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INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH PAPER

18th PSMG (PUBLIC SECTOR MANAGEMENT & GOVERNANCE)

FOR PROMOTION OF PMS OFFICERS (FROM BS-17 TO BS-18)

FULL TITLE OF THE RESEARCH PAPER
BY
ATHAR JALIL EADA (E&M) DG KHAN

A paper submitted to the faculty of the MPDD, in partial fulfillment of the
requirements of the _________________________________________________
The contents of this paper are the end product of our own efforts and research and
reflect our own personal views and are not necessary endorsed by MPDD.

Signature ………………….
Dated:………………………

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Atta ullah. I also extend special thanks to Mr. I indebted to D. (Instructor-Human Resource Management). MPDD for providing motivation and guidelines to complete this paper. Author TABLE OF CONTENTS 2 . Sohail Munir Course Coordinator (Instructor – IT) for providing persistent guidance and support. I am thankful to. Afshan Mushtaq Faculty Advisor. Mr. Umar Farooq Alvi. for his instrumental help in compiling the report. PREFACE I gratefully acknowledge the support and advice of Mr. Director (Academics). Muhammad Wakeel Computer Operator. Mrs. Assistant Professor BZU Multan for providing data and relevant material and guidance on core issues linked with the subject.

.. CONCLUSION………………………………………… RECOMMENDATION………………………………. METHODOLOGY…………………………………….. LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………. REFERENCES………………………………………… ABSTRACT 3 .ABSTRACT…………………………………………… INTRODUCTION…………………………………….

men and women. However. It is known that gender mainstreaming as a concept to ensure that policy decisions take into account the cultural barriers and challenges and different interests and needs of men and women. the role of men will also be discussed the promotion of gender mainstreaming in agricultural sector of Pakistan. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the significance and implications of gender mainstreaming in agricultural development. Women's work is important to the endurance and provides a means for poor families to flee the poverty trap. Recent studies and reports have clearly shown that gender equality and gender mainstreaming are highly recommended. referring to the lack of equality between the sexes. Women play an important role in civil society and economic growth in rural areas of developing countries. it is obvious that gender does not support addition and input of women in policy and decision-making in the field of agricultural development in Pakistan. though. This will describe and show the impact and the importance of gender mainstreaming to achieve all the objectives development in agriculture. since more than a focus on female mode. The content of the article is based on the various reviews of research literature and based on the conclusions and recommendations contained in them on gender equality and gender mainstreaming. The document will conclude with the recommendations that should be helpful to develop a profound perceptive of the dynamics and the added value of impartiality in the field of agricultural development and poverty reduction INTRODUCTION 4 . recommended in the agricultural sector to reduce poverty. in various cases.

3% of the total workforce and 60 % of the rural population depends on this sector for their source of revenue. Agriculture in addition contributes to the development by providing raw material to agro-based industries. so the country has a vast potential for agricultural production and livestock (Rahman et al. agricultural production we have is much lower than many other countries. Pakistan is principally an agricultural country rich in natural resources and climatic conditions suitable deep soil. 1993). empowerment of woman. In spite of much share in agricultural production the exploiting and discriminating behavior for women is also observed (Amnesty International. Female labuor force takes part actively in agricultural production system from soil preparations to post harvest management (Ahmed & Hussain. margarine and dairy products. favorable terrain and water resources. 2011). After a brief background of woman’s suppression in Pakistan. this paper is to recognize and estimate the impacts of selected socio-economic and demographic parameters on women’s empowerment and gender equality for the sustainable agricultural development 5 . such as textile materials and food industries. This lack of gender diversity is key threat to food security and socio-economic development in rural community. leather.. etc (Govt. there needs improve the technical skills of rural female farmers to increase the production their income Reddy (2003). Pakistan the world’s second-worst country in terms of equitable division of resources and opportunities among men and women (Haider. 2008). In spite of this importance. sugar. 2009).8% of the total gross domestic product (GDP). In Pakistan the share of female worker (40. That is why. in all quanta particularly in education and decision making (Khan. 2013). In Pakistan. 2004). Agriculture plays a significant part in Pakistan's economy by bringing about 19. Women contributing a great share towards agricultural out but unfortunately they barely getting benefit from production incentives due to the traditional suppressive practices on the gender inequality. of Pakistan. paper. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (2008) and Rahman (2010). This gender in equality is due to the lack of women empowerment rather than ignorance (Ogunlela and Mukhtar. agriculture is evolving very low speeds in Pakistan. For sustainable development in agricultural sector. Females in rural community are facing number of constraints in agricultural production operation and share in income (Prakash. 2003). 2013). and works 42. women are highly suppressed one than men. gender equality and share in decision making and income is compulsory for optimum growth in agricultural sector of Pakistan. 2016). Women participate a major role in civil society and in economic growth in rural areas of developing countries.7%) ratio in agriculture sector is two times higher than male (Government of Pakistan.

