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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 – Introduction to Psychrometry
Page1a1–1a Page1a1–1b
Introduction to
Notes Notes Psychrometry
Learning Outcomes
Learning Outcomes:
When you have studied this chapter you should be able to:

1 Explain what is meant by the term ‘Psychrometry’.
2. Relate ‘Dalton’s law of Partial Pressures’ to the term
Introduction 3.
‘Atmospheric Pressure’.
Explain what is meant by the term ‘Saturated Vapour

4. Use a ‘Psychrometric Chart to find:
a. A saturated vapour pressure for a given

— Psychrometry temperature.
Find, for a given air sample, the following:
b. The moisture content
c. The percentage saturation
d. The relative humidity.
5. Explain what is meant by the ‘wet-bulb’ temperature and
its use in the ‘psychrometric equation’.
6. Show how the Psychrometric Chart is used to determine:
a. Dew-point temperature
b. Specific Enthalpy

Suggested Study Time:
(a) For study of chapter material;
Chapter 1 (i) Initial on-screen study 1 hour
(ii) Printing of notes and subsequent
in-depth study 2 hours
(b) For completion of the quick revision study guide
½ hour

Total estimated study time 3½ hours

The Sling Wet-bulb 1-8b 2. Page2a1–2a Page2a1–2b Chapter 1 – Introduction to Psychrometry Notes Notes Chapter Contents Item page Learning Outcomes 1-1b Introduction to Psychrometry 1-3a The Atmosphere 1-3a Water Vapour 1-4a Saturated Vapour Pressure 1-5a Psychrometric Chart (Theory) 1-5b Moisture content 1-6a Relative humidity 1-6b Percentage saturation 1-7a Relationship between g. The Screen Wet-bulb 1-8b The Psychrometric Equation 1-9a Dew-point temperature 1-10b Specific enthalpy 1-11a Specific volume 1-12a Density 1-12a Psychrometric chart 1-13 Quick Revision Study Guide 1-14a Chapter Notes 1-15a . m and rh 1-7b — Comparision of percentage saturation & rh 1-8a Wet-bulb temperature 1-8b 1.

900˚C 200km Molecular Weight % Atmosphere IONOSPHERE . 70 — 60 In a vessel open to the . oxygen 21% and carbon dioxide and Notes the inert gases (such as argon. Air comprises a mixture of gases†1. illustrates that if two gases are combined into the same volume. neon. the dry gases and associated water va. Page3a1–3a Page3a1–3b Chapter 1 – Introduction to Psychrometry Notes Notes Introduction to Psychrometry The Atmosphere Psychrometry is the study of atmospheric air and its asso- ciated water vapour. the total pressure is the sum of the 80 individual partial gas pressures. That . These are known as the dry gases of the atmosphere. The Earth’s Atmosphere VIDEOEO pour behave according to ‘Dalton’s law of Partial Pressures’. .60˚C TROPOPAUSE Winds + 20˚C TROPOSPHERE .200˚C 150km In the air mixture.1 of which See nitrogen makes up 78%. exerts combine to produce an overall ‘atmospheric pressure’.) the Gas A at Gas B at Gas A + B at remainder.1100˚C 250km 0 Nitrogen Oxygen Carbon Dioxide . .60˚C STRATOSPHERE 50km Clouds. it is the weight 50 of the atmospheric gases .1150˚C 300km Approximate Temperature 20 Height 10 . partial pressure partial pressure total pressure PA Pb PA + PB Principle Dry Atmospheric Gases Dalton’s Law.2 Notes of the atmosphere.1200˚C 350km 40 above the earth’s surface 30 See that produce the pressure†1. krypton.1200˚C 400km atmosphere. helium etc. No Winds .75˚C 100km is they behave independently of one another and the pressure each No Clouds.

