami Netherlands and Belgium have the lowest levels of inequal. indicative of the effectiveness of regulatory.32 Challenges and context deep economic recession characterized by negative In the US.97 Inequalities are.1 per cent.98 The effects of rising levels of economy.05 Gini coefficient of income inequality in 0 ce s d g al um k d y d d ce ay en ly ain K ria Western Europe. exacerbating the problem of homelessness and in the world most egalitarian in the world. unemployment is rising at an accelerating economic growth. Austria. 5.000 jobs were lost in March 2009. for Western Europe is 0. with Following the recent financial crisis in the housing and black and Hispanic households often earning less than white banking sectors. the region remains the 2008. p51 . Economic growth in Japan.30 Gini coefficient 0. Ireland.4 per cent). Race is an important deter- I North America minant of the level of inequality in North America.92 In unemployment occasioned by the slump in the mining indus- addition. crime and other social pathologies. in 2009.1 per cent in 2009. close to 12 per cent of US the region remains While the levels of inequality across Western Europe mortgages were in arrears or in foreclosure by the end of the most egalitarian have been widening since the 1980s. commitments. In Canada. Buenos Aires and Santiago – with Gini coefficients states. increasing in most urban areas. Portugal.35 0.20 0. cent. economic growth will have far-reaching implications for Unemployment rates are higher among minority groups: urban areas. rising unemployment and stringent finan. 1.96 Canada’s level of inequality is moderate. significantly higher among teenagers of working age (21. respec- urban housing. Luxembourg. house prices had dropped by 19 per cent at the end try on the sustainability of the livelihoods of urban of March 2009. With rising unemployment. an increasing number Western Europe unemployment will affect their ability to make remittances of urban households are unable to meet their mortgage have been widening. A total of 633.7 inequality across tional countries who reside in the region. Australia and New Zealand expected to be hardest hit.5 per expected to contract by 4. For instance.3 million or approximately two-thirds of this loss 4.40 0. 2008. which constitutes a mainstay of the US tively.88 For many migrants from developing and transi.

Economic recession in developed in the number of households living in slum conditions. Aboriginals constitute the traditional victims of marginaliza. the unemployment rate for February 2009 countries is expected to fall from 6. social and environmental the number of people below the US$1 per day extreme the MDGs and to decline. For instance. Both communities bought the BHP Billiton pitch hoping that the mine would ingly becoming victims of socio-economic discrimination. Then it which is twice the national average and three times the rate commanded a price of AU$51. the Gini coefficient is 0. while migrants from Asia and Africa are increas.1 per cent in January 2009. Hopetoun is in danger of becoming a ghost town. upgrading and prevention programmes. their cul-de-sacs lined with expensive homes. The included nearly half of their population. Remarkably. resulting in the But its knock-on effects on the local communities are incalculable. in the Commonwealth of Independent States Source: Bryant.1 per cent in 2008 to 1. hitting the urban are in danger of becoming toxic communities.105 Unemployment rates in the We have heard a lot in recent months about toxic assets. the Anglo-Australian mining Economic disparities in Oceania vary remarkably by race.34100 and 0.6 countries will be was 14. the slump in economic growth could severely context of a is facing its highest rate since March 2005. invested accordingly. relatively weakened levels of unemployment will definitely exacerbate urban ated urban development programmes.101 mous with the end of the country’s resources boom. respectively. with phantom suburbs. but now it is synony- Zealand. Goals (MDGs) and to address pressing environmental issues continuously declining living standards and a sharp increase such as climate change. The Gini coefficient for urban areas in Australia ranges from 0. which is used to make stainless steel. In New Zealand. in 2009. unemployment and inequality within school is expected to drop from 195 to 50. and others have shut down. The entire community is now going to be areas particularly hard. As a result. BHP Billiton blamed the slump in global commodities prices.109 countries may affect the flow of foreign direct investment. of nickel. The nearest towns confinement of the Maori to low-income neighbourhoods. ery.1 Australia hit hard by mining slump ties. in New Zealand. Table 2. wind turbines to provide employment. a pharmacy. characterized by residential segregation. The number of pupils at the new in the levels of poverty. on the coast. a once-tranquil country town. To start with. In January. in some decline in economic growth could affect the ability of devel- countries of the former Soviet Union and former Yugoslavia. dismantled. unemployment rates began to decline in 2000. will be affected. economic growth in developing in developing and Lithuania. Ravensthorpe and Hopetoun region peaked in the mid and late 1990s. Although the global economic Latvia. Urbanization in developing countries is taking place ability of developing ments in the quality of their built environment while others amid increasing levels of urban poverty. could affect the some communities have begun to enjoy significant improve. resources have offered it any protection from the global downturn. the incidence of Africa and Asia. The price indigenous Maori population was 9.6 per cent in 2008. economic growth areas are generating a mosaic pattern of spatial inequality.5 to 12. Russia and poverty.104 electricity.102 Some of the implications of this of that amount. New suburbs sprung up. and the unfortunately named Hopetoun In Australia. Negative GDP growths are anticipated for Russia. poverty line in urban areas of developing countries increased address pressing from 236 million in 1993 to 283 million in 2002. The closure of Raventhorpe has meant 1800 jobs losses among BHP staff and are spatially manifested. as ing countries. Georgia and the Kyrgyz Republic times of relative economic prosperity. the share of and poverty reduction initiatives. housing and well as boutique cafés. The decline in The processes of rising income differentiation within urban official development assistance and remittances to develop. In Latvia various ways. former communist countries.7 per cent.99 In New Few Australians had even heard of Ravensthorpe until two months ago. They had planned and. it had only been opera- instance.103 are Ravensthorpe itself.2 shows that countries to achieve are experiencing economic.1 and 10.107 With an per cent in 2009. Armenia. which traditionally rank residents living below nationally established poverty lines in low on the priority lists of many developing countries even in Moldova. a state-of-the-art car wash. urban regeneration At the beginning of the millennium. will be taking place within a context of a urban poverty for the developing countries increases from . the unemployment rate for the tional for eight months. but neither distance nor its abundant gains could be eroded by the current global economic crisis. more importantly. Moreover. In this regard. particularly in Table 2.106 This has major implications for state-funded urban crisis has its roots in developed countries. spanking new school. Some businesses have reported a based economies has been associated with dramatic increase 70 per cent drop in turnover. felt upon the urban economies of developing countries in Rapid urban growth Unemployment across the region is also on the rise. people drawn here by the promise I Transitional countries of prosperity are now trying to flee. property prices have fallen by up to 50 per The period of transition from centrally planned to market. However. Now it can be bought for one fifth (AU$10. Ukraine. With the start of the economic recov. The urban environmental poverty rate has been relatively stagnant over time: declining issues such as Developing countries from 13.110 Apart from exacerbating unemployment taking place within a unemployment rate of 8.108 Such high reduce the availability of financial resources for state-initi. and a brand.200) for the white population. shops.31 in small cities to 0. Understanding the diversity of urban contexts 33 The region is also characterized by economic dispari- Box 2. has nose-dived since its high in 2007. These Ravensthorpe is in a remote corner of a remote country.33 in major cities. For giant BHP Billiton announced the closure of its nickel mine.2). slum economy poverty in these countries. its impacts will be development programmes in these countries. 2009 and Baltic states. if China is excluded.000 per tonne. Lithuania and relatively weakened economy. respectively.8 per cent between the two periods (see climate change Rapid urban growth in developing countries. generate profits for at least the next 25 years.33 in Tokyo. urban areas are contractors. as tion since they have limited access to land.4 and 13. But with no alternative employment in these towns. cent and their hard-pressed owners are saddled with debts. oping countries to achieve the Millennium Development there is a trend towards unprecedented levels of inequality. economic growth is expected to shrink by 5.6 per cent.

83 40. Source: UN-Habitat (2008b.58 1271.24 Middle East and North Africa 1.432 117.74 32.78 18.82 11.0 in developing countries often underestimate the problem.33 Middle East and North Africa 0.70 India 94.98 63.13 27. p90) Latin America and the Caribbean is the only region in the developing world where a greater proportion of poor . given that unemployment statistics Latin America and the Caribbean 434.31 24.78 Total 235.40 63.17 Sub-Saharan Africa 66.21 29.64 423. The unemployment rate for the region is in slums expected to increase from 7.5 The region already experiences high levels of youth Southern Asia 468.368 31.09 China 10.42 273. non-durable housing.26 59.73 72.75 2.09 Sub-Saharan Africa 98.21 37.28 16. inequal- Major region Urban population Number of slum Percentage of urban ity and poverty – the global economic crisis presents major (thousands) dwellers (thousands) population living challenges.93 9.1 Therefore.63 15.49 2.17 35.113 Inequalities are also observable at per cent) of the urban population in developing countries the city level.301 216.115 These are likely to be Sub-Saharan Africa 264.5 likely to aggravate existing levels of crime and violence. Oceania 2153 519 24.17 6.65 48.06 Latin America and the Caribbean 26.48 7.64 2002 East Asia Pacific 16.03 6. economic growth in Latin America and the population living in the prevalence of slums to a large extent reflects the nature Caribbean is expected to contract by 1.28 13. the anticipated increase in unemployment is also Total developing countries 2.61 40.02 28.15 24.2 conservative estimates.77 5. and insecurity of tenure.45 Latin America and the Caribbean 38.33 64. Between 1990 and 2004.78 35.6 to 3. in which the concentration of poverty moves from levels of inequality are in Africa and Latin America.9 per cent in 1993 to 16. relation to national poverty increased from 19 per cent in A major urban economic trend in the developing A major urban 1993 to 25 per cent in 2002.50 27.55 26.30 41.05 3.38 47.5 per cent in slums.85 47.809 12. In both regions.33 29.78 22.57 33.9 unemployment – a factor associated with the proliferation of South-Eastern Asia 243.07 54.34 Challenges and context Table 2. lack I Latin America and the Caribbean Table 2.21 49.724 67.07 0.34 Total excluding China 278.32 29. the economic trend in the urban share of poverty increases with increasing levels of share of income by the poorest one fifth of the population the developing urbanization.86 27.355 164.5 Western Asia 130.24 42.21 28.82 South Asia 107.15 40.24 24. p1676 15.06 46.79 38. Eastern Asia 593.17 30. From 2009.21 6.11 19.98 342.75 South Asia 125. Indeed.20 40. Table 2.2 Region Number of poor Percentage below the Urban share Urban share Urban poverty (millions) poverty line of the of population measures for 1993 and poor (%) (%) 2002 using the US$1 Urban Total Urban Total per day poverty line 1993 East Asia Pacific 28.28 418.52 38.68 Eastern Europe and Central Asia 2.28 25.29 12.77 Eastern Europe and Central Asia 6.84 327.114 For a region that is highly urbanized and grappling with a host of urban problems – crime and violence. Table 2.3 of access to sanitation. This has been referred to as the urbanization of dropped from 4.01 15.06 36.668 201.49 12. and close links to the Proportion of urban living area.074 27. live in slums or housing conditions that suffer from one or more of the following: lack of access to improved water. the share of urban poverty in developing countries.6 and 8.29 52.51 26.439 27. the highest world is increasing poverty.112 Regionally.441 36. 2005 of access to basic services such as water and sanitation.90 25. the poorest the proliferation of slums.27 239.62 7. A noticeable the foregoing.03 76.88 5.2 per cent in 2008 to between North Africa 82.87 55.42 0.531 62.219.34 25.3 provides an overview of 20 per cent of the population consume just 3 per cent of the extent of slums by region in 2005. with inequality rural areas to urban centres. The regional pattern in US economy.24 Total 282.12 12.52 986.00 179.111 many countries and cities experiencing widening disparities One of the spatial manifestations of urban poverty is between the rich and the poor.60 929.12 Total excluding China 224. Over one third (37 national consumption.436 36.9 per cent.43 21. insufficient Following the ongoing economic crisis.50 2.99 13.06 2.48 490.003 14.01 0.16 41.811 810.09 0.2 broadly shows that world is increasing inequality.52 1165.40 Source: Chen and Ravallion.71 435.3 per cent in 2002. 2007.57 22.83 India 106.185 42.79 China 4.3 per cent in 2009.36 3.34 24. it is clear that issues of urban poverty and feature is that urban poverty is increasing faster than slums should constitute a major agenda for urban planning in national poverty.24 37.5 7.0 youth gangs and high rates of urban crime and violence.98 2.24 43.59 31.80 13.83 1.40 519.61 2.254 24.

Colombia 0. p69 .595 0.1 0 ) 4) ) ) 5) 5) ) ) 5) ) 6) 9) 5) ) 5) 2) ) ) 6) Figure 2. Other cities with relatively high levels of inequality include Bogotá.2 Nicaragua 0. eroded by the current global recession. El Salvador 0.6 0. With the contraction for selected countries Montevideo and Guadalajara.9 the highest levels of inequality are to be found mainly in Average (weighted) 0. Quito. Brasilia.3 Gini coefficient for the region is well above 0. and ment rate of 5.558 -0. Guatemala and Mexico City. Santiago. About 23 million people in the region are have far-reaching I Asia expected to lose their jobs in 2009 – resulting in an unemploy.121 urban living in Asia home to 50 per cent of the world’s urban population.457 0.540 0.541 -0.0 shows that the region’s income inequality has increased over Uruguay 0.6 ized by high levels of inequality.464 0. 2008b.514 0.117 The average Panama 0.417 0.426 0.518 1.458 0.543 0. Belo Horizonte.530 -2.544 -0.504 7.547 0. economies.542 . ethnic or racial lines.4 per cent.4 Brazil: Goiania. while Mexico 0.525 0.45 in 2002.583 0. economic growth within the last two decades risk being Gini coefficients trends Relatively low levels of inequality are found in Caracas.4 Peru 0. 0. Rio de Janeiro. or 113 million jobless people.496 0. For from 6. are crowded in shanty.490 -0.515 0.507 0.1 ments since the 1980s to address the problem of slums and Costa Rica 0. Fortaleza and São Source: Gasparini.409 0. mainly immigrants from Brazil. The richest 5 per cent of the Jamaica 0.7 0.541 0. Suriname.2 0.505 0.539 0.9 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 00 00 00 00 00 99 00 00 00 00 0 20 20 0 20 20 20 20 20 (2 2 2 2 (2 (2 (2 1 (2 (2 (2 (2 ( ( s( ( a( ( ( ( ( a( ( e ity o ity o za eo ca o to ba ilia tá as ia n Gini coefficients for re ar os nt lla eir iag ul an go ac ar ale ui iti C C vid as Ai laj Pa izo m hi oi Jan Q nt am ar ur Bo Br ala rt ico C da r te os G selected cities in Latin Sa or o C Fo C Fo at on m Sã ua de ex en H C te G M M Bu o America lo ua Ri Be G Source: UN-Habitat. expenditure on urban development and capital projects. Table 2. the This is aptly demonstrated in China. economic growth in Asia is expected to decline and the Caribbean below 0.6 Brazil 0.440 0. and external financial in the Latin America constraints.60.505 0. residents recession will be felt most in the newly industrialized are spatially distributed along ethnic lines: the wealthy.572 -2.559 1. residents live in exclusive communities. which forms the basis for well as indigenous South Americans.8 also reflected in urban areas (see Figure 2. Understanding the diversity of urban contexts 35 people live in urban areas.1 the poorest 30 per cent receive 7.527 -1.5 per cent.7 the last two decades.4 0. This is a Chile 0.3 it one of the regions with the lowest incidence.116 In Latin America and the Caribbean.3 per cent in 2009. The gains made in poverty reduction and Table 2.6 population receive 25 per cent of the regional income.4 (Argentina).408 0. in Cayenne. the Countries Early 1990s Mid 1990s Early 2000s Change (%) urban share of the poor had increased to 59 per cent from 48 per cent in 1993.120 The instance.559 0.543 0.556 0.477 2.549 0. The cities with Average (non-weighted) 0.561 1.118 Inequality often divides cities region spatially along socio-economic.514 -0. Curitiba.5 Gini coefficient 0. where negative growth rates have been predicted.547 0.445 0.7 27 per cent of the urban population reside in slums – making Bolivia 0.3 0. the capital of French Guiana. Honduras 0.455 3.3 Latin America and the Caribbean region is character. 2003 Paulo.446 0.558 0. mainly French.425 1. The slump in economic growth is expected to negatively while the poor.439 0.119 The global recession will lead to a massive loss of jobs economic crisis will in urban areas. The current towns dotted on the city’s fringes. The disparities in income inequality are Venezuela 0. as impact upon government revenue.512 0. where the Gini coefficient was in global demand for exports. Buenos Aires and Catamarca urban living in Asia.9). where the reduced current economic crisis will have far-reaching implications for demand for exports led to the closure of about 7000 factories 0. where the Gini coefficient is above 0.494 0. implications for Being the second fastest urbanizing region after Africa.519 0.2 shows that by 2002. Argentina 0. Table 2.4 reflection of the proactive steps taken by various govern.50.8 per cent in 2008 to 3.8 squatter settlements.

This will have major ramifications.3 and 0. Shenzhen.46) and Latin America and the Caribbean (0. Lao PDR. The hard-won economic gains made by the the benefits of economic growth. has income inequality are Ho Chi Minh. increasing levels of of the largest decreases in mass poverty in human inequality have occurred against the backdrop of accelerated history’. remittances account for the (0.7 Gini coefficients for selected cities in Asia 0.34) and Xian (0. the Philippines. unequal cities in the region.4 0. respectively. with the population of the developing world.6 Source: UN-Habitat. China affected. Bangladesh and growth. Within the region.1 0 Ca Ci (20 ) i M i ( 06) ng a ( 6) Ce Pas (20 3) So sim 200 ) o Ha ai (2 6) 2) Fu yan 004 ) Xi (20 4/5) ( 3) ak u ab (2 ) Sh uha (20 1) Ci (20 ) nr Pr i ( 6) Ch Th i (2 6) g M i (2 6) W hai (200 ) Sh qin (20 /5) Pe (2 ) a 2 ) ou 00 ) Yi uxi 004 ) uh (20 /5) no m 00 ) lo ty ( 03) Co hen 004 ) Za Da ty (2 03) N ang a ( 03) D oji 004 ) (2 ) an 00 ) Zh xi 004 ) ue a (2 ) Ud on la (2 06) 2 ( 6 g (2 /5 N Sam nth ok 003 bu ay 03 3 m bo 4/5 Jak nh ( 02 zh (2 /5 W n (2 4/5 Ph lo (2 /5 z (2 /5 Ba i (2 4/5 h 2 ch (2 /5 Be g (2 4/5 Q M rta 004 zo nila 00 an 00 ch an 0 00 00 m va 00 ho t ur 00 on bur 00 ian an 00 an ng 00 in 200 en n 04 en g 04 Ch no 0 at ak 20 0 B ang 20 Ch kh 20 0 a 0 oc 2 o k 2 Sh Ko (2 g g bo o on jin a H Bei n a g n a H in the southern special economic zone of Shenzhen and and India account for about 55 per cent of the region’s slum Guangdong in 2008. China. poverty and instability. Conversely.2). Samut Prakan of poverty reduction in the region has been described as ‘one and Bangkok. In most of these cities. in the near inequality in the country level. receiving US$30 billion. Fuzhou (0. Economic growth is projected to decline Asia alone accounts for about 60 per cent of the slum from 5. While significant global economy.124 A decline Beijing having a Gini coefficient of 0. The countries with high incidence of slums being laid off.3 0. the incidence of urban economic growth in their respective countries.35).7 per cent in 2009. after foreign direct invest. US$8. health and Kong’s Gini coefficient of 0. US$18. Countries urban development policies. in Asia has one of the 1993.125 In East and Central Asia. Shanghai given its role in poverty reduction and the financing of house (0.7 developing world. respectively.9 billion and US$7. more numerous urban challenges that African countries have to needs to be done. cities with low Gini coefficients are Benxi (0. Korea and Indonesia.122 The return of these workers and their include Afghanistan. 2008b. Variations in the preva- Asia will be hard hit by a reduction in the flow of lence of slums are indicative of the nature of housing and remittances on account of the global recession. to 2. In China. Colombo made remarkable progress in poverty reduction. while those with a low prevalence include Hong unemployment and underemployment in the rural areas.10 0. given the progress has been made in reducing urban poverty.6 and 2. US$27 billion.22. The urban Gini coefficient for the region flow of remittances billion. 2. particularly with respect to distributing contend with. Udon Thani.3 per future. about resource-rich and oil-exporting countries being the most 36 per cent of the urban population reside in slums. as well as improving education. Chinese cities appear to be the most egalitarian.53 makes it one of the most living standards. Cambodia. The extent and the Thai cities of Chang Mai. Other cities with high levels of Asia. given that two-thirds of region in the last decade or so are threatened by the current the world’s poor reside in Asia.128 The severe slowdown in economic growth will . economic such as India. poverty decreased from 5. leading to millions of migrant workers population.5 per cent in 2008 to 1. be taking place within the context of a deteriorating developing world cent in 1993 to 0.8 per cent in 2002 (see Table 2.50). with more income than any other industry in 2008. more than any other developing region.39) is remarkably lower than that of sub-Saharan Africa on account of the 2008.126 global recession.123 In these countries. Hong construction.127 Figure global recession largest source of external income. rates of urbanization.81 per cent in 2002.29). p75 0. in (0. Other Chinese in remittances could have major implications for urban areas.1 billion. remittances generated region. In Bangladesh for instance.36 Challenges and context Figure 2. Bangladesh and families to the countryside has served to exacerbate poverty. urban poverty declined from 3.5 Gini coefficient 0.32). Kong.2 0. Thailand. Nepal.10 shows remarkable variation across cities within the ment. I Sub-Saharan Africa lowest levels of Declining levels of urban poverty are also evident at the Rapid urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa will. Asia will be hard hit Pakistan are among the top ten remittance-recipient Asia has one of the lowest levels of inequality in the by a reduction in the countries.1 per cent.

projected to decline from 5. and will be aggravated by the ongoing global in Saudi Arabia. in terms of Sub-Saharan Africa deeply into poverty. Kuwait and Saudi Arabia are expected settlements. From the foregoing. Bahir Dar. many of high levels of inequality are Abidjan.2 0.7 selected cities in Africa Source: UN-Habitat.2 reveals that the number of income distribution. and the Ethiopian towns of Dire Dawa.2 and 11 per cent in Oman. The average Gini 2009. urbanization and slum in global finance. in turn. Besides job losses in urban areas. disproportionately affect the youth. Central African Republic. in 2008. p72 0. Nairobi. Sub-Saharan Africa has the second highest level of cent.4 per I Middle East and North Africa after Latin America cent – the highest in the world. Cities with moderately development objectives.46.5 Gini coefficient 0. country. Accra. it serves as a major financial hub. the United Arab Emirates. it of urban poverty in the region.6 per cent. The rate of unemployment in North Africa and the United Arab and informal settlements. given the highly urbanized nature of most Countries with a very high incidence of slums include of the countries in the region. which has been booming since 2002. Although rural poverty is The fall in oil prices and external financial constraints are still pervasive in sub-Saharan Africa. slum areas in the region grew at an projects worth US$582 billion have been suspended. the ongoing Freetown. The United Arab Emirates is Angola. Qatar and income inequality after Latin America. Chad. while urban growth was Levels of unemployment have traditionally been high of migrant workers 4. in addition to The high prevalence of slums in these countries is a reflec. while the incidence of urban poverty is 40.and middle. the loss of revenue from lower oil prices. Niger. Maputo and which are urban related. Consequently.67 in Cape in Saudi Arabia.11 shows the levels of income inequality for a selec. The region has the highest incidence of slums – to record negative growth rates. Jimma and Mekele. This. upon urban areas. has affected the construction Rising levels of formation in sub-Saharan Africa are closely intertwined.4 0. causing the poor to fall more can be surmised that the most unequal cities.9 per cent in 2008 to 2. while oil-exporting countries such as the manifests itself in the proliferation of slum and squatter United Arab Emirates. Besides being an oil-exporting Bissau.75 in Johannesburg.8 Figure 2.129 What this implies is that much of the future in the region. Madagascar. Ethiopia. So. Table 2. as building unemployment Between 1990 and 2000.130 under the age of 30.131 This is likely to impact with 62 per cent of the urban population living in slums. respectively. the share of urban hitting the region hard. South African cities have extremely unemployment could also affect millions of migrant workers high levels of income inequality. Rising levels of tion of African cities. Kuwait.134 high levels of unemployment will Figure 2. Sierra Leone.133 In a region where 65 per cent of the population is Bahrain coefficient for urban areas in sub-Saharan Africa is 0. 2008b.3 and 9. ranging from 0. industry. economic growth is poverty in relation to national poverty is increasing. including the MDGs.11 Gini coefficients for 0.04 per Emirates. are those located in high. Guinea noteworthy in this regard.5 per cent. economic meltdown will exacerbate the existing high levels Awasa. Understanding the diversity of urban contexts 37 0. Kuwait. to 11. which are significantly higher Qatar and Bahrain.132 could affect millions average annual rate of 4. the country has tion of their low levels of income.1 0 ( ) iza g (2 ) ) N a (1 ) es ria 05) 1) ) a ein 5) Ea wn 05) D é( ) (1 ) ) Ba asa 01) sie 01) 5) ) M bi (1 ) pe n ( ) m 5) M a (2 ) ) Fr igali 02) Lo n (2 ) Pi em urg 05) a 01) 1) 5 5 aw 01 cr 96 ut 999 nd 98 6 D bab 996 05 o 992 Ca ndo 002 m 01 01 5 be 00 bu 00 00 0 Ad ou 199 Ra (200 laa 200 Ea eto 200 00 D (20 Ac (19 to 20 er font (20 To 20 ou (19 Aw (20 0 Jo Dur (20 Jim (20 re (20 K (20 Bl esb (20 r D (20 Po ritz (2 (2 D r (2 ( ( a le th Ya jan di ala a nd Lib ele o nn an r w vil b es id ek air ap Sa sA Ab D Pre hi st ire e El st m ha rt o ar et affect the ability of many countries to meet their urban than in many Latin American cities. Indeed. has the second people below the US$1 per day extreme poverty line in income countries. high levels of poverty and suffered from the reversal of capital inflow and contraction rapid pace of urbanization. The most egalitarian cities are Dar es Salaam. .6 0. the growth in African cities and towns will take place in slums crisis. Yaoundé. Town to 0. Oman. Sudan and Uganda.5 per The problem of urban poverty in sub-Saharan Africa cent in 2009.3 0. Middle East is expected to increase from 10. highest level of urban areas increased from 66 million in 1993 to 99 million income inequality in 2002.

challenges that cities face.61 per cent in 1993 to 0. while Yemen. which I Urban planning and employment entail the provision or improvement of infrastructure and In an era where formal employment opportunities across the basic services such as water. Countries such as Bahrain.38 Challenges and context Urban poverty within the region is increasing. too. desire by the wealthy to segregate themselves from the poor. the mutually reinforcing. will be areas in the provi. This is reflected in the Gini coefficient of Urban planning can also address the issue of inequal- many developing 0. reduce the health burden faced by residents. poverty reduction and environmental become an important development strategy in both devel- sustainability. It also urban planning should strive to reduce poverty through pro. has world. urban development programmes such priority to low. poverty and slums economic growth. The incidence of I Urban planning and inequality poverty is much higher if the US$2 per day poverty line is With few exceptions. Many countries are experiencing decline in inequality through I Urban planning. This. paved footpaths and streets. Local economic development is a . inequality are particularly difficult.21 million in this case could be in the form of innovative and less costly 2002. Over the last two provision of such infrastructure can deliver major benefits in decades. that the market can solve most urban problems.77 million in 1993 to 1. in turn. developing countries. seek ways to promote social integration and cohesion. This is most remarkable in Latin has the lowest incidence of urban poverty in the developing America. lence of slums is generally low and varies across the Thus.78 per cent in 2002. urban planning can play a key role in facilitating livelihoods Besides the physical improvement of these settlements. Table 2. Urban planning should. address a number of economic challenges. albeit tion targets of the MDGs. the preva. income inequality and spatial fragmentation are sub-region. participation and ments. Similarly. will the achievement of the sion of urban anti-urban policies or by focusing on rural poverty in the MDGs. world are dwindling due to the global economic recession. as described in Chapters 3 and 7. as well as urban income groups and been described in the preceding sections. a key issue that urban planning will have to contend with involves the Planning implications of urban spatial manifestations associated with the various forms of economic context social exclusion and marginalization that migrants and other In the foreseeable future. as urban planning alone slums should be at The Middle East and North Africa region has one of cannot counter market forces. street lighting. A major aspect of such upgrading slowly. all countries – Urban planning can prospects. 15 per cent of the urban population wealth and poverty. income inequality and the resultant social exclusion. have tried to exclude the poor from cities by implementing adversely affected. developed. oped and developing countries due to the economic as well as contribute to achieving the slum. contribute to reducing the level of inequality within cities. local economic development has increasingly economic growth. Planning can address the problem of slums and infor- mal settlements through upgrading programmes. water and sanita. levels of inequality across the world used. Land regulation in areas increased from 0.37. the through local economic development. Africa and transitional countries. Although the current global economic crisis had its roots in uncertain economic growth. developing and transitional – have been affected address the issue of in various ways. Nonetheless. especially where US$1 per day extreme poverty line in the region’s urban previous tenure was insecure or unclear. The provision of schools. where the ity through redistributive policies that give priority to countries urban Gini coefficient for North Africa is 0. especially the following: urbanization of poverty and the prevalence of I Urban planning and economic uncertainty slums. with escalating crime levels fuelling the reside in slum-like conditions. in partnership with civil society and private-sector actors – Because of the failure of these policies. In policies that give slums should be at the top of the planning agenda in many developing countries. All of this reinforces the need for governments to act services hope that this will discourage rural–urban migration. In North Africa.137 the long run. leading to segregated and violent cities. This implies that less funding will be avail- redistributive The twin problems of urban poverty and the proliferation of able for state-initiated urban development programmes. The twin problems United Arab Emirates and Qatar have a very low incidence of Women. urban planning will need to minority groups face. and poor urban employment the subprime mortgage markets in the US. So. garbage collection. The magnitude of these problems has as slum upgrading and prevention projects. Kuwait. The incidence of slums is also relatively low in the given rise to cities with stark contrasts between areas of region. underlines the need for a developmental role for govern- poor programmes that emphasize equity. Israel.136 The low low-income groups and areas in the provision of urban levels of inequality within the region have been attributed to services. storm drainage. it is now clear that both formal and informal – on urban planning issues. the strong cohesive social system and the emphasis on social water supply and sanitation in poor neighbourhoods will.36. below the US$1 per day poverty line increased from 0. basic health services. In the Middle East. The challenges for urban planning in addressing the proliferation of proportions of their urban population living in slums. Some countries regeneration and poverty reduction initiatives.135 A similar pattern occurs at the city level. In cities of developed countries. in redistribution polices in Islamic countries. the proportion of the urban population tenure systems. sanitation. there- the top of the the most egalitarian patterns of income distribution in the fore. as opposed to a neo-liberal approach which assumes social justice. planning agenda in developing world. the Middle East and North Africa region have been increasing. children and the aged feel the brunt of these of urban poverty and slums.2 shows that the number of people below the programmes should be land regularization. Lebanon and Iraq have relatively large processes.

