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A Study on Control Valve Fault Incipient Detection Monitoring System Using

Acoustic Emission Technique

Intan Najiha binti Mohd Shukri, Goh Yoke Mun Rosdiazli bin Ibrahim
Electrical & Electronic Engineering Department Electrical & Electronic Engineering Department
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia
Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia
Rosdiazli@petronas.com.my
Najihashukri@gmail.com, lattinopazzi@gmail.com

Abstract— Generally industrial plants are anticipated to run
constantly with full capacity with the aim of to meet the A. Control Valves
production needs. Abnormalities in the machinery or When a control valve breaks down, the faulty part will
equipment must be detected and analyzed at the early stage to produce sound wave and generate random frequencies and
avoid major problems and cost consumption. Control valves amplitudes which can be detected in the structure of the
are vital components of process control loops and the condition control valve. The main supply in the process plant contains
must be monitored on a regular basis to ensure that the
a flow of control valve as liquid. The vibration, axial
performance does not turn beyond specified tolerance bands. A
scheduled shutdown for inspection and diagnosis is usually displacement, accelerometer and velocity signals are quite
implemented. Consequently, by monitoring the condition of common in the field of condition monitoring system.
control valves and the associated accessories, the maintenance Normally, the control valve faults can be detected and
strategy can be predicted for these critical components. This identified by comparing the signals generated from the
paper aims to study the effectiveness of Acoustic Emission healthy and unhealthy control valves [3, 4].
(AE) technique as a fault detection monitoring system on
control valves. The paper discusses a method based on B. Acoustic Emission Technique
different types of statistical analysis parameters such as Acoustic Emission technique has been applied in various
kurtosis, standard deviation, max amplitude and RMS on time engineering applications such as civil, chemical, physical
domain analysis of AE signals to distinguish between healthy and biological processes, non destructive testing of
and unhealthy control valves. A real time AE measurement
reinforced structures and materials, and etc. [5, 6]. Acoustic
system is developed and tested. The acquired AE signatures
are processed and analyzed using MATLAB. Emission can be defined as transient elastic waves generated
by rapid release of energy from localized source within a
Keywords— Acoustic Emission; Control valve; MATLAB material under stress. These elastic waves are measured
SIMULINK; statistical analysis; time domain using piezoelectric transducer which is connected to a
monitoring system. The detected signals are pre-processed
I. INTRODUCTION and analyzed in order to get information from the process
A study [1] reported that the cost of performing that has been monitored. Generally, faulty part in control
predictive maintenance on valves can be up to five times valve system generates a phenomenon in the form of
less expensive than preventive maintenance and ten times friction, wear and tear, impact and etc.
less expensive than corrective maintenance even before the Such mechanisms produce elastic wave signals. These
cost of downtime is configured. Another study, [2] waves propagate through the structure of control valve.
performed by Soloman Associates at more than 100 olefin This paper presents the Acoustic Emission technique as a
plants at North America, found that overall plant reliability monitoring system developed to capture the elastic wave
is best performed in plant that has highest level of working signals at the body or other part of the control valve. These
and effective process control. signals are processed and analyzed using advance signal
The loss of production due to reliability issues range from processing technique. The schematic diagram of basic
2% of plant capacity in the best facility to about 16% in the Acoustic Emission testing system is shown in Figure 1.
worst plants. Control valves are the key components in any
C. Statistical Analysis
control systems. Abnormal operating conditions can
adversely affect the performance of a control valve and can Peak level, standard deviation, kurtosis analysis and root
sometimes seriously damage the valve. Therefore, fault mean square (RMS) values are the examples of statistical
detection in control valve at the early stage is very crucial analysis. For the control valve, it can be assumed that the
for industrial plant to prevent unexpected shutdown that can flow rate signal y is related to the control variable x by
be very costly. Through condition monitoring system, any following equation in (1) where ε represents the noise
fault encountered by the control valve can be detected and characteristic of the flow.
the performance of the control valve can be maintained.
y=f(x) + ε (1)