less.. — study before continuing. in order to fully appreciate the material within this course (Under certain conditions the mass of water vapour will you need to be familiar with the gas laws. bonds which bind them and the 0. change due to condensation or evaporation (known as dehu- dynamics and the concepts of internal energy. particles can break the liquid to flow.‘Thermodynamics Refresher. Matter Evaporating Condensing water is able to exist in both a liquid and a gaseous (or vapour) form.e. although the actual quantity of Note: Psychrometry is a specialised area of thermodynam. but the mass of gas properties. given volume of air. for the purpose atmospheric gases. enthalpy and other Basic midification and humidification respectively).. .25 mbar) and this reduces at the rate content.. For those of you who lack this experience I have Thermodynamics dry air will remain constant. but this depends upon weather conditions.325 kPa (1013. If energy is h = m1 .The particles can The agreed international standard atmosphere has a pressure of position. a all properties of the mixture to the mass of dry air rather than to brief set of notes covering these topics which you are advised to Xtra the combined mass of air and water vapour).h1 + m2 . atmospheric pressure is normally within the Particles in a solid normally have Particles in a liquid do not occupy no motion relative to each other fixed positions. but it cannot be treated in the same way as the other gases Freezing of the atmosphere because its quantity. In addition.: become a gas. but they are not range 95 to 105 Pa. h2 + m3 . None the tion of comfort. etc. the more humid the SOLID LIQUID air. the air also contains varying The States of amounts of water vapour. At sea level. At normal temperatures and pressures. the first law of thermo. GAS removed from the gas it will again condense to a liquid Water Vapour In addition to these dry gases. it can have a dramatic effect on our percep- ics but obviosuly has applications in air conditioning. Page4a1–4a Page4a1–4b Chapter 1 – Introduction to Psychrometry Notes Notes Since at normal temperatures and pressures we are unable The water vapour is completely independent of the dry to condense these gases out from the atmosphere. and hence proportion are continually varying.013 kPa per metre of height above sea level and increases at solid melts the same rate below sea level. but for any given temperature there is a maxi- a single ‘ideal’ or perfect gas behaving as a single element known mum amount of vapour that can be absorbed or associated with a as ‘dry air’. If we increase the energy slide over one another allowing the 101.h3 + . A consequence to Dalton’s law of Partial Pressure is that Energy supplied to a liquid allows the particles to break the total enthalpy of a mixture of gases will equal the sum of the free of each other and enthalpies of each component part. and its behaviour is not affected by their pres- of psychrometry. Water vapour is said to be associated with dry air and the Melting more vapour associated with the dry gases. i. this mixture of gases can be treated as if it were ence of absence. water is quite small. It is therefore convenient to relate included within the extra notes . except vibration about a fixed completely free.

5 between saturated vapour Notes property†1.6 (pss) and since at a given temperature the air cannot absorb more Psychrometric Chart against temperature is derived on the basis water than its saturated condition.0 40. pressure and temperature. After a while however. temperature Normal air temperature. and this will occur when the saturated vapour not show vapour pressure but rather pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure.4 and represents the internal energy of the molecules. temperature.0 50. Page5a1–5a Page5a1–5b Chapter 1 – Introduction to Psychrometry Notes Notes Saturated Vapour Pressure (PSS)†1. the air will become fully saturated with water and this relationship forms the basis for the psychrometric chart Chart vapour so that no more water can evaporate unless we again in. Vapour pressure (ps) is the actual pressure of vapour existing at any particular location and time and temperature and is a property of the moisture con- tent of the air. the saturated vapour pressure moisture content vapour pressure of the relationship — is the maximum pressure of water vapour that can occur at any between vapour pressure and saturation given temperature.0 60. which is essentially a plot of vapour pres- crease the temperature.24 7. even at this in- Psychro creased temperature. .92 water vapour or steam. for example.3 Psychrometric Chart See See Heat is a form of internal energy.0 30. This is a thermodynamic Notes There is a fixed relationship†1. The pressure produced by the water vapour in this fully saturated condition is known as the saturated vapour pressure Although the CIBSE Saturation moisture content †1. sure against air temperature.0 ity and thus more water can escape from the liquid into the gas as Pressure (Pa) 1. if we continue to supply heat the published chart does pressure water will boil. can be meas- ured by a normal mercury-in-glass thermometer 100 20 40 60 80 20 0 This is known as the Dry-bulb temperature (tdb) because the bulb of the thermometer is kept dry (as opposed to the wet-bulb thermometer which we will introduce later).34 4.23 2. the vapour Eventually of course.0 20. as you might expect. (click adjacent symbol). shows moisture (vapour) content against temperature as this is more useful to the user.38 12.33 19. With increase temperature there is an increase in molecular activ- Temperature (°C) 10.