Japan. associated with climate change. dwellers.5 Buenos Aries 12. coastal areas are Cities are highly employment to thrive by adopting more flexible land-use densely populated and have large concentrations of vulnerable to the management or zoning systems that allow for mixed land economic activities.2      Mexico City 19. and the ability to effectively manage pre- with the highest number of recorded disasters has been and post-disaster situations. and to produce tangible benefits for along the coast that is less than 10m above sea level – is participating local communities. Eight of the ten most populous cities are located on improve the local economy of a given area.143 Due to their favourable location. In the developed world.5     Kolkata 14. coastlines render large numbers of people vulnerable to City Population Disaster risk (million) Earthquake Volcano Storms Tornado Flood Storm surge Tokyo 35. as well as the type and frequency of natural hazards that a city may experi- private and public sectors work together to stimulate and ence. While economic loss in absolute terms is high in developed Cities are highly vulnerable to the effects of natural and countries. North America.146 The distinguishing of natural hazards land-use planning strategies.4    New York 18.3      Jakarta 13. p116 cities and associated disaster risk.138 Local earthquake faults. Such high levels of urbanization along with the greatest rates of increase in Asia and Africa. disas. 2005 . In Europe.6    Ten most populous Source: Chafe. civil society. The human impacts of natural disasters vary MADE DISASTERS remarkably between developed and developing countries. Understanding the diversity of urban contexts 39 community-empowering participatory process in which local Geographic location is a major determinant of the governments. disaster preparedness and risk reduction in the experience number of recorded natural disasters. local communities. while 90 per cent of these cities are in economic development seeks to enhance economic competi. as well as high levels of invest- processes. including the location and rapid growth of major ment in disaster mitigation. This is a result of the very high human-made disasters due to a complex set of interrelated levels of capital investment. as opposed to mono-functional zoning that seeks to cent of the world’s GDP.2   Table 2. yet.5). with 801 disasters in 2000. Australia and where a threefold increase in natural disaster events has New Zealand. with 86 per While all continents report more natural disaster events. Bangladesh experi- type and frequency the failure of authorities to regulate building standards and enced 34 times more deaths. earthquakes and volcanoes are the most common forms of natural disasters affecting developed NATURAL AND HUMAN. the disasters. of its total population and 13 per cent of its urban popula- Urban planning could also create the enabling conditions for tion. in 2002 and 744 in 2005. the US reported two to three times as determinant of the expansion of settlements into hazard-prone locations. extreme weather disasters generating or economic activities to take place within events such as tropical cyclones.2     Delhi 15. flooding and other hazards residential areas or any other favourably located sites. 2 per cent of the world’s land area. The former will allow income.141 population live in the low-elevation coastal zone. human loss is low. populations within and human-made segregate different activities. coastal areas are at risk from sea-level rise. on cent of the entire population of the zone being urban average. 10 per cent of the total urban ters accounted for over US$667 billion in material loss. 786 developing countries. LOCATION AND Developed and transitional countries VULNERABILITY TO Floods.7). countries. coastal areas account for 53 per effects of natural uses.0    Shanghai 14.142 Human-made ized: between 79 and 94 per cent of the population are disasters have seen a tenfold increase from 1975 to 2006. characteristic is the high technical capacity for early-warning that a city may Since 1975. the modification of the less than 10 per cent of the world human loss due to natural is a major built and natural environment through human actions. urban (see Table 2.139 Besides stimulating highly vulnerable to natural hazards. the low-elevation coastal zone is highly urban- been experienced in the last decade alone. the rate of increase has been highest for Africa. Developed countries account for Geographic location urban centres in coastal locations.3   Mumbai 18.140 Between 1996 and 2005.144 However. The tiveness. to ensure that low-elevation coastal zone (LECZ) – the contiguous area growth is inclusive. there has been a fourfold increase in the systems. Each of the three years developed world. a key compo. all of which are lacking in many during the current decade. to increase sustainable growth. Indeed. but contains 10 per cent nent of local economic development is poverty reduction.145 In 1999. 2007. regions vulnerable to destructive storms (see Table 2. and many natural disasters as Bangladesh. windstorms.7    São Paulo 18. This zone accounts for economic growth and creating employment.

of people and causing the highest total economic costs in Montenegro and Kosovo suffered from serious flooding in Cities in developing North America. and is considered to Table 2. countries suffer landslides. landslides and earthquakes.4 increase in the incidence of natural and human-made disas- 2003 Bam. New the most frequent regions. they face increased risks in the future 2001 Bhuj (India) Earthquake 19.300 1. have scaled attention to environmental issues. The natural cycle of weather patterns. sit on. 2005) Developing countries 2005 New Orleans Hurricane 1800 125.40 Challenges and context flooding and extreme weather conditions associated with the exception of volcanic eruption.1 disproportionately from the impacts of natural disasters – 1995 Kobe. vegetation loss.152 Source: Chafe. Environmentally down state responsibilities for risk reduction and response damaging agricultural. In 2005. with an estimated economic cost of over US$168 human activities such as overstocking. substandard nuclear plants. suggesting good levels of resilience to this hazard During the Soviet era. Some of the countries in East and Central Europe have diffi- but with very few people being killed or affected.5 and 2. or are surrounded by steep Windstorms.1 claim more lives than in developed countries. which is located near the Danube River. but 81 per cent loss of about of NZ$131. Since these countries are 2003 Paris Heat wave 14. cult topographies and are located in areas that place them at risk to natural and human-induced disasters. Within the region. Cities in developing countries suffer 1999 Istanbul/Izmit Earthquake 15. in place. In 2007 alone.6 I Oceania and Japan be the most dangerous reactor in the world. with unsafe levels of radiation.6).148 Western Europe has a strong capacity for of many natural hazards.700 5. while large quantities of untreated toxic and companies. The plant.000 14. Between 1990 and 2006. natural disasters tend to 1970 Dhaka Flood 1400 10. Residents of Selected urban Between 1996 and 2005. Japan Earthquake 6400 128. a total of 1483 Earthquakes and tsunamis account for the highest levels of events affecting over 42 million people and causing 98.147 Vulnerability and human loss are highest groundwater and irrigation schemes. Serbia.119 mortality.151 Disasters of this genre are often a function of natural disasters Table 2. Hurricane March 2008. where I Transitional countries Europe suffers the highest economic losses of any region. sea-level rise due to climate change development and political stability in shifting the impact of poses major challenges.2 disaster situations. It is also a region with relatively low levels of floods (see Tables 2. Windstorms can trigger flooding and November and December 2007. 98 per 1923 Tokyo Earthquake 143. North America experiences the greatest such as the massive explosion at an arms depot in Albania in disproportionately economic loss from natural disasters.150 Japan’s location in one disaster in Western of all mortalities. 2007. mining and manufacturing practices and placed greater emphasis on the role of private citizens went unchecked.6. occurred. compared to other world disasters in New Zealand and Australia. dams. Europe experienced 47 Zealand experienced four major storms with an economic form of natural per cent of all extreme temperature events. authorities paid very little type.000 deaths. were allowed to operate with no safety procedures Hurricane Katrina in 2005. the lowest economic losses and absolute number of people killed and affected by all disaster types. Many of the I North America countries are landlocked.000 31.000 19. limited.6). aided by deaths. Neo-liberal policies.9 between 1991 and 2000 resided in developing countries. Human-induced disasters. also tend to occur more frequently in this from the impacts of Katrina alone caused US$125 billion in economic loss (see region.800 4. Floods constitute the most frequent form of natural disaster and these result in the greatest economic losses. Between 1996 and 2005.149 The region also has climate change.5 and 2.3 inability on the part of authorities to manage pre.and post- 1976 Tangshan. The impacts of volcanic eruptions have been ineffective governance. Indeed.0 Developing countries have experienced the fastest rate of 2005 Mumbai Flood 400 0.2 from natural disasters. p117 While economic losses in absolute terms are low in compari- . 1906–2006 incidence of disasters for any region and hazard type. Year City Disaster Deaths Economic loss (estimated number) (US$ billion. storms and resilience. avalanches. resilience to natural and human-made hazards.1 ters over the last three decades. including earthquakes.3 million. particularly in the US. including hurricanes and tornadoes.5 2000 Johannesburg Flood 100 0. I Western Europe disasters are most commonly associated with windstorms. most frequent type of disaster affecting the greatest number heavy rains. are the mountains that are frequently disturbed by seismic activity. China Earthquake 242. such as Kozloduy in in the failed state response and recovery efforts during Bulgaria. as was seen Besides. Consequently.8 cent of the 211 million people affected by natural disasters 1906 San Francisco Earthquake 3000 10. This is exemplified by volcanic eruptions. disasters from human to physical assets is evident in this region.2 this is evident in Tables 2.7 rapidly urbanizing. This is a function of the 1985 Mexico City Earthquake 9500 7. has leaking pipes and obsolete reactors. The heat wave of 2003 resulted in about of the world’s most active crustal zones puts its cities at risk Europe 35. underlie many natural Floods constitute for extreme temperature events. billion. The role played by high levels of economic states within the region. This has had mixed results for urban and hazardous waste were inappropriately disposed of. Iran Earthquake 26. in Western Europe. Oceania recorded the lowest cities close to the plant have undoubtedly been exposed to disasters. For low-lying small island hazard exposure.

165 Earthquakes. The economic loss of US$129 billion. the earthquake of 12 May tion reside within ble to natural disasters. earthquakes or tsunamis.164 population reside in the low-elevation coastal zone (see Table Asia alone accounts for 61 per cent of the urban 2.908 292.153 in LECZ in LECZ urban population urbanization One factor accounting for the magnified impact of (000s) (000s) in LECZ in LECZ (%) natural disasters in developing countries is the lack of devel.245 61.434 15 68 settle in disaster-prone areas. Asia has the highest population reside within 2km of the coast. 17. but also for North Africa 30. coastal zone (LECZ). Food insecurity resulting from drought can low-elevation coastal highest in this region for all disaster types. The number of people affected is the in-migration of refugees.157 This suggests an estimated loss of US$5 billion to Pakistan. are at risk from sea-level rise.845 235.347 27.3 billion people and caused an per thousand square kilometres. During the three Australia and New Zealand 2846 2421 14 85 decades leading up to the 21st century. in economic terms. Developed countries 106. Hanoi. measured in terms of occurrence 42. Understanding the diversity of urban contexts 41 son to developed countries. compared to other world regions. Kolkata. Table 2. and has Belize rank among the top ten in the world that have the 16 per cent of its urban population within the zone (see highest proportion of their urban population living in the Table 2. coupled number of urban dwellers at risk from flooding.911 16. Economic loss is similarly high for all disasters. 8 per cent of the missing and 4. 50 per cent of the million people living in the LECZ. contributed to making the Caribbean hazardous location of their homes.3 61 The high level of urbanization in the low-elevation coastal Latin America and zone vis-à-vis the entire developing world (44 per cent) the Caribbean 33. The Between 1996 and 2005. 2008b. indus. the region experi. have. Southern Asia 140. in ing from natural disasters from 1970 to 1999 represented 4 which the province of Aceh lost capital stock worth 97 per In most of the per cent of the GDP of South American countries. is more informative.723 15.519 383. Suriname.000 deaths.023 14 40 South-Eastern Asia 137.000 injured. conditions.154 The economic loss arising from these Source: UN-Habitat. windstorms and results in the highest mortality. in part. with the 2004 Indian 0.519 91.7).738 14 54 infrastructure to deal with rising sea levels.878 13 59 year. Chennai.160 Flooding is Urban population in per cent of the total destruction were in South America. to natural disasters compared to other sub-regions.633 32. Economic loss to disasters is also high. Europe (including Commonwealth of I Latin America and the Caribbean Independent States Europe) 50.158 In most of the Caribbean. but is high . 50 per cent of all disasters.845 9 68 citizens to adhere to building regulations. Guyana and population of the entire low-elevation coastal zone. and drought affects tion of the entire region.570 deaths. 75 per cent of the affected population and 53 trial accidents and miscellaneous accidents. I Asia I Sub-Saharan Africa Asia alone accounts The incidence of disasters associated with avalanches or Flooding is the most frequent natural disaster in Africa and for 61 per cent of landslides. the most frequent natural hazard affecting the largest the low-elevation These statistics may overstate South America’s vulnerability number of people and causing the greatest economic losses.159 This. more vulnera.000 2km of the coast In Latin America and the Caribbean. low for Africa. affect urban areas indirectly through price fluctuations and zone tion of volcanic eruptions. In addition.162 The Kashmir earthquake of 2005 caused Caribbean. The high population density means that mortality is the most people. with the with urbanization patterns and processes in low-income poor being most affected.545 18 51 authorities to enforce them. while 54 per cent of the coastal zone is urban.3 billion. What this means is that with more than 235 coastal zone. 370. the scarcity or high Asia 449.3 for South America. with the excep. on average. 50 per amounted to 43 per cent for the Caribbean. it cent of its GDP.140 10 86 enced 32 disasters that accounted for about 7500 deaths per World 646.472 8482 8 74 population of developing countries live in the low-elevation Commonwealth of coastal zone. tropical storms and floods are the North America 24. 2008 resulted in 69.000 deaths.1 against quakes cause the greatest mortality. which makes it impossible not only for Sub-Saharan Africa 24.163 In the cent of the popula- that smaller countries are. p142 disasters varies between US$700 million and US$3.258 16 52 cost of buildable land has left many with no choice but to Eastern Asia 159. given the poor quality and areas.161 Tsunamis and earth- effective exposure to risk for the Caribbean is 10.7 indicates that 14 per cent of the urban Western Asia 11. affected 1.390 12 58 opment itself.648 8 73 Oceania 852 442 22 52 presents major challenges.489 8 89 Japan 29. a total of 472 floods resulted in 2000 effective exposure to risk. floods and the urban popula- industrial accidents is higher in Asia than in any other storms cause the greatest economic loss.969 109. volcanic eruptions.217 21. hurricanes. given the low capacity and weak Developing countries 539.200 39.201 36 45 Table 2. For instance. Independent States Asia 194 119 0. Africa 55. floods.709 8 79 Earthquakes. they are 20 times greater as a Region Population Urban population Percentage Level of percentage of GDP.156 While the cumulative losses result. such as highly vulnerable to rises in sea levels and extreme weather Shanghai.578 24.8 million homeless. 65 per cent except for extreme temperatures. Chinese province of Sichuan. Many cities. Bangkok. Ocean Tsunami accounting for around 230. Karachi. Mumbai and Dhaka.7 of fatalities.521 27 94 main natural hazards in this region.155 The incidence of natural disasters differs by sub- region.964 56. Countries such as the Bahamas.7).

particularly for Goma (Democratic Republic of Congo) in 2002. Dakar. for example. While this appears relatively low. codes might not be as appropriate as they should be. more appropriate build.42 Challenges and context as a proportion of GDP. through migration and economic Coastal cities in sub. more governments. volcanic eruption of Mount Nyiragongo.000 people in underpin land-use planning is challenging. These systems are interdependent. architects. Urban planning can region – destroy land cover and lead to desertification. knowledge. Planning for risk management will need to consider by far the most not only the internal. while the current aimed at ensuring that construction meets a minimum world average per capita is 7000 cubic metres. and implementation of effective climate change mitigation and adaptation measures. geographic information systems (GIS). the desert exposes Urban planning can play an integral role in developing build- them to droughts and extreme problems of water shortage. contractors and even house owners to circumvent ment processes.000 homeless. an earthquake in Algeria Reduction:170 killed 538 and injured 4600. perverse incentives world. in May 2003. natural disasters known in the region are flash floods. and more appropriate land-use planning. ignored or falling into disrepute. This includes partnerships between municipal sector to undertake site inspections. more effective post-disaster rehabilita. For instance. environmental and technolog- Yemen. where municipal capacity for urban planning is urbanization in the coastal zone is 68 per cent. floods claimed 90 lives and left about 25. Between 1996 and 2005. and information volcanic eruption events. explored. and in October 2008. with laws and controls based more on a must respond with innovative solutions. Accra. landslides and desertification.168 Other standard of disaster resilience. Mombasa and Port Louis. cities are facing mounting and often inter. the building codes proposed by urban episodes of these include the following: an earthquake in planning should meet the following criteria specified by the Morocco in February 2004 claimed 600 lives and rendered United Nations International Strategy for Disaster 30. In order quakes. tion. earth. builders. Lagos. Too often. Examples of recent to be effective. standards in the With increasing extreme weather events associated with • enforced in order to avoid the legislative system being built environment climate change. Failure to comply with codes is a major cause of Given the occurrence of natural disasters in cities across the vulnerability in buildings. Table 2.169 Extended dry seasons – a common problem in the ical constraints.7 shows that 9 per cent of the urban popula. Many of these cities do not have expressed. which destroyed 40 Mainstreaming risk reduction within strategies that per cent of the buildings and displaced 250. • relevant to current building practice and technology. Coastal cities further complicates land-use planning. centres. However. • integrated fully within a legal system that takes account ing codes and disaster-resistant construction. given economic. and this was demonstrated in the ing risk reduction within the land-use planning process. related environmental challenges.000 people homeless in • realistic. land-use planning can serve as a valuable tool for make it more attractive for administrators. the level of cities. While it might be cost efficient for the private taken. to which urban planning • adhered to. the necessary infrastructure and preparedness to withstand exchange between rural and urban areas or across urban Saharan Africa are the effects of extreme weather conditions.167 authorities in developing countries with limited resources. Designing and implementing comprehensive land-use tion of sub-Saharan Africa live within the low-elevation planning also poses a major challenge for many smaller coastal zone. people were killed or affected by volcanic eruptions in Africa Familiar planning tools such as zoning. Libreville. These will include system of incentives rather than punishment. play an integral role • updated regularly in light of developments in in developing build. Cape Town. it is unclear if it would . protection of of potential conflicts between the different levels of critical infrastructure. Planning to manage risk systems in their entirety most urbanized ecosystem within the region. ing codes that Planning implications of vulnerability • understood fully and accepted by professional interest ensure safety to natural and human disasters groups. A major challenge that planning is likely to face is enforcing adherence to building codes. mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into urban develop. community groups and the private sector. ing codes that ensure safety standards in components of the The projected water availability per person for the region for built environment. developed and are I Middle East and North Africa likely to be The natural factors that have provided the foundation for the I Building codes and disaster-resistant adversely affected wealth of cities in the Middle East and North Africa also construction by rising sea levels threaten their survival. Most countries have building codes the next two decades is 500 cubic metres. particularly in developing I Land-use planning and disasters countries. despite the low incidence of tion. community participa- than in any other region. cultural systems. Land-use planning provides a framework construction standards. Such cities that include environmental features as well as social and include Abidjan. in some cases. The potential for regulation of build- within which interventions to partner local actors for risk ing codes to be undertaken by the private sector has been mapping and community resilience building can be under. administration and government. but also the external environment. Human settlements in sub-Saharan Africa are by far the most developed and are of all sizes are situated within larger socio-ecological systems likely to be adversely affected by rising sea levels.166 The high loss-to-event ratio and education programmes are all essential to mainstream- indicates low resilience. making it the limited.

increase the capacity for disaster developed countries have to contend with an increasingly prevention and mitigation. There are. telecommunications. In areas. the pace of urbanization is of human settlements since municipal authorities and local faster in Africa and Asia. settlements and implementing practices that enhance particularly in developing countries where the focus is often sustainable development. the peri-urban fringe holds a significant propor- zations (NGOs). Adaptation for cities entails such diverse actions as increas- Besides planning for rapid urban growth. as infrastructure and I Planning and post-disaster rehabilitation well as in Latin America and the Caribbean. shrink- cult because of the uncertainty in forecasting and a tendency ing cities. protecting critical has major implications for urban planning. adaptation and mitigation strategies. and much of future population international development and humanitarian agencies are growth will take place in these cities. cities cities of developed and transitional countries. Urban planning will need to respond to the challenges.and medium-sized cities. In both developed and developing governments are best placed to coordinate relief and recon- countries. On the other hand. managed independently of each other to prevent contagion effects. urban planning can ensure that programmes in cities requires non. rising levels of unemployment and. more than half of the urban population live in struction efforts. planning will have ing the resilience of infrastructure. changing the location of to pay greater attention to small. be protected and. that urbanization itself is viewed as a positive phenomenon. and to undermine rising sea levels. In developing networking among communities. The potential for such as methane recuperation from landfills for use in local cascading events to affect multiple infrastructure systems energy generation schemes. in some cases. oping countries is the high proportion of young people. and the disruption in the flow of goods and services during the promotion of renewable or alternative energy generation. change through countries.171 Mitigating climate change through reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in cities requires immediate and I Protecting critical infrastructure aggressive action. The phenomenon of shrinking cities is most prevalent particularly in Asia and Africa. Besides. transportation systems and mitigation also offers a financial opportunity. alongside adaptation developed countries. Planning especially in Africa. Adapting now to future climate change is diffi- youth bulge observed in many developing countries. governments and external support reduction of green- tion of the urban population. Conversely. transport demand management to reduce and minimize secondary and indirect losses. cities in human-made disasters. growth. In order to cope with the effects of climate change through inequality and the prevalence of slums. and projects undertaken after disasters address the long. Protecting such vital infrastructure and include improved building materials and energy efficiency to services will influence response and reconstruction capacity reduce costs. developing countries. Partnerships with community groups and small and intermediate cities. but much lower services Urban planning can contribute to post-disaster rehabilitation in Africa and Asia. especially so for countries and cities with weak play a major role in regions. necessary in post-disaster planning. house gas emissions area of cities. the Middle East. It should be empha- sized that protecting critical infrastructure and services CONCLUDING REMARKS against all conceivable sources of harm is prohibitively Urban planning can This chapter has examined the urban contexts across various expensive. offer urban planning a unique in the developed and transitional countries. rapidly ageing population and multiculturalism in for conservative estimates of future change. it is important contribute to implementing some of these strategies. Some of these strate- For urban planning to respond effectively to the gies are discussed in Chapter 6. These are areas where urban makes it paramount that critical infrastructure and services planning holds good promise. and strengthen coordination and Mitigating climate ageing population and multiculturalism. but especially in the implementation of urban development programmes. period after a disaster has struck a city. For developing countries. non-governmental organi. 21st century urban planning will have to address . South America. or clean slate. Examples health services. immediate and The current global recession has affected cities in term development objectives and needs of the affected aggressive action. with informality being a dominant phenome- Furthermore. will need to implement innovative including those related to the MDGs. public-sector inspection and enforcement. Central can also strengthen the capacity to manage natural and Asia and the Pacific Islands. cities all over the world. transitional and developing countries alike. Understanding the diversity of urban contexts 43 be any less open to the perverse incentives that distort constraints and limited adaptive capacity. improve the sustainability of human settlements. however. to rethink past development demographic trend with implications for planning in devel- practices. The diversity of the urban contexts across the world and small economies. Post-disaster situations. and is often the fastest growing organizations in addressing disaster-related activities. Levels of urban- ization are high in developed and transitional countries. such as the congestion and the health impacts of transport. An important opportunity. the economic crisis has the tendency to exacerbate poverty. where possible. One direction might be in those areas where sanitation. water and urban design. several on large cities. and ensure an effective transition to sustainable devel. developed. Urban planning can issues identified in the preceding paragraphs. it has led to contraction in economic opment. I Urban planning and climate change massive falls in housing prices. alongside adaptation. There is great scope Urban planning can play a major role in protecting critical for future work in enabling mitigation through improved infrastructure and services such as electricity. In developing in developing countries face financial and technical countries. and effectively prepare communities against risks.

2007. 2008. 2004. as well as contend partnership with civil society and private-sector actors on with increasing levels of informality. p5. 2008. 2008. 150 The Dominion Post. 3 UN. 166 UN-Habitat. 2004a. 75 Daher (undated) . 161 UN-Habitat.0. 105 EBRD. 117 UN-Habitat. 2009. 2003. 2009. 133 ILO. 170 ISDR. 2008. 23 Irazábal. 2008. underlines the need for governments to act in within urban development processes. 2000. 2008. 130 UN-Habitat. Bertoncello.org (undated). projected to fall to 6. 2008. 2004a. 2008. 2009. 2007. 1. 76 UN-Habitat. news16. shrink by 2. 77 UN-Habitat. 8 Le Galès. 147 WHO-Europe. 2009a. 2008b. Development. urban planning can serve urban and infrastructural projects will become scarce.2 157 Chevériat. as a valuable tool for mainstreaming disaster risk reduction in turn. In China and India. 2004a. 2009. 2004a. 95 OECD. p2. 78 Bolay and Rabinovich. 33 Cohen. undated. 141 IGE. 2006. 31 UN-Habitat. 148 Bhattachatya. 13 GCIM. 2009. 2007. 80 Naudé. 125 UNESCAP. 73 Africapolis. 2007. 2008b. 2006. p8. 70 Qadeer. p2. GDP growth for 24 Irazábal. p2. 34 Middle East Youth Initiative (undated). 113 UN-Habitat. 43 UN-Habitat. 2009. 64 Cerrutti and Bertoncello. 65 UN-Habitat. 42 UN. 88 OECD. UN-Habitat. 110 IMF. 2009. Ravallion.com. p33. 55 Slater. 2007. 2009. 158 McGranahan et al. 135 UN-Habitat.com/ 37 UN-Habitat. Chen and 2003. 137 UN-Habitat. p2. 19 Mykhnenko and Turok. 2003. 2008b. 17 UN. 2008. (undated). 145 Chafe.44 Challenges and context the twin problem of poverty and slums. 40 UNFPA. 2004a.org. 2009. 2007b. 2008b. 15 New Zealand Yearbook. 2005. 100 OECD. 51 Porter and Hecht (undated). BBC News. 45 Cox. 2009 in major economies such 154 Chevériat. 2009. 136 UN-Habitat. 2008. 107 BBC News. 89 OECD. 2005. 26 Yuen. Van Grusven. Brazil. 74 UN. 71 Yuen. 2005. 2009. undated. 7 Le Galès. 2008. 2006. 14 Australian Government. Mexico 155 Chevériat. 2007. NOTES 1 Njoh. 67 Rojas.5 and 4. 2007. 99 UN-Habitat. 2004a. p27. 2009. 2004a. 12 UN-Habitat. 61 UN. 2008b. Al-Asad per cent. 2007. 2008. 2000. 152 IFRCRCS.volcanolive. 2008. 2003. 2008. 2008b. 2008.oxfam. 2007. 2008. (undated). Development. p5. 2006. 2007b. 132 ABS-CBN News. 146 UNEP. 2007. p15. 9 Ecology. 68 UN-Habitat. 2008. 3. 25 UN. 2008. 2006. respectively. 112 UN-Habitat.5 (undated). 128 IMF. emergencies/asia_tsunami. 22 National Research Council. in all parts of the world. 85 IMF. 116 Chen and Ravallion. and Argentina is expected to 156 Chevériat. UN. 2004a. 106 IMF. 124 Dummet. 2002. 2004a. 2005. 20 National Research Council. 129 UN-Habitat.org. 151 IFRCRCS. 2001. 2007. 30 Cheru. but current economic recession is that funding for state-initiated especially in developing countries. pp114–122. 2004a. 114 IMF. 2003. 139 UN-Habitat and EcoPlan. 93 BBC News.3. 2000. 2007. 96 UN-Habitat. p35. 2007. 2009. p74–75. 2008b. 2008b. 2004a. 2009. 2008a. 6 UN-Habitat. Lees and Lees. 81 IMF. 2008a. 2009. 66 Rojas. This. 2007. 2009. 101 UN-Habitat. 109 UN. 2009. Hirt and Stanilov. 94 Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2007. 2008.html. 87 IMF. 142 IFRCRCS. 121 Economic Times. 2007b. 2007b. 2009. 38 Angel et al. 2008b. 126 UN-Habitat. 84 UN-Habitat. 2007. 2009. 2004. . 2009. 2008a. 138 UN-Habitat and EcoPlan. 27 UNFPA. 2007b. p35. 48 UNEP. 50 UNEP.html. 164 Yuen. 2007b. 140 IFRCRCS. 5 UN-Habitat. 2008. 153 IGE. 2008b. 2007. 2008. 44 Demographia (undated). 90 OECD. 2008. 56 Slater. 2006. 149 UN-Habitat. 53 UN. 54 Statistics New Zealand. 41 UNFPA. 119 Irazábal. 168 World Bank. repre- 36 Nassar. per cent. 2008. 39 Bloom and Khanna. 91 IMF. 2008b. Clapham et al. p9. 2008. 2009. p62. IRIN. 2009. 83 Commission for Social senting half the rate recorded 167 See www. 163 UN-Habitat. 2006. 21 Hirt and Stanilov. 131 IMF. 134 Middle East Youth Initiative 10 UN. p16. 62 Demographia (undated). A consequence of the urban development. 4 UN. 60 Hirt and Stanilov. 2009. 160 UN-Habitat. 49 UNEP. 2008. Hirt and Stanilov. 2009. 86 OECD.7 and 2. 63 Demographia (undated). 98 IMF. 115 ILO. 2008. 2008. 2009. 171 www. p13. as Argentina. 1996. 104 Colic-Peisker and Tilbury. 2008b. 79 Commission for Social 118 UN-Habitat. 2000. 2003. 92 OECD. 35 Middle East Youth Initiative 82 ILO. 29 UN. 159 UN-Habitat. 97 OECD. 2007. Irazábal. 2008. 2007b. 144 IGE. 2004a. 2009. 2000. 2008. 102 Statistics New Zealand. 2005. Cerruti and 69 UN-Habitat. Finally. 1999. 2008a. 127 UN-Habitat. 2008. 2009. 111 UN-Habitat. 2009b. 52 Macionis and Parrillo. 2008. 2003. 2003. 2009. respectively. 108 Russia Today. 2003. 123 Ratha et al. 2007. 2008. pp74–75. 2007. 103 Johnston et al. 2004. p11. 2008b. 72 UN. 2004a. in 2007. 2009. 2007. 2003a. 28 UN. 11 Demographia. 2008b. 59 Hirt and Stanilov. p12. 18 Hirt and Stanilov. 122 Commission for Social 169 Nassar. 2000. 2009. 47 EEA. 2006. 58 EEA. 2009. 57 UN-Habitat. 2008. 120 IMF. 162 See www. 2 UN. 16 Mykhnenko and Turok. 2004. 2008. Development. 2008b. 2008b. GDP growth in 2009 is 165 UN-Habitat. 2008.au/world/ 32 World Bank.proventionconsortium. 2002. 2003. 143 McGranahan et al. 2006. 2008. 46 Cox.

PA RT II GLOBAL TRENDS: THE URBAN PLANNING PROCESS (PROCEDURAL) .

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and the promotion of a particular urban form (urban modernism. The planning of urban settlements has been taking Urban planning is as old as human settlement itself. but rather what form it should take. and the reasons for its persist. This section the wall that enclosed and protected the town from external reviews this persistence of the approach. originally to deal with the negative findings here is to emphasize the point that whether or not health consequences associated with the Industrial settlements are planned is not optional: they have always Revolution. The ancient cities of the Fertile Crescent of and why this can be regarded as a problem. low-built densi. As the fourth section argues. examines the extent to which these meet the normative The chapter emphasizes the point that these new criteria for planning systems set out in Chapter 1. but rather well-planned urban environment. and place since the dawn of civilization. the modernist approach has proved resistant to Earth. While these are highly varied. should be urban ment of planning. underpinned by a land-use regulatory system). The second part deals with this new develop. a particu. While there are many variations of be considered as models and imposed uncritically on very urban settlements modernist planning. an accepted function of always according to the tenets of modernist planning. characterized by mono-functional use areas. in the latter the Middle East and North Africa. as well as meant to address have changed considerably. An important lesson from the experi- to urban planning that developed in the post-1850 urban ence of modernist planning is that planning approaches. despite the fact that the urban issues and problems that it is tower and other structures found within Jericho. has been taking of producing plans (which was ‘top down’ and expert led. and the first section archaeologists have uncovered evidence of urban planning in refers to the evidence in this regard. Latin America. been planned. the large trench. The purpose of briefly reviewing these settlements emerged. tasks and types of tools throughout the world. The The Middle East is home to some of the oldest cities in the third part discusses this diffusion of modernist planning. necessary to produce materials such as the sun-dried bricks modernist planning still persists in many parts of the world. CHAPTER THE EMERGENCE AND SPREAD OF 3 CONTEMPORARY URBAN PLANNING This chapter deals with the emergence and spread of there are also shifts towards new or contemporary modernist urban planning. why it has occurred threats. and Old Jericho is believed to be the first city on Significantly. The notion of what constitutes a planning. movement systems based on the private car. industrial period in Western Europe and other advanced which have been shaped by a particular context. for the first time. The fifth section Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq) attained the peak of their of the chapter recognizes that in many parts of the world development about 2800 BC. and Chapter 1. that were used to construct the houses. tower PLANNING blocks and quantities of green open space). EARLY FORMS OF URBAN ties. ence in many parts of the world. and planning developed into an organized premise of this Global Report is not whether there should be not whether there profession. norms of particular places. was then spread through a range take of different mechanisms to other parts of the world. During the first part of the 20th century. should not The planning of capitalist countries. these take will always be shaped by the social and cultural of civilization lar form of plan (generally known as a master plan. urban planning. although not always by governments and not A main premise of planning became. This section deals with the new approaches. It then turns to the various they nonetheless have elements in common that bring them innovative approaches to urban planning that are being closer to the normative criteria for planning identified in attempted in both developed and developing countries. the form place since the dawn and regarded as solely a function of government). approaches should not be viewed as models that can be The term ‘modernist planning’ refers to the approach applied in all contexts. approaches to urban planning. While planning has common purposes. world. A main this Global Report is government. Asia and part of the 19th century a new set of ideas about planning sub-Saharan Africa. However. which was shaped by a what form it should Middle East and North Africa particular time and place.1 A considerable degree of planning competence was change in recent decades. One of the best known of . it generally involves a particular process different contexts.

