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5 Lectures

**Equations Governing Hydrologic and
**

Hydraulic Routing

**Prof. Subhankar Karmakar
**

IIT Bombay

**Objectives of this module is to understand the physical
**

phenomena behind the Reynolds transport theorem and

Saint Venant equations.

Module 6

Topics to be covered Reynolds Transport Theorem Control Volume Concept Open Channel Flow Saint Venant Equations Continuity Equation Momentum Equation Energy Equation Module 6 .

Module 6 Lecture 1: Reynolds transport theorem and open channel flow .

Fluids Problems-Approaches 1. Control Volume Analysis Looks at specific regions. Experimental Analysis 2. rather than specific masses Module 6 . Differential Analysis 3.

The theorem is named after Osborne Reynolds (1842–1912). (1/2 mv2) β = 12 v 2 Module 6 .E. Extensive properties (B) : Properties depend on the mass contained in a fluid. dB =β = or dB β dm dm d ( m) d ( mv ) mass (m) β = = 1 momentum ( mv ) β = =v dm dm P. Control volume: A definite volume specified in space. Matter in a control volume can change with time as matter enters and leaves its control surface. Intensive properties (β) : Properties do not depend on the mass.E. Reynolds Transport Theorem Osborne Reynolds Reynolds' transport theorem (Leibniz-Reynolds' transport theorem) is a 3-D generalization of the Leibniz integral rule. (mgh) β = gh K.

V.Reynolds Transport Theorem Contd… Reynolds Transport Theorem: The total rate of change of any extensive property B (=βdm = βρd∀) of a system occupying a control volume C.V.dA dt ∂t c .s. including mass. that surrounds the C.S. at time ‘t’ is equal to the sum of: a) the temporal rate of change of B within the C. Module 6 . c. This theorem applies to any transportable property. momentum and energy. b) the net flux of B through the control surface C. dB ∂ = ∫∫∫ βρd∀ + ∫∫ βρ Vrel .V.v .

control volume is the sum of I & II fluid particles at time ‘t’ o fluid particles at time ‘t+∆t’ We will use Reynolds Transport Theorem to solve many practical fluids problems Module 6 .Reynolds Transport Theorem Contd… Reynolds Transport Theorem can be applied to a control volume of finite size No flow details within the control volume is required Flow details at the control surfaces is required Here.

Position occupied by fluid at time ‘t+∆t’ I .Let us consider the following system.Position occupied by fluid at time ‘t’.Position occupied by fluid at time ‘t+∆t’.Control volume position occupied by fluid at time ‘t’ . control volume at time ‘t’ I&II and at time ‘t+∆t’ II&III Module 6 . but not at ‘t+∆t’ II . II III I Fixed frame in space (upper and lower boundaries are impervious) . but not at ‘t’ Finally.Position occupied by fluid at both the time ‘t’ and ‘t+∆t’ III .

dB = βdm = β (ρd∀) dm where ρ = d∀ d∀ = elemental volume dm = mass of the fluid contained in d∀ From eq.(6.1) dt sys ∆t →0 ∆t Here..(6..1) dB = Lt 1 {[(BII )t +∆t − (BII )t ] − [(BIII )t +∆t − (BI )t ]} dt sys ∆t →0 ∆t 1st term 2nd term 1st term is equivalent to the change in extensive property stored in control volume (as ∆t 0) Module 6 . dB = Lt 1 [(BII + BIII )t +∆t − (BI + BII )t ] .

area vector is always normally outward to the surface θ ∆l dA V control surface d A = Area vector of magnitude dA v = velocity vector Volume of fluid pas sin g through " dA" in time " ∆t" = dA(− ∆l cos θ ) = −∆l cos θ . Here.dA Module 6 .Extensive property in the control volume.

Total volume of fluid pas sin g through the control surface = − ∫∫ dA(∆l cos θ ) c. Note : ∂ (B ) ⇒ Change in extensive properties only ∂t d (B ) ⇒ Change in extensive properties + Shape change dt dB ⇒ = Total rate of change of extensive property of fluid dt sys = ( Rate of change of extensive properties in the control volume) + ( Net outflow of extensive property through control surface) Module 6 .s.

where c .dA = Q(t ) − I (t ).Consider B to be mass.2) dt c . Now.s.v . c.v .dA = 0 dt c .v . This is the equation of var iable density unsteady flow. S = storage. c. as per law of conservation of mass.dA = 0 . Assumptions : (i ) ρ is cons tan t d ∫∫∫ d∀ + ∫∫ V ... c. d For steady − state flow.s.(6. Q(t ) = outflow(+ ve) and I (t ) = inf low(−ve) Module 6 . ∫∫∫ ρd∀ = 0 dt c .. ∴ ∫∫∫ d∀ = S and ∫∫ V ..v . dBsys d (mass ) = =0 dt dt d ∴ ∫∫∫ ρd∀ + ∫∫ ρV ..s.