at the same temperature. and is the ratio between the actual moisture likewise. in a mixture of air and water vapour. they can be derived from other properties. psychrometric chart (click adjacent symbol). For user convenience. but we do need to know the quantity of water that exists at any time. but is not common today]. Percentage saturation is a useful guide to comfort as the sic parameters which determine the humid condition of atmos. Page6a1–6a Page6a1–6b Chapter 1 – Introduction to Psychrometry Notes Notes Moisture content (g) Percentage saturation (µ) Dry-bulb temperature and vapour pressure are the two ba. the chart also includes lines of con- The moisture content is shown on the right-hand side of the Chart Chart stant percentage saturation (click adjacent symbol). One way of measuring µ (%) = moisture content of sample x 100 (kg) this amount in by the moisture content and can be expressed in moisture content of saturated air (kg) kg of water vapour per kg of dry air (kg/kg of dry air). human body tends to respond to relative saturation rather than pheric air. In practice content of the sample (gs) and the moisture content of a sample we are not really interested in the pressure exerted by the vapour of saturated air (gss). the Definition of percentage moisture content Psychrometric Chart is saturation scaled in moisture content ○ moisture content ○ ○ ○ saturation 100% saturation moisture content µ = gs x 100 (%) gss ○ ○ gss ○○ ○ ○ ○ % sat gs t temperature temperature . = gs x 100 gss g= mass of water vapour (kg) = ms — mass of dry air (kg) ma The property is shown on the psychrometric chart and to Psychro Psychro make the chart easier to use. but other properties can be derived from them and moisture content. [The term ‘humidity ratio’ was used in the past.

However.V so that pss (at the same dry-bulb temperature) R . or as a ratio. Ta Rs . as the relationship between vapour pressure Notes and we also know from Dalton’s Law of partial pressure that See and moisture content is not quite linear. See tions†1. as we noted before. the volumes and the temperatures must be equal. Vs x Ra .h.e. so that g = 0. a ratio can be found for Ra / Rs . relative humidity is another method moisture content and percentage saturation in terms of partial of measuring the amount of water vapour present in the air. ratio of the vapour pressure of an air sample to the saturated va. = ps x 100% convience.622 x ps g = ps x Ra pa pa Rs t temperature But since we know the value of the gas constants. and is usually expressed pour) content of the air can be expressed either as a specific value as a percentage.we could i. Page7a1–7a Page7a1–7b Chapter 1 – Introduction to Psychrometry Notes Notes Relative humidity (rh) Relationship between g. rh (%) = partial pressure of water vapour in sample x 100 (Pa) partial pressure of water vapour in saturated air (Pa) Thus by definition g = ms ma = ps x 100 but from the perfect gas laws: µ = p .T — µa = pa . Va and µ s = p s . (patm – ps) .8 – ps and finally therefore: g = 0. Vs = Va and Ts = Ta so that the above formula can be simplied p determine vapour ps ss pressure from: to: g = 0. Ts terms of moisture pss content. Ta Psychrometric Chart is scaled in pa . this is for but for a mixture. % r. and pressure and hence compare percentage saturation with relative is a hangover from the days of ‘imperial’ measurement. Vs Definition of relative humidity Ra . Although the g= ps .622 ps slight (but not usually significant) difference between them.h. It is the humidity. of the mass of vapour to the mass of dry air. their will always be a Notes pa = patm†1.7.622 ps Percentage saturation or relative humidity are frequently pa used in specifications as a requirement of air humidity condi. the moisture (va- pour pressure at the same temperature. µ and rh Although percentage saturation is the preferred method of We are now in a position to derive useful expressions for expressing the humidity ratio. Ts moisture content vapour pressure saturation vapour pressure Thus we can also define moisture content as: = 100% r. If we consider the humid air mixture. Va Rs .