The location and physical region under the banner of modernity. Djenne. Cities were often citadel.4 There is a striking similarity between these historic Cities in Greece and Italy show the earliest evidence of urban settlements and what was later introduced in the urban planning in Western Europe. well-designed systems of covered drainage laid at depths of up to 0. as this rendered navigation difficult for invading social control and acculturation. Istanbul has ancient Archaeological research has uncovered evidence of an elabo- origins. the first paramount pharaoh of a Daro in the Indus Valley and at Harappa in the Punjab. Streets in Greek cities prior to the advent of the resemblance to what was to be introduced by European ‘Hippodamian grid’. was built on raised islets in Lake as many as 50. and a cities. there was the Acropolis. The the gridiron street pattern not only to facilitate the mobility streets were deliberately made to meander for military of people. It was not until the 7th century BC that the gridiron (618–907 AD). The plan 560 BC and served as the capital of the Black Kingdom of included paved streets. A more decentralized form of Greek colonies. planning emerged following the demise of the Tang Dynasty Rome initially developed as a village of shepherds in and with the rise of the Song Dynasty (960–1279 AD). criss-crossing at right angles encircling wall.2 Another ancient city. The empire’s political interests.530km of well-planned and maintained socio-economic and cultural centre in the Middle East and footpaths. For instance. sewers colonial era and municipal buildings. palaces the Eastern Roman (324–395 AD). est in spatial design and developed an elaborate plan for the and Great Zimbabwe. including streets. Guatemala. Some of these cities were surrounded by walls of stone or earth. These united Egypt. the city was divided into four distinct districts during colonial era. Some ruler’s compound or a central marketplace. Many towns and cities flourished in Africa prior to the tion. The Inca Empire stretched for about 4020km from Hüyük.6 Walls surrounding these ancient cities had three main purposes: defining the settlements. Kilwa. Many towns and the 8th century BC. terms of its urbanity by 6000 BC. Mombasa and Zanzibar city. cities had sophisticated spatial design structures.48 Global trends: The urban planning process (procedural) these. It was a leading includes 22. To facilitate effective administra. enclosed within walls. the towns were intersected by avenues and as the Maya. Until the Tang Dynasty forces. the location of the main . schools and libraries. which Pakistan assumed a compartmentalized spatial structure with est evidence of evolved from a small farming village from about the end of distinct areas for different land-use activities. controlling Latin America growth and protecting the inhabitants from external threats. present-day southern Mexico. Located in the alleyways. The urban infrastructure of the Incas AD) and the Ottoman (1453–1923 AD). The ancient towns of Cities in Greece and structure of towns in these two civilizations were largely the Indus Valley in the north-western region of present-day Italy show the earli. Kumbi-Saleh. and created a in South and East Africa. in the same manner as ancient Greek political and economic life. Athens.6m below the street level. which served as the centre of socio. covered an area of about 445ha and contained capital. Kush. Timbuktu. The Mayans concentric formations with roads that originated at the were already living in urban settlements by 2600 BC. the Mayans became prominent around 250 AD in more politically centralized polities such as Asante. the 5th century BC. These include Meroë. western Hausa and Ganda. The Aztec Empire was located in Central Mexico on tion of aspirations and protected socio-economic and the site currently occupied by Mexico City. and radiated to of these settlements had populations in excess of 300. cities were typically constructed Western Europe located on an isolated fortified hilltop. which was a large and often punctuated by six avenues. such Often. Tenochtitlan. Ife and Gao in North and West Africa. In south-western Nigeria. including temple-pyramids. the towns were configured in radial Honduras. urban planning in ancient China was rigid street pattern was introduced in human settlements in and highly centralized. which opened onto broad thoroughfares. which later became a dominant feature colonial authorities. was already well developed in Quito in present-day Ecuador to the Maule River in Chile.5 Meroë was established in about street pattern dominated by two major streets. Axum. Julius Caesar (49–55 BC) had an inter. El Salvador and northern Belize. In addition to the around a gridiron street pattern. goods and services. public bathrooms. Catal Texcoco.000 inhabitants. The Etruscans inhabited the city during cities flourished in the early days of the Roman Empire and laid out its earliest Sub-Saharan Africa Africa prior to the system of public infrastructure. the Byzantine (395–1453 and observatories. and broad paved Western Europe streets.3 The ancient cities of Egypt emerged not long after East and South-East Asia urbanization had begun in the Mesopotamian region. The street pattern in these cities bore a striking market. European colonial authorities employed of cities in the Greco-Roman world.000 various provincial centres. the by the late 1400s when Christopher Columbus arrived in the planning process adopted was one that enhanced the realiza- region. Memphis and Hierakonopolis were established by 3100 BC Cities dating back to about 3500 BC existed in Mohenjo- during the reign of Menes. was In ancient China. Uruk. and the Agora. The plan divided the city into 14 districts. In the Yucatan.7 For instance. a central meeting place. Sofala. influenced by military concerns. has been classified as a ‘world city’ as a result of its historical heritage. urban planning in the fourth and beginning of the third millennium BC. Yoruba. in present-day Turkey. were irregular. Latin America had urban civilizations of great antiquity. but also as an instrument of reasons. Aztec and Inca civilizations. and served as the capital of three historic empires: rate ancient architecture.

chaotic and the beauty of the countryside into the towns. A third settlements. Nesebar is one of Europe’s In this regard. From the outset. One of the most influential planning forms of the reformed to play this role.17 which came to be highly influential . gious diseases from the rest of the population. The ancient city’s spatial structure was largely urban planning are characterized as ‘essentially a political. which included urban planning regulations. also known as Ragusa.13 Technical and ideological factors collec.and higher- income groups to use planning as a way of maintaining their East and Central Europe property prices and excluding ‘less desirable’ lower-income East and Central Europe also has a history of urbanization residents. from industrial zones. of the 1840s. which in turn showed remarkable medieval England Sea in Croatia. Accordingly. brought about by the In other countries where the concept of planning Industrial Revolution. were required to design markets. The objectives here were twofold: social – the preservation of a traditional way of life Modernist planning emerged in the latter part of the 19th which was essentially anti-urban. represented an attempt to recreate this village life through bringing ‘green’ back into towns made up of winding roads THE EMERGENCE OF and separate cottage residences. while it responded to social. cultural. most of whom were civil ‘Planning activities’ such as the construction of roads and engineers and health professionals. developed by Ebenezer Howard. Dubrovnik. other two sets of factors: technical and ideological. as far back as 1272. Hence. Similarly. it was not seen as the task of planning to century. it had well-developed local governance Three essential components characterized planning statutes. largely in response to rapidly growing. when the authorities made conscious as a technical activity to be carried out by trained experts effort to replan its streets. without the involvement of politicians or communities. an agora and a wall with Thracian fortifica. fully maximized the use of urban space while minimizing the Planning has also been described as a tool for attain- feeling of congestion. regardless of others were designed to separate those infected by conta- their size. planning involved the production of master plans. planning and public health security were the major considerations in the road network were linked.8 The towns remained essentially agrarian. the Garden City. planning and health officials collaborated to facilitate easy access to a wide variety of goods. One remarkable aspect of Dubrovnik is that resilience through the 20th century. dates back to the tenth or political matters. These were to shape the objectives village life of founded in the seventh century and located on the Adriatic and forms of planning. showing a detailed view of during this time. it was influenced by emerged to counter the ‘horrors’ of the industrial city. especially residential. and through controlling the MODERNIST PLANNING size and growth of the town. urban planning has been practised by all Third. In the 21st formulated. The emergence and spread of contemporary urban planning 49 market in close proximity to the king’s palace was meant to In this regard. early British town planning was strongly of the ‘modernist’ century there are parts of the world where planning is no influenced by the radical and utopian socialism of the time city longer a useful tool through which societies can organize and a nostalgic longing for the village life of medieval their living spaces. the ideas regions and cultures since the earliest times.9 The city benefited from its first formal planning intervene in these matters. economic ancient planned city. In 1723. time. in the view of planners. a of the century’. Planning was therefore perceived initiative in 1530. for middle. during the 1920s in ways that were most suited to their environments. This meant that ancient African towns success. Other efforts sought to separate land-use heads and local chiefs who in turn reported back to the activities. In sum. and a nostalgic temple of Apollo. these values tended to and 1930s economies and political structures. drainage clearance and digging of waste disposal schemes to improve sanitation conditions in residential areas sites were often undertaken under the supervision of family and work places. tively produced a number of urban ‘visions’ put forward by longing for the tions.16 polluted cities in Western Europe. safety and other epidemics.10 The first set normative visions prevailed. but there is no reason why it cannot be England. ing political and ideological goals of the state or ruling class.11 Urban planners. Broadly. Novgorod. planned the city. and aesthetic – bringing century. especially contain contagious and deadly diseases such as cholera and food items by the king’s household. 20th-century developments in European planning was oldest cities. of the ‘modernist’ city. strongly influenced influenced by the Greeks who colonized the region at the social. Peter the Great re. reflected the ‘public good’. In France. hence. with ancestry in the English sanitary movement design and social institutions surrounding the palace. It was not uncommon. Yet king. professional and technical response to a by the radical and beginning of the sixth century BC. developed around the framework that was established blueprint plans15 or layout plans. This explains typical blend of circumstances which marked the years at the turn utopian socialism ancient Greek urban design features such as the acropolis. planning was viewed as a normative task that should In France. the built form of a city once it attained its ideal end-state. therefore. and present-day Novgorod has since Second.14 The first was that it was seen regulations included elements specifically addressing as an exercise in the physical planning and design of human matters of general welfare. It represented be driven by a particular set of values which described the of Le Corbusier a collective effort by societies to organize their living spaces ideal living environment and.12 Early British town dating back thousands of years. health and sanitation. ethnic minorities and traders from their areas. The for most of the 20th century. although this sometimes be quite specific to the time and place in which they were established the ideal expressed imbalances in power and wealth. is a historic city particular individuals. the ideas of Le of factors accounted for planning’s effort to combat the Corbusier during the 1920s and 1930s established the ideal negative externalities of industrialization and urbanization.

then the In the US. narrow streets and after no further change would occur. with 20th-century visions drew on the boulevards and promenades of the great any challenge to this taking place through the courts rather of the ideal city took European capitals. realized. Planning systems and urban forms model could create social communities was a good are inevitably based on particular assumptions about the example of this. The UK planning system has generally accepted a decades. The modernist assump. the nature of the plans that produced communities had adopted zoning ordinances by 1929. these imported ideas have also been drawn on population and economic growth over the long term for reasons of political. dispersed cities with each family on its indication of future land use but no automatic rights. This • Cities were amenable to manipulation in terms of these section first examines the mechanisms through which these plans: that local governments as the implementers of planning ideas were transferred from one part of the world plans had sufficient control over the use of each land to another. or zoning scheme. In the them had more in common. the context to which they have been transplanted.19 Europe in the early part of the 20th century. conven- In many parts of the ience and efficiency as standards to define the best use world. been imposed or borrowed from elsewhere. tions that: and provided a model for much colonial planning. the forward plan argued that the seeds of later suburbia are to be found in (comprehensive plan) plays a less important role in most these ideas. • Planners possessed particular design expertise. these ‘foreign’ ideas have not changed significantly since the The assumption that the ‘neighbourhood unit’ planning time they were imported. ideas should not be lost: for the middle class ‘the planner’s The concept of land-use zoning originated in Germany density. Slums. But in the US. In the UK. discontent and socialism’. much where the concept of detailed land-use zoning and master like architects. in response to a very particular time and set of regional which they were entrusted to promote. much land-use policy has been THE GLOBAL SPREAD OF systems are in place driven by a market-related ethic which holds that the MODERNIST PLANNING that have been right decision is the one which creates the greatest imposed or aggregate level of social benefit. The important planning tool is were drawn from Europe: Le Corbusian modernism inspired the zoning scheme.20 giving property owners with particular In the US. time and place for which they were designed. it family on its small But while the spatial forms promoted in the planning was declared a general police power in 192622 and 754 plot visions tended to vary. problems of rapid industrialization in New York took the development rights are nationalized. and then the form which they took in the adopt- parcel to ensure that the plan would eventually be ing region. giving own small plot. The next section examines why and how this state interpretation of aggregated individual occurred. This modernist concept of planning. assumptions often do not hold in other parts of the world tion here is that planners can envisage new and better and thus these systems and ideas are often inappropriate in urban worlds. Other elements of American urban idealism cities and may be disregarded. which sets the goals of amenity. early 20th-century visions of the ideal city zoning scheme was the primary legal tool through which it were different. These ideas were also reflected in European planning of the time. residences in the form of The close partner to the master plan was the development tower blocks with open space ‘flowing’ between them and control system. and was adopted with great enthusiasm across the US and cities with each moral depravity.18 ‘creative’ and forward-looking vision of the city.21 the form of low. but that once the design was complete it plans has been even more resilient. Local plans give an form of low-density. spread throughout the world in the following plans. dispersed first aim was to eliminate the breeding places of disease. mixed-use areas were to be demolished and replaced with efficient transportation corridors. planning systems are in place that have elsewhere • Through the design of physical space it would be possi.50 Global trends: The urban planning process (procedural) internationally and still shapes planning in many parts of the • It was possible to envisage a future ideal state for each world. The master plans which carried UK. planning of land. but these • Plans should be comprehensive. Frank Lloyd Wright’s solution to the would be implemented.23 was then up to other professionals to implement it. ethnic or racial domination and exclu- and plan for this. through their circumstances. and plan for them. If the master plan was the land uses separated into mono-functional zones. forward ideas of master planning and development control. In the US. Le Corbusier held that the ideal city was neat. which emerged • Planners were the custodians of the ‘public good’. city and to achieve this through the plan. Some development application. In some cases. The political agenda underlying these than being adjudicated by the forward plan. the 1932 Town and Country Planning Act carried these urban visions were based on a number of key assump. preferences. indicated by the price A central observation in this Global Report is that in many borrowed from signals of a free market economy in land. parts of the world. ble to shape the nature of societies which occupied it. early skyscraper development and the City Beautiful movement land-use rights almost unlimited right to exercise them. • It was possible to predict both the scale and nature of Frequently. This took various forms. . sion rather than in the interests of good planning. In the US. but using the modern technologies of the wider discretionary powers to planners when faced with a time (such as the car) to access other urban functions. and that there- ordered and highly controlled.

engineers. The fact is that no of Architects (1857) and the Royal Institution of Chartered new city or town should be permissible in these Surveyors (1868). Modernist tion’ (through authoritarianism. professional associations and journals. is best remembered further mechanism and contractors were instrumental in efforts in this regard. A British colonial officer in India. There was also a flow of students from devel. p161 early 20th century. transfer of planning ideas: the first category being ‘imposi- particularly where colonial linkages existed. In 1913 alone. This ing contexts in a general way. institutions. Planning programmes in Urban planning ideas were spread in a number of different developing countries only emerged later. Historians have argued is still the case.26 César Daly. While these considered develop. profes- influential people. politicians or other from the developing world. show how those ideas which Mr Howard put Several professional organizations. Lecture tours and colonial authorities. but a significant number remained to work under post- colonial governments. Many universities in developed countries began governments. To achieve its desire to spread and universalize the Western planning model. Military officers- sides of the Atlantic during the 19th century’. In these Western planning ideas and schemes to other parts of the contexts planning of urban settlements was frequently world. and use of this strategy is the Garden Cities Town Planning international development agencies and consultancies. and continue to be. including the Royal forward … can be brought in to assist this first Institute of British Architects (1834). GCTPA Secretary Ewart Culpin embarked on a three-month tour of Canada and the US. the organization influence in governments well after the colonial era. ences have formed a cum-colonial administrators. often with curric- ways.25 In the years after independence. This was based on the assumption that degrees planning ideas have colonialism and conquest giving rise to imposition of foreign from such institutions were of higher quality and more been colonial planning systems. was quoted as saying: one of the main pillars of urban reforms in the French capital as well as other major cities throughout France and its I hope that in New Delhi we shall be able to dependencies. and Harvard University of planning ideas (US) claims the earliest North American degree course dating from 1928 (see Chapter 10). with countries. Planning historians24 have offered a typology of the ula.1 The Garden Cities Town Planning Association and the spread of Eurocentric planning models left. All of these mechanisms served to diffuse international devel- lated in different ways with the contexts to which they were planning approaches from the developed to the developing opment agencies imported. dispatched over 21. The emergence and spread of contemporary urban planning 51 Mechanisms for the transfer the first course beginning in 1907. while a more equal relationship between prestigious. with I Educational and scientific the purpose of drawing attention to the planning needs of the newly emerging countries. in most cases implementing planning The Garden Cities Town Planning Association (GCTPA) was spun off from the parent organi- legislation inherited from colonizing powers. referring to British modelled on Second Empire Paris. The organization with a record for extensive ences). for his articulation of the nature of the city in the modern for the transfer of Colonial authorities confidently assumed that European industrial age. In research institutions 1913. the American Institute Capital created in our time. particularly in those parts of the world under were. Association (GCTPA) (see Box 3. contestation or consensus) planning was therefore taught for decades in planning and the second category being ‘borrowing’ (through synthe- schools in the developing world. the teaching philosophies. but also with the control of urbanization terized as ‘one of the leading architectural journals on both international confer- processes and of the urbanizing population. The University of Liverpool (UK) offered . instrumental in transmitting colonial rule when planning was ascendant. architects the journal’s editor from 1839 to 1888. world. This research constitutes Garden Cities. surveyors. selection or uncritical reception). In this way zation – the Garden Cities Association – as a means of casting a more encompassing net to institutionalized modernist planning approaches retained capture interest and membership from all over the world. Prominent here was the French Revue Générale de bound up with the ‘modernizing and civilizing’ mission of l’Architecture et des Travaux Publics. or scholarly articles and books. I Colonial governments I Professional associations and journals Colonialism was a very direct vehicle for diffusing planning Professional associations and the journals that they produce systems. were already propagating Western days to which the word ‘Garden’ cannot be concepts of physical structures and spatial organization across rightly applied. The university education of planners did not begin until the Source: Freestone. many foreign professionals Box 3. This has been charac. and in many countries this sis. The main conduits that the nature of the power relationship between exporting oping countries to study in institutions in developed for the transfer of and importing country is a major determining factor. educa- countries sees planning ideas transported through other to offer ‘international’ planning programmes to students tional and scientific means: travelling planning consultants. texts and staff originating in developed countries. sional associations process of diffusion was never smooth or simple: the ideas approaches and tools were usually derived from a developed and journals and themselves were often varied and contested. The main conduits for the transfer of planning ideas Lecture tours and international conferences have have been colonial governments.000 information packets around the world. the GCTPA created a colonial unit in 1912. 1998.1). educational and scientific formed a further mechanism for the transfer of modernist institutions (including lecture tours and international confer- planning ideas. His research on the principal determinants of modernist planning models of planning would be effective in colonized territo- the underlying infrastructure of industrial cities was ideas ries. and they articu- world context.

but more general intellectual exchange did this as cities. public squares and planning field in non-Western regions. they undertook massive urban European planning regions. and they moved swiftly to embrace the foreign countries. same time.33 These ideas pour les Equipement d’Outre-Mer has been instrumental in were implemented throughout Yugoslavia during the post- transplanting European ideas and concepts in urban planning war era. The modernization Union was keen to avoid the uncontrolled urban growth efforts were physically manifested through the superimposi- seen in the West and planning ideas which offered ‘decen. most of which operated on very tight budgets.29 Ebenezer Howard’s Garden City authorities saw the projects as a means of ridding the model was therefore particularly attractive. But by the early 20th century. This was lation of Ebenezer Howard’s classic. lived on in the These included the Royal Town Planning Institute (1914). The comprehensive Association in 1978) and the Planning Institute of Australia planning scheme developed by Patrick Geddes and the master (1951).27 Following this. a Russian and Brazil. Howard’s ideas. A Russian trans. the Bureau Central d’Etudes functional ideas of Le Corbusier and CIAM. In this regard. the American City popular term in Soviet urban planning vocabulary. efforts were made to implement the principles of the colonial era in needed professionals with expertise in architecture and egalitarian and planned urbanization through industrial Africa and Asia urban planning but could not afford them on a full-time decentralization. several associa. Hiring these professionals as consultants was there.28 I Latin America In Latin American cities. Two distinct waves of Eastern and Central Europe Haussmannian planning in the region occurred during the Industrialization and urbanization came later in Eastern second half of the 19th century. Attempts by local architects to introduce Western urban urban modernism during this period were suppressed. The first wave led to the Europe than it did in the West. ‘systematization’ of the structure of the capital cities within countries in Eastern Europe were looking to the West for the colonial-era city limits. The point has been made that the transfer of ideas is renewal projects in an effort to replicate European cities in ideas to this part of never a simple process. Under Stalin. Shortly after. These professional associations have always operated plan were adopted as well. colonial cities of all vestiges of their history. levelled against bourgeois architecture and urbanism. and CIAM 10 was held in Dubrovnik in 1956. past colonial links played a role in transferring European planning ideas to this part of the In Latin American The influence of modernist planning in world. which were the most rapidly expanding Garden City Association was established. The first decade of Eurocentric transmitting Eurocentric planning models to other regions the post-war era witnessed a barrage of criticisms being planning models to since the colonial era in Africa and Asia. The Garden Cities of especially the case in the capital cities of Argentina. and public infrastructure development to the French-speak- ing world.52 Global trends: The urban planning process (procedural) the world before Ebenezer Howard founded the Garden association was short lived due to the Russian Revolution of Cities Association in 1899. Making the built environment green became a Canadian Institute of Planners (1919). particularly the idea of designing tions became actively involved in urban affairs and planning.30 Although this economies in the region at that time.31 planning consultants I International development agencies In the region previously known as Yugoslavia. Chile Tomorrow. Newer professional Soviet planners relatively more successful than their Western planning associations such as the Commonwealth Association counterparts in master planning. The authorities were particularly drawn to the designs that constituted part of Georges-Eugène Haussmann’s grand I Transitional countries: travaux projects in Paris. as desirable alternatives’.32 Planners in the region were there has been a steady increase in the number of Western. modernist planning ideas were imposed tion era viewed major European cities as emblematic of transferring upon. tion of wide tree-lined boulevards on the colonial urban tralization. The second resulted in expanding planning solutions to address their growing cities. Consequently. The absence of speculation and international chapters through which they are able to spread free market forces in the Soviet Union contributed to making Western planning concepts and ideology. At the city level. and the neighbourhood unit. . Latin American authorities of the republican consolida- links played a role in As noted earlier. or adopted in. low density and even shrinkage were perceived layouts. countries in developing and transitional modernity. was released in 1911. a number of planning basis. increasingly turning to the West for answers to the region’s based planning and architectural firms executing projects in urban problems. At the other regions since ments. Despite borrowing generously from the West. Since the end of World War II. airy and well-ventilated cities. the Soviet Union. Planning Institute (1917) (which later became the American The Garden City model was not the only Western Institute of Planners in 1939 and then the American Planning concept adopted in the Soviet Union. 1917. master of Planners and Global Planners Network have been less planning was linked to the need for post-war reconstruction. principles were promoted through the mechanisms of fore a logical alternative. proper city size. the role of the city centre continued after colonial rule. perimeter blocks. the world various ways with local conditions. The Soviet the capital cities beyond these limits. dogmatic in the promotion of Eurocentric planning models and rebuilding took the form of ‘socialist realism’ projects and more attentive and receptive to developments in the with classical architectural styles. more spacious. Colonial govern. past colonial various parts of the world well. The use of Western consultants standardization. and imported concepts interact in the region. a have been active in and consultancies centralized planned economic system was introduced during transmitting Western urban planning consultants have been active in the communist era beginning in 1946.

The project had two ostensibly barrage of Western planning ideas that had become interna- contradictory aims: to rid Rio de Janeiro of all vestiges of its tionally prominent. architecture and planning models. region. particularly the neighbourhood unit concept. For instance.34 in China not by Americans but by Japanese colonial urban French planning From the 1900s. French planning ideas had the most influ. which Gustavo Capanema Palace (Palacio Gustavo Capanema) was originally formulated in the 1920s. Canada. tic of major European cities. Sri Lanka. Therefore. the generous provision of American designs characteristic of the surrounding Filipino green space. lowlands. form and structure This expansion was exacerbated by the advent of the motor reinventions and resistances’. Although not a traditional colonial power. As mayor of Rio. their ability to adopt such in Paris from 1857 to 1860 and. which incorpo.35 An engineer. process involving ‘local appropriations. It was designed by the famous Chicago century. One of the best-known projects influenced by Le architect Daniel Hudson Bunham. it was first employed on a significant scale Brasilia.36 However.37 Following Japan’s military of major Latin car in the region. and sprawling suburbs devel. Later in the 1940s. but those of their allies. To remedy the situation. The Netherlands. the cities of Latin America were planners. least of which were Japan’s land tenure system and its weak Passos oversaw the city’s massive urban renewal project. Mumbai (formerly Britain. Beautiful movement. Singapore and Hong ential nations such as the US. Passos studied concepts of urban design. the neighbourhood unit. British colonial authorities established historically been present in. especially during the period leading up to colonial heritage. and the priority accorded to motorized vehicu. was familiar with the concepts in Japan was constrained by several forces. As a practising architect and urban planner. the founder of the City Corbusier was Lucio Costa’s plan for Brasilia. This shows how the international diffusion of ideas had the most expanding at an alarming rate. impact upon physi- about 3000 buildings. Chinese designers. Colombo (Sri Lanka). the result. Japanese planners saw in their project was one of Latin America’s most extensive during the occupation of China an opportunity to experiment with the first half of the 20th century. Karachi (Pakistan). were destroyed. later found its way to located in downtown Rio de Janeiro. Any existing ones in India. and his plan for China. for not only of the role of the traditional colonial powers such as instance. Chennai (formerly Madras). Kong emerged as the leading beneficiaries of colonial urban Occasionally. but Bombay) and Kolkata (also known as Calcutta) in India. The city’s axial orientations and rated a division of city space into functional zones. the urban planning models that the Japanese cities during the last century. the use of panoramic vistas stand in stark contrast to the Hispanic- superblocks and tower blocks. located within cities rather than produced a five-year plan (1932–1937) that sought to recon. and maintained ties with. century outside them. Malaysia and the Maldives. France. most of which provided housing for For instance. and subsequent to renam. own models and principles.38 This was especially the case during Francisco Pereira Passos’s While the Japanese were persuaded by Western tenure (1902–1906) as mayor. Costa Philippines between 1909 and 1913. the self-contained satellite city and the this region occurred during the colonial era. This is despite the fact that Le Corbusier’s proposals The City of Baguio (the Philippines) was the first had become the object of criticisms by a new generation of major human settlement with design roots in the US to be Latin American urban design professionals at the turn of the established in Asia. Russia and Japan. some of the neighbourhood unit. planners and architects dominated the education in Asia municipal commission that produced the 1946 plan. and to endow it with features characteris. This is a function of the fact that Western-trained and urban planning encouraged speedy automobile traffic. these countries acted not as emissaries of their development efforts in South-East and East Asia. Another American incorporated the ideas of Le Corbusier into the design of the urban planning invention. not works of Georges-Eugène Haussmann. Rio de Janeiro was extensively affected by stitute the city based on the principles of Eurocentric urban European engineering. I South-East and East Asia Features usually associated with Euro-American planning While most diffusion of Western urban planning models to include zoning. Baguio served as the summer capital of colonial lar traffic. the city’s poor families. authorities occupation of Manchuria in 1931. and also that of other culturally and politico-economically influ. The British . Spain and Portugal. the first draft of the new Greater Shanghai plan cal structures. more important influences came through countries that British colonialism had a significant impact upon were not colonizing powers. planning. World War II and immediately thereafter. institutional reforms and urban planning US. terri. (mis)interpretations. the Japanese during the last form of the ‘garden suburb’. planning ideas is not a linear trajectory but a complex influence on the oped as the middle class sought new residential locations. The planning powers. For example. For ence on the form and structure of major Latin American example. meaningful discussion of the impact of imported ideas upon The imperative for trade dictated a need to concentrate most urban planning in this region must therefore take account colonial urban development projects in port cities. However. the project in Rio only the neighbourhood unit but also other Western models had a significant de Janeiro caused enormous collateral damage. thus. new human settlements and influenced the development of tories and countries in Asia and the Pacific region. American cities imported the Garden City model and modified it to take the ing the city Xinjing (Shinkyo) in 1931. incorporated many standard features of Western spatial institutional reforms ant large streets were not pedestrian friendly as they design. Besides. The emergence and spread of contemporary urban planning 53 In general. There is little doubt that the indigenous Chinese urban planners followed in the footsteps street-widening and similar projects attained their objective of their Japanese colonial predecessors by employing not British colonialism of improving spatial aesthetics. Prominent in this regard is the physical structures. of planning in their human settlement development projects. traces of Le planners promoted during their occupation of China were Corbusier’s ideas are visible in many urban structures in the not of Japanese but of American or other Western origin. the US has education in Asia. Thus.