GENDER MAINSTREAMING 6 . Gender characteristics differ from one culture to another and change with the passage of time (GoS. 2010). GENDER EQUALITY Equal opportunity and outcomes regardless of gender in a community is called as gender equality. 2010). and gender represent the naturally fixed differentiation between man and woman (Sanga. It involves the elimination of favoritism and structural bias regarding the resources. roles and behavior patterns. Often the term is misunderstood and used as synonym for sex indiscrimination. Engendering development is equally engagement of both the sexes’ in production process.in Pakistan. Equality enhancement is compulsory for sustainable agricultural development in Pakistan. ENGENDERING The term engendering represents the ways through which gender based roles are allotted to fix the participation of male and female in community development process. Due to the changing circumstances of economy and human necessities. REVIEW OF LITERATURE THE CONCEPT OF GENDER MAINSTREAMING GENDER The characters. there is more need of engendering development process and streamlining the gender that fulfill the development criteria (Maseno and Kilonzo. that socially and culturally women from men in the society. opportunities and promotion on equal basis (AfDB. This paper will also helpful in highlighting the succeeding question for the gender equality and measures to be taken for women empowerment to participate in sustainable agricultural development in Pakistan. 2008). 2010). As stated earlier. “Gender” represent the publicly constructed differences among sexes.

Women often gave more time than male in agricultural production system. 2009). This is in contradiction to the facts that being a main producers of food. 2010). 7 . livestock and cottage industries. Improvement in women status is not just an issue. in all areas and at all levels. Now a days. They are often involves in cultivation of crops and post harvest processing along with men for household incomes (World Bank. such as seeding and/or planting. 2006). 2010). Among these the poorest of poor are women and young girls who not have standard and descent job and income. This is known that women are involved in agricultural production. monitoring and assessment of policies and programs in all political. 2009).Gender mainstreaming is practice of evaluating the implications for women and men of any considered strategy. Agricultural development can be achieved through educating the women. 2011). The women of the village involves production practices. monitor and evaluation of policies and reforms that encouraged gender equality (GoS. which results in hunger and malnutrition. WOMEN ROLES IN THE AGRICULTURE Social and economic development of women is not just a question of equality between men and women instead of the social and economic development issues in Pakistan (Jamali. but it is a fundamental aim for the active participation of men and women for community development. This objective can be achieved through Gender and Development approach. poor health and education facilities (FAO. It includes the process of assessing the gaps among gender and actions to implement. GENDER AND AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT Women are important in the production process of agricultural sector. together with legislation and policies. Developing countries’ including Pakistan 70% population is rural based and mainly rely on agriculture for livelihood. BACKGROUND OF GENDER MAINSTREAMING At the globe gender mainstreaming has emerged following the 1995 Beijing women’s conference (Alston. economic and social spheres so that women and men benefit equally (Dayanandan. It is a approach for making the concerns and experiences of women and men an important aspect of the plan. execution. there has been arising a compromise that there should be equality in men and women role in the community for sustainable development. the basic technical skills and economic empowerment.

However. According to Islamic law. but women are subject to discrimination because of misinterpretation of religious thought. education and employment opportunities for women is much lower than those of Pakistani men. but they face many problems and obstacles. When referring to 8 . Gender inequality and traditional circumstance in rural areas makes it difficult to field work for women. especially in the rural areas of Pakistan (Saeeda. 2006). 2011). 2008). this sector is bearing economic and productivity losses in many countries. For example. where crop production is mainly dependent on natural precipitation and crop production is not sufficient to meet subsistence needs of the households. women have to take over a extra burden of the work in agricultural production in such areas.weeding and harvesting. In cotton producing regions of Pakistan. CONSTRAINTS FOR WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION Cultural atmosphere is not conducive to the participation of women in the agricultural industry. there is a much more demand for female labor for field operation and picking. Owing to such limitations women cannot participate freely in rural environment as their contribution is much important for agricultural development and poverty alleviation (PCO. women have to bring water and fuel wood and clean the house and some other domestic work in the conservation. Agriculture could be a main sector for development and poverty reduction (FAO. due to the movement of women in conservative societies is limited and restrictions on gender mainstreaming in agriculture in some areas of Pakistan (Shahbaz et al.. Agricultural system. rural women do much more work than men. elderly and disabled. there is impartiality among men and women. At all. 2010). and care for the children. GENDER MAINSTREAMING AND AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN PAKISTAN Women have to play a very important role in the agricultural development to survive. At such places men have usually required employment in the non-farm sector due to which. as well as all operations relating to the post harvest handling of the crop products. because of the constraints faced by women which are an important resource in agriculture production system in rural areas. Access to a variety of social and cultural beliefs and prejudices as a result of this property. In addition to normal household activities.