is the air µ = gs x 100 % temperature measured by a thermometer with a bulb covered with gss a muslin cloth sleeve and kept moist with distilled or clean water.e. but equipped with wet and dry-bulb thermometers and maximum and minimum ther- mometers. Notes The screen wet-bulb tempera- ture is the reading obtained in still air. This is usually used for mete- orological data and is obtained from a wet-bulb thermometer in- stalled into a ‘Stevenson Screen’ (from which this type of meas- urement gets its name). but using the above expression derived from moisture content. — Since patm is very much bigger than ps or pss . Page8a1–8a Page8a1–8b Chapter 1 – Introduction to Psychrometry Notes Notes Comparision of percentage saturation and rh Wet-bulb temperature (twb) From the previous definition. then the relative humidity is very nearly equal to the percentage saturation. The Screen Wet-bulb thermometer†1.9. but we can also express the percentage saturation as: as the actual reading is influenced by air movement. In fact measurement of humid air has always been Assman a problem and the most practical method is to use a wet-bulb Hygrometer See 2.pss) x 100 % 1. (patm . &j VIDEOEO Although relative humidity and percentage saturation are Sling Hygrometer useful guides to comfort. designed to screen direct radiation from the instruments. but pss more accurate ‘Assman hygrometer’ which is fan-assisted. i. there are two variations of this The ‘sling wet-bulb’ temperature reading obtained in mov- Compare this to the definition of relative humidity: See ing air†1. It was devised as a means of assessing the humidity of the air. The Sling Wet-bulb pss . It can be obtained by whirl- rh (φ) = ps x 100 % Notes ing a ‘sling hygrometer’ or by using the more cumberson. µ= ps . it is not always practical to measure them directly. . we know that The wet-bulb temperature. This is a slatted enclosure. Of the two methods of reading wet-bulb. (patm . as the name implies.10 – preferably above 2 m/s. the sling reading is considered to be more accurate and is therefore preferred by air-conditioning engineers.

and since one process is the cause of the other 20 we may equate them as: ambient air B . B . must equal the sensible patm heat lost from the surrounding air. to ( gss’ – gs ). i.622 pss’ -flo w 123 patm – pss’ air muslin sleeve Wet-bulb thermometer and since ps and pss’ are both very small compared to patm we may re-write these equations more simply as: Moisture will be evaporated from the muslin cloth sleeve g = 0. A . where A is known as the psychrometric constant and the differ- ence between the dry-bulb and the wet-bulb temperatures (t – t’) is known as the wet-bulb depression. so that the latent heat Notes bulb temperatures to their corresponding vapour pressures and to gain is proportional to the difference in moisture content between the atmospheric pressure. pss’. (t . (t – t’). to (t – t’).11.622 ps and gss’ = 0. i.622 . (t – t’) of the muslin as it associates with the air. Page9a1–9a Page9a1–9b Chapter 1 – Introduction to Psychrometry Notes Notes The Psychrometric Equation At the surface of the muslin sleeve the air is considered to The psychrometric equation links the dry-bulb and the wet. (pss’ – ps) = C .gs) = C . we get: latent heat of evaporation gained by the moisture on the surface 0. For this evaporation to take place heat must be Hence by substituting these expressions for moisture content into supplied and this can only come from the surrounding air.t’) – (equation 1) with properties: t. g ss’ 123 123 gss’ = 0. i. (gss’ . in other words there must be a From which we obtain: drop in the wet-bulb temperature to compensate for the increase ps = pss’ – patm .622 ps 123 patm – ps 123 air around muslin sleeve with and 123 123 properties: t’. the sensible heat lost is proportional to the tem- perature difference between the bulb and the ambient tempera- ture. mometer: Similary.e. the film of air surrounding the muslin sleeve and the surrounding Consider air flowing across the bulb of a wet-bulb ther. gs where B and C are constants which relate to surface area and 0 latent heat. in mosture content to the air around it. we known that: — 20 gs = 0. air. . ps. See be at saturation moisture content (gss’)†1.e the our equation 1.622 pss’ around the bulb and will be taken up (associated) with the sur.e. But from our earlier equation for moisture content. patm patm rounding air.