54 Global trends: The urban planning process (procedural)

introduced urban forms that were previously unknown in under the control of Britain as protectorates. At the same
the region. Thus the concept of racial spatial segregation, time, Britain and Russia were closely involved with the inter-
which sought to separate Europeans from ‘racial others’, was nal affairs of Iran and Afghanistan. These powers were
foreign in the region, even in societies such as India that responsible for attempts to ‘modernize’ the region, including
practised caste-based segregation. in the area of urban planning and municipal governance.
In Singapore, the plan designed by Sir Stamford Measures to reform or build key institutions, including the
Raffles went beyond the ‘whites’ versus ‘others’ nomencla- land tenure systems, municipal governments, building
ture that was a standard feature in British colonial town codes, public infrastructure, and spatial (planning and urban
planning elsewhere.39 British colonial Singapore contained design) and physical structures (architecture and construc-
six main ethnic groups (European, Chinese, Malay, Indian, tion materials and techniques) were instituted.
Arab and Bugis), which were assigned to different districts Legislation dealing with urban land use, regulatory
within the urban centre. Zoning provided justification for measures and spatial design structures based on the
implementing apparently racist spatial planning schemes. A European model are commonplace throughout the region.
typical example is the implementation of policies that For instance, building codes and regulations defining
guaranteed Europeans exclusive rights to picturesque hilltop relationships between buildings and streets were directly
locations, the so-called ‘hill stations’. Before the end of the imported from Europe. The increasing influence of the
colonial era in India, the British had developed as least 80 West, coupled with wealth from oil revenue, particularly in
Zoning provided hill stations throughout the country. Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Iraq, have accelerated the
justification for Institutionally, the British contributed to the develop- supplanting of traditional building materials such as mud
implementing ment of urban planning in the region by introducing British and stone by Western varieties such as cement, plywood,
apparently racist legal and institutional frameworks for formulating and imple- aluminium and glass. In addition, urban planning authorities
spatial planning menting planning policies. British colonial authorities are adopted the gridiron pattern of streets in new subdivisions
schemes credited with the following developments that still exist to in the region.
date: municipal governance structures; formalization of the European colonial powers were largely responsible for
land development process; a system for cataloguing and introducing Western urban planning concepts and models in
storing data on land, land uses and users; zoning regulations; North Africa. Here, they encountered well-developed
and building control regulations. densely populated Islamic walled cities with no room for
A series of cholera outbreaks in the late 1800s and expansion. Accordingly, colonial urban planners had one
early 1900s gave colonial authorities the opportunity to specific mission: develop new planned spacious layouts
introduce strategies recommended in Edwin Chadwick’s based on European principles to serve as exclusive European
report to combat the health consequences of the Industrial enclaves.41 In Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco, colonial urban
Revolution almost half a century earlier in England. The planners developed new layouts that reflected French urban
health officer for Calcutta Municipal Corporation recom- planning style as well as urban features. The new towns
mended health policies for colonial India that were rooted in contained broad, straight boulevards separating city blocks,
British public health practice. The policies sought to improve minor feeder streets and plots dividing the blocks and high-
European colonial ventilation for housing units, develop good drainage systems density multi-storey buildings concentrated in terraces
powers were largely and supply potable water to the burgeoning urban popula- within the centre. The inclusion of these features consti-
responsible for tions of the region. The same policies were subsequently tuted an attempt to replicate Haussmann’s design of Paris in
introducing Western recommended for Hong Kong and Singapore, and later colonial North Africa and the new layouts stood in stark
urban planning throughout British colonies in Asia and Africa. contrast to the Islamic towns. Italian and British colonial
concepts and models The Dutch also influenced planning in this region. planners developed plans that were less elaborate than those
in North Africa Dutch structural engineer H. Thomas Karsten was influential of their French counterparts. Nevertheless, they were
in this regard.40 Karsten, who possessed no formal training successful in making indelible imprints on the urban spatial
in urban planning, exhibited antipathy towards Western structures of Libya and Egypt.
civilization and adopted a radical approach to spatial organi- These Western urban planning models usually
zation. He favoured urban planning principles that resulted in the emergence of two self-contained urban
integrated Western with indigenous elements and displayed sectors in cities throughout North Africa. The Islamic towns
a concern for the preservation of native culture that was (medinas) continued to function in many respects as they
unusual among colonial authorities. Despite his aversion for had prior to the European conquest,42 and the new layouts,
the colonial dogma of the time, Karsten’s spatial design or what the French referred to as villes nouvelles or villes
constructs remained essentially European, as demonstrated européennes (European towns), functioned as independent
in his planning proposals and projects. units to serve the European settler community. This brought
about de facto racial residential segregation. As the medinas
I Middle East and North Africa grew increasingly overcrowded, they were seen as a health
Traces of European influence on spatial and physical struc- and security threat and the response was to build new
tures are visible everywhere in the Middle East and North medinas along traditional Islamic lines but employing
Africa. By 1914, most of the region, including all of North Western organizational methods and principles. With rapid
Africa, Cyprus and Aden, were under the occupation of urbanization, informal settlements (biddonvilles) began to
European imperial powers, and the Persian Gulf states were develop. In some cases these were demolished, but in others

The emergence and spread of contemporary urban planning
55
basic services were provided in a series of rectangular
Box 3.2 Impact of colonial urban planning upon the
layouts or cités in suburbs of the major cities.43 structure and growth of African cities
Until the end of World War II, Western planning laws
and regulations were applicable exclusively in the European Colonialism, which in most of Africa lasted from the late 19th century until at least the early
towns, and were extended to the medinas only when public 1960s, influenced the structure and pattern of African urban growth in a number of ways.
health and safety was an issue. After World War II, colonial Several of today’s more prominent African cites – Abidjan, Johannesburg and Nairobi – simply
government intervention in urban planning became more did not exist before colonial rule. They were founded and developed during colonial times as
forceful through the establishment of more elaborate urban centres of commerce and administrative activity. More generally, however, colonialism led to the
planning machinery and the creation of unified urban formation of an urban system that displaced the traditional networks of trade and influence
planning systems. that had developed over many centuries. The new system reflected colonial economic
priorities, which emphasized the exploitation of Africa’s mineral resources, primary agricultural
I Sub-Saharan Africa production (including plantations), and transportation and communication activities. These new
In sub-Saharan Africa, diffusion of planning ideas occurred patterns of commerce and trade, in turn, led to higher levels and new patterns of migration as
mainly through British, German, French and Portuguese Africans sought work in mines, plantations and newly developing urban areas.
colonial influence, using their home-grown instruments of Colonial urbanization also affected the physical structure and layout of many cities.
master planning, zoning, building regulations and the urban Perhaps the most obvious characteristic of colonial urban planning was the portioning of urban
models of the time – garden cities, neighbourhood units and space into two highly distinct zones: a ‘European’ space that enjoyed a high level of urban infra-
Radburn layouts, and later urban modernism. Most colonial structure and services, and an ‘indigenous’ space that was marginally serviced. The relative
and later post-colonial governments also initiated a process indifference to the needs of the African majority is said to be a characteristic of urban planning
of the commodification of land within the liberal tradition of that was rooted in the very fabric of the colonial state.
private property rights, with the state maintaining control Source: National Research Council, 2003, p101
over the full exercise of these rights, including aspects falling
under planning and zoning ordinances. Some of the impacts
of colonial urban planning on the structure and pattern of Enforcing freehold title for land and doing away with indige-
African cities are presented in Box 3.2. nous and communal forms of tenure was a necessary basis
However, it is significant to note that imported for state land management, but also a source of state
planning systems were not applied equally to all sectors of revenue and often a political tool to reward supporters.
the urban population. For example, towns in colonized terri- Frequently, post-colonial political elites who promoted these
In sub-Saharan
tories in sub-Saharan Africa44 were usually zoned into tenure reforms were strongly supported by former colonial
Africa, diffusion of
low-density residential areas for Europeans (these areas had governments, foreign experts and international policy
planning ideas
privately owned large plots, were well serviced and were agencies. In Cameroon, for example, a 1974 legislation
occurred mainly
subject to European-style layouts and building codes); required people to apply for a land certificate for private
through British,
medium-density residential areas for African civil servants landownership. However, the procedures were complex and
German, French and
(with modest services, some private ownership and the expensive and took about seven years to complete. Few
Portuguese colonial
enforcement of building standards); and high-density people applied; yet in 1989 the certificate became the only
influence
residential areas (for the indigenous population who were recognized proof of landownership and all other customary
mostly involved in the informal sector, with little public or informal rights to land were nullified.46
infrastructure, and few or no building controls). In East Controls over land were also extended to housing in
African colonies, the Asian population was placed in the the post-colonial period. The master plans were used (and
medium-density zone. Spatially, the low-density European mostly still are) in conjunction with zoning ordinances that
areas were set at a distance from the African and Asian areas, stipulated building standards and materials for housing as
apparently for health reasons. Many master plans and zoning well as tenure requirements. For example, without an
schemes today maintain this density distinction and also official building permit, an approved building plan and land
define single-use areas: residential, business, industrial and title, a house in Cameroon is regarded as informal.47 Yet,
public. Planning laws and zoning ordinances in many cases securing these involves five different government agencies
are exact copies of those developed in Europe or the UK in and is a long, circuitous and expensive process which most
the early 20th century and subsequently enforced under poor people cannot understand or afford. Inevitably, the bulk
colonial rule. of housing in African cities is deemed as informal.
Many African
Planning, therefore, was, and still is, used as a tool of Important and capital cities in Africa were often the
countries still have
social segregation and exclusion in many colonized territo- subject of grand master planning under colonial rule, or
planning legislation
ries. This reached epic proportions in South Africa where involving prominent international planners or architects.
based on British or
planning became the central mechanism for the apartheid Remarkably, in many cases, these plans remain relatively
European planning
government (post-1948) to achieve racially segregated cities. unchanged and some are still in force. Some examples
laws from the 1930s
Many African countries still have planning legislation include the urban plan of Mogadishu, Somalia, drawn up
or 1940s
based on British or European planning laws from the 1930s between 1928 and 1930 and last revised between 1944 and
or 1940s, which have been revised only marginally. Post- 1948; the plan for Banjul, Gambia, drawn up in 1943 and
colonial governments tended to reinforce and entrench used until the late 1970s; the 1944 plan for Accra, revised in
colonial spatial plans and land management tools, sometimes 1957 and still in force; the plan for Lusaka drawn up by
in even more rigid form than colonial governments.45 Doxiadis in 1968; and the master plan for Abuja, Nigeria,

56 Global trends: The urban planning process (procedural)

drawn up by US consultants in the 1970s and currently practice there has been a significant shift away from it and
being implemented.48 The guiding ‘vision’ in these plans has towards strategic planning. In many European countries,
been that of urban modernism, based on assumptions that it strategic spatial plans now provide a framework for local
has always been simply a matter of time before African redevelopment and regeneration projects, which are usually
countries ‘catch up’ economically and culturally with the private-sector led or delivered through partnership arrange-
West. ments.51 Plans often encourage urban forms that are more
compact, mixed use and sustainable. In the US, public incen-
tives and investment are used to guide private development
THE PERSISTENCE OF projects, although most cities retain a comprehensive plan
MODERNIST URBAN and zoning scheme. In Australia, city-wide strategic plans
attempt to encourage urban compaction and sustainable
PLANNING urban forms.52 There have been suggestions, though, that a
form of master planning has been revived in many of the
The preceding sections have discussed the historical
new regeneration and redevelopment projects, but that this
emergence of particular approaches to urban planning
is now market-led rather than state-led master planning, with
(termed modernist planning) and how these approaches came
the architect and developer primarily in charge.53 The new
to be adopted in large parts of the world. The section that
master plans are three-dimensional urban designs usually for
It is probably true to follows discusses how and why these older forms of planning
prestige property developments, such as waterfronts, confer-
say that modernist have persisted in many countries, what the reasons for this
ence centres or shopping malls; but in all other respects they
planning remains persistence might be, and what the impacts have been.
retain the qualities of old-style and discredited master
the dominant form
planning. Modernist architectural styles still frequently
of planning world-
Extent of persistence of older approaches prevail.
wide
to urban planning
I Transitional regions
In recent times, growing criticism of modernist planning has
Under communism, master planning was the dominant form
emerged from the same part of the world in which it origi-
of urban planning in the East European transitional
nated (Western Europe and the US), and in some countries
countries. In the post-communist neo-liberal era, planning
concerted effort has been made to develop alternative
suffered a crisis of legitimacy; but the resultant chaotic
approaches. Yet, modernist planning is still practised
growth of cities and environmental crises resulted in the re-
throughout the world,49 including in countries where it has
establishment or revival of master planning across countries
been strongly criticized. It is probably true to say that
in the region after 2000. For example, the current master
modernist planning remains the dominant form of planning
plan for Tbilisi (Georgia) is dated 1975; but even recent
worldwide. This section examines where modernist planning
plans, such as the 2007 plan for Sofia (Bulgaria), is termed a
has persisted, why this has been the case, and what the
master plan.54 In part, this persistence has been because of a
effects of this have been.
lack of resources and capacity at local government level,
In many European In general, while it is possible to argue that modernist
which has prevented innovative planning, and in part
countries, strategic urban planning has persisted in much of the world, in
because of bureaucratic inertia. With few exceptions, such
spatial plans now individual countries and cities, the pattern is often more
as plans involving environmental issues, citizen/stakeholder
provide a framework complex. While a broad modernist approach may have been
participation continues to be low throughout the region.
for local redevelop- maintained, national and local governments in many places
Some planners in the region oppose citizen and stakeholder
ment and have amended their planning systems to suit local demands,
participation, contending that it is unnecessary and cumber-
regeneration and have sometimes reformed parts of their systems and not
some. Even in the rare instances of participation, as in the
projects others. It is also not unusual for innovative planning
Sofia master plan, only token public participation was toler-
approaches to be adopted in parallel with older approaches:
ated.55 In essence, post-communist planning in Sofia has
examples of this in Africa and Eastern Europe are cited
followed the master plan approach, thereby displaying very
below. Sometimes, older terminology (e.g. the term ‘master
little break from past planning traditions.56
plan’) has been retained, but the form and process of
There are indications of change, however. Some cities
planning may have changed considerably. Plans are often the
are adopting Agenda 21 processes, and some are producing
result of highly contested political processes and there can
strategic plans with stakeholder involvement. Authorities in
be major differences between original intentions and final
Slovenia have used surveys, interview sessions, workshops
outcomes. Finally, the built urban form of cities in most parts
and collective mapping exercises to elicit the input of
of the world is determined only partially by planning and far
citizens and other stakeholders in the planning process. In
more by the property development industry and private
the Slovenian town of Komenda, for example, the final
individuals: urban modernist built forms are often favoured
product has been described as a genuinely citizen-driven
by these sectors as well.
plan. In Serbia, civic urban networks have set up informal
I Developed regions city websites dedicated to the public discussion of urban
problems and the channelling of public concerns to munici-
Much of the critique of master planning and modernist
pal authorities. In Budapest, buildings in the city’s older
urban forms has come from the planning and architectural
areas had deteriorated significantly during the communist
literature in the developed regions of the world,50 and in

The emergence and spread of contemporary urban planning
57
era, and during the 1970s had been marked for demolition plans to guide the growth of China’s burgeoning cities.
and modernist renewal. But in the 1980s, a new rehabilita- These master plans appear to have learned from some of the
tion plan was prepared, preserving the buildings, and this critiques of Western master planning. The more positive
was successfully implemented by the district government. aspects of these plans, which distinguish them from old-style
Most importantly, the authorities were proactive and master plans, are that they are concerned with implementa-
successful in enlisting the support of private developers.57 tion and with social and economic aspects of cities as well as
physical aspects. Furthermore, the urban forms that accom-
I Developing regions pany them, although conforming to urban modernism, also
Modernist forms of planning have shown the strongest incorporate new ideas about sustainable environments. As
persistence in the developing world, and have sometimes indicated earlier, other parts of South and South-East Asia
been the approach of choice in countries setting up new were colonized by Europe and inherited their planning
planning systems (China). However, there is mounting systems, many of which are still in existence.61
evidence suggesting that master planning is not always an Countries in Latin America initially followed
appropriate management tool to deal with the kinds of European modernist approaches to planning; but in recent
problems faced by cities in the developing world. years they have shifted away from master planning, or
Modernist planning remains particularly strong in reformed it, to a greater extent than other developing
those countries which were once under European colonial regions. Many urban areas have attempted strategic and
rule: much of Africa and parts of Asia. Many African participatory forms of planning, master plans have been used
Modernist forms of
countries still have planning legislation based on British or in new and innovative ways, and some cities have success-
planning have
European planning laws from the 1930s or 1940s, and which fully linked their urban plans to infrastructure development
shown the strongest
has been revised only marginally. Planning systems in many (Curitiba, Brazil).62 Some important and innovative forms of
persistence in the
African countries are highly centralized, top down, and non- planning and urban management (participatory budgeting
developing world
participatory, producing rigid end-state master plans and new regulatory approaches) had their origins in this
underpinned by traditional zoning schemes. As mentioned region.
earlier, important and capital cities in Africa were often the
subject of grand master planning under colonial rule,
Why modernist approaches to urban
sometimes involving prominent international planners or
planning have persisted
architects. Remarkably, in many cases, these plans remain
relatively unchanged and some are still in force. For It has been noted that modernist planning (its top-down
example, the master plan for Abuja, Nigeria, drawn up by US processes, the rigid end-state form of plans – master plans,
consultants in the 1970s, is currently being implemented. In and the mono-functional and sterile urban environments
Francophone Africa, French planning documents that were produced) has been strongly criticized for some decades. It
transferred to the colonies in the 1960s have hardly been has been accused of being outdated, inappropriate and,
changed. For example, the last revision of the terms of refer- above all, ineffective, especially in cities experiencing rapid
ence for the preparation of urban planning documents in growth and change, and the pressures of globalization. It has
The most common
Côte d’Ivoire was in 1985. It was obvious that these terms of also been argued that this approach to planning is no longer
criticism of master
reference were not in harmony with the new constitutional compatible with the changing role of local governments as
plans is that they
context or with modern urban development practices.58 the latter have shifted to include a wider range of stakehold-
bear so little relation
Planning in the sub-continent of India has had strong ers in decision-making and to be facilitative and to promote
to the reality of
parallels with the African experience, given the common rather than act as conduits for state-led intervention. The
rapidly growing and
factor of British colonial rule. Limited health and safety most common criticism of master plans is that they bear so
poor cities
measures at the start of the 20th century gave way to master little relation to the reality of rapidly growing and poor cities,
planning and zoning ordinances, introduced under British or are grounded in legislation that is so outdated, that they
rule but persisting in post-colonial times. Some 2000 Indian are not implemented or are ignored.63 Yet, in many parts of
cities now have master plans, all displaying the problems that the world, and particularly in developing countries where
caused countries such as the UK to shift away from this modernist planning was frequently inherited from colonial
approach, and yet the main task of municipal planning powers, it persists. Governments appear to be reluctant or
departments is to produce more such plans.59 Bangladesh unable to reform their planning systems. This section puts
and Pakistan are also still under the sway of master planning. forward some reasons as to why this might be the case.
Recently, the growing criticism of the master plan in India In some countries there has been a lack of capacity
led the Ministry of Urban Development to organize a and skills to reform the planning system. This seems to have
national conference on the theme of Alternatives to the been one reason for the persistence of modernist planning in
Master Plan. After extensive discussions and debates many of the transitional countries.64 Here the shift away
extending over three days, the meeting concluded that the from a communist political system was recent and abrupt,
only alternative to the master plan is a ‘better’ master plan.60 and many aspects of policy had to be transformed in a short
In other parts of the world, institutionalized urban period of time. There was almost no experience in local
planning came much later, but followed familiar patterns. In governments of handling planning issues, and little knowl-
China, the City Planning Act of 1989 set up a comprehensive edge of participatory or strategic planning processes. At the
urban planning system based on the production of master same time, communism gave way to a strong neo-liberal

58 Global trends: The urban planning process (procedural)

ethos, in which planning was seen as a remnant of older wish to be viewed in this way. The aggressive promotion of
systems of state control. Until very recently, therefore, there these forms by developers, consultants and international
has been little support for state involvement in urban agencies has also played a key role.
planning.
In other parts of the world, and particularly countries
Why modernist approaches to planning
in Asia, political systems are highly centralized and there is
are problematic
little tradition of citizen involvement in public decision-
making. In China for example, contrary to the West, The most obvious problem with modernist planning is that it
governance is not based on a separation of state and society, completely fails to accommodate the way of life of the major-
but rather from an attempt to maintain their integration.65 ity of inhabitants in rapidly growing, and largely poor and
The concept of central state control over all aspects of urban informal cities, and thus directly contributes to social and
growth and change through master plans fits well into these spatial marginalization or exclusion. Furthermore, it fails to
kinds of political systems and into situations where most take into account the important challenges of 21st-century
land is in state ownership. Some countries in this region cities (e.g. climate change, oil depletion, food insecurity and
have largely done without institutionalized planning informality), and fails to acknowledge the need to involve
systems.66 Local governments in these countries have been communities and other stakeholders in the planning and
weak, and cities have been shaped by national economic management of urban areas.
Planning can be development policies and rampant market forces. National The regulatory aspects of modernist planning (land-
used as a ‘tactic of governments have invested in large productive urban infra- use zoning and building regulations) have usually required
marginalization’, structure projects, but have made almost no effort to attend people to comply with particular forms of land tenure, build-
where particular to welfare needs or environmental issues, or to rationalize ing regulations, building forms and construction materials,
groups are denied spatial development and land release. usually embodying European building technologies and
access to planning It has been suggested that it may not always be in the imported materials, and requirements for setbacks,
services interests of governments to reform their planning systems, minimum plot sizes, coverage, on-site parking, etc.
as modernist planning places a great deal of power in the Complying with these requirements imposes significant
hands of government officials and politicians who might be costs and is usually complex and time consuming. In a study
reluctant to give this up. Modernist approaches are often of nine cities in Africa, Asia and Latin America, it was found
land dependent, and authorities in many developing that most had planning and building standards that were
countries would not be willing to give up their control over unsuited to the poor.71 The official minimum plot size in
land-related matters, as this would seriously weaken their many developing countries is considerably higher than the
position. Planning can be used as a ‘tactic of marginaliza- size of plots regularly occupied in informal settlements and
tion’,67 where particular ethnic or income groups are denied costs more than what many households can afford. Similarly,
access to planning services and are then marginalized or official standards for road reservations are far more generous
stigmatized because they live in informal or unregulated in terms of land area than in capital cities of Europe where
areas. Another scenario is that urban areas are covered by car ownership is significantly higher than in suburban areas
rigid and outdated planning regulations that are only partially of developing countries.72 Those adversely affected by such
Master planning has or intermittently enforced, and this opens the door to unrealistic standards are the urban poor and low-income
been used (oppor- bribery and corruption.68 Master planning has been used households in that they are left out of the planning arena,
tunistically) across (opportunistically) across the globe as a justification for ending up in unplanned and un-serviced areas where poverty
the globe as a justifi- evictions and land grabs. An example is the mass eviction is endemic.73
cation for evictions and demolition, which occurred in Zimbabwe in May 2005, The objectives of regulations relating to safety and
and land grabs under the Town and Country Planning Act of 1976 (Chapter health and ensuring access (important for fire and
29, section 12), which authorizes the state to demolish ambulance services at least) are necessary. However, the
structures and evict people. The planning machinery was majority of populations in cities in developing countries live
effectively mobilized to evict and demolish vendors’ struc- in informal settlements and survive off informal work, and
tures, informal businesses and homes labelled as illegal by on precarious and unpredictable incomes. The possibility
the government.69 Estimates show that 700,000 people that people living in such circumstances could comply with a
either lost their homes, their source of livelihood or both, zoning ordinance designed for relatively wealthy European
with a further 2.4 million people or 18 per cent of the towns is extremely unlikely. One of two outcomes is possible
Zimbabwean population being affected to varying degrees.70 here. One is that the system is strongly enforced and people
The built and architectural forms promoted by who cannot afford to comply with the zoning requirements
modernist planning have also shown remarkable resistance are forced to move to areas where they can evade detection
to change, and continue to shape urban environments in the – which would usually be an illegal informal settlement,
building of new capital cities (such as Abuja, Nigeria) and in probably in the peri-urban areas. Alternatively, the munici-
new city construction in China, Dubai and elsewhere. It pality may not have the capacity to enforce the ordinance, in
appears that the ideas of French architect Le Corbusier and which case it will be ignored as simply unachievable. A
his followers are still strongly associated with being modern, common pattern in many cities is that there are core areas of
with development and with ‘catching up with the West’, and economic and governmental significance that are protected
have thus been attractive to governments and elites who and regulated, while the rest are not. In effect, people have

The emergence and spread of contemporary urban planning
59
to step outside the law in order to secure land and shelter sometimes depends upon complex systems of bribes and
due to the elitist nature of urban land laws.74 It could be corrupt deals, and is sometimes met with official force and
argued, therefore, that city governments themselves are eviction. The development of new planned urban areas has
producing social and spatial exclusion as a result of the also tended to exclude lower-income groups. Cities planned
inappropriate laws and regulations which they adopt. around car-based movement systems ensure that those with
A characteristic of master plans is that they are usually a car have high levels of mobility and accessibility, while
drawn up by experts as end-state blueprint plans, and those without cars – the majority in developing cities – often
without consultation with communities. They are also find themselves trapped in peripheral settlements, unable to
usually underpinned by regulatory systems that are applied access public facilities and work opportunities. This is made
inflexibly and technocratically. These features impact worse by the low-built density developments and green
negatively in a number of ways. In cities in developing buffers or wedges characteristic of modernist city forms.
countries, it is not uncommon that architects of master plans Low-income households, which have usually been displaced
are either consultants who are based in developed countries to cheaper land on the urban periphery, thus find
or who have been trained there. Many have little under- themselves having to pay huge transport costs if they want to
standing of the dynamics of poverty and the peculiar nature travel to public facilities or jobs.
A characteristic of
of urbanization in cities in developing countries, or alterna- The separation of land uses into zoned mono-
master plans is that
tively adhere to the older modernist belief that these cities functional areas also generates large volumes of movement,
they are usually
will soon catch up economically with those in developed and if residential zoning is enforced, leads to major
drawn up by experts
countries. Consultation processes could, of course, poten- economic disadvantage for poorer people who commonly use
without consultation
tially allow such foreign experts to gain an understanding of their dwelling as an economic unit as well. Mono-functional
with communities
what it means to be a poor urban dweller in the 21st zoning never reflected or accommodated the realities of
century. But many such experts believe little is to be gained urban life anywhere in the world, and still does not. The
from consultation processes and that they know best. The separation of income groups in many cities through plot size,
result is usually that such experts generalize an understand- or density, zoning is also a major drawback for poorer
ing of values, lifestyles, priorities, etc. from their own part of groups. Those who survive from the informal sector – by far
the world to the rest. They imagine employed, car-owning, the majority in developing cities – find themselves trapped in
nuclear families living in formal houses with full services, in bounded areas with low purchasing power. It is precisely
cities which are growing relatively slowly and which have access to wealthier people that they need to make
strong and well-resourced local governments – when the businesses viable. Income separation also exacerbates levels
reality in cities in developing countries is entirely different. of crime in poor areas. One study in American cities75 found
A further problem with physical master plans that spatial segregation was the most significant of all
prepared by outside experts is that neither the plan nor the factors, which accounted for the homicide rate in black
process of implementing it is embedded in the local institu- urban areas. High crime rates lock poorer areas into a
The problems
tional culture. Chapters 4 and 5 describe plan preparation downward spiral of low property values and limited private-
associated with
and implementation as institutional learning processes that sector investment, and, hence, greater poverty and
modernist planning,
need to involve not only the ‘town and regional planners’ in deprivation.
and the changing
government, but a range of other professionals, departments The problems associated with modernist planning
urban, economic
and actors in government, as well as other civil society-based discussed above, and the changing urban, economic and
and environmental
stakeholders. Institutional arrangements need to shape environmental contexts have, in part, led to the emergence
contexts have, in
themselves around the plan and its implementation, achiev- of more innovative or contemporary approaches to urban
part, led to the
ing at the same time the building of capacity in government planning. The next section identifies some of these newer
emergence of more
and society, and this cannot occur when the plan is drawn up approaches, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses.
innovative
by an outside expert who delivers a finished product and
approaches to urban
then departs.
The urban modernist spatial and architectural forms INNOVATIVE APPROACHES planning

that are usually supported by modernist planning tend to TO URBAN PLANNING
reinforce spatial and social exclusion, and produce cities
which are not environmentally sustainable. In many cities, New innovative approaches to urban planning have emerged
modernization projects involved the demolition of mixed- in response to recent changing economic and environmental
use, older, historic areas that were well suited to the imperatives, and, in some ways, meet the normative criteria
accommodation of a largely poor and relatively immobile for planning systems set out in Chapter 1. While each of the
population. These projects displaced small traders and approaches reviewed here has been shaped by a particular
working-class households, usually to unfavourable peripheral regional context, some international ‘borrowing’ has already
locations. But most importantly, they represented a perma- occurred. An important lesson from the master planning
nent reallocation of highly accessible and desirable urban experience is the danger of transplanting planning systems
land from small traders and manufacturers to large-scale and approaches from one context to another, given the
formal ones, and to government. Where attempts to highly varied nature of urban societies across the world (see
reoccupy these desirable areas by informal traders and Chapter 2). The purpose of presenting the approaches
settlers has occurred, their presence is sometimes tolerated, below, therefore, is not to suggest models or solutions that

There is considerable overlap between these categories. in practice. oped world for a form of urban planning which: adopted in certain 4 participatory and partnership processes. 6 new forms of master planning. rather services than detailed spatial design (although it may set the frame- Participatory and • Participatory planning Focus on planning processes and partnership processes • Partnerships state–community relations. Sector programmes on only those aspects or areas that are important to overall concerns • Sector programmes are issue specific. In the context of Western Europe. of frameworks and principles. strategic Strategic spatial 1 strategic spatial planning and its variants. Land regularization and • Alternatives to evictions New approaches to regulatory aspects of The typical strategic spatial planning system contains management • Influencing development actors planning. and environmental issues. • Strategic spatial planning in Barcelona model has implications for Advocates of strategic spatial planning78 argue that the place- developing regions urban form: large. long-range spatial plan that consists • Managing public space and informality.1). Without this. the 1980s and 1990s76 partly in response to an earlier disil- The new approaches are grouped under seven broad lusionment with master planning. Decisions on land-use change are guided by the plan: many European systems have . they I Strategic spatial planning in offer ideas generated from ‘situated’ experiences that can be developed countries considered in relation to the specific urban planning issues Strategic spatial planning emerged in Western Europe during in other places. than it is in practice. as was the case with urban • Integrated development Planning’s role in government is modernism. less on process. New approaches to variant of strategic spatial planning termed the Barcelona However. demands for involvement in government and planning. focus on accommodating a ‘directive’ or forward. many innovative planning ideas that have emerged in the last couple of decades. A upon the groups involved in the implementation process. but also due to a headings (see Table 3. and broad spatial ideas. Strategic spatial planning • Strategic spatial planning in Implications for planning processes and it is appropriate that new developments fit in with the old. developed countries the nature of the directive plan. that apply to development rights. developing contexts 5 approaches promoted by international agencies and • is responsive to strong civil-society (and business) addressing sectoral urban concerns. then with new planning processes. land uses and development norms to indicate restrictions • New urbanism Reaction to modernist and unsustainable cities. Canada and Australia. plan is linked to a planning scheme or ordinance specifying New spatial forms • The ‘compact city’ Focus on urban form. and to be comprehensive in terms of capturing all of the very • is implementation focused. was planning). This section does not claim of place’ issues. support as it meets the requirements of cities in the devel- and has also been 3 approaches to land regularization and management. It could just as easily deliver Strategic spatial planning emerged in developed countries gated communities.79 The spatial market processes. work for detailed local plans and projects). The plan does not International agency • The Urban Management Implications for planning processes and address every part of a city – being strategic means focusing approaches and sectoral Programme institutional location. inclusiveness and qualities of public space.77 It has since spread to other are: developed countries such as the US. • can take a strong stand on resource protection and some emphasize process and others outcomes. planning important. The seven categories term spatial framework. and social policies in space in the interests of a city’s global economic positioning. but it appears to be enjoying growing developed countries ment. To date. spatial planning is more prominent in the planning literature planning emerged in 2 new ways of using spatial planning to integrate govern. sustainability.60 Global trends: The urban planning process (procedural) can be taken ‘off the shelf’ for implementation. depending Table 3. suburbia or new urbanism. implications for land sustainable development and spatial quality. Toronto is an example of a plan that contains many of these mented in different contexts or settings. and • can coordinate and integrate economic. process involving a range of people and groups. which is culturally and Category Type Characteristics climatically highly diverse and contains a large range of different urban forms that have emerged over a long history.1 and has also been adopted in certain developing contexts. Strategic spatial planning often focuses on a process Strategic spatial planning of decision-making: it does not carry with it a predetermined urban form or set of values. strategic spatial planning Spatial planning as • The new British planning Implications for planning processes and there would be the danger of ‘outside experts’ delivering institutional integration system the nature of the directive plan. The aim here is to focus on what appears Box 3. elements. as well as to some developing countries. inappropriate urban forms. Rather. many of the current plans promote urban planning Model has also emerged. as well as on heritage and ‘quality sometimes these are combined. infrastructural 7 planning aimed at producing new spatial forms.3 on the recently produced strategic spatial plan for to be the most important innovations that are being imple. Usually these general planning goals are New master planning New processes and regulatory approaches. dealing first with the main aspects realization that the project-based approach to urban develop- of planning systems (directive planning and regulatory ment. which had become dominant in the 1980s. well-designed urban making elements of strategic planning must be a social • The Barcelona model of projects. and finally equally problematic in the absence of a broader and longer- with new ideas about spatial forms. plan objectives.