02 Grazing 22.0 9 .00 Milking 35.32 Seed bed Preparation 17.The sample consists of 60 individuals (30 men and 30 women) through questionnaire consisting of 25 questions regarding gender share in different activities in Livestock and Crop in Agriculture.32 Picking of Fruits 12. METHODOLOGY This study was conducted in Rural Union Council of Kala Dera Ghazi Khan.63 Shed Cleaning 53.20 Weeding 22. Legal recognition of its role is limited due to a number of factors that must be overlooked. women who working side by side in many areas of the agricultural sector in terms of productive effort usually not found to be recognized at the national level (Begum and Yasmeen (2011). Random Sampling method was used to select the sample.82 Harvesting 60. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS ROLE OF WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE Women Role in (Percentage %) Fodder Cutting 65.63 Watering 57.39 Threshing 0.Pakistan.05 Yogurt Preparation 84.65 Feeding 70.05 Ghee Making 76.

Pakistan was expressed for crop production and livestock management.59% women adapted this profession because no other work was available. 10 . Our research study reveals that a majority of the respondents belonged to the low income groups and illiterate. The majority of women (63. but their work is invisible and unfortunately unpaid. unrecorded and unrecognized.9% of the respondents started the profession of agriculture because of personal interest.76%) started this work to support their families economically.Winnowing 14.32% for picking of fruits. and 11.39 Drying 12. 12. 98% reported that they were receiving low income and they were facing a lot of problems due to want of technical experience.77% of the respondents reported that they started agricultural activities due to family profession.20% and other activities were related to post-harvesting.39 Cleaning 56. A majority of the respondents i. This implies that women work very hard. The data shows that a majority of the women were doing this kind of job only to support their families and they showed little interest in this profession.39% for winnowing.the problem faced by rural women is that Women contribution is measured to be lower in a country not because of their least possible involvement than that of men but because their involvement goes unacknowledged. 20. only 3.02 This study was conducted for the purpose of identifying the role of women in agriculture.02 Storing 15. technical guidance as well as agricultural information. they are mainly accountable for pre-cultivating and post-harvesting operations of food crops compulsory for household livelihood and their struggle goes unrecognized and unpaid . 60. Table shows the role of women in agricultural activities such as crop production. However.e.00 Making Bundles 20.39% for drying 12. harvesting. The role of women in rural areas of Dera Ghazi Khan. In fact. . resources. 14. DISCUSSION Women carry out almost all the domestic work on the top priorities and their roles in outdoor productive activities are inevitable. Pre- Harvesting activity like seed bed preparation was 17.39 figures are given above table.

limited business and negotiation skills. It clearly indicated that the women of the study area were bound by cultural traditions and did not have the capacities and skills for marketing. their sources of information were only the families and friends. The reasons behind this fact include family opposition. analysis of their role in agricultural marketing and exploration of the factors which determine their empowerment.  It is recommended that developmental programmes. health problems. domestic problems faced by them. our study focused on the participation of rural women in a variety of productive activities and we found that different problems were faced by them like illiteracy. lack of transportation and limited product. no access to extension services and gender discrimination. There is need to change the cultural taboos which discriminate women. If education and infrastructure facilities are improved in the rural areas then women will work in the agricultural sector more actively and ultimately help in poverty eradication trough rural agricultural development.  It is recommended that ways to raise awareness and provide education to address gender issues must be provided. time constraints. land owner right and empowerment. Conclusively. generally training programs should be launched to engage urban women with rural women in order to develop market skills in rural women. as this paper is recommends following strategies to improve women participation agriculture industry and reduces poverty. 11 .  It is recommended that agriculture training for women be offered on farms like mango and citrus picking training program at farm level. no credit facilities and moreover. . There are many agencies and government departments who can contribute to the improvement of women’s roles in agriculture. The present study has focused on the causes of women’s involvement in agriculture. This study also shows that there were no training opportunities for the women. CONCLUSION There should be a free excess to training particularly some training modules for women about latest agricultural technologies. RECOMMENDATIONS The aim of this project was to make recommendations to improve women's participation particularly in the mango industry and generally in agriculture and dairy Industries in Pakistan. However.Our findings indicate that most of the respondents were not involved in agricultural marketing.

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