1) for t’ greater than 0 °C tually. water vapour A = 7.12 as it determines if water will be condensed 2 m/s and 20 m/s the effect of air velocity is practically constant). of portant to remember that the saturated vapour pressure (pss’) is course.1) for t’ less than 0 °C fully saturated (on our psychrometric chart – the ‘saturation line) Screen: A = 7.4 (K .20 x 10 . — chart and to assist with humidification processes (those which increase the moisture content). This point in known as the dew-point Psychro temperature (t dp) and again can be represented on our Wet-bulb temperature is also shown on a psychrometeric Chart psychrometric chart (click adjacent symbol). Even- Sling: A = 6.4 (K . the temperature of the air will reach a point where the air is A = 5. suppose air is being cooled Psychrometric Constants at constant vapour pressure (i.4 (K . Page10a 1–10a Page10a 1–10b Chapter 1 – Introduction to Psychrometry Notes Notes Now the rate of moisture evaporation is different if the air Dew-point temperature (tdp) is above or below freezing point (0°C) and between still and The dew-point temperature is a very important property in moving air (a standard speed of 2 m/s is used. but between about See air-conditioning†1.66 x 10 . Notes from air when it is cooled. they are shown as lines of con.1) for t’ less than 0 °C will begin to condense. to avoid problems of condensation.4 (K . get wet and it is important to appreciate this when trying taken at the wet-bulb temperature. For example.99 x 10 . constant moisture content). Chart Lines of Constant moisture content Wet-bulb Temperature 100% saturation A 100% saturation ga dew-point temperature of air at condition A Lines of constant wet-bulb temperature tdp temperature dry-bulb temperature We should also realise that moist air does not need to be cooled to its dew-point for condensation to occur. Any surface Note: When working with the psychrometric equation. with a temperature below the dew-point of the moist air will.94 x 10 .e. it is im. . This occurs when a sample of air is Different values of the psychrometric constant are therefore quoted cooled to the point where its vapour pressure reaches its satu- to cater for these conditions: rated vapour pressure.1) for t’ greater than 0 °C and if the temperature drops lower than this point. Psychro Dew-point Temperature moisture content stant wet-bulb temperature (click adjacent symbol).