strategic spatial planning may be seen as an ideal. therefore. strate- I Strategic spatial planning gic plans based on the MDGs were drawn up. discontinued (see Table 3. participatory and respectful of all stakeholders’. The Bolivian planning addressing issues of socio-spatial exclusion. as well as the development of new decision-making that is long range. 1990s. but does not prevent the governance arrangements: that it can weaken government’s content of the plan changing with administrations.83 The fact that a plan can be dropped also the problems of old- but is not easy to put into practice. It is structural projects. and the extent to which a stable and enduring problem has been that the new strategic planning process consensus on the plan can be achieved. rather than using a single perspective’. environmental Strategic spatial planning also has a crucial institu. and does not affect urban development. opposition. As a process. Côte d’Ivoire. As cultural approach of introducing a national law (1999 Law of the conflict increases in multicultural cities of the developed Municipalities) requiring all municipalities to draw up an world. based on the goal of sustainability. Cities in many devel. suggests that neither business nor civil society see it as suffi. The plan is ‘the broadest expression of the type of city we envision for the future’. A number of Latin American cities is very far removed from the idea of a foreign consultant adopted the strategic urban planning approach in the late delivering a plan document and then departing. The parts of the world.2). evolve to do this. and from planners who are reluctant to abandon gic planning has oped regions are growing slowly. and while poverty and their comfortable role as the ‘grand classical planner’ and proved useful where inequality are increasing. with many attempts much will depend upon the actual ethics and values that the seemingly ‘borrowed’ from the European experience plan promotes. regional and local. strate- opment is a long-term process and there is little chance of new political party or mayor comes into power because to gic spatial planning success if the plan is changed with each new election. this could include the participatory budgeting processes that have become popular in Brazil. with the more successful cases occurring in Cordoba. Trujillo and Havana. as is usually the case. In Francophone African cities. urbanized city. well. In continue it might be seen as giving credibility to the political addresses many of practice.ca/planning/official_plan/pdf_chapter1-5/chapters1_5_aug2007. relatively new in Latin American.3 The 2007 Strategic Plan for Toronto. made possible through state control insert their own projects and further their own political African cities. to carry the plan. planning.82 land rights. Its future is about re-urbanization and its continuing evolution will involve a Coordination and integration of policy ideas of line-function myriad of situations and decisions. in stable social democracies. Proponents argue that the actual process statement that ‘sustainability helps us to broaden our vision by considering economic. protection. However. strate- over how development rights are used. This lessons and cautions. style master cisms that economic positioning is taking precedence over ciently valuable to demand its continuation. interests. democratic. the extent to which the long-term vision is through the involvement of various think-tank agencies. which in the context of Europe are The 2007 Strategic Plan for Toronto contains many elements of the strategic approach to often ‘brownfield’ urban regeneration projects and/or infra. the majority are well off and can take on roles as communicators and facilitators. urban plan based on the strategic-participatory method is There have also been criticisms of planning through shared one way of dealing with this. and these experiences offer further approach made available a strategic spatial framework with .pdf embedded and must act to build social capital in governance structures. It would be very problem. achieving real consensus also becomes difficult. adopted by a city administration is often abandoned when a As a process. The concept of integration is evident in its tional dimension. then there may be little to Strategic spatial planning in developed countries has prevent the strategic plan from being frequently changed or emerged in a context characterized by strong. within and The strategic nature of the plan is suggested in the following:‘Toronto is a big.80 In theory. In Latin American. and there have been criti. Canada The spatial plan also provides guidance for urban projects (state or partnership led). where control through encounters opposition:84 from politicians and officials who land-use management systems is still a central element in use closed processes of decision-making and budgeting to In Francophone the planning system. Guiding urban devel. Box 3. the MDGs were meet their own basic urban needs. The plan must therefore be institutionally Source: www. as in the city of Tiassalé in importing strategic spatial planning. The emergence and spread of contemporary urban planning 61 three levels of policy guidance – national. Integrating the in developing regions MDGs within planning made it possible to rectify certain Strategic spatial planning has since found its way to other major shortcomings encountered in master planning. good governance and city-building’. Its shift away an active force which needs to bring about changed mindsets from top-down technocratic processes is indicated by its statement that the plan ‘encourages of those participating. Strategic urban planning is still many of the problems of old-style master planning. institutional structures and arrangements.toronto. and the plan itself cannot achieve to transport infrastructure: new growth will be steered towards areas well served by transit this coordination: new institutional relationships must and road networks. ability to implement local climate protection policies81 and Where the strategic plan is not integrated with the that it allows business interests to have undue influence in regulatory aspect of the planning system. the very resourced and capacitated governments with a strong tax different approach required by strategic planning often base. strategic planning has linked to planning atic.’ The plan also connects future urban development closely the functional use of land). which promotes ‘social equity and inclusion. complex and fully between levels of governance. This plan provides a general guide. but it cannot encompass departments is essential (because planning is not just about or even imagine every circumstance.85 With support from UN-Habitat and the African Network of Urban Management Institutions. environ- of formulating the plan is as important as the plan itself. One shared by all. It is mental and social implications together. strategic spatial planning addresses La Paz. to imagine that the planning problems of the proved useful where the Millennium Development Goals cities of developing countries could be solved simply by (MDGs) were linked to planning.

aims to replace Within Middlesbrough the delivery landscape for spatial planning was influenced by conventional land-use planning with spatial planning. There is also recognition that achieving How is this effective? The approach: environmental sustainability will require sectoral interests to • has developed an organization which is fit for purpose. there has been strong political alignment desire to ‘join up’ or integrate the functions of the public and support. inclusive spatial plans and large-scale.86 Local projects have been driven by more La Paz. work together and cut across traditional disciplinary and • has engaged political leadership. The new visibility of staff at the highest levels of management and to ensure an open dialogue was forth. African integrated development planning system. 2005 urban inequalities. made it possible to acquire politics is the only way to counter this danger.4 between different departments and highlighting how they can be used to further the town’s indicates how the new approach has been adopted in development proposals. Box 3. In this case. representing an important Spatial planning tools for integrating shift away from master planning. Havana.91 • has worked across the local authority to achieve change. Much of its infrastruc. p3 the purpose of the previous land-use plans (regulating land . hence. approach focuses on decentralized solutions. and this is seen as a poten- around the town centre. Argentina 1996 Stopped in 2000 Due to change in administration strategic planning as largely corporate planning around Rosario. professional boundaries. Argentina 1998 Ongoing Good international positioning economic development goals (the global positioning of Buenos Aires. A city-wide strategic plan public sector functions promoted a ‘compact’ urban form and provided a framework There are two innovative forms of planning that aim to achieve institutional integration and coordination as an Box 3. not least between housing and planning. political processes. delivery. and made available indicators for monitor. progressive urban urban planning in Latin the MDGs at the urban level. limiting range and choice. the purpose of the new spatial plans (shaping • has led a proactive approach. Bolivia 2000 Ongoing Strategic plans mandatory pragmatic and market-related needs. politically induced instability meant that the institutional setting for strategic I The Barcelona model of strategic planning was not conducive to its implementation. It has been argued that the linking of Status of strategic standing of the realities and trends in the implementation of these plans and projects to a strong. from their place of origin. sector from the perspective of the user and to inject a spatial Middlesbrough has used a multidisciplinary approach. The quality of the environment is poor. 2006. Cuba 1994 Ongoing Three updates. especially in the fringe government is a common one. The town has a poor image and high levels of out-migration and has faced low I The new British planning system demand for housing. working across party. opportunity and a better standard of physical development. Peru 2000 Ongoing Effective. with concentrations of social and The problem of integrating different functions of urban terraced housing in particular neighbourhoods. some see this approach to Cordoba. which has since declined. Lima. insufficiently inclusive. gave an under. gies and local development frameworks. enabling barriers to be overcome. Peru 1999 Ongoing Local Agenda 21 framework approach87 argue for a closer connection between strategic Comas District. inclusive. The existing housing stock is unbalanced. Commentators on the Trujillo. particularly around the River tially important role for spatial planning. out of touch with institutional. a variant of strategic spatial planning has claimed significant success. spatial development through the coordination of the spatial impacts of sector policy and decisions) is very different from Source: UCL Deloitte. Argentina ? Ongoing Political delays. identifying areas of skills cross-over or territorial dimension into sectoral strategies. ture is outdated – an environment often dominated by a ‘Victorian’ economy.4 Harnessing resources for delivery in Middlesbrough. making sure that there is open dialogue between those leading different concerned with process at the expense of outcomes. may worsen Source: Steinberg. thus.90 which introduces regional spatial strate- need to create wealth.2 time horizons and indicators of objectives. This is almost inevitable under a prevail- ing neo-liberal ideology in Europe and very likely in developing countries with their more unequal and volatile Table 3. slow Barcelona) with certain social and environmental objectives Bogotá. The new British Tees where the degraded landscape covers an extensive area. public-sector bodies and their interrelationships were very complex and have not assisted the cumbersome. help from But there is doubt that this will deal with the problem of foreign experts elite capture of these processes and. Colombia 1997 Stopped in1998 Due to change in administration Santiago. The first is the new British planning system and the second is the South Middlesbrough is one of the top ten most deprived boroughs in the UK. strengthened public ferring planning ideas to contexts that are very different accountability. In addition. Chile ? Stopped in 1998 Due to change in administration attached. jobs. It planning being perceived as a service rather than a useful mechanism for change. multifunctional urban projects. The first step in this was to increase the inadequately grounded in defensible analysis. In Middlesbrough there is a real planning system. legalistic. One of the components of Middlesbrough Council’s success has been the realignment economic and social change. spatial planning In Barcelona (Spain). Buenos Aires89 highlighting the need for caution when trans- ing the strategic plan and. The range of responds to arguments that the previous system was slow. and Hence. with an attempt to apply it in at the urban level.88 American cities information to identify the actions to take in order to The ‘Barcelona Model’ has since been ‘exported’ to improve living conditions and access to basic social services other parts of the world. UK important function of the urban planning system. over- of its directorates. Middlesbrough. as well as a coming. However.62 Global trends: The urban planning process (procedural) City Year initiated Present status Comment for a set of local urban projects which had a strong urban design component. and an increasing professionalization of members. and departments.

household secure tenure is an important part of this. planning and urban management. is exactly how the ties is of patronage in appointments and tendering. and ways of working with development management. which have not yet been In post-apartheid South Africa. There is therefore a disjuncture between the zoning has given rise to innovative solutions such as land-sharing. and application of performance to good governance. and there resourced and well-governed developing country. The capital budget in many places is still rights98 require governments to take certain steps relating to ing issue for urban shaped by the relative power of departments and by the consultation. the planning system by those attempting to integrate the products of these functions but involved in informality. rather than by the norms of sustain. and aligning address the issue of informality (see Chapter 7). departmental integration has realized. and efforts to improve the ment. and participation remains only rhetorically impor. that the claimant does not own any other land) and that . have a longer-term horizon. Over time. and the SDFs. far. information. IDP has a peculiarly South African genealogy. but lack the tools to do so. given the vacuum. it was also lack the capacity or motivation to understand and fully shaped within the emergent international discourse on implement it. Participation has including the vision and the spatial development framework New approaches to land regularization come to be seen as (SDF). however. the everyday reality in many municipali- criteria). although aspects of the plan. The ever- levels of the plans and projects of each line-function department to expanding informal areas of cities in developing and government rather the urban vision. The latter can entitle a person or community in comment. social exclusion.94 and/or planning control. informality ordinances. In many Alternative innovative forms of tenure in informal settle- cities. tant. been a central goal of the new integrated development What is clear to date is that it is a complex and sophisticated planning (IDP) system in local government. while the SDFs are of the world. usually regarded as undesirable and in need of eradication stakeholders rather than spatial goals feeding into these other plans. new spatial plans align with the development control system. as in the UK. Giving own partial reforms. and particularly politicians. which is the most costly and complex form of tenure. the managerialist and technocratic possession of land owned by another to acquire rights to the dimensions of policy-making and planning have come to land provided that certain legal requirements are satisfied dominate. usufruct or ‘adverse such as presenting the results of the IDP for public possession’. involving different departments and levels of title. involving indicate specific projects at the local level. and especially the peri-urban areas. ments include group tenure. Integration is therefore not yet institu. and many municipalities. laws and regulations which are adapted in relation Line-function departments. The regularization and in situ upgrading of informal settle- individual provinces and cities have been attempting their ments is always preferable to neglect or demolition. So recognizes the potentially positive role of informality. institutional conflict. The IDP is a medium-term municipal plan linked the approach in less well-resourced regions. the consultation process with slum dwellers address the issue of new. In principle. many of which promote urban modernism and redevelopment. A recent study suggests that despite the emphasis given opment and protection.96 I Integrated development planning The IDP has good intentions. this should appear to be elements in common with the new UK provide a cautionary note regarding simplistic borrowing of approach.97 All of them require an attitudinal shift that different way of operating. of innovative alternatives to the removal of informal settle- There is general consensus that the idea of IDPs is ments. not their processes. and efforts must be sustained. and can pation’. and legitimacy of. There is also the recognition that it will take a actors to manage public space and provide services have long time for municipalities to get accustomed to this very emerged. But it may still be too early to pass final judgement. to the dynamics of informality. the latter takes very limited forms of participation.g. poor delivery records and financial crisis. but still many problems. collaborative management of public spaces.92 Although the system. International agreements and conventions on housing The most challeng- tionally embedded. It is now recognized that such an Spatially ‘harmonized’ projects are then intended to direct approach simply worsens poverty and exclusion. the right of appeal and compensa- planning in terms of politicians of the day. there are modest successes. There are very few linkages between the not occur at all unless they can be justified in terms of and management SDFs and the land-use management system – in many places environmental or ‘public good’ requirements. similar to strategic spatial plans. are than citizens and spatially coordinating these sectoral plans. ways of using planning tools to strategically influence positive and certainly an advance on previous forms of urban development actors. (e. The emergence and spread of contemporary urban planning 63 use and development through designation of areas of devel. vision development. evictions should land regularization ability and equity. different urban form. which try to promote a or alternative ways of handling essential evictions. Given that South Africa is a relatively well- governance. In some parts has been how to the latter dates from days of apartheid. The SDF is a city-wide and management ‘professional partici- directive plan. A number the budget. still operate in isolation from each other with the IDP support for. to a five-year political cycle. including the planning depart. An unresolved issue. There is still no consensus at national level about how the land-use I Regularization and in situ upgrading management system should operate. with a Participation has come to be seen as ‘professional growing recognition that this does not need to be freehold participation’. The IDP The most challenging issue for urban planning in terms of different manager’s office in each municipality is charged with the land regularization and management has been how to departments and task of needs assessment. government rather than citizens and stakeholders.93 The strategic spatial plan has the role of transitional regions.95 policies. tion before or during evictions.

Given that the administrative burden of identifying eligible families and This suggests a strategic approach to the application issuing them all with temporary occupation licences would have been excessive. then registration can be based on a inner-city street trading but has required dedicated manage- combination of the written evidence of transactions and the ment and the involvement of a range of municipal testimony of witnesses such as village elders or local departments. rather than tenure security being regarded way to link forward as a necessary precursor to other improvements. Where spaces with a range of rental costs and other facilities an informal settlement is on land informally subdivided by (storage. should be encouraged to form representative organizations that would meet specified rather than either forced eviction of street traders or reloca- standards of good governance. as in the 2007 Delhi Master Plan. forced them to prioritize needs other than regulating devel- For unauthorized settlements on private land. there is growing interest in land laws that can planning and land- capture rising urban land values (through property and use regulations I Public investment in trunk infrastructure capital gains taxes) by governments for redistributive A second innovative planning approach to informal settle. and low-density residential areas. In peri-urban areas. Since many a further period. Adaptations to the grid can be used to accommo.64 Global trends: The urban planning process (procedural) date topography and steer development away from unsuit- Box 3. which detailed planning regulation may be phased in. Canada and Latin America. and municipalities need to be flexible Those that failed to meet the criteria would be entitled to renew their communal land right for and willing to use collaborative approaches. within forced evictions that the authorities had been undertaking on a regular basis. public markets and areas to receive services and environmental improvements through a participatory process of clusters of public buildings.99 rary occupation licence. managed by local committees. to present their needs. Cambodia. informal businesses operate from homes.102 Value capture is means of enhancing tenure security and encouraging invest- seen as an effective I Capturing rising land values ment in housing. Dedicated market spaces should be provided for street trading. a mixed-use zoning Source: Payne. and the gradual authorities could participate in rising land values: property extension of detailed planning and development control. resources to carry out effective land-use management. link forward planning and land-use regulations. it was of planning regulation. electricity. The Warwick Junction market in landholders with legal ownership rights (either title or Durban. or ahead should be identified and defined by a grid of second. Feedback from local communities and non. Colombia intro- infrastructure to influence the pattern of development. and this is Development) that set out several ways in which local followed by land pooling and land banking. purposes. which would provide permanent security of tenure.103 Value capture is seen as an effective way to provision. Detailed planning and governmental organizations (NGOs) suggested that this option would be acceptable and would regulation should therefore focus on urban centres and minimize the administrative burden on land management agencies. and a period A third innovative approach involves working with informal of three to ten years was proposed. experiment with this approach is under way in Ecuador.). The experience of Phnom Penh (Cambodia) with public services is poor. was to stop the will guide developers to appropriate grid superblocks. focus on incremental infrastructure improvements as a and with technical advice from city administrations. Finally. where the provision of officials.5 Innovative forms of secure tenure: Phnom Penh. it was hoped that communal land rights would increase security their control incrementally. this physical and socio-economic development. which could attract downward raiding by development during which the demands on governments higher-income groups. following a period of informal without stimulating rapid increases in land prices. while limiting intervention (especially detailed Within the moratorium period. land-sharing was proposed. Those communities able to demonstrate this would then be tion to formal markets. there is value in an incremental such innovative forms of secure tenure is documented in approach to service provision using community-based and Box 3. It is owners could negotiate a cash payment to the municipality. public transport and main infrastructure partnership. etc. It would also allow such commercial zones. could participate in the formation of an urban development ary roads for access. it was proposed that communal land rights be provided development regulation) in other areas. The concept of value capture has been used in ment involves the use of public investment in trunk parts of the US. These need careful the occupier has been in possession continuously. South Africa101 provides a successful solution to customary tenure). It was suggested that during this period. and serves to . The general trend in upgrading approaches is to informal service providers. The duration of such forms of tenure was discussed with key stakeholders. Cambodia able areas. suggested that expansion areas sufficient for 20 to 30 years could pay in kind through transfer of part of the land. Operators need to become organized eligible to apply for communal land titles. leaving I Working with informal economic actors the landowner free to develop the remainder.5. In China and Viet Nam. without location at points of high accessibility and should offer challenge from the legal owners for a specified term. public spaces.100 settlers could be provided with long-term communal land leases on part of their site. An An initial proposal was to provide all households in informal settlements with a tempo. implications. It was hoped that this would be sufficient to allow people to go to better to concentrate efforts on the public realm and areas work in the morning secure in the knowledge that their homes and possessions would still be where development has major environmental and safety there when they returned. as proposed by the government’s ambitious approach demonstrated that governments were reasserting upgrading programme. particularly middle- in all settlements selected for upgrading. Where many poorer cities lack the proposed that the authorities announce a moratorium on relocations and evictions for a provi. 2005 category needs to replace single-use residential zoning. Finally. under which opment. Phased construction of roads and water supply The initial priority for improving tenure security in Phnom Penh. A duced a new tax law in 1997 (Law for Territorial strategic plan should guide land development. it is sional period of six months. communities economic actors to provide services and manage spaces.

rather political representatives to resolve conflicting priorities than to spatial planning. The at the neighbourhood and at the city scale.106 urban projects and allow for participants’ concerns to be At the city level. followed by collaborative planning with experts and projects. advisory councils) to comple- additional local revenue. and tion and urban growth is that it increases urban land values. Here.g. but without urban appraisal (PUA).107 While tive or instrumental. finance urban infrastructure. much of it is consulta. one of the best-known innovative incorporated within strategies. vote on the municipal budget in either regional or thematic One of the best- Lessons from experience suggest that successful ‘assemblies’. to a greater degree. in practice. Successful cases of participation shows that this is not a simple solution that can be imposed participatory indicate that the following are necessary: anywhere108 and is not a technical process that can be budgeting. participation in planning can empower being seen as a more realistic way in which state–society communities and build social capital. exercise voice. Other innovative participatory processes have been • combining direct participation with decision-making by linked to wider development planning approaches. through professional education and peer needs.105 more inclusive participatory learn- reform in this sphere it will be extremely difficult to use ing and action (PLA) (for problem identification) and planning to promote urban inclusion and sustainability.6). Decentralized Planning (India) was initiated by a state • overcoming resistance by professionals.g. and participation has been strongly promoted in the developing organizations. which detached from local political culture. broadly. One positive outcome of urbaniza. Physical planning is often participatory approaches is participatory budgeting. outcomes for them. and citizen Brazil • overcoming resistance by elected political representa. Research approaches is and available resources. and form local forums to discuss how the budget known innovative participation is dependent upon certain preconditions relat. discussed in this section. prioriti- . regulation and land-use management are the most powerful aspects of urban planning. Projects are prioritized by locally • learning from innovative participatory approaches in elected institutions and incorporated within a local plan for other sectors to improve approaches to land-use implementation. and generate indirect participation (e. The general conclusion is that participation is important had been introduced in over 1000 municipalities in Latin and necessary. The Kerala People’s Campaign for and interests. From the 1970s. should be spent in their areas. social implemented in have a voice in both representative politics and partici. introduced by UN- • enhancing participation at the city/strategic level by Habitat and the Cities Alliance. but that. not organized confrontations. ward-level assemblies identify local planners. control through an ongoing participatory budgeting council tives by ensuring that wider participation has win–win that monitors implementation. become important state emerge that involve either formal participation elements in all of the innovative planning approaches processes or partnerships. Participation and state is unable to occupy. dimensions of development literature (see Chapter 5). Physical planning is in planning Methods involve mapping. it this. To conclude. This approach aligns well with the notion of participation is a world by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and inter. America and in over 100 Western European cities. development issues is the CDS process. CAP depends upon the and economic the focus of criticism and refinement in planning and urban formation or existence of some kind of community organiza. citizens participate and influence over decision-making. A further approach that involves wider planning. ment the representative political system. In this process. diagramming.104 These processes have been termed ‘co-production’ and are Potentially. modelling. including government. or scoring with seeds. The main preconditions was first • measures to ensure that socially marginalized groups are grassroots democracy through open local assemblies. and these are appraised and considered by govern- exchanges. which accused of neglecting the social and economic dimensions of was first implemented in Porto Alegre in Brazil and has since projects. referendums) or stakeholders participate in problem identification. Forum delegates are involved at participatory ing to the political context. ‘co-production’. lead to better design of engagement can take place. and have subsequently been often in small groups (see Box 3. The emergence and spread of contemporary urban planning 65 control land use. the legal basis for participation the council level to make final allocation decisions. providing for direct engagement (e. justice through a formula that allocates a larger share of Porto Alegre in patory processes. yet most Innovative participatory planning approaches have occurred reforms have concentrated on directive planning. • support for civil society organizations to enhance the and this potential needs to be socially harvested rather than ability of poor people and marginalized social groups to only benefiting the private sector. By 2006. Negotiated arrangements with the addressing this partnerships have. in which residents ‘fill the space’ which the mechanism for national development agencies. providing participants with little real details vary from city to city. tion. community action planning (CAP). stones or other counters. pile often accused of Participation and partnerships in planning emerged in liberal sorting. resources to the most disadvantaged districts. At the neighbour- regulatory system is probably the most difficult to change hood scale there has been some success with participatory because of entrenched legal rights and interests. and participation is a mechanism for addressing been attempted in many other parts of the world. PUA/PLA has been used in many parts of the developing world and is considered an effective way of supplementing professional views by allow- Participatory processes and partnerships ing people to identify and prioritize their own needs. neglecting the social democracies during the 1960s. ment and politicians.

close to some standpipes where women and children all. urban environment. In order to achieve this objective. and participatory international devel- equality and sustainability objectives. a ‘taxi rank’ for delivery bicycles was set up. In 2006.113 These include difficulty with measuring the planning in develop. have been modernist urban agencies: The Urban Management identified. and urban poverty. the inability of UMP countries by introducing special programmes and processes partners to remain engaged with the same city for a long into local government systems. The UMP also placed issues such as urban poverty. as agencies. the UMP emerged at this point. these involve redeveloping urban brownfield Observations on the success of this programme are sites. tends to sideline social inclusion. urban a recycling centre was built. Frequently. which . in partnership with the local authority to secure new schools and fire. everyday service deliv. Hence. patory processes in local government decision-making. but instead searched for a catalyst ing. crime and safety. In tion. gaged from the programme and transferred the work to local heritage and the environment. with to set off a process of community formation.114 The UMP has been extensively implemented in Dar es I The Urban Management Programme Salaam. The more recent CDS. they often take the form of private. the UMP attempted to shift the concept of planning and development to the whole of local government zation. Over time. visioning and development planning for the entire rather than belonging to one department. where the profit-oriented aims of the developer are mixed. were increasingly marginalized among donor Over the past two explaining the success achieved. and prepared plans for some trees and streetlights. some of these ‘sector action plans’ have new approach to urban planning. Tanzania (see Box 3. this approach. the overall mission of promoting socially and environmen- and routing a bus service into an informal settlement rather than skirting around it. All of these problems provide further signposts for a recent years. produce inter-sectoral and long-range visions and plans for sector planning and investment in urban projects. and particularly with the ‘urban management’ approach. The UMP appeared to be successfully Regarded as one of the largest global urban programmes. several international develop. and to address there was no follow-up investment to ensure implementa- particular urban issues which are considered important. Several weaknesses of the problems of Approaches promoted by international UMP. challenges associated with rapid urban growth. and to tie local public–private partnerships. UN-Habitat disen- focused on poverty. encourages local governments to In developed countries. community-building emerged from within and was conse. an informal market exclusion. Their starting point was to focus on a bus stop.7). Here. issues on the international agenda by creating a forum for economic restructuring and physical regeneration. and on the well-being of the poor. gender. An example from Sri Lanka describes how the initiators of a commu. However. to A rather different form of participation is promote strategic thinking in planning.110 The UMP operated in 120 cities in 57 countries. infrastructure. The UMP also sought to prise revolving fund. Programme and sector programmes impact of the participatory processes on the performance of ing and transitional local authorities. In developing countries. these government plans to implementation through action plans have often developed around public infrastructure provision and budgets. The aim of these period of time. and the objective of reducing urban poverty and social gathered. and urban land.112 This is particularly important in that the UMP was coalition between the political elite and private-sector established at a time when urban issues and urban planning. health. municipal finance. up to city consultations has been weak. governance through the inclusive mechanism of city consul- opment agencies ery and the achievement of high-quality urban design. Cities Alliance organization also emerged from this group- nity-building effort avoided ‘pre-emptive community building’.and strengthen the capacity of urban managers to cope with the flood-prevention measures. In common with other recent and innovative ideas in Source: Hamdi. follow- Over the past two decades. the local sought to provide technical assistance in five key areas: university provided a mobile dental clinic there.66 Global trends: The urban planning process (procedural) 1986 by the Urban Development Unit of the World Bank in Box 3. particularly of the participatory processes. decades. by the Cities Alliance. among others. tations at the forefront of the development agenda of many have attempted to address the countries and local authorities. to promote partici- city. several in the case of Cardiff. more basic problems (UMP) were evident. 2004 planning. The of their environments. city consultations countries ment agencies have attempted to address the problems of have not always brought about changes in the way in which modernist urban planning in developing and transitional local authorities conduct their affairs.111 quently sustainable and enduring. commercial property development interests was central to in general. A key contribution of the UMP is that it placed urban aligned with the aims of municipalities for modernization. cities. A locally elected council emerged to develop a community enter. promoted particularly when municipalities lack resources or skills to provide this. They tally sustainable human settlements and adequate shelter for located the bus stop at an intersection. the changing one part of the planning system – directive Urban Management Programme (UMP) was established in planning – but left untouched the regulatory system.6 Community action planning: Participatory planning from the bottom up partnership with the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) (now UN-Habitat) and funded by the This approach to participation is based on the involvement of users in the design and planning United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). urban environment and sustainability. people began to travel into the settlement to buy fresh foods. and the overambitious nature of plans gener- programmes has been to attempt to make local authorities ated through city consultation processes have meant that more responsive to other urban stakeholders. anchor institutions. Urban donors and aid-related institutions to discuss urban-related regeneration in Cardiff (Wales)109 is a good example of how a issues.

sector investment strategies. and incorporating incipient and committee for application approval in terms of the strategic ongoing settlement improvement initiatives. context-specific aspects of municipal planning and requiring developers first to apply to the local stakeholder management. the Government of Tanzania requested technical assistance from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) to review the Dar es Salaam Master Plan. drawing on a wide spectrum of groups and actors in government and civil society. the SUDP prescribes preferred land uses and ‘a dynamic framework in which urban develop- ment activities can be coordinated via exchange of information. Housing and Settlement Development (responsible for urban and regional planning) for approval in early 2006 and has still not been approved. it was only presented to the Ministry of Lands. 3 Strengthen local capacity to plan. The inherited – the development and implementation of broad- land regulation system continued to entrench the inequali. In effect. financial planning and administrative/legal requirements. It offers a phase was concluded in 2001. The specific programme entails: objectives of LA21 include: – strengthening local capacities to address urban . This decision later adversely affected the technical support from the UDD. as the organization responsible for preparation of master plans. Currently. the UMP set up a parallel planning system. leveraging of resources and purposeful partnerships’. 2006a forms a crucial part of plan implementation. coordinate and manage urban development and growth with emphasis on improved multi-sectoral coordination and community-based participation. However. provides development rules and principles and three alternative options for various parcels of land. The emergence and spread of contemporary urban planning 67 Box 3. the SCP operates in over as the means to introduce or strengthen environmental 30 countries worldwide. The last two decades also witnessed attempts by interna. it provides options and development ‘rules and principles’ that need to be taken into account when making project and site-specific or area-wide investment decisions. Regarding the location of the initiative. and little fulfil its pivotal role between local development chance of a strategic plan being implemented. The • The Localizing Agenda 21 programme (LA21): this programme is founded on broad-based stakeholder programme was developed by UN-Habitat in 1992 participatory or city consultation approaches. 2 Develop priority actions identified in the strategic development plan into fully prepared technical assistance projects and ‘bankable’ investment packages. Tanzania In 1990. the SCP’s main goal of capacity-building in local authorities meant that the initiative was placed under the minister responsible for local government in the Prime Minister’s Office.115 While the real power lies with those adminis. the Urban Development Division (UDD). Beyond this. based environmental action plans. The first following the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. There was no actors. Instead. • The Sustainable Cities Programme: this joint initiative by tional development agencies to promote particular sectoral UN-Habitat and UNEP was established during the early or issue-specific concerns in urban plans. there appears to be little ture plans to stimulate inter-sectoral synergy and advantage to developers to follow both processes. integrate these action plans within strategic struc- tering the land regulations. The product. The process involved extensive consultations and stakeholder working groups on strategic issues. Due to the lengthy participation process. focusing on ties. This coincided with the launch of the Sustainable Cities Programme (SCP) – an initiative of UN-Habitat in partnership with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).116 impact for low-income communities in selected pilot towns. Some of the most 1990s as a facility to package urban environmental important of these are: planning and management (EPM) approaches. Source: Nnkya. including environmental management strategies. The approach adopted by the concerns in their plans and operations. UN-Habitat envisioned a Strategic Urban Management Framework that is not a ‘plan’ as such since it does not set out a specific growth pattern that should be observed rigidly (as would a master plan). and clear evidence to suggest that the Dar es Salaam UMP – the achievement of tangible results and visible process had been fully institutionalized. wanted it to be located in the division. UN-Habitat guidelines also state that the framework should not replace other plans or urban management instruments. It was intended to replace the General Planning Scheme for Dar es Salaam (the old master plan) and guide general and detailed land-use plans to guide spatial development at city and district or neighbourhood levels. spatial planning. plan. technolo- gies and know-how through urban local authorities. which also had professional planners who would later be needed for the SCP initiative. leading to more sustainable and I Sector programmes equitable urban development. and then to submit it to the usual development control – enhancing the capacity of local authorities to department. Developing a Strategic Urban Development Plan (SUDP) had three intermediate objectives: 1 Develop a strategic development plan for Dar es Salaam. and the second phase multi-year support system for selected secondary cities from 2002 to 2007. the SUDP.7 The Urban Management Programme in Dar es Salaam.