S j −1 = storage at time j − 1. I j = Inflow int o the system between the time t j −1 and t j . dt Steady State (ii ) ρ is cons tan t and steady flow dBsys dS = ∑ βρV ⋅ A ∴ = 0. hence proved . Q j = Outflow from the system between the time t j −1 and t j . then I (t ) = Q(t ) dt CS dt ∴ dS = I (t )dt − Q(t )dt Unsteady State Sj j∆t j∆t ∴ ∫ dS = ∫ I (t )dt − ∫ Q(t )dt S j −1 ( j −1) ∆t ( j −1) ∆t dBsysd ( S j − S j −1 ) = I j − Q j = ∫ βρd∀ + ∑ βρV ⋅ A dt dt CV CS where S j = storage at time j .e + Q(t ) − I (t ) = 0 dt dS Reynolds transport or = I (t ) − Q(t ) = 0. Module 6 . equation becomes. dS i.

( S1 − S 0 ) = I1 − Q1 .4)...(3).....4) From Eq.5) Substituting value of S1 in (6..3) j = 2.(6.(6. S1 − S 0 + Q1 − I 1 = I 2 − Q2 or S 2 = S 0 + ( I 1 − Q1 ) + ( I 2 − Q2 ) Thus..... j S j = S 0 + ∑ ( I t − Qt ) t =1 Module 6 . ( S 2 − S1 ) = I 2 − Q2 . S1 = S 0 − Q1 + I 1 .(6...If j = 1...

udel. the liquid is water and the air above the flow is usually at rest and at standard atmospheric pressure. In most applications.edu/~inamdar/EGTE215/Open_channel. Open channel flow An open channel is a waterway. canal or conduit in which a liquid flows with a free surface.pdf Module 6 .

Pipe flow vs.pdf) . Open channel flow Pipe flow Open channel flow Flow driven by Pressure work Gravity(i.au/~e2hchans/reprints/b32_chap01. Potential Energy) Flow cross-section Known (Fixed by Varies based on the depth of flow geometry) Characteristic flow Velocity deduced from Flow depth and velocity deduced by parameters continuity equation solving simultaneously the continuity and momentum equations Specific boundary Atmospheric pressure at the water conditions surface (Source:www.e.edu.uq.

Different flow conditions in an open channel Section 1 – rapidly varying flow Section 4 – weir and waterfall Section 2 – gradually varying flow Section 5 – gradually varying Section 3 – hydraulic jump Section 6 – hydraulic drop due to change in channel slope Module 6 .

Open Channel Flow Unsteady Steady Varied Uniform Varied Gradually Gradually Rapidly Rapidly (NPTEL. Computational Hydraulics) Module 6 .

Steady Uniform flow 2. Unsteady flow Module 6 . Steady Rapidly-varied flow 4.Different Types of flow in an open channel 1. Steady Gradually-varied flow 3.

∂/∂x ‡ 0. i. Case (4) – Unsteady flow: Here conditions vary with time and position as a wave traverses the waterway.Case (1) – Steady uniform flow: Steady flow is where there is no change with time. Module 6 . but when a control is introduced which imposes a water level at a certain point. Distant from control structures. the height of the surface varies along the channel for some distance. and if the cross-section is constant. the flow is uniform. Case (3) – Steady rapidly-varied flow: Here depth change is rapid. gravity and friction are in balance. ∂/∂t = 0. ∂/∂t = 0. ∂/∂x = 0 Case (2) – Steady gradually-varied flow: Gravity and friction are in balance here too.e.

Types of Open Channel Flows Module 6 .

or analytical in nature. outflow. empirical. Hydraulic Routing Momentum Equation Hydraulic routing Physics of water movement Hydraulic routing is intended to describe the dynamics of the water or flood wave movement more accurately Hydrological routing Continuity equation + f (storage. and possibly inflow) relationships assumed. Module 6 . Eg: stage-discharge relationship.

Relies less on previous flood data and more on the physical properties of the storm. which can be used to determine the transportation of sediment along the waterway. Provides more hydraulic information about the event. This is extremely important when record rainfalls occur or other extreme events. Dynamic Routing.Advantages Higher degree of accuracy when modeling flood situations because it includes parameters that other methods neglect. Module 6 .

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