005 kg/kg. Thus the = 20. a straight edge is used to join the corresponding enthalpy by: h2 = 0.189 + 12.505 = 32.e its value depends upon the h3 = 0. ○ ○ ○ ○ lpy ○ h = h1 + h2 + h3 ○ ○ tha ○ ○ ○ ○ en where the specific enthalpy for each part of the air-mixture is ○ ○ ic given by: h = mass x specific heat x ∆t.005 is the specific heat of dry air and Chart (click adjacent symbol).005 is the moisture content VIDEOEO bottom.505 amount of substance present. specific enthalpy can be determined much more and latent) of 1 kg of dry air plus its associated water vapour quickly by direct reading from the psychrometric chart. we can proceed as follows: Taking as our sample.1 kJ/kgK. the water vapour is considered to have evaporated at 0°C. Specific Enthalpy — To calculate the specific enthalpy for an air sample we can at edges of chart ○ ○ ○ use Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures. but although in psychrometry it is only the the moisture content.8 kJ/kg specific enthalpy (h). To therefore obtain the specific enthalpy of an air condi- similarly the sensible heat energy of the moisture content is given tion. i. where 1 is the mass of dry air.005 x 1. It is usually obtained by dividing the extensive prop. 1 kg of dry air and its associated moisture content. Page11a 1–11a Page11a 1–11b Chapter 1 – Introduction to Psychrometry Notes Notes Specific enthalpy (h) Finally. page C-5a) is a We therefore have to include the latent heat of evaporation for measure of energy. content is given by: Enthalpy is an extensive property.005 x 20 = 20.1 + 0.794 = 32. 20 is the air temperature relative to 0°C.189 marks above to 100% saturation line with those on either the where 0. 20 is the air temperature relative to 0°C. and there are no lines of constant enthalpy. .005 x 2501 = 12. (measured in units of kJ/kg) relative to zero°C and zero moisture content. An intensive property is therefore where 0. or the right-hand side of the chart (click on adjacent video 1. Notes Thus the total enthalpy is given by h1 + h2 + h3 erty by its mass and is then known as specific property.13.. Psychro Enthalpy scales are located ‘around the edges’ of the chart 1. See 2501 is the latent heat of evaporation at 0°C†1. the enthalpy of the dry air is given by: specific enthalpy h1 = 1 x 1.005 is the moisture content and more useful since it does not depend upon the amount of mate. this is still referred to an enthalpy. Thus the latent heat energy of the moisture heat energy which is of interest. i. to calculate the specific enthalpy for air at a dry-bulb temperature of 20°C and a moisture content of 0. rial present.89 x 20 = 0. ○ cif e sp Thus for example.89 is the specific heat of water vapour and symbol).e. is a measure of the heat energy (sensible However. Enthalpy (see Thermofluids Refresher.

with the exception of vapour pressure and saturation psychrometric parameters may also be required. Note: that the specific volume is a measure of dry air. for measurements and Lines of Constant Volume moisture content µ) dry-bulb temperature (tdb) and percentage saturation (µ Lines of [or relative humidity (rh)] constant volume for specifications. the difference is very small and can be See Notes ignored†1.15 are used. the others then being read at a given temperature normally expressed as m3/kg and is also from the chart as required (see chart overleaf). all these psychrometric parameters are brought Specific volume (v) together on the psychrometric chart. since the addi. Notes tion of any associated water vapour has no effect on the volume (Dalton’s dry-bulb (tdb) and wet-bulb (twb) temperature Law). .14. from which any two are suf- The specific volume. Chart See In practice only two combinations†1. Psychro shown in the psychrometric chart (click adjacent symbol). vapour pressure. is the volume of unit mass of dry air ficient to indentify an air condition. — 100% saturation dry-bulb temperature Density (ρρ) The density of air is taken for a moist air sample and there- fore includes the mass of the associated water vapour. The exact relationship is given by: ρ = (1 + g) v In practice however. is defined in terms of dry air and thus the specific volume is not the reciprocal of density. The spe- cific volume however. the following Thus. Page12a 1–12a Page12a 1–12b Chapter 1 – Introduction to Psychrometry Notes Notes In addition to the temperatures already noted.