in several African cities and have been extended to This strategy can provide a framework for spatial urban Latin America. infrastruc. pants in settlement improvement programmes. as it was programme’s initial focus was on Africa. as they intro- – mobilizing anchoring institutions for EPM support. and help to restore the functions of government. It addresses the escalating the displacement of the urban poor by market forces. the campaign aimed to improve violence as issues of good urban governance. authorities to rebuild in countries recovering from war – encourage local business growth. subsidiarity. to retain a deeds system since the deed is an affirmation of land cities have to offer. make claims on resources. Strategic projects happened immediately. This provided a learning ground upon which the • City Development Strategy (CDS): this approach is programme adapted. the campaign attempted to urgent as it can help to create social and economic stability. The spatial structure 3. transparency and accountability. and security. age. In seeking to that can be later rebutted by other evidence. and the establishment of innovative many cities in Africa. used spatial planning to help reintegrate ties displaced by conflict back into cities. is enabled to participate land claims through community-based processes and then. between relief and development by combining technical – focus on implementation. expertise. Box 3.117 illustrated The UN-Habitat ‘urban trialogues’ approach uses spatial planning to help reintegrate communi. to make a visible difference on the ground and to provide a way of integrating 1986 for the main purpose of improving. in Somalia. tackles crime and UN-Habitat in 2002. this implied three levels of action: a spatial conflict-displaced communities back into cities (see Box structure plan. at the request directly linked to urban citizenship. and be active partici- help with the development of prevention strategies. reason for conflict and there are often competing or overlapping claims to land post-conflict. forestall land grabs. Asia and Port Moresby (Papua New plans. plan provided an integrative framework so that short-term actions could contribute to long. problem of urban crime and violence by developing the The campaign provided an innovative rights-based crime prevention capacities of local authorities. equity. It • The Global Campaign on Urban Governance: launched has been argued that the establishment of a land management system in post-conflict context is by UN-Habitat in 1999. Enabling conditions required assistance to local government. citizenship. lished by UN-Habitat to assist governments and local – value the contributions of the poor.8). since security of of a group of African city mayors who were concerned tenure can solidify the right of slum dwellers to exist in about the extent of violence in their cities and wanted the city. and post-conflict situations. However. – focus on short-term results and accountability. deal with encourage urban planning to be more pro-poor and returning displaced persons. efficiency. instead of moving directly to a productively and positively in the opportunities that (Torrens) titling programme. piloted and tested various tools promoted by the Cities Alliance and encourages local within an internationally recognized municipal frame. and the Pacific. Deeds provide evidence of rights in land ment of women in decision-making. as well as one place where everyone. • The Healthy Cities Programme: this programme was term goals of development. as such. In Somalia. – develop a long-term vision. In – concentrate on priorities. the inclusive. normative understanding and experience. where claims to land are largely informal. in parallel with the initiated by the World Health Organization (WHO) in long-term plan. status. which is crucial for restitution processes. The essentials of a CDS are:118 Guinea) to cater for an increasing need for exchange of – assess the state of the city and its region. have become a major preoccupation for forced eviction. which are inter- – enabling replication and scaling-up of EPM activi. important role to play in re-establishing settlements. hold good promise ties. and for making urban planning more effective. the Global Campaign on Urban Source: Augustinus and Barry. The the conditions of people living and working in slums programme recognizes that crime and insecurity have and informal settlements by promoting security of been strongly affected by the impact of urbanization tenure. or natural disasters. Asia. Its vision was to realize the inclusive city – a cadastre must be designed to cope with a highly fluid and changing situation. knowledge and good practice. maintaining conducive urban environmental health ture delivery and reviewing the legal framework to ensure rights for the poor. civic engagement and environmental priority issues. duced new ways of planning and managing cities. • Gender responsiveness: the UN-Habitat UMP Recent positions argue for linking relief to development programme considered various ways of mainstreaming . UN-Habitat. • The Disaster Management Programme: this was estab. The approach to urban planning and management. Latin America and the systems of tenure that minimize bureaucratic lags and Caribbean. • The Safer Cities Programme: this programme. To date. 2006i Governance proposed seven normative principles: sustainability. strategic projects and enabling conditions for development.68 Global trends: The urban planning process (procedural) and introducing development-oriented emergency aid. dependent and mutually reinforcing.8 Using planning to reintegrate displaced communities The UN-Habitat urban trialogues approach. governments to produce inter-sectoral and long-term work. It attempts to bridge the gap – engage networks of cities. Safer Cities initiatives are well under way visions and plans for cities in a participatory manner. These norms. This means that the first step is to adjudicate local gender. promoting and sectoral aid and actions. information. It specifically promoted the involve- rights but does not constitute them as a title does. urban planning has had an – foster local leadership. regardless of wealth. race or religion. which • The Global Campaign for Secure Tenure: launched by was initiated by UN-Habitat in 1996. 2004. realize the inclusive city. It encouraged negotiation as an alternative to and. conditions by involving all relevant actors and agencies The issue of land rights is a crucial one in these situations as this may have been a core within a city.

Luxembourg. but basis for the extension of urban citizenship. they have been successful on the ground in changing Berlin. among other initiatives.121 Third is how to use urban planning to promote protecting against speculation and other problems that can environmentally sustainable cities and find ways of linking inhibit the poor’s access to land. especially public transport. 2008b proliferation of these proved to be institutionally confusing and frustrating for citizens who wanted a more comprehen- sive range of needs addressed. local government capacity is already low. The Special Zones of Social prominence in the planning literature and are likely to be the Interest is a legal instrument for land management that can subject of concern for planning in future years. One information booth for women to offer consultations and advice on administrative procedures in problem appears to have been that these programmes can the municipality. Germany. in terms of games. Helsinki.120 Master Plan: City for All (Plano Director Participativo: Cidade A further problem is the extent to which these de Todos) aimed to have 1700 cities with these plans by programmes become institutionally embedded. has developed an outdoor playground adapted to the needs of girls and depends upon a range of contextual factors. training on processes that culminate in city plans. traditional raiding and speculation that would dispossess the poor. This has included increasing women’s participation in municipal raising particular urban issues and ensuring that they find a consultations. While conventional urban Sector programmes mentable. and planning process programmes. If local October 2006. encouraging parents to use public transport. It is designed to ensure rights as infrastructure (see Chapter 8). land access. Usually success neighbourhood survey. unfriendly for pedestrians and administration of urban policies. and protect against down. there has been a reaction against urban aimed at democratizing access to the city: the social function modernist forms125 and urban sprawl. but is New forms of master planning being used in New urban forms:‘New urbanism’ In some parts of the world. it needs to be recognized that planning strives to achieve an ideal city. the new urban planning in terms of raising political manoeuvring. In Bristol. to existing favelas the linking of urban planning with urban development and and to vacant public land. tory. Some examples are briefly described below. In Brazil. which is usually the case. education in town planning. The zones inter- new and more far-reaching ideas and processes are required vene in the dynamics of the real estate market to control In some parts of the for 21st-century challenges. oriented towards social justice and aim to counter the then programmes are unlikely to be sustainable or imple. A second issue is how to well as access of the poor to land. there are further issues that have gained some subsequently in other favelas. including the boys. plans has been the Special Zones of Social Interest. Germany. but is being used in innovative ways. require new forms of intra-governmental coordination that programmes and projects where urban policy is concerned.119 Box 3. security or poverty). single women with children are given preferential treatment in easily complicate the policy environment in situations where allocation of social housing. there are almost inevitably political issues tackle these problems in a just and democratic way. housing finance) and that the right of all to land is the planning systems through Local Agenda 21 processes. in Finland. are difficult to achieve in practice. They may also The city of Hanover. landowner- ing the problem of climate change (see Chapter 6). the Council of European Municipalities and Regions launched the publication Virtual hearings were developed. The campaign Participatory environmentally unsustainable.122 as well as address.9 Gender-aware urban planning Gender-specific participatory governance tools such as gender budgeting. equipment and building material. countries. It does this by facilitating conduct planning in the peri-urban areas of developing the process of regularizing land rights and entitlements. UK. Dudelange. Germany. master planning continues.123 ‘New’ master plans are seen as different governments simply ‘add them on’ to their conventional from the old ones in that they are bottom up and participa- planning and regulatory systems. The principle behind the the ‘green’ and ‘brown’ urban agendas.9 provides examples Town for Equality. world. The extent to which the use of gender disaggregated data. While low-density. women’s safety audits and women’s In 2005. secure social housing.124 issues and ensuring around which groups are assisted. two principles were included in the 1988 Constitution During recent years. For example. and popular participation in the definition and highly car dependent. and whose norms and One important new regulatory tool within the master that they find a standards shape new urban developments. Box 3. from which illegality have been important any such new programme can be an immediate stimulus for and informality are banned. Norway has integrated women within municipal life by taking into account their needs These sector programmes have been important in terms of and issues in urban planning. The ship is a condition for access to many other rights (justice. has incorporated gender issues into policies. but the Source: UN-Habitat. various European towns. environmental issue has already received some attention in credit. and improving the lives classification plans that take gender into account. varies remarkably. Special Zones of Social Interest is that in Brazil. plans’ (focusing on HIV/AIDS. effects of land speculation. At the same time. The emergence and spread of contemporary urban planning 69 gender issues in local government and planning. The first is be applied to areas with a ‘public interest’. set up an presence of a champion organization or individual. and place in the urban planning process. The city of Ulm. This publication highlights gender-aware planning initiatives taking place in of gender-aware planning in some European cities. the UMP took the form of ‘sector action travel free. after conducting a of their target groups. has developed guidelines for city and town planning as well as land-use planning and management practices. issue-specific attempted in Belo Horizonte and Recife in the 1980s. first place in the urban In addition to these agency-driven. In the case of post-conflict and post. has introduced a policy where people travelling with young children in baby buggies Francophone Africa. both of which are of property. sprawling . approach deals with the existing city to develop tools to particular urban disaster initiatives. traditional master planning innovative ways and the ‘compact city’ continues.

the control of the planning system. However. especially as places for small and informal • shift in the direction of new urban forms that are very businesses. . there is a danger the current period when it is undergoing significant debate rapid urbanization that they can become elite and over-planned enclaves that are and change. Implementation is often tation of growth boundaries difficult and detrimental to the dependent upon broader socio-political factors lying outside poor and the informal. One result of this has been that the various new approaches. when it came to be 21st century: Seaside. Yet. planning policy documents refer to these protection. rapid urbanization. with most attempting to: inappropriate models of planning have been adopted in various parts of the world. a particular problem normative principles for urban planning set out in Chapter 1. Furthermore. which will protect natural resources beyond resource issues. and important. In many respects. mixed-use. but not others. implement in many developing regions where strong and Some approaches meet certain criteria. libraries. resource deple- realm. an attractive public issues of the 21st century: climate change. and achieving principles (see Chapter 8). has certain of these elements and is often planning approaches cited as a good example of a planned. the intentions of new urbanism may be sound. environmental and. and varying transport options. planning is still weak in terms of how to deal with the major mixed housing types. challenges. pedestrian-friendly streetscapes. but at the scale of the local neighbourhood. to the Industrial Revolution. These spatial forms have been This chapter has examined the emergence of urban planning how to deal with the strongly promoted in the US and have been implemented in from ancient times. new economic activity. natives to car-dependent sprawl are essential. and will Most of the new and innovative approaches to urban no doubt continue to do so for the foreseeable future. increasingly. over the last 100 years or so. It is generally acknowledged that • be flexible rather than end-state oriented and fixed. in Brazil. There is still a great deal of focus in the new approaches on process. It is clear that human beings have always acted and informality not in tune with diverse and dynamic urban areas. there is a • contain objectives reflecting emerging urban concerns – growing support for new urbanist and compact city forms. compact form. and the need to create quality urban the urban area and will encourage densification within it. and has been used problems in traditional modernist planning approaches. planning discussed above are moving in the direction of the However. public spaces. and how this links to directive plans. It is for purposes other than the creation of well-functioning and also possible to identify some areas of commonality across sustainable urban centres. the budgets. implementation remains a problem. retail and government services cluster Planning is still around key public transport facilities and intersections to CONCLUDING REMARKS weak in terms of maximize convenience. planning is inevitably a political process. poverty and informality. century is of such seriousness that it is now imperative that • be stakeholder or community driven rather than only planning. Curitiba. is revised in order to play a role in the future of • be linked to political terms of office. these ideas may be difficult to meet all of the normative criteria have still not emerged.to high-built densities. position promotes local areas with fine-grained. and into resource depletion. Mixed-use environments and good public open spaces are stakeholder influence or local policy directions. enabling efficient public • focus on the planning process. and cannot be • be action and implementation oriented through links to detached from local and global political forces. which is potentially a tool to address these expert driven. • play an integrative role in policy formulation and in I The compact city approach urban management by encouraging government depart- At the city-wide scale. planning approaches which which meet all of transport-based city. through its spread to the rest of the world. city global positioning. projects and city-wide or regional infrastruc- nature of the challenge to urban environments in the 21st ture. the ‘compact city’ approach argues for ments to coordinate their plans in space.70 Global trends: The urban planning process (procedural) cities are the norm in most parts of the world. ria have still not effective local governments are not in place. compact city models) and dependent upon 8).127 Facilities such as health. Urban containment policies are common. and a strong focus on the directive aspect of the principles of the compact city and the sustainable city planning system and neglect of the underlying regulatory approaches. defined centres and tion. sustainable and public However. This system. but their emerged extensive and growing peri-urban area makes the implemen. when it was first used to shape human major issues of the the form of neighbourhoods such as Celebration Town128 and settlements. and where an Often the aims of new approaches are laudable. very hard to change. What projects such as these demonstrate is that while seen as a tool to manage rapidly growing and industrializing climate change. the normative crite. to consciously plan and organize their settlements.126 urban-related MDGs. and while alter- cities. services and facilities (see Chapters 6 and urbanism. often different from those of urban modernism: these are implemented through the demarcation of a growth boundary forms which take account of environmental and or urban edge. towns and cities. with highly diverse transport and thresholds to support concentrations of outcomes (urban modernism. gated communities. edges. has emerged in that planning has been bound up with global Most are attempting to address what have been clear processes of colonialism and imperialism. often at the I New urbanism expense of outcomes (the nature of the urban environment The new urbanism approach reflects many of the spatial produced). sustainable development. in many respects. and for particular reasons are now • be strategic rather than comprehensive. for example. medium. social inclusion and local identity.

p176. 51 Rakodi. 2006. 1997). 52 Garau. This chapter suggests that there are such commonali. 1999. 2005. 109 Rakodi. 1979. 34 Macionis and Parrillo. and that city governments in all parts of the world can NOTES 1 Macionis and Parrillo. 1979. 2008b. there is constitutional support see collaborative and commu. discussed in detail in 71 Devas. 96 Harrison et al. 79 Albrechts. 1976. the earliest critiques of these 24 Ward. France and South Africa approaches to master planning. Chambers (2004). 95 Harrison et al. 1999. (by 1944) in terms of establish. Economic. 25 King. was an important document 1997. 1967. p177. 1984. in the US. 38 Lu. allows appeal to the United 5 Hull. Peterson. The Garden 55 Hirt and Stanilov. 83 Steinberg. 1997. agenda (see Allen and You. 93 An example of an IDP 121 Allen. 1997. 2005. 2005. French overseas dependencies. 1984. 7 Arimah and Adeagbo. ties. 2005. 1998. 2007. 2008. that affect planning. 66 Logan. 2008. regeneration). 41 Christopher. 1998. 23 Taylor. 20 The relationship between 85 Attahi et al. 2008. 42 Christopher. 1999. Berrisford and 104 This section summarizes 21 Ashworth. By contrast. 2006. 108 Crot. 48 Njoh. has recognized the right of US planning (Forester. p370. 3 Ayataç. 29 Rieniets. Civil and Political Rights which 4 Rosen. Country Planning Association.novgorod1150. 2004. Healey et al. Herbert. 2003. 63 Arimah and Adeagbo. 64 Hirt and Stanilov. 2002. borrowed from architecture 75 Rolnick. 116 Nnkya. 106 Mitlin. 68 Devas.za (links 22 Hall. 2006g. 35 Hardoy. 2005. 17 The Charter of Athens (initi. 2006. 2005. 2008. 2005. Healey et al. 1992. pedigree in planning history – 2008. followed a similar direction to 46 Njoh. 2001b. see also 16 Taylor. 2001. 125 See Jacobs (1963) for one of 94 Vigar and Healey. 2008. pragmatic 2004. 10 Benevolo. see Albrechts. 1997. nationalized. building. French Overseas Territories specifically to execute planning 62 Irazábal. 2008. 2007. Chapter 5. 2007. 2006. 39 Home. 1993).capetown. 1976. 82 Swyngedouw. 2001b. 105 A refinement of participatory 73 Kironde. 115 Halla. which emerged from 1992 influenced by Le Corbusier 45 Njoh. in parenthesis. 28 The BCEOM is a semi-public 59 Ansari. Cities Association later 128 Njoh. Many of these new approaches are also moving world. 58 Attahi et al. equity planning (Krumholz and 91 Nadin. local government to acquire Forester. 1984. The emergence and spread of contemporary urban planning 71 A central focus of this chapter has been a review of consider whether or not these may be useful in their particu- innovative approaches to planning from various parts of the lar context. 69 Kamete.com/ 102 Kyessi. 1988. 34 Cherry. 97 This section summarizes the Burgess. innovative approaches 2000. 124 Souza. 2008a. 90 Reflected in the Planning and for private property rights Compulsory Purchase Act of 117 UN-Habitat. 2008. strategic spatial 92 Harrison et al. developed by 74 Fernandes. founded in 1928. 1980. 2008. 2001b. 56 Hirt. 19 Hall. 76 Although it has a much longer and refers to the final and fully 107 Cabannes. 2003b. online. 31 Strobel. 2008. chapters covering the develop. 2001b). 2008. 89 Crot. 2000. Moderne. 53 Giddings and Hopwood. became the Town and 57 Hirt and Stanilov. For a Town) is available at 123 Irazábal. 2008. 33 CIAM stands for Congrès 70 Tibaijuka. 111 Drakakis-Smith. 1998). 2004. 2005.gov. 14 Taylor. forms. see Hillier and Healey (2008). Sintomer et al. Earth Summit Agreements. 65 Leaf. but rather to see if there are set out in Chapter 1. 9 ‘Novgorod’. discussed in detail in Chapter 7. 2003. 2006. compulsorily private property in the interests of economic planning (Albrechts. 1988. 2004. to the UN-Habitat urban 18 Hall. 118 Cities Alliance. Social and Cultural 2 Macionis and Parrillo. 78 Healey et al. 1998. 2008. www. 113 Mehta. 1999. company that was established Nations in 1966. multicultural planning (for metropolitan Cape 122 Scheurer and Newman. nicative planning (Innes. 100 Waibel. 77 Albrechts. 2001b. 103 Rojas and Smolka. 67 Yiftachel. detailed design that an archi. 15 The term ‘blueprint’ is 37 Lu. 2003b. 2005. 1954. the UMP and were later linked ing modernist urban principles. 80 Albrechts. p194. . 2008. rural appraisal. 2000. collection of key articles and www. 2002. Kyessi. 99 Angel. 2006a. 1993. 110 Local Agenda 21 processes. 2001. 2000. 1996. 2004. tect would produce for a 40 Dutch Architects. 2008.1993. Jenks and 26 Papayanis. 43 Christopher. (although a recent court case Healey. For subsequent 87 Borja and Castells. 2008a. 2000. 8 Arimah and Adeagbo. Some of these innovative planning common ideas that are emerging from various parts of the ideas are dealt with in greater detail in the chapters that world. 2006. 2002. 2003. 49 See Chapter 4 for discussions 2002). 32 Nedovic-Budic and Cavric. history/spravka/. 72 Payne. in 1949 by the Ministry of International Covenant on 61 Yuen. 2000. 1988. 2003. 2005. 2002b. 2000. 36 Lu. Chapter 5. 32 Hall. 2008. of the institutional variations 84 Steinberg. follow. can be applied in all contexts. (Sandercock. 1999. 1995. 81 Bulkleley and Kern. Jacobs (1963). 2008. 2008. 1997. see 86 Marshall. ment of these ideas in planning. 2006. Rights adopted by the United p33. 2005. UK development rights are critiques and alternative 88 Marshall. Committee. 21 Cullingworth. 2005. Williams et al. 1990). 47 Njoh. 2006. 1954. 1998. 2005. Mehta. 2008. Nations Human Rights and engineering projects in 6 Hull. 2008. and the 60 Ansari. 1988. 27 The year in which each organi. from five-year plan). 2005. not in order to suggest new universal solutions that closer to the normative criteria for good planning systems. 2006. p203. In the 50 For an early critique. 2006. p7. 2000. Internationaux d’Architecture innovative planning ideas Kihato. p306. 101 See Chapter 7. 2008. 2003b. 119 UN-Habitat. 127 Grant. 30 Block. 114 UN-Habitat. zation was established appears 54 Hirt and Stanilov. ated in 1928) and later strongly 44 Njoh. 2006. 2008. 2005a. 126 Jenks et al. 98 International Covenant on p33. rights is highly varied. 2003. 120 Attahi et al. planning systems and property 112 Cohen.

economic and consists of seven main sections. CHAPTER THE INSTITUTIONAL AND 4 REGULATORY FRAMEWORK FOR PLANNING This chapter sets out the institutional and regulatory frame. is embedded in wider power relations. environmental sustainability. It is rare for governance institutional contexts and conceptions of development trajectories to be unified in some smoothly working PLANNING AND integrated system. One such practices are tossed and turned by these changes. make an important contribution. as may undermine opportunities for social progress and such. by differences in context of planning and planning agencies. derived as they are from the wider governance wider societal norms and practices and the other to specific context and its particular history. Nevertheless. resources. on the spatial structure of urban areas. The purposes of context reflects the way in which a society thinks about The sixth section discusses the significance of regulatory planning and how it issues such as how urban areas should develop. they planning is seen as a form of urban/place governance and.1 Such diversity is not a new phenomenon. The second governance. but its institutions and public activity is the management of urban change. there are usually substantial GOVERNANCE tensions and conflicts between different sections of any society about how urban development should proceed and This section is about the relationships between planning and who should benefit from it. it is possible planning agencies and organization. although they may also promote them. Planning agencies may resist evolving directions. Such tensions and conflicts government. section. Instead. It then focuses on the challenge of achieving are particularly acute where major changes are under way in collective action in the realm of public affairs at a time when Urban planning … economic. This wider planning and its role in the formal government structures. ongoing struggles but they may also promote new possibilities. . to which they contribute. institu- institutions and of urban areas. sets the between the performance of cities and countries around the scene for the subsequent discussion on the institutional world can be explained. The enormous differences relationship between planning and governance. These are further elabo- to identify some general trends in the contemporary devel. how the roles. and tion of plans and planning policies. context of concerns should be as development proceeds. land and property systems that underpin urban planning. It begins by clarifying the concept of gover- disjunctions between the activities of different segments of a nance and how it differs from the formal structures of society’s governance structure. Similarly. The third and opment of planning systems and the activities related to fourth sections discuss the significance of the legal and the them. arenas and stakeholders in the implementa- is undertaken are benefits of urban development should be distributed. Urban planning in such situations is not only tions and interests in decision-making processes. highly variable The ways in which cities are governed and organized both institutional contexts in which they take place. exists. The first section. The purposes of planning and how it is undertaken while the fifth section focuses on the regulatory power of are shaped by the wider context of governance. Urban governance and government In this chapter. in which themselves often practices are themselves often active players in ongoing planning systems. There are also significant governance. The chapter reflect and reinforce changes in the social. The concluding section shaped by the wider what the balance between individual rights and collective presents a number of lessons for policy-makers. at least partially. social and political conditions and in the dynamics there is a global trend towards proliferation of actors. Within this context. urban planning processes and activi- ties are set in this recognition of the complex. which elaborates upon the role of planning institu- works in which planning systems are currently situated and tions and the institutionalization of planning practices. Such frameworks vary introduces the two meanings of ‘institutions’: one refers to enormously. in all countries where such a system active players in struggles. rated upon in the three following sections.

Planning.g. planning systems aspire to play a central role. actors are drawn from beyond the boundaries of One key trend has been to rethink the relation between the formal institutions of government.5 opers and infrastructure/property investors) may have systemic power (e. and accountability (e. it refers to the prolifer. plan and manage the actors exercise different forms of power. at the same time. example. such as: new forms of coherence can emerge out of inconsistency.g.3 of collective action in the realm of public affairs.6 In urban planning processes. in merely one of many the realm of public affairs. kind of bottom-up design of planning institutions emerged . controlling. However. It is seen as ‘horizontal nance situations. elected politicians) may have tive action can be taken.4 Proponents argue that such a new form of gover. but of many actors competing for access to resources and control The significance of power to act (or enabling power) also about of urban planning agendas. for institutions.8 It is about how collective action can key locus for nance becomes necessary because of profound restructuring emerge from a diverse set of interests.11 programmes. complex webs of relationships.g. how new forms of integration of urban of the state. as a result. boundaries. it has led to despite the centralized government structure in Japan. Modern urban systems are characterized by institutions. or rules interests may be accommodated and coopera. A third group with the The challenge of urban governance ability to lobby and mobilize effective local campaigns (e. policies and locus for integration of urban relationships. managing urban futures. multiplication of agencies.2 In a normative sense. planning is embed- even steering the fragmented and often competing societal ded in power relations. and how relationships. public and private. and sometimes However. In this context. In recent decades. devel- and the social capital of citizens. but merely one power exist and remain in tension. and irrespective of whether a norma- ation of institutions. a institutional fragmentation. authority of the state’. other stakeholders in urban futures. but also about implementing these through collective actions. and departments of governmental and non-governmental rary urban life.3) where. but been reflected in a number of ways. a systems. functional activities and spatial organizations. Those with access common affairs of the city. Thus. agencies. the restructuring trends have integration can be created out of fragmentation. The term governance private and civil society sectors. and confusion complex patterns of interdependencies between actors. These tutions. Power in this context refers to power Planning is not just interests is beyond the capacity of the state as an agent of to act as much as power over the action of others. planning professionals and experts). the term governance is understood in two conflicting.7 These actors represent diverse. over ‘who does what’. This challenge is about ‘achieving self-organization among mutually interdependent actors’. through access to substantial financial resources or ownership of land). it becomes evident that planning is mental responsibilities to regional and local not just about formulating ideas. range of actors. managing or urban (or place) governance. landowners. policy objectives and interests. It is in this context that planning is seen as a form of In today’s complex urban systems. creation of ground rules and instruments for actions by • a change from hierarchical forms of government struc. there is widespread recognition that the govern. governments. interests and regulatory tive or descriptive interpretation of governance is adopted. tures to more flexible forms of partnership and networking. UN-Habitat has defined stems from the move from a traditional model of hierarchical implementing these urban governance as: authority related to the formal structure of a political system through collective to a situation where the power is diffused between those in actions The sum of the many ways individuals and insti. increasing role of market forces. It includes formal command-and-control power. Such a role is and control of urban • the involvement of non-governmental actors in a range implemented through both specific planning actions and the planning agendas of state functions at a variety of spatial levels.g.10 In the about formulating authority. Thus. urban governance • a shift from provision by formal government structures and power relations to sharing of responsibilities and service provision between the state and civil society. formal governments are no longer the key social relations of governance processes. policies and programmes. The institutional and regulatory framework for planning 73 However.9 One such public affair is the actors competing for • a relative decline in the role of formal government in management of urban change and development. both forms of ideas. it refers to an alternative key concern is how to meet the challenge of these gover- model for managing collective affairs. expertise and process through which conflicting or diverse finance (e. Others with key positions in institutions as well as informal arrangements the social and economic structures (e. to which access to resources the management of social and economic relationships. and Given the diversity of actors and interests involved in • the devolution and decentralization of formal govern. This latter is illustrated by Kobe (see Box 4.g. formal political positions and other stakeholders. The trends in urban governance mentioned above have led environmental and community groups) may have bottom-up to the expansion of policy-making space to engage a wider power. formal government and wider society. different ways: in a descriptive sense. in conditions Formal governments whom government is only one and with only ‘imperfect where it is not possible to (merely) rest on recourse to the are no longer the control’. and straddle jurisdictional has come to be used to refer to this enlarged scope. It is a continuing to either resources such as information. ment institutions inherited from the mid 20th century need disparity of powers and responsibilities across different tiers substantial change to address the challenges of contempo. reconfiguration of networks. spread among public.

towards promoting ‘good governance’ in which formal What matters is that the development of urban gover- government structures. where local government in partnership with civil society. it is paramount that checks and local economic development. and exercised through corruption and good governance as an efficient and effective response to sive power that can coercion. However. depends upon the institutional dynamics of particular sis began to shift away from the rolling back of the state contexts.e. for example. This is the power to achieve collective services). encouragement to a trend towards urban governance struggles over During the 1980s. Hence. defines … upon the persua- concentrated. However. these normative ideas provide heavily politicized privatization and democratization of government functions. yet they are. there has been a tendency to see urban have an advantage in urban governance relations.17 The normative perspective on governance has provided a processes are … way of promoting policy measures aimed at decentralization. were nance capacities helps to promote effective urban planning. the less • subsidiarity – assigning responsibilities and resources to vocal and the poor. formal government (if improve planning systems and practices can help to elected through democratic processes) continues to play a strengthen governance capacity. driven largely by multilateral organiza. such consensual processes pose a formidable urban problems by accountable local governments working mobilize actions of challenge. The main characteristics of diverse stakeholders is either non-existent or lacks accountability and trans. and democratic and governance depends place. they can governance simply in terms of urban management (i. collective concerns the instrument for exercising power over the weak. for many multi- policy communities to contribute to collective concerns. UN-Habitat. it has come to mean different that although those with systemic and command power may things. However. good urban governance are: and policy parency and the civil society is weak. whether explicitly considered or through the closest appropriate level. This is particularly power that can mobilize actions of diverse stakeholders and clear in relation to urban planning. the only make use of their position if they turn that power into operation and maintenance of a city’s infrastructure and enabling power. This was based on the idea that. in the societies where power is participatory practices. good The likelihood of such enabling power to emerge is higher in governance is about a desired standard of practice for which The effectiveness of the societies where power is more diffused and is transpar.15 This recognition is particularly impor. and are. indeed. but upon the persuasive tion of resources and quality of places. However. It is clear that planning significant role in shaping the governance processes at practices and institutions are active players in shaping urban various spatial levels.12 lateral organizations. people are the principal wealth of cities. So. processes that are able to integrate social. futures.74 Global trends: The urban planning process (procedural) from civil society protest in the 1960s called machizukuri. economic and the latter. with planning being seen as a key promoter of This dispersion of power among various actors means such an ideal. the relation between governance capacity and the tive action. which are the main ingredients of good governance. and Promoting ‘good governance’ Urban governance • security of individuals and their living environment. On the contrary. and how urban planning practices develop. countries.16 Hence. including the United Nations. the effectiveness of urban planning and governance processes are not merely managerial processes governance depends not only upon the assumed command. since the late 1990s. by the end of the 1980s. economic and distribution of tions such as the World Bank and United Nations agencies. Worse than that. shaped by the wider tant in urban planning since rights to the use and social and institutional context within which they operate. to play an important role in meeting the challenge of collec. environmental agendas and relate these to people’s daily life resources and this agenda was strongly pursued as a way of unblocking the experiences. This later shaped the Japanese government decentralization Thus. In these circumstances. at the same time. heavily politicized struggles over distribu- and-control power of a master plan. balances are in place to promote transparency.14 all of all stakeholders. settlement • equity of access to decision-making processes and the planning becomes an instrument of repression rather than basic necessities of urban life. However. particularly at the local level. accountability • transparency and accountability of decision-makers and and inclusive participation in planning processes. for enabling power to flourish from • efficiency in delivery of public services and in promoting governance processes. the empha. the tensions between communities to contribute to ‘power to’ and ‘power over’ are often resolved in favour of • sustainability – balancing the social. development of land are significantly affected by formal law. Applied to the urban level. it is increasingly recognized that urban action. whether and how such a trend is able quality of places institutional and governance barriers to socio-economic to evolve. planning systems often become environmental needs of present and future generations.18 . unthinking practices. In general.13 In such situations. common values or norms can be identified. development. ‘good governance’ has efforts and the building of capacity in local government and become the mantra for development in developing civil society. in both capacity for effective planning works both ways. Efforts to developed and developing countries. accommodation. and both the object and the means of sustainable human development. as elabo. • civic engagement and citizenship – recognizing that rated upon below. with emphasis urban planning and ently exercised so that checks and balances can be put in being placed on human and civil rights.