005 0 0 0.020 kJ 60 0.5 20 0.4 0.90 PSYCHROMETRIC 0 0.023 75 125 0.9 IC V CIF EN ADDED AT 30˚C 110 SPE MOISTURE CONTENT kg/kg 0.025 130 BASED ON A BAROMETRIC 80 PRESSURE OF 101.001 0.0 RATIO FOR WATER 0.007 0.3 35 100 LI 0.029 10 140 CHART 0.004 75 -5 0.012 U RE 95 AT 15 0.6 25 0.026 85 0.014 ) NG 0.1 0 ˚C 30 0.021 120 65 /kg 0.1 0 0.016 EC 0.030 0.000 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 DRY – BULB TEMPERATURE ˚C -45 50 55 60 65 -20 25 30 35 40 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 SPECIFIC ENTHALPY kJ/kg .5 0.325 kPa 0.018 0.75 -5 0.002 -10 0.7 PY 3 /kg 0.3 0.019 115 0.013 (S 0.028 30 95 90 0.8 0.017 50 C 0.6 105 SP 45 0.009 15 -B ET 0.022 70 0.8 AL m 0.2 0.010 TE 90 B 20 UL 0.003 70 -10 0.024 0.011 R 25 PE M 0.006 80 5 5 0.015 40 0.7 IFI 0.9 SENSIBLE/TOTAL HEAT ME 55 OLU TH 1. svp g % sat rh wb dew h v 5 10 120 125 130 135 140 0 11 CIBSE PERCENTAGE SATURATION 5 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0.4 0.85 0.2 0.008 85 10 W 10 0.027 135 0.80 0.

What is the specific enthalpy of the mixture? — 2. Moist air has a dry-bulb temperature of 30°C. quick (ii) the psychrometric constant is 6. and a wet-bulb temperature of 20°C. A sling psychrometer measured the dry and wet-bulb temperatures of moist air as 27°C and 19°C respectively. If the temperature of the inside surface of a window is 9°C.0 kg of dry air with a specific enthalpy of 20 kJ/kg.01 kg of steam with a specific enthalpy of 2. short-phrased.196 kPa. undergoes a process so that its condition is changed to 40°C dry- bulb and 30% saturation. The dew-point temperature 3. given that: chapter. please refer to the Denco Website: www. Determine the moisture content from the relevant naire to ensure you have grasped the general principles of this equation. The percentage saturation b. The moisture content c. will condensation form on the window glass? . 4. Use a Psychrometric Chart to find a. The specific volume e. denco. The air inside a room during winter is at 20°C db and 40% saturation. (i) pss at 19°C is 2. Use a Psychrometric Chart to determine the change in specific enthalpy for the process. The enthalpy 1.66 x 10-4 K-1 answers or sketches to the questions.700 kJ/kg is mixed with 2. For suggested solutions to these questions. Page14a 1–14a Page14a 1–14b Chapter 1 – Introduction to Psychrometry Notes Notes Quick Revision Study Guide 1 5. 0. Moist air at 25°C dry-bulb and 50% saturation. The following questions are intended as a quick study It is intended that your answers should be.

it has also been common to express atmospheric an absolute temperature of T (K).000002 Log10 Pssw = 28.00248 T . i. 1998 Edition). pressure in units of bar or millibar. wording. portions (% of atmosphere): Two terms can be used as a measure of this energy - Nitrogen (N2) 78. unit: J/kg). T where Pssw is the saturated vapour pressure (bar) of vapour over water †1-2: Pressure.4: Internal Energy. variable both in time there is no simple relationship between temperature and saturated and space (% of atmosphere): vapour pressure.0000087 †1.59 . but the term has used by the industry as such for many years and so we just have to accept the inaccuracy of the †1. kinetic energy of the molecules due to vibration and the potential is a mixture containing a group of gases of nearly constant pro. Page15a 1–15a Page15a 1–15b Chapter 1 – Introduction to Psychrometry Notes Notes Chapter Notes †1. energy associated with the forces between them. eg Ps a refers to dry air. where Pssw is the saturated vapour pressure (bar) of vapour over ice at Traditionally.000524 Xenon (Xe) 0.538 . (Bar: from the Greek meaning weight. force per unit area.032) empirically measured data: Ozone (O3) 0 – 0.0002 Oxygen (O2) 20. pour’ content. thus a ‘barometer’ [a word †1. where 1 Pa = 1 N/m2). is For ice below 0°C measured in newtons and area in square metres.934 Hydrogen (H2) 0.5: Saturated Vapour Pressure vs Temperature.000114 the Internal Energy (symbol: U.964 Krypton (Kr) 0. where 10 bar = 105 Pa.2 log10 T + 0.00005 Specific Internal Energy (symbol: u.2664 measured in newtons per square metre but it can also be meas. T ured in pascal (symbol Pa.01 — For water above 0°C Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) 0 – 0.8. it is normal to apply the following subscripts: s refers to water vapour (steam).00005 Helium (He) 0. The following equations have been developed Water Vapour (H2O) 0–7 by the National Engineering Laboratory as close curve fits to Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 0.804 Methane (CH4) 0. Neon (Ne) 0.3142 (Ref Encylopaedia Britannica CD-ROM.0018 Nitrous Oxide (N2O) 0.6: Moisture Content. eg Pa ss refers to a saturated condition for water vapour in air. So pressure is Log10 Pssi = 10. and a group of gases present in proportions.01 – 0. is the molecular energy possesed by a material and includes the †1-1: Air.3: Subscripts. is an is really a misnomer since what we are really referring to is ‘va- instrument to measure the weight or pressure of the atmosphere). eg Pss . the force spread over a particular area. unit:J) and the Argon (Ar) 0. at an absolute temperature of T (K).0001 Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) 0 – 0. again derived from the Greek meaning weight + measure].1 (Average about 0.e.

325 kPa (i. †1.7: Relative Humidity . as is often a sling wet-bulb reading may also be obtained by installing a assumed. †1. Page16a 1–16a Page16a 1–16b Chapter 1 – Introduction to Psychrometry Notes Notes †1. pressure of 101. it is usual to use air density. values for temperatures other than zero °C. †1. — with indications of wet-bulb and dry-bulb temperatures. However. If you look carefully at a com- reasonable velocity. Liquid Water and Dry Saturated Steam’. it is more usual to obtain a value by reference to tables of humid air properties.12 Dew-point Instruments. conditioning load calculations. †1. literally meaning a measurer of cold. †1.11 Note the use of the dash ( ’ ) symbol to indicate that the reading is a wet-bulb reading. it should be recognised that a differ- †1. you will see that the dry-bulb tem- perature lines are not quite parallel. there are commercial instruments which can measure the dew- point temperature directly. †1.10: Use of Wet-bulb in Air Conditioning Duct. it is usual to use specific volume.8: Atmospheric pressure.e standard atmospheric pressure). nor vertical. can be found from not mass of water vapour and is the traditional method of stating standard tables for the ‘Thermodynamic Properties of Saturated humidity as the ‘sling psychrometer’ (see page 1-8b) gave a meas. the principal axes of the chart are not. when measuring air-flow rates through pressure drop ‘cold’ + ‘meter’.13: Latent heat. or correction factors may be used such as those quoted in the CIBSE Guide a Base of Pressure. you will note that the relative humidity is based upon pressure. Hence the word ‘Psychrometry’ is the determination of the degree of †1. but wet-bulb thermometer in a duct through which air is flowing at a enthalpy and moisture content. Charts are available for other pressures. . more commonly known ure of vapour pressure. ence does exist where this relates to different areas of work.14: Air Density and Specific Volume. For the word ‘Psychrometer’ is originally from the Greek meaning example. i.e. dry-bulb temperature and moisture content. mercial psychrometric chart. for air- current meaning is two thermometers. mounted on the same scale. In addition. or to deter- mine its value from the psychrometric chart using the measure- ments of other air properties. humidity in the atmosphere by means of a psychrometer and is the CIBSE psychrometric chart is strictly correct only for a total therefore used to define the study of atmospheric air and its asso. On the other hand.15: CIBSE psychrometric chart. as ‘Steam Tables’. patm = pa + ps Although the difference between air density and the reciprocal of specific volume is small.9: Psychrometer. Its devices. ciated water vapour.