Japan (see Box 4. for example. and the relation Institutions as wider norms and practices between individual and collective considerations. former colonial regimes. rights of redress.1 attempts to summarize the actors demanding governance attention to the quality of the is performed range of possible institutions. This section first sets out a general approach to understanding institutions and then considers the implications for. Within the state sphere. powerful institutions may initiative is slowly won after years of campaigning. resources are allocated and action is taken in the realm where this has been achieved suggest that such capacity is of public affairs – in other words. It is thus impor.21 Political activists and Figure 4. formal govern. substantial businesses. for undertaken with international aid slowly grow to transform a . However. This is done first at example.1 suggests a way of ‘scoping’ the broad insti- institutional contexts and their dynamic evolution for any tutional context for urban planning. US. and administration protests.3). These not only structure the distribution of access. and older political and legal systems suppressed by. is performed Informal collective Formal legal through. various respect is continually given to how formal organizations and specific institutions may play a significant part in how urban procedures interact with the often less formal ways of organ- development occurs.20 Within these. reflecting family loyalties. ment. for example. Canada. The production and exchange that operate below the radar of Netherlands. economy and civil society. Kobe. Examples with. Within civil society.and medium-sized enterprises and all kinds of forms of such institutional conditions are found in. cultural and religious tradi. Each of these has its own systems. where there are a Urban planning. although affected by interaction with other systems. a wide range of institutions in systems Professional and customary practices expertise society. including urban planning. effects on.24 But logic and values of formal systems. but also Earlier generations of planners gave only limited attention to establish the legitimacy of specific practices. At a very broad level are the interacting spheres of between the spheres of the state. promoted where formal government and legal systems are All societies have norms and practices that govern respected and considered legitimate. Within developed countries. The section concludes between sets of institutions and the wider spheres of the institutional contexts by commenting on the challenges for the design of planning state. urban planning at present is the capacity to integrate a range tant to understand the broader norms and practices that of social forces in an urban area and mobilize them to frame the ways in which. how things get done. and has sense.22 and formal recognition. as in exist. particular set of norms and practices. and where there are rich linkages through. Given the contemporary challenge to personal patronage Informal practices Civil Society urban planning to integrate diverse agendas in contexts by those in political positions where governance power is fragmented and diffused. experiences since then have highlighted the significance of Figure 4. Figure 4. wider institutions in society through which. conflicts are dealt address actions to improve daily life conditions. Economic activity may be pursued by izing within civil society and the variety of forms which large international corporations. as a field of governance. urban planning institutions. Here. for example. specific agencies are shaped by the community-based Formal state politics NGOs organizations.19 it is important to consider the institutional context for urban State planning at both the specific and the broader level. as a specific areas of activity. including all kinds of voluntary systems may play a constructive role so long as attention and agencies and informal practices. The institutional and regulatory framework for planning 75 PLANNING INSTITUTIONS Market AND THE Formal large-scale INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF markets Semi-formal markets PLANNING PRACTICES Urban planning. economic activity can take. one place to another. markets Such a situation helps to keep all spheres co-evolving with range of institutions and other processes driven by economic considerations. such as those the institutional context for urban planning. A key issue for effective public policy area. and trends in. small. and each other as conditions change.23 which have an international reputation ment and legal structures may coexist with all kinds of for the quality of their urban environments and the contribu- informal political practices that may undermine the declared tion made to these by their urban planning systems. More broadly. Vancouver. formal planning in society the worlds of civil society. often examples can also be found where respect for civil society considered as less formalized. and has effects on. related to urban planning. the legitimacy of governance action secured and the distribution of material Political party and resources achieved. land and property rights are established. etc. and in cities such as Portland.1 the broad governance level and then at the specific level of professional experts often find themselves negotiating Broad-approach planning agencies and organizations. These may be both formal government agencies and less formalized ways of undertaking and regulating develop- Civil society initiatives. but these can be very different from plurality of groups in civil society and among economic field of governance. a wide formal government systems and public agencies. economy and civil society. or where participatory initiatives tions. understood in this broad urban environment.

designated in national government strategy during the Sometimes communities rightly fear ‘gentrification’: the 1970s as a ‘growth pole’. As a result. it sometimes took challenges of dealing with a changing world. Moshi is a major town in Tanzania. ITDG adopted the multiplicative strategy in which and economic issues interact in urban environments. the project access to urban resources and opportunities. Many urban initiatives. In other situations. with plot boundary markers positioned according to the master tional complexities are increasingly being recognized and plan being removed by local people.76 Global trends: The urban planning process (procedural) previously weak local governance capacity. These institu- the form of direct action. nated for urban extension. and despite the formal view tions are not static. the town’s annual population growth rate of 12 per cent had outstripped the capacity sub-Saharan Africa. where customary and formal state practices work for urban planning and service delivery in Kitale town. 65 per cent of the 220. whenever planning the scale of urban expansion became clearer. promoting some sets of norms and resisting rights.29 has also influenced urban planning practice more widely in Kenya. as the example of residents of a village discovered accidentally some years later that their village was desig. is promoted. mal systems provide more secure tenure. norms and procedures) thus implies that.1). formal government and Kitale is a rapidly expanding secondary town about 380km north-west of Nairobi. networking and policy reform. the project has had a significant impact upon the institutional and regulatory frame. In addition. Tanzania evolution. socially and environmentally sustainable local development. infrastructure relate to each other. which is normally applied in urban areas. partnership and local devel. this context. however. and in the customary tenure system. through a participatory process. However. attention should be paid to ‘competing rational- ment tried to suppress. As the scale of the urban area grew. They are themselves in continuous that land had only ‘use value’.e. Kenya Kitale. Enugu. plots others. housing and other services. well illustrated by the case of urban fringe development in Hence. As the struggle between the two tenure systems developed. such situations. have sought to introduce Source: Majale. thereby enabling access to formal finance. They were eventually successful.31 Instead. Much of this residents. in some contexts. the climate of uncertainty as to which land allocation practice would prevail was Institutions as specific agencies exploited by well-placed influential people. by which time many residents had experienced displacement of some kind. In one instance.25 In population lived in slums and informal settlements. arrangements introduced in colonial and post-colonial times. By law may have little respect and legitimacy. A focus on institutions in this broad sense (i. The narrower meaning of institutions refers to specific Source: Nnkya. 1999 configurations of agencies and organizations that operate . The experience from Kitale together controlled access to plots. Kenya. who were able to get hold of well-positioned and organizations plots and thus benefit from the land value uplift generated by urbanization. but the legal process took a key urban resources. and social. 1996. 2008 different ways of working to counteract tendencies towards exploitation by dominant elites or confused struggles over the control of ownership and access to key urban resources.2 Struggles between formal land rights and customary rights. the international non-governmen. neither political patronage nor customary opment. In both the formal system of land evolutions. Protest built up.2 shows. planning ‘systems’ are themselves active agents in these priate the land value arising from urban development.26 In effectiveness of city and municipal planning and management. as with little compensation.27 brought together three methodologies: participatory planning. as in the case of Box 4.1 Developing participatory urban planning practices in Kitale. The agencies of At the heart of the protest was the question of who should have the right to appro. especially those directed to improve living conditions in slums. This is NGOs achieve results through deliberate influence. inclusive and integrative institutions for allocating national government’s actions. Kenya (see Box 4. pre-existing ways of organizing how urban land tal organization (NGO) Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG) designed is used and developed may jostle with formal urban planning and implemented a participatory action research project to address these problems. The project sought to develop. national government planners prepared a master process whereby more affluent groups displace the original plan to show how land should be used and developed over a 20-year period. test and disseminate a partnership approach to the creating uncertainty and confusion as to where the authority planning of urban space with local institutions. infrastructure. not exchange value. Nigeria. environmental In carrying out the project. ities’32 of the various institutions involved. training. people’s poverty is such that had already experienced some development intensification under the system of customary formal ownership and access to loan finance has little land rights.000 promote the personal and political interests of elites. Following this. As various village groups checked out the situation more carefully. has not been welcomed by all. customary governance traditions have cally. with the overall goal being to enhance the to resolve conflicts over access to urban resources lies. plots were bought and sold under both evolution as they interact with each other and with the systems. such institutions are sometimes seen as of the local authority to plan and manage the town’s development effectively. The implication was that they would lose their customary rights. they may feel that customary and infor- plan until their land came to be affected by urban expansion projects. often subverted into a mechanism to land. It is also important to recognize that these institu- could be bought and sold. as well as an effective sometimes grown in importance as a way of organizing participatory governance framework for urban planning and management. Local communities in and around Moshi knew little about the existence of the relevance. more trans- the status of the master plan to lodge a court action against the plan’s provisions and the parent. Moshi in Box 4. which the national govern. long time. and to provide a colonial inheritance.30 This land rights in Moshi. Thus. as sites to pilot practices are likely to promote equity28 or give consideration innovative institutional frameworks through which sustainable slum and urban upgrading to the complexity of the way in which development and interventions could be developed and implemented. A number of developing countries have adopted policies to convert illegal occupancy of land into formal legal land Box 4. In aiming to achieve economi. The protesters were able to exploit legal loopholes in creative ways are sought to move towards fairer. In many parts of 2001. Three slums areas were selected. However.

derived from one or more of the countries. These are the: hierarchical arrangement of government responsibilities.34 During sity. These will be further elaborated upon in the subsequent In some countries. different • preparation of strategies and policies to guide how the government agencies may relate to the different tasks that other three tasks are performed. highlight the significance of institutional design in urban ment worked in cooperative partnership. processes partnerships for major development projects or a major area • promotion of development – physical. are central to the guidance and management of urban devel- opment futures. however. economic and environmental develop- ‘planning system’ and its specific agencies and organizations ment of urban areas. formal planning systems have been narrowed broad institutions outlined above. and for regulating the owners. is not to suggest that informal system. environ- reconfiguration project. with some kind of ideal template. For example. Formal planning various spatial levels from neighbourhood to transnational systems consist of bundles of public and private rights. levels. development such as new town development coordination and special • ongoing management of built environment change. all kinds of disjunctions appeared. These then structures. • extent to which power and responsibilities are devolved sulate their development policy in the light of higher-tier and decentralized. powers of land assembly and the balance urban planning activities. it is important to as expected. These tasks centre on the: agencies to shape agencies have been created to deal with particular projects. A key factor in the promotion of effective governance structure what legal Here. and ity within the framework set by national and regional levels • quality of human and intellectual capital. this arrangement really did work sections of this chapter. This is the case of urban planning systems The design of formal in most of the countries in North-West Europe. This. Formal planning national policy objectives and provided grants and subsidies • location of planning agencies within formal government systems are inserted to promote particular kinds of development. The national level also articulated key • local specificity of land and property markets. they may operate at fall within this meaning of institutions. attention should • protection of environmental resources. and where formal institutions were accepted as The institutional design and redesign the dominant legitimate sources of authority. These and administrative between levels and sectors of government. and the cultures of respect for between public and private rights in land and property devel. This was especially so where levels of govern. arrangements Municipalities were charged with preparing plans to encap. agency authority. however.35 This has development processes and which agencies are given the available to formal sometimes led to the creation of special agencies to bypass formal powers to define how instruments are to be used to government difficulties with the existing arrangements. pursue specific planning tasks. where the wider planning. The national level provided a framework of laws governing • nature of the political and legal systems that underpin land-use regulation. Current planning systems vary in the emphasis given to each Formal planning systems are inserted into an array of of the above.33 out in specific contexts. institutional context encouraged an integrated governance landscape. of the system. A focused on the social.38 In many developing countries landscapes. They were • appropriateness of planning tools and resources for also expected to carry out development and regulatory activ. specific uses and. It was then assumed that development would occur as defined in formally agreed plans. implementation problems ranged from tensions capacity is the design of formal planning systems. opment activity. This practice is referred to in European debates as flow of change in the built environment. The institutional and regulatory framework for planning 77 within the parameter of wider norms and practices. social. They may or may not be part of a larger project with a British colonial inheritance. They provide ground rules down into land-use allocation frameworks. however. such site-allocation .36 Designing the agency structure of mental and economic – and the relation between a planning system cannot therefore be readily approached development and infrastructure provision. there are a number of critical issues that can make or this time it was common to assume that nation states had a break an effective planning system. and in the breadth given to each task.37 However. institutional coordination. coordination mechanisms and procedural The variety in agency forms and relations implies that protocols that are defined by formal political and legal there is no one ‘model’ of the agency structure of a planning authorities. perhaps • degree of vertical and horizontal policy integration and pre-existing by provinces or other regional or intermediate bodies. they ‘land-use planning’ in contrast to a more developmentally may also have a role in managing change in less-urbanized focused ‘spatial planning’. Instead. formal development rights to redevelopment and reconfiguration). in relation to the evolving wider Many of today’s planning systems in developed governance landscape. policies and the local conditions of their areas. First. Furthermore. In many pre-existing arrangements. the legal system and trust in its impartiality. in a specific institutional context. allocating sites to for proactive development (managing urban extension. In many planning systems … other countries. What is an appropriate structure needs to be worked planning systems do not exist. irrespective of the diver- countries were designed in the mid 20th century. planning tasks. frequently. into an array of might be further developed at an intermediate level. to tensions structure what legal and administrative powers and instru- powers and between competing institutions and agencies for developing ments are available to formal government agencies to shape instruments are and regulating urban development processes. By extension. and be paid to how.

in part. it is often said that the legal energetically pursued in Brazil.49 context AND RESPONSIBILITIES Throughout the world.40 the right to participate in the governance of one’s place of How urban planning is actually practised. More recently. erations. legal systems have far- Germany and Austria). the context of urban development. System law. It offers far fewer rules and those that enjoyment of.78 Global trends: The urban planning process (procedural) planning is known as ‘master planning’. health and social welfare. system has become the primary arena where urban planning present danger in decentralized systems that the wider policies are defined. informal (often formally illegal) practices for accessing needs situated and to how and opportunities may develop. These derive from cumulative Formal legal systems are central in defining the extent. This happens. there are different principles which govern legal systems. such as the right to satisfy basic needs (rights to ration of a ‘general municipal plan’. through the use of the legal to contemporary ments. however. In these efforts. planning systems require the prepa. For poorer people. however. and freedom from polluting nuisances). systems. the British legal family (which includes Britain regulation of land development. as in Brazil. it is increasingly being suggested that the regula- redesign a planning new pressures. national and sub-national). such as land invasion. they establish the system of urban planning and In contrast. government.45 In recent years. and the tensions and struggles within it.42 Alternatively. There is organizations (NGOs). For instance. both formal and informal.47 In other countries. concerned about daily life conditions and legitimate or effective.44 Legal systems thus define principle of precedent. The result has been a very quality. non-governmental governance dynamics. often for public purposes. there is an ever. the legal system impacts of local action will be neglected. they may be driven by social make provision for their needs and/or may not be seen as What is important in movements. which assumes that the adequate housing. work opportunities.50 For example. however. In trative law developed in Napoleonic times (e. unless attention is being paid to institutional contexts and how to policy frameworks and the formation of legal judgements encourage more active and inclusive governance capacity become unstable.g. which is based on the accumulation rights and responsibilities with respect to access to. arbitrary or irrelevant to people’s situa- within them. is to pay careful regulatory norms and standards that areas allocated in attention to the attention to the institutional context within which it is formal plans for housing become unaffordable and unavail- institutional context situated and to how planning system initiatives will interact able for low-income settlements. But there are also wider consid- Mediterranean Europe. by ad hoc ‘variations’. these are exist have been built up gradually by individual law cases. such as the US. This is based on creating a complete reaching implications. France. in many African any initiative to environmental consequences. Indeed. Such an approach has been countries. urban opportunities. becomes more common. and earlier in Barcelona. safety and security. is living. interna- A widespread global what system designers expected. educa- site allocation and developmental objectives of urban tion. increasing People conform in expectation of such judgements. histories and lead to diverse forms of constitutions. These practices may be interact with the evolution of that DISTRIBUTION OF RIGHTS backed locally by informal institutions that develop their own norms and standards. the right of cumbersome system that is frequently bypassed or modified access to the ambiences and opportunities that a city offers. social movements. within which it is with the evolution of that context. formal institutions may fail to Spain. some countries draw on public adminis- the limitation of such rights. clean water. some system designers have sought to give more system to resolve planning-related disputes. contemporary urban conditions.41 However. typically more available to regimes come to power. good air planning can be combined. and acquisition for private purposes of initiatives will LEGAL SYSTEMS AND THE spaces intended for public uses. Often. Such redesign initiatives may arise where new tion. and the of case law over time. urban conditions. local authorities and others have been repeated criticism that planning practices fail to achieve promoting ‘the Right to the City’. following the general practices are significantly shaped by the prevailing legal them more relevant trend towards more decentralized governance arrange. planning system property subdivision. and rights to active form of development planning. understood as access to housing. They define the system of urban set of abstract rules and principles prior to decision-making. is needs to be reconfigured.48 If this is the case.43 What is important in any initia.46 redesign planning designers have also often overemphasized a top-down Urban planning systems and regulatory planning systems to make hierarchical structure. rights to . and the right to safeguard assets considered important the result of the way in which the formal institutional design not only for current well-being but for that of future genera- of a planning system interacts with other dimensions of tions. land and property. this is because the tional covenants on human rights and national human rights trend in recent designers failed to pay attention to the wider institutional law have come to have a significant impact upon planning years has been to context. determined to make a difference to the more affluent and powerful. Commonly. and they delimit the powers and Ireland) has evolved from English Common Law and the of urban planners and managers.39 In Latin America and resources held ‘in common’. plots is so encumbered by bureaucratic procedures and to pay careful tive to redesign a planning system. political nature and location of the regulatory powers of planning representation and policy-making traditions. and the redesign planning systems to make them more relevant to enforcement practices which these judgements legitimate. exerts its influence by the judgements made in various A widespread global trend in recent years has been to courts (supra-national. They not only define such rights but also legitimate in Western Europe. and thus realizing that the planning system tory framework governing the delivery of residential land system. In some urban conditions flexibility for local autonomy. as opposed to an the ‘use and development’ of a property. Then recourse to the courts. or by a government facing countries. system.

They see it as an important assembling sites for major projects. most systems contain fore. such as the right to develop has been granted by local planning women and children. This was the case on the rural–urban Such plans are thus often criticized and bypassed as too periphery in Moshi.54 ing a property for a public purpose against an owner’s will are In designing or redesigning planning systems. for example. On the one hand. there are many extracted from private development initiatives? more legal traditions. Since restricting an they were actively developed in the areas that Japan individual owner’s right to develop as they wish and purchas- colonized. This last seems to be an Litigation over planning issues itself seems to be an arrangement appears to give considerable certainty and emerging global emerging global trend.53 In this ical context. there has been little work relating Rights to develop land are sometimes held by the state. ers have a right to develop according to the scheme. it is important to note that the regulatory power of provisions for the owner to object to a decision made. this helps to advance the rights of neglected groups. However. either at or below market prices. citizens are very ing public facilities and infrastructures. In the US. But in countries where the planning system are planning system. there. where site assembly in major urban reconfiguration and decisions especially where the design of a planning system has been projects has to proceed by the consent of all affected owners imported from elsewhere. This often leads to problems in through land readjustment mechanisms. In many and to enshrine environmental standards into planning other countries. Since then. and specific minorities. One classification identifies seven • How are disputes resolved? different traditions of law that have some influence in the world today. such legal specifi. notably Korea and parts of north China. policies and decisions. The legal underpinnings of a planning system are also but the political power of individual property owners was important in defining rights to participate in and to object to such that they were resisted within Japan itself. Many . However. which specifies land Litigation over cation builds rigidities into planning systems and expands uses and building norms. the right to develop is lodged formally in a system requirements. remote and unable to appreciate the frequently these provisions are used depends upon the polit- worlds in which low-income people live their lives. planning strategies. These differences in legal styles have had for urban development purposes? ramifications for the administrative systems and the relation. for example. then such compulsory purchase. In countries where governments are trusted to context.2). major limitations of property rights. may be resented and resisted. and development also been important in situations where customary law activity may rapidly overtake such schemes once agreed. Once this is agreed upon. These are likely to safeguard of the individual rights of every American. the 1947 Town and Country tendency in formal planning law. social and environmental impacts of a policy. This these general legal traditions to their expression in planning is the case in many socialist regimes where land is formally law in different parts of the world. zoning ordinance or planning scheme. policies planning system and its practices are often not recognized. The institutional and regulatory framework for planning 79 This has allowed greater administrative discretion and • What provisions are made for the appropriation of land improvisation. ownership of a plot of land is seen to be a primary expres- also important in The legal system of a country and the cultural context sion of individual liberty and/or where government is defining rights to in which it is used and abused has a significant impact upon regarded as continually infringing individual liberty. such as provid- legal systems. In the UK. too.55 Most developing transferring an imported practice into a new context. inflexible and out of date for contemporary conditions. But there is also always the question about the rights to object of other affected parties. Most planning systems contain provisions for the there are major differences in the cultures of respect for appropriation of land for planning purposes. recourse to illegal land subdivision may often be promote public welfare. land resources places. • What provisions are made to enable affected stakehold- ships between central and local governments. in Japan. These planning is underpinned by legal systems that define a objections may be heard in some form of semi-judicial number of key areas. On the other hand. • Who holds the right to develop land and the such as neighbours. preparing and agree- trend oped countries. it is towards more precise Planning Act was considered innovative at the time because specification of rights and responsibilities. formal legal systems are often perceived as are needed for major infrastructures. The only issue underpinnings of a processes of an underfunded and sometimes corrupted may be arriving at a fair price. Japan countries have legislation that enables governments to provides an interesting historical case. In other remain important tools where. but the opportunity for legal challenge has ing such plans may take a long time.56 were influential among early 20th-century planners in Japan. or those concerned about the wider institutional location of this right? economic. challenges formal law. Tanzania (see Box 4. it ‘nationalized’ the right to development land.51 • How and how far are public realm benefits (betterment) From an international perspective. transparency to stakeholders. such ‘compulsory purchase’ of The legal judged more efficient and equitable than the cumbersome ‘eminent domain’ may be seen as legitimate. German ideas for purchase or appropriate land in the interest of the public at managing the control of development and land assembly large. often termed ‘expropri- object to planning practices evolve. as well as for ers to participate in and object to planning decisions? planning systems. as in the participate in and to the design of a country’s planning system and upon how its US. the disabled. The legal assumptions underpinning a ation’. This is most clearly the case in devel. Such a situation applies strategies.52 However. authorities in the form of a planning ‘permission’. In addition to substantial variation in legal systems. How and how something ‘outside’. and to assist in proud of their legal system. landown- planning issues … opportunities for litigation. If there is a general nationalized. including: enquiry or directly in the courts.

However.58 In Sweden and The Netherlands. But in This is particularly important as it is these structures which is the way in which contexts where developers are private owners. and the way in which infrastructures very complex bundles. the depends upon political will and governance cultures. In older Even where the formal planning system is well established areas. large landowners played a benefits of the value becomes very important. the relations that built up between landowners and develop- ment are distributed tions’ to urban infrastructures. who then built at the intersection between public purposes. the institutions blocks of dwellings to plan specifications.60 In addition. Most cities and towns. current mechanisms that attempt to ensure that public realm This not only had a major impact upon the form of urbaniza- benefits and return value created by the urbanization process tion. first. Indeed. rights to occupancy and to the public realm are threatened. urban subdivision to provide plots for owners’ children. the dynamics of become mired in patronage politics. specific institutional structures of fail to consider its value to an urban area generally. urban development owned sites may also be vulnerable to invasion.61 Working out such owner- actively present in where informal institutions and corrupted formal systems ships can be enormously complex. or. In societies where land is held A major issue in urban development is the way in in private ownership. processes. narrow streets. but also shaped the building companies which evolved lead to public realm improvements for an urban community to deliver housing policy. with all development land held in public ownership. Municipalities then The regulatory practices associated with planning systems lie provided large serviced sites to developers. This has led to the specification of major role in urbanization during the 19th century. and how far the legal underpin- until recently in Sweden and The Netherlands. there may also be customary and religious tenure In countries where Resolving disputes over rights and responsibilities in options. A similar LAND AND PROPERTY sprawling can be found in the urban agglomerations of north- OWNERSHIP AND ern Italy and is appearing around many expanding urban agglomerations in China. ‘public’ and ‘private’ interests.57 It is an impossible task to keep track of all activity. all undeveloped land around urban areas INSTITUTIONS allocated for future development in The Netherlands and Sweden was held in public ownership. as in some socialist contexts. creating difficulties for urban development are actively present in urban development processes. this has led to an urban form of single buildings. but not necessarily in then be heard in enquiry processes and the courts. contain a range of land any situation. second. There is a trend in developed ers came to shape the country’s development industry in the countries to enlarge the scope of these contributions.59 as a whole. The mechanisms provided need to reflect the In urban contexts. Public agencies which come to be landowners may paying attention to. urbanization in the mid 20th century was a state in formal law. after the planning authority and the property owner) to activity. these are object to a plan or to a permit decision. property rights may develop into taxation system in play. requirements under planning law for ‘developers’ contribu. in the UK. But they must also reflect the extent to which tenure and property rights systems. coordination with each other. the issue of are often responsible for major inequalities in a society. Both of these vary from A major issue in plots to party supporters. This was the case systems operate. In newer areas. any urban reconfiguration projects. In contrast (and as noted above). sometimes because of pre- to achieve to resort to political action or some form of direct action. public and private patterns of value play out in different parts of an urban area. in addition value in urban land and property accumulates and how to formal rights (freehold. in theory between state action and market action. in both devel- and other community facilities are provided and managed in oped and developing countries. rental). How planning the state incurs both costs and benefits. created by develop. land units are small. where urban nings of systems are brought into the forefront of attention development land was held in public hands. In many injustices is not easy urbanization is proceeding apace. distributing access to property development activities. To understand the practices always inspire confidence that such objectives will be associated with urban planning in any situation thus requires achieved. and various types of unauthorized/informal informal institutions the urban planning field may lead to formal appeals to legal tenure.80 Global trends: The urban planning process (procedural) planning systems contain provisions for these ‘third parties’ of land and property ownership. the costs and who pays for the wider development impacts of a project For example. this intersection is primarily between which the costs and benefits of the value created by develop. One outcome of . In the latter. Where land is publicly owned. Such objections may all represented by public agencies. friends and relations. in although these are generally negotiated rather than specified contrast. leasehold. In countries defining rights should prevail. and property development (i. there may be competition between and corrupted courts. although planning systems may have semi-judicial or different ‘institutions’ within a society over which system of formal systems are less formal mechanisms for dispute resolution. as experience of having land in public ownership does not discussed in the previous section. urban land has typically been owned in small plots. Affected parties then have countries. late 20th century.e. In Japan. Sometimes. The result is that many poorer residents can find that their sometimes as a result of land reform movements. more widely. They may land and property ownership and. costly several storeys high and closely packed together along and time consuming that many find it difficult to access. both within countries and between countries. in practice. Publicly place to place. DEVELOPMENT until recently. as each owner has maximized the value of their plot. often and reasonably respected. Urban property development is also affected by of formal redress for This is particularly the case in developing countries where whether land units are held in small or large lots. any kind kind of formal redress for injustices is not easy to achieve. it may prove so complex. the relation ment are distributed. development has sprawled out across rural areas on individual small farm plots.

and introducing some stabilization in development potential of such sites. enhancing quality of ers and investors) will seek to find and exploit the life and public realm. social opportuni- provision of well-located places within the urbanizing area. creating an adequate flow of sites for development. and linked especially to rights to of local urban development markets. Yet. where These experiences all raise challenges for urban development institutions on a considerable scale may planning and for the designers of planning systems to find Planning systems emerge. Many now argue that the economic discussion of land planning system. their own activities. but supply very restriction. Protective regulation is seek to expand not only the provision of housing but the justified on the basis of safeguarding assets. there is The economic multiple layers of property market in any locality. some places are much better situated than others interventions which aim to shape how others undertake in relation to opportunities to make a living or to services. In such contexts. a grasp of locally REGULATION specific land and property development dynamics. However. developing residential. Some of these companies have gone on to become residents).69 institutional dimen- institutional dimensions through which market players and sions through which market practices are constructed.65 market players and In many rapidly urbanizing contexts in developing Planning regulation market practices are countries. real estate agencies.67 economy planning systems should play a role in ‘smoothing’ market cycles by stabilizing expectations. This is As mentioned above. financial investors and mortgage projects are pursued (to improve the living conditions of lenders. the 2004 London Spatial Development Plan estab. large construction companies. land and property. In such situations. They may store their savings in acquiring more quite large housing associations (managing rental properties) dwellings. tion may also be found in informal housing markets.68 there are a and housing markets (i. to provide more cycles … and regard. then. The way in which urban planning is ‘counter-cyclically’ certain size should ensure that 50 per cent of the dwellings approached may thus come to have a significant ‘market- to the primary provided were ‘affordable’. particularly where displacement effects. major companies may come to think of their property as an a key issue for the design of planning systems centres on . In areas where upgrading opers. Or they may modify existing and major housing development companies. individual owners as well as Notwithstanding the diversity of planning regulation. cyclically’ to the primary economy.64 AGENCIES AND An important dimension of understanding the context for any kind of urban planning is.62 dwellings to create rental space. and perhaps even acting ‘counter. too. indus- systems’ refer to a collection of agencies. and to the no one ‘model’ of the agency structure of a planning system discussion of land relation between marketized and non-marketized property that applies to all contexts. regulatory interventions may have both protec- limited. to ‘smoothing’ market powerful players. instru- trial parks and tourist enclave developments. as has become all too clear in the global reason why such upgrading often leads to the ‘gentrification’ financial crisis that started in 2008. However. Although often portrayed as negative Demand for such locations may be huge. It squeezed out in the rush to develop. Hence.63 It has also been argued that shaping’ role. which they rent out. The challenge for planning systems is then to ways to ‘manage’ land and property markets and develop- should play a role in extract public realm benefits from the activities of very ment processes generally. and better located neighbourhoods. The institutional and regulatory framework for planning 81 this process was the formation of what subsequently became investment.e. including builders of achieve changes in spatial arrangements of some kind is then individual houses. Any planning policy that Increasingly. property develop- standards of building and area design. as noted above. in developed countries. This is one national economies. This investment orienta. procedures. and the markets for other forms of of institutions. PLANNING SYSTEMS. commercial and their dwelling in order to realize immediate returns. ties and environmental resources that would otherwise be and of the infrastructure required to move between them. and regulatory situations. This can lead to serious land and property development activity. property in public ownership and property that has no number of critical issues that can make or break an effective needs to give more value). Urban planning involves both proactive interventions in the constructed Their orientation is towards ‘use’ value. land devel. and to negotiate for perhaps even acting lished a policy that all residential developments over a public realm benefits. backed by formal law. both economically and politically. retail projects. This may indicate that planning strategies should tive and developmental intent. What have become known as ‘planning property development. The justification for also means that those interested in making money out of the regulation with a developmental intent is to promote better urban development process (landowners. in such way in which urban areas are developed. to reduce exploitative effects. The following sub-sections elaborate upon attention to the and housing markets needs to give more attention to the these issues. it is ments and protocols that are often sanctioned by the formal only recently that attention has been given to the dynamics state. to pay leisure projects all over the world. of low-income neighbourhoods. likely to be fiercely resisted. In this distribute ‘rights to the city’ more equitably. a large-scale proposes a lowering of value in some parts of a city to development industry has emerged.66 market systems dominate. to the existence of develop and use housing. planning systems and their specific sometimes referred to as the need to understand land and agencies and organizations belong to the narrower meaning housing markets. the off debts or just to release more fluid capital. poorer people struggle to find any place to ‘dwell’. and move fortunes of the industry may have a major impact upon somewhere less well located and provided for. such as offices. poorer residents often find it worthwhile to sell major global players.

In some countries. In some countries. allowing municipal. Durban. is such a case. take a leading role. Agencies may also be Canada and the US – the national level merely provides created through initiatives funded by external aid enabling legislation or adjudication. a plan and its regulatory provisions achieved a balance somewhere between the two extremes. China. But regulations change the These divisions of responsibilities matter because they serve balance of private. For example. Local governments are power resides in formal government decisions and the legal expected to operationalize the policies that are mainly support of judicial systems. However. At has been withdrawn. China and who ask their local planning authority to take up a case. The experience of a successful urban regeneration ity may become part of the central municipal executive. Spain. such regulations may come to structure A major criticism of top-down systems of planning is land and property development ‘markets’ and development that national government planners often have no access to Planning systems processes. such responsibil. Japan and some transitional countries.6). local responsibility is a feature of most cases. Formal systems ities rest with states and provinces with a high level of Alternatively. They alter rights to develop land and property in legitimized. There is. Canada and the US lack a national body of legislation Brazil.74 While Viet Nam has levels Planning systems operate at various spatial levels ranging embraced the decentralization of plan preparation to the from national to neighbourhood levels. The ‘agencies’ of provincial and city levels. and conflicts are adjudicated upon. at the national government level. enforcement Eastern and South-Eastern Asia (such as Malaysia and the action against those who flout planning regulations is Philippines) have adopted decentralization.71 Most European planning systems seem to have such circumstances. as is the well-known case of over the final approval of local plans. depending upon how relations with the other end – in countries such as Cambodia. then the planning department of a municipal- planning tools. In Mongolia). a are used by others planning systems has an important structuring effect on widespread global trend has been the formation of special planning practices.76 In many developing countries. regional and municipal plans may be prepared by a variation in which level of government is given formal respon. in Decentralization and local capacity Anglophone sub-Saharan countries. the UK. through a ‘planning commission’. to tasks. concurrently at the federal context and how it is practised. At one end – in countries such as Australia. Such effects on land and property rights are place-specific knowledge and. remained highly centralized (such as Cambodia. formal systems specify in ‘partnership’ agencies focused on particular development law who has the power to use the different planning tools. informal agencies created through neighbourhood or than one level of government and spread to other public and other civil society initiative may be acknowledged as a de private agencies. in formal government authorities.80 These may or may not find a future once aid regional-level governments to develop their approaches.or programmes. and vary change them and to oversee how they are used by others. significant Belarus. While many countries in power is social acceptance. But another source of regulatory formulated at the upper levels. Japan other parts of the governance ‘landscape’ develop. or in countries with urban planning systems. as in change them and to project in Paris provides a good example (see Box 8.73 property. even here. and the UK – national governments keep tight control over the planning system and its practices. conditions and assets. Similarly. Plans may reflect a static universal spatial levels template that fails to adjust to changing local conditions. to generate the formal arenas where planning strategies are ment. Unlike Europe and the introduction of ‘participatory budgeting’ in Porto Alegre. They also While there are significant variations between different tend to raise questions as to their formal legitimacy. national body rather than by local authorities. a municipality and its planning office China. facto ‘planning agency’ (see Box 4. office will rely on the advice of a higher tier of government. It is ranging from reported that physical urban growth in Chengdu. Similarly. Instead.3). collective and public rights in develop. This may have major consequences on land allocation of resources for public investment and responsibil- and property values and on who can get access to land and ities are confirmed. In effect. China. in practice plans are drafted by planning systems are commonly thought of as located in national government planning institutes. however. Japan. it may draw on consultancy advice or work specify in law who autonomy assigned to municipalities.77 Where municipalities has the power to use national (or federal) governments may play a key role through aim to coordinate their activities in a form of ‘integrated area the different controlling substantial budgets for urban development development’.78 oversee how they The distribution of formal responsibilities within Aside from formal statutory planning agendas.82 Global trends: The urban planning process (procedural) where regulatory ‘power’ is situated in a wider governance a federal government structure.70 significantly in their autonomy and transparency. a municipal planning regulating local and urban planning.75 institutional location of the ‘checks and balances’ on planning In cases where the local level of government has agencies. in the highly centralized systems of considerable autonomy.72 become ‘owned’ by a community. It is at the local level that the inter- . For example. South Africa. the institutional and regulatory framework for urban planning rests. There is also variation in the rigid style of planning. has The location of planning agencies national to taken place in the opposite direction to that foreseen and and formal responsibilities neighbourhood planned for in its master plan. resembling a sibility for which activity. hence. the patterns of responsibilities often involve more cases. to purposes. It is often assumed that such and state government levels. others have sometimes initiated as a result of the protests of neighbours. The energetic transformation of national government has strong planning powers and can rule Barcelona. ignore specific local operate at various therefore intensely political.79 These may take very many different forms. decisions about the use of regulations and the particular ways. in most Despite variations.

90 It is paramount functions.88 In Brazil. Empowering local government has been considered a These experiences influenced emerging local government practices from the 1980s basis for democratization. In this way.87 Europe. emphasis has been put on which later became formalized as new national legislation provided the powers to make use of decentralization of power and responsibilities to the local them. In Kobe.83 In Nigeria. They may even involve relations This devolution has highlighted the issue of the across regional and national borders. cooperation and power partitioning can significantly In Latin America.82 In Africa. and the pattern of. made up the three ‘development themes’ of new planning legislation. Less the capacity for effective urban planning depends upon taken place without exclusive. Kobe was one of 17 cities in Japan designated to have a higher degree of municipal that local government is best placed to seek urban solutions autonomy in policy areas. land-use planning and control. decentralization of authority has often taken place undertaking decentralization efforts. decentralization as well as between government and NGOs. the framework for local planning policies and recently. influence the successful implementation of urban planning Decentralization of ments coincided to produce a new relationship between tasks. Creating horizontal and capacity of local administrations to meet the challenges they vertical coordination between various levels of government. 2008 A study undertaken in the early 1990s showed that. the Philippines 1991 example. a kind of bottom-up design of the world. The motivation for. or ‘community development’. leading integration between disparate responsibilities and different to various degrees of local empowerment. Today. Civil society struggles over Kobe’s neglected inner-city neighbourhoods in the 1960s – practices is often shaped by wider policy priorities that are triggered by serious environmental deterioration – were maintained over two decades.3 Civil society planning initiatives in Kobe. power and services. The local level is also significant in the implementation of planning policies. The to innovative practices in local area management in which citizens took the initiative in develop- relationships between these levels and the extent of national ing local area guidelines for managing change. In many parts of the world. in countries without any accompanying strengthening of the resources such as Botswana. In Asia. saw a new governance institutions has already been underlined.89 national levels.85 Policy integration and institutional Lebanon has recently experienced a review of its municipali. authority has often state. Japan visible as these affect urban environments. empowerment was partly driven by an emerging consensus By 2007. face. resources available regional movement in the 1990s. local government. Given the complexity of contemporary urban systems. local governments Local Government Code is considered as one of the most are receiving fewer resources at a time when urbanization revolutionary government reform laws. Decentralization by itself is legislation during the 1990s enacted devolution of not sufficient for effective urban planning. albeit with different degrees ments within local government and between local and of autonomy. with devolution of power formal government functions relevant to urban development to local governments to regional governments taking place in countries such as are typically spread across the tiers of government or depart- France.86 making. Such coordination is particularly pertinent in . women’s movements and the formal structure of government. Spain and the UK. available to local governments. The Kobe experience helped to shape and markets. coordination ties to examine the extent to which they have been capable Institutional structures and mechanisms for decision- of efficient service delivery and post-war reconstruction. For ment level in the late 1980s. in policies have become a key challenge for effective gover- Ghana. coordination of interdependent actors within and beyond any accompanying bourhood mobilization. including social welfare.2). Italy. more grassroots-oriented groups. national and regional levels. Such initiatives have come to be known in Japan as control over local urban planning vary considerably across machizukuri. decentralization was part of a general process of Vertical coordination refers to coordination of policies more democratic government and constitutional reform. level. In Japan. What this involves is illustrated in the European concession to demands for decentralization. along with accountability onwards. but the elected Spatial Development Framework. Ethiopia. planning institutions has emerged. such initiatives produced informal master plans. of a sample of 25 developing and transitional countries with populations of more than 5 million. both in Kobe itself and in Japan more widely. and the city became one of the earliest to make use of these new the 1990s across developing countries. and achieving initiatives differ considerably in different countries. and led set at international. and development (see Figure 4. and and programmes between different tiers of governments. too.91 tion of people at the local level. public health and urban planning. These initiatives became a valuable resource in the aftermath of the 1995 earthquake. national governments. Kenya. which considers such local councils were not given the power to appoint the coordination as a prerequisite for effective urban planning municipal executives and heads of department. and urban participation. based on neigh. effectively devolving almost all government functions to local governments. For example. the debt crisis and structural adjust. The institutional and regulatory framework for planning 83 relationship of different factors and initiatives becomes most Box 4.84 Indonesia launched its ‘big bang’ decentralization policy in 2001. municipalities became responsible for providing local ranging from the supra-national level to national and sub- services. civil society and markets. most claimed to be However. in many sub-Saharan countries. all urban that local responsibilities go hand in hand with adequate planning responsibilities were devolved to the local govern. transferring power rates are increasing. local government and urban planning capacity have been underdeveloped until very However. Tanzania and Uganda. activities. settlements spreading. unemployment is rising and informal to local government and providing for more active participa. which. resources in terms of finance and human capital.93 however.81 Source: Healey. The desire for local powers. local political authorities were mostly created as a nance.92 The fragmentation of strengthening of the environmental lobbies emerged.

private sector and coordination. education. a more flexible and voluntary cooperation ment plans) that each fall under a different ministry. A famous instance from the partnership initia. The other is about institutional axis of partnership between government. particularly between constituent municipali. with Community Integrated spatial policy agenda Sectoral policies time. ties of a given city-region. it may be possible to overcome such resistances. with three plans ing of municipalities may not be the right course of (namely. At the local level. overlapping competencies among multiple levels of govern. In Viet Nam. voluntary participation of municipali- National Integrated spatial development Sectoral policies agenda ties is seen as an added value. transport. One is the mismatch between The need for … presents a major obstacle for effective urban governance.95 among the constituent municipalities of the city-region may Furthermore. legal mandates have Figure 4. There have been coordination under. But these have often encountered European Level European resistance. actively steer processes of coordination and create the condi- NGOs may be involved through an implicit transfer of tions for positive-sum partnerships. and also new forms of governance and enhancing local institutional because of their knowledge of local problems. there is little communication or teamwork be more productive. the spatial.98 The second aspect of horizontal coordination is about VERTICAL COORDINATION cooperation and coordination between different municipali- External cross-border cooperation ties on strategic issues that cut across administrative boundaries (see Figure 4.99 In some cases such collaboration even cuts across national boundaries. however. In many countries. multilevel governance includes 1980s and 1990s. As a and incentivized by national government. This is defined as the existence of must be in concordance with those of their neighbours. The aim is to produce and strategies implement coordinated strategies that cut across the adminis- trative boundaries to overcome potential conflicting Internal cross-border approaches from each municipality and to capture any syner- cooperation gies from collaborative working. action.2). In administrative and functional boundaries. under the remit of separate government ministries. the political and executive powers at the level of metropolitan Gauteng provincial government is taking advantage. it is transport tives during the Indonesia. budgeting and economic development tend to fall regions and metropolitan areas.105 The current reform of the UK mented. there are still difficulties in achieving such separate functions (such as health. although concerns about urban sprawl may be greatly reduces the effectiveness of urban planning and another motivation.84 Global trends: The urban planning process (procedural) HORIZONTAL COORDINATION regions in order to meet the challenges presented by growing megacities.103 However. and also . the need for (or the rhetoric of) coordination 1999.) has a useful logic but also ment initiatives. etc. the boundaries are multifaceted and dynamic. civil society that is being promoted worldwide. building consensus and capacity and creating often involved as a result of privatization policies. Many countries have sought to promote agencies with strategic planning and policy issues. It encourages a form of multi.101 In some cases. for example. In US is Portland’s metropolitan region.2 the context of emerging devolution and decentralization of been put in place for horizontal coordination between neigh- Ways of coordination power and responsibilities.96 planning system encourages the development of multi-area Various initiatives have been put in place in different agreements among the constituent municipalities of eight countries to achieve better policy coordination at the urban major city-regions as a way of addressing cross-boundary level. Amongst the multiple benefits of such public. has to be encouraged between these ministries during the planning process. responsibilities from the state. the socio-economic and the develop. The private sector is partnerships. Within these institutionalized Transnational Level forms of cooperation. following the construction of Øresund Bridge. This means that all urban development plans for spatial development level governance. synergy are frequently mentioned. spatial planning occurs independently of budget. The organization of policy into However.94 capacities for urban planning. emerged in France. given that such functional often leads to implementation problems. Civil society organizations municipalities have an important role to play in promoting may be involved as representatives of the people. formal restructur- planning process is highly fragmented. Such a practice has result. One situated at the crossing point between the traditional vertical concerns policy integration across different policy sectors at axis of power and public administration and the horizontal any given spatial level. waste management. For Regional/Local Level Regional/Local example. Spatial development policies Sectoral policies agenda Malmö and Copenhagen work together on strategic planning to address issues that do not respect national borders. This perspective. private and civil-society actors. particu.100 Source: adapted from CEC. coordination and consequent integration of urban develop- economic development. energy and transport. Figure 7 ments and the interaction of political actors across these underpinned a raft of partnership initiatives during the levels. bouring regions. This is because they are Horizontal coordination involves two aspects.97 Experiences from Brazil suggest that. This. and water management issues that encourage such a 1980s and 1990s ary programmes and economic development plans. Eastern and South-Eastern Asian countries. some attempts to create administrative areas around city- pinned a raft of planning. Indeed. such as governments and supra-national bodies have attempted to water supply. In countries such as Latvia and Estonia. In South Africa. ‘paper plans’ are formulated that are never imple.104 Instead. national larly with respect to infrastructure and services.102 Often. p36.

107 An example of planning’s integrative and coordi. Urban planning has been much criticized for failing to adequately consider implementation issues. social and environmental – and coordi- holders. However. indeed. which communities and stakeholders. and projects.htm tual guidance for other planning and regulatory documents.4) – integrated development planning has been intro. while the last is discussed in Chapter 5. and the deep social rifts and functional dislocation inherited of planning in integrating other policy areas as well as linking from the apartheid past. this section focuses on current and The traditional view of the relation between plan and imple. Thus. planning must be about conceiving urban resource mobilization. as stressed In order to undertake the key tasks of urban planning listed Planning must be throughout this chapter. evidence-gathering. favour. processes of change over time in implementation. that did not happen. Implementation implementation of plans for neighbourhood areas. has often proved particularly problematic when plans were city-regions and regions at national and. instances where urban gover. but also include other recognized by modes. trans- developed out of obligation. regulatory and fiscal measures. an overambitious political project. The urban planning function may be a weak part of However. strategies and plans are only useful if summarizes. in South Africa (see Box 4. tools of implementation are not limited to increasingly valuable integrating opportunity. strategies. finally. in a general way. There is a I Urban plans considerable legacy from the 20th century of grand plans Planning is commonly associated with the formulation and with little actual realization on the ground.108 Elsewhere – for example. imple- mentation.4 Integrated development plans in South Africa tric urban region in the province will soon be equivalent to some of the largest cities in the world’. in parallel with by linking and integrating: equal spheres of government (vertical coordination). urban development ideas to urban investment programmes Every municipality must produce five-year strategic plans that promote integration by is increasingly recognized by governments and other stake. of ‘the fact that a continuous polycen- Box 4. the process of plan formulation was Government departments often compete for ministerial seen as a failure and plans were ridiculed as ‘paper tigers’. tradition tended to see implementation as synonymous with But in many situations. as well as development objectives. In such interactive governments and learning processes. governance capacity tions. the process is far more complex. Place and territory become mechanisms around development needs. The strategic role racial divisions and inequalities. The tools indicated may be consideration of the effects on urban development processes in line with inten. however. mentation saw it as a linear process of survey and stakeholders and planning arenas.net/makingplanningwork/mpwcasestudies/mpwCS07.1 urban strategies of planning processes. consolidated into five types: plans.106 In 2000. a new form of local government transformed the role of local authorities in South Despite the difficulties. Within this policy areas … is (over which planners claim some expertise) provide a perspective. and consultation and to deliver them strategies alongside a consideration of the governance collaborative practices. planning offices and the plans the control of urban systems. a major reform of the nating actions across sectors and spheres of government. A key element of this was the introduction of integrated development plans that institutional coordination focused on place qualities have reorient the planning and budgeting functions of local authorities towards addressing local emerged. human capital. The plans must articulate a vision for the integrated and developmentally focused approach to development of the municipal area. A wider of planning in ment processes.communityplanning. Integrated development plans do this planning system was instituted in 2004. from one with limited service provision and regulatory powers to a broad developmen- nance arrangements that promote policy integration and tal one. programmes planning. The first four of these are discussed capacity to deliver them. statutory or otherwise. there is an increasing view of planning processes considers implementation as a integrating other recognition that the spatial dimension and a focus on place social learning process for all parties involved. for example. regulatory measures. Table 4. integrated development plans were also aimed at overcoming historic various policy sectors can be considered. or from national and supra-national levels. this limited view of planning processes fails to local government. policy formulation and. and local government itself may be weak recognize the role of fine-grained adjustments and intangible The strategic role and disregarded by those actually engaged in urban develop. such as collaborative practices. If that they produce struggle to perform such a role. with varying degrees of success. Nevertheless. traditional duced as a way of overcoming the lack of intergovernmental master planning and the rational-comprehensive planning coordination. and urban and rural areas. This presents the relationship between evidence Planning tools and resources and policy and between policy and action as unproblematic and straightforward. above. In the UK. Africa. sectors wider decentralization initiatives.109 Based on this interactive view of the planning process.111 The term ‘plan’ (in .110 planning effort needs to be directed at mobilizing about conceiving Notwithstanding such complexities and the political nature and coordinating a range of tools and resources. the process of formulating and express- PLAN FORMULATION AND ing planning policies is seen itself as part of the process of other stakeholders IMPLEMENTATION putting policies into effect. to promote a more (horizontal coordination). The institutional and regulatory framework for planning 85 mitigating the effects. Source: www. balancing the three pillars of sustainability – economic. They are reviewed annually through a participatory process involving local native role is the Strategic Plan of Riga (Latvia). In addition to balancing basic economic priorities between local needs and which the spatial consequences of policies and proposals in strategic opportunities. In practice. in the sense of having needed to pursue each task. often with military precision. emerging planning tools and resources. in this sub-section. the tools and resources alongside a they are likely to be implemented. functions as the key umbrella document providing concep. cities. policy communities.

overly complex both in procedural terms. urban plan-making became a more complex process – the tory.116 During the latter half of the 20th century. or it could technically informed approach to urban planning. both physical and social.86 Global trends: The urban planning process (procedural) Task Tools The power of a plan has a lot to do with the authority accorded to it in formal law. through national government Ongoing management of built Restrictions (i. suite of planning instruments. often focused on specific urban areas or projects – as highlighted in Chapter 3. In developing spatial plans and policy statements. These provided the basis for making transparent The second development is to focus on making plans demands on developers for service contributions. These were strategies and the allocation of development rights were complemented by a piano dei servizi. Others have regional. efforts were made across Italy to introduce a new. difficult to do in transparent ways. see also Mazza. a plan is Plans and visions more an information tool. through stakeholder partnerships and provide both a ‘devel- Source: Healey. A further problem was that monitoring the • Provide a fully worked out development scheme (a performance of plans becomes more important.115 often led by an expatriate ‘celebrity expected to frame urban plans. either as part of a traditional Early attempts at planning were often very top down. These are almost always planner’.e.117 in the future (a strategy). the Lombardy region and the Commune of Milan evolved a new Europe. specification of contributions to the public realm) ‘Street-level’ management plans in guiding individual decisions over plots of land Development promotion Direct development by the public sector derives directly from this.114 planning systems across the world vary Table 4. policies and plans Knowledge and information weight in deciding what can take place on an individual plot. Powers to define planning instruments were involve the regeneration of specific small urban areas. These devolved to regions. shaping their own decisions. the piano generale regolatore. in recent years. The purpose of this third plan was to indicate infrastruc. a statement of what the city Production of plans with ‘statutory’ power Coordination activities government wishes to see happen in a place. and in terms of the data (a policy statement). many critics became the authority concerned that the production of such plans had become accorded to it in • Provide a list of actions to be undertaken (an agenda). through consulta- formal law • Provide principles or rules to guide subsequent actions tion processes and the like. The form and contents of urban plans are often tion and enforced. Italy oriented participatory planning. 2004 opment framework’ for specific actions and a proto-contract .5 provides an interesting case from Italy. or other and the role of a plan. Specification of key principles and criteria In more discretionary systems (such as in the UK). However. merely part of the governance apparatus applicable in a terri.5 Planning system reform in Lombardy. they often took a great deal of time to The power of a plan Plans may come in different forms and may be prepare and were out of date by the time they were has a lot to do with expected to perform one or more of the following tasks: finalized. 1980 urban development. leading to the necessity of coordination both product of the ideas of professional teams rather than horizontally and vertically. specification of limits. This may then become an important point of reference for those involved in Source: derived in part from Lichfield and Darin-Drabkin. In planning systems where the Acquisition of development land and property by government right to develop is enshrined in a zoning ordinance (such as Encouragement by financial incentives parts of the US). individuals. shaped by higher-tier plans. for them. countries. pp110–113. the plans that express this carry a lot of Coordination and mobilization efforts Strategies. hierarchical planning system or within a more ‘multilevel’ led by a single planner sometimes with a very singular vision form of coordination. There had been much discussion among the planning community in Italy about how to making. These three documents provided the basis to mobilize and encourage action with respect to specific for a new type of overall plan. previously merged. The development of • Provide guidance on sets of interrelated decisions about performance indicators has. which would finally replace the parts of an urban area. linked to specific contingencies anticipated important accompaniment to such plans. written policies and perspectives. The first is to separate indicative strategies for overcome the rigidity of the main planning tool. which combined urban areas from plans that grant specific development both a strategic view of how an area should develop and a specific land-use zoning function. considered necessary to predict future needs and to provide • Provide an image of what could come about (a vision). etc.e. These separated the expression of a strategic framework (since where such a separation is being attempted in a country 2005 called a documento di piano) from the formal specification of development rights and with a tradition of general municipal plans where city-wide constraints to be specified in a piano delle regole (plan of regulations). and municipalities were strengthened by the introduction of elected experiences have led to two developments in urban plan- mayors. after major corruption scandals involving payments by developers to efforts can encompass accommodating growth through the political parties. in the relation between the granting of development rights diagram.1 relation to urban planning work) refers to a statement. more policy-focused and provision of new settlements or urban extensions. Some countries produce national of what the future city should look like. As a consequence. As discussed above. this was typified by the importation of ideas from sub-regional or sectoral plans and strategies that are developed countries. rights. there has been a significant shift from large-scale master planning to more action- Box 4. Such During the early 1990s. 2007. ture requirements.) advice or through customary practices. Such plans are often prepared old piano generale regolatore. This practice is well established in North-West Working in parallel. Box 4.113 The importance of environment change Requirements (i. the piano di governo del territorio. become an action now. but more design). There is also substantial variation in Planning tasks and tools document expressing intentions for the future development the extent to which formally approved plans are given atten- of an area.112 Partly as a consequence.

such as where particular forms of development may take place.120 Such regulations fall into a number of Source: Majoor. regulations are used in tandem with a devel. as in the British public enquiry and the French opment plan in which development locations are enquete publique. environmental and economic issues with such major in order to escape the planning framework – began to try to locate in less congested areas in projects is maintained. the Delhi Development Southern Asia.122 One set of powers relates to the assembly of country. granting of a development permit. Brazil) lack such instruments areas and failing to create additional economic activity.125 Therefore. side the relaxation of planning restrictions in a particular ‘Compulsory Where land is mostly owned by the private sector. But regulation has a flip-side. Some appeals are heard in legal courts.127 ment from the congested east to the less developed west of the region. In processes that can be so important in creating good public Cork. plans to publicly. Building regulations achieved. . efficiency. this ambition was only partially A critical issue in effective urban planning is to relate strate. keeping the area lively at differ- as the laying of an infrastructure grid. Without being latter also provide important arenas in which issues are aired are vital tools for able to limit development in other parts of the city. planning systems.128 The creation of zones where certain uses land by state Authority owns a significant proportion of the land. But without sufficient power to regulate develop. These tools ensured a variety of uses have to be made in the light of available resources. but the Planning regulations determined. The Netherlands. developer and not to ‘third parties’. energy. wanted places may not be realized. offering larger and larger incen- nity development objectives. also lead to degraded environmental conditions. However. business to consider locating in such a place. This often means that hard choices through a design master plan and regulatory tools.123 In India. time governments have used financial inducements and City governments also typically have other important disincentives to direct development to particular parts of a legal powers. scarce inward investment. policy. In other systems. The range of fiscal measures deployed important beyond urban area boundaries established before major in planning systems is constantly evolving.6). However. In some role of appropriate building technologies in less developed planning systems. The institutional and regulatory framework for planning 87 for agreements on specific projects. Such development appeals are allowed. planning regulations are vital tools for dependent. They also connected this new part of the city to the public transport network and I Regulatory measures provided an extensive network of bicycle lanes to prevent the new area from becoming car As noted above. semi-judicial processes have been estab- countries. For a considerable bursts of urbanization. I Resource mobilization ment in the east.g. While in many contexts this could have been a recipe for reflects a view that narrowing the complexity of the plan can an unsustainable ‘edge city’ development. contributing to the long-term social learning planning systems develop in specific. as in the example of employment zones in the US. Continual relaxation of regulatory frameworks may sub-section below. they revolve around managing issues. lished. it’s the way that you do it’: work for an emerging ‘edge city’ at an infrastructure node in Creating new sustainable centralities in the Amsterdam Amsterdam. Such incentives are often used along- land for major development and redevelopment projects. Amsterdam city planners tried to maintain the city centre as the prime area context and ensuring that attention to the integration of for business development.). region or city. purchase’ or sory purchase and land-assembly powers are very enterprise zones in the UK and special economic zones in ‘expropriation’ of common. and the quality of building expected also an area with considerable global variation. etc. altogether. high Another important mechanism. which it are permitted without recourse to the normal regulatory agencies often has acquired through compulsory large-scale land acquisition planning regime is often accompanied by incentives for leads to substantial policies that have been implemented since 1957.121 Many countries suffer from this situation. there have to be good reasons – for example. provides such an example city-region. both in encouraging appeals are allowed only on the grounds of a failure of due more sustainable building practices and in recognizing the process.118 the south of the city (Zuidas). Where there (design. such floor space. compul. Here. usually linked to the levels of unemployment in an area – to deploy such policies. making the area more self-contained in relation to the mix of mean that a city-wide plan focuses on a few key actions. injustice agencies often leads to substantial conflict and injustice. the commercial property market decided otherwise and – social. The latter are increasingly important. Ireland. a city-region plan sought to direct develop.124 they are often criticized for displacing activity from other Some countries (e. Amsterdam drew on its rich history of thinking help to focus attention on what is really of most significance through the social and ecological consequences of new development to shape the development to a city at a given time. 2008 different areas. The emerging frame- Box 4. These are considered in the tives. area. This case underlines the importance of connecting such development frameworks to the wider During the 1990s. the particular mix of The ability to appeal against the above regulatory decisions is land uses on a site. Ground-floor uses were retail or community uses. allows the negotiation of Otherwise municipalities may compete with each other for developer contributions to infrastructure and other commu. Where property rights are nationalized.126 Both processes tend to be slow. The Netherlands (see Box 4. policies and specific proposals to the resources that … are increasingly especially where urban planning regimes do not extend could achieve them. The planners decided to follow the market pressure and The move away from grandiose master planning diverted their attention here instead. While such conflict and the ‘compulsory purchase’ or ‘expropriation’ of land by state policies can improve the conditions in the immediate area. gies.119 ent times of the day and ensuring that residents and workers did not have to travel for certain services.6 ‘It ain’t what you do. the right to appeal may be limited to the regulations are often combined with building regulations. for example. This may beyond the commercial driver.

physical change. the shortage of skilled beneficiaries known. vary in their geography and economic possibilities. But. During the mid if these are stated in authoritative plans. given the right governance context. if such coherence and stability is lacking. This is not to say funds. then the legiti.88 Global trends: The urban planning process (procedural) Financial measures can also be deployed to extract the parameters of such negotiations can be greatly enhanced community benefits from a development.131 private developers were required to pay charges for hook-ups There are thus several measures that can be used to to infrastructures (UK and US) or a general ‘urbanization’ provide resources for urban development activities. looking to transfer ideas without effective urban some way. the cessation of international funding during the late 1990s. but that this for specific public realm assets. This can be difficult country. cities themselves are keen to emulate major constraint for related to the size and scale of a development project in the success of other cities. employed. in conditions of rapid urban growth where the provision of They also vary in the specific configuration of their institu- infrastructure and services often lags behind the pace of tional dynamics. developers will be more accepting of staff at the local level and the brain drain are a major obsta- planning authorities’ demands. in many developing other words. the importance of relating planning Thus. For cash-strapped municipalities dealing with deficiencies in community facilities. In this way. As highlighted in developer negotiation practices have evolved through which agree. there was they also require personnel with a grasp of development much transfer from developed to developing countries. in good times (i. they might be makes the difference to the effectiveness of urban planning expected to provide buildings for schools. This may be taken as a tax. if the negotiation process is transparent and the In many other developing countries.e. the use of regulatory instruments. they become ‘shaped’ by planning expectations. What charge (Italy). Historically. These are sary knowledge and expertise is reported as a major useful way to variously called development exactions. developer interventions to a good understanding of local conditions has contributions are a useful way to address the externalities been stressed. However. planning gain. physical infrastructures I Human capital and low-cost housing. agencies. it was often assumed that formal government cial measures to spatial plans can help in ensuring fairness (the state) should pay for public infrastructures. developers’ contri. constraint for effective urban planning in many parts of the address the butions. and include this when calcu. such externally prepared master realm. expertise is … a of an alternative tool in the form of a standard payment Furthermore. demanding considerable expertise. where the absence externalities that is sometimes thought that these are underhand negotiations. Undertaking the coordinative and integrative work that is at Given the right As a result. Sometimes and in responding to the pace of change. such negotiation practices have evolved reason. this eventuality is quite likely. Where is effectively the suspension of urban land-use planning after developments patronage politics prevails.132 lating the price to pay for land they have to purchase. Clearly. are weak. offices and to work with planners in the places they are Lack of adequately macy of the practice may be called into question. In designing a . in situations where development activity the heart of effective urban planning is a complex task. In large developments. and with a narrow understanding of the implementa- with necessary developers to exploit weak municipalities in negotiations tion potential of these ideas. cle in effective urban planning. stakeholders opers acknowledge that claims for contributions to address and planning arenas specific adverse impacts upon a community are justified. plans often missed the critical issues for a city. Urban areas. lack of adequately trained personnel with neces- contributions are a ments are reached about who should pay for what. An extreme example is Cambodia. given questions of knowledge and over public realm benefits may lead to arguments for the use understanding and institutional capacity in particular places. But they also often work