Time domain is in failure [8]. The AE signal is filtered and amplified using 60/40/20 dB AE PREAMPLIER with a filter. under the assumption of independent noise. and 6. The experimental setup of the proposed study is shown in Figure 2. This type of sensor is used to get high fidelity and frequency analysis of AE signals as well as to provide useful information about the control valve condition and for noise discrimination. the value of Kurtosis is 3 for a normal distribution valve were initially studied. AE sensor is attached to the top [9]. it can using the National Instrument Data Acquisition System (NI be assumed function f(x) is linear and the result for a non-linear DAQ MCC1208FS). MV. PV. is about 2 m3/h. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP The experimental setup is based on Acoustic Emission sensor system combined in series with signal amplifier and a process is shown schematically in Fig. Time domain of AE signal for healthy control valve operated at gain of 41dB and at the bottom of body position. value goes down as the damage increases over time. the second central moment of y is given by M2(y)=var(y)= σ2 y = var(x)+var(ε)= σ2x+ σ2 ε (3) and the fourth central moment will be M4(y)=M4(x)+M4(ε) (4) In case of Gaussian distributions. DATA AND RESULTS The experiment is setup to test the behaviour of a healthy Kurtosis is one of the parameters that calculate 4th central and an unhealthy control valve. The kurtosis value increases with machine analysis of the acquired AE signals from the healthy control defect severity [11]. Thus. However. When the DAQ software is successfully installed relation is then given by into the computer system. Experimental setup of control valve fault detection AE technique. RMS value will increase with the increase of defection [12]. the control valve characteristics. The shown in Fig. Preamplifier is maintained at 60dB while the while for kurtosis that exceed 3. the set point. The DAQ is configured using Instacal function will be similar. there are cases that kurtosis valve are analyzed using MATLABR2009a software. it can be concluded for Kurtosis value that does and the middle body and also at the stem of the control not exceed 3 proved that the machine is in a good condition. The PAC AE5A postamplifier is a high performance AE system Figure 5. operated at gain of 41dB and at the middle of body position. 1. Thus. y= x+ ε (2) Then. The results obtained when the postamplifier is adjusted to the status of root mean square (RMS) value will be 41dB at different positions of the healthy control valve are computed to validate the condition of deteriorate tool. When the process pilot plant is started. bottom and also at the stem of the control valve. II. SP. is set to 2. The high. The simplest form of such linear software. Time domain of AE signal for healthy control valve that amplifies and filters incoming AE signals. The acquired patterns of AE moment to the square of variance.For normal condition of valve. valve. From the equations (3) signals of healthy and unhealthy condition of the control and (5). it indicates that the machine postamplifier is adjusted from 0dB to 41dB. PV. 5. The sensor position is determined by the analogy of propagation of the water flow in the section of the control valve. AE sensor (model WD DIFF AE sensor/ 1m integral cable) is attached to the middle and the Figure 4. M4(y)= 3σ4x+ 3σ4ε (5) III. the transmitted signals will be analyzed using MATLAB software. frequency AE analog signal output is interfaced to computer . Figure 2. the manipulate variable. without loss of generality. 4. Process variable. is set to 70% of valve opening and the process variable. represents the liquid flow rate of the control valve.

9 3. STANDARD DEVIATION. KURTOSIS.2821 0.5 for all the experiment conducted on the healthy control valve.3114 1.6044 1.2303 0. However.159 3 or very near to the value of 3 and the standard deviation 10 2.3685 1. standard deviation.134 2 3.204 4 2.3674 1.162 4 3. TABLE 2.3177 1.6044 1.8144 1.065 .4530 1.017 6 2.9622 0.3694 1.010 9 2.3627 1.093 kurtosis.6337 1. and 3. Time domain of AE signal for healthy control valve 8 3.3097 1.3656 1.100 values do not alter for more than 0.6142 1.5067 1.2129 0.6435 1.0105 0.283 3 3.9979 0.141 positions and at 41dB gain.155 9 2.0140 0.0030 0.3697 1.3679 1. 3 2. kurtosis and standard deviation are recognized Test no Kurtosis Standard deviation Max amplitude RMS as the sensitive parameters for machine diagnosis. it is proved that the 5 2.4286 1.5409 1.4921 1.3566 1. TABLE 1.907 5 3. 2 2. experiment on the unhealthy control valve.913 operated at gain of 41dB and at the bottom of body position.055 maximum amplitude of the AE signals for the healthy 6 2. The 1 3.031 7 3.7021 1. and 8.6142 1.3108 1.172 5 3.0238 0.4383 1.6825 1.910 8 3.9969 0. MAXIMUM AMPLITUDE & RMS VALUES OF HEALTHY CONTROL VALVE unhealthy control valves.6581 1.155 Figure 6. MAXIMUM AMPLITUDE & RMS VALUES OF HEALTHY CONTROL VALVE OPERATED AT GAIN OF 41dB AND AT BOTTOM BODY POSITION Test no Kurtosis Standard deviation Max amplitude RMS Figure 7.4579 1. Time domain of AE signal for unhealthy control valve 1 2.1822 0. The kurtosis values are less than 8 2.5116 1. the stipulations that prove the healthy condition of the control valve [8].2918 0.3104 1.9783 0.3104 1.3656 1.141 10 2.027 operated at gain of 41dB and at the stem position.4823 1. KURTOSIS.190 6 2. Detecting fault at the on-set of failure is one of the main faetures that this technique should be able to demonstrate.4188 1.2918 0.3682 1.3578 1.7949 1.9891 0.9907 0.3612 1.3649 1.3111 1.1645 0.0047 0.9905 0.5458 1.3688 1.9911 0.3648 1.3096 1. In order to determine the condition and behaviour of the There are a few of kurtosis values that exceed the value of unhealthy control valve.0000 0. Among the statistical analysis OPERATED AT GAIN OF 41dB AND AT STEM POSITION parameters.3684 1.9994 0.9962 0.6386 1.9781 0.2869 0. result for the healthy control valve. STANDARD DEVIATION.3695 1. The time domain The availability of new control valve at pilot plant affect the signals are obtained as shown in Fig.3695 1.3643 1.9980 0. 6.9968 0.048 10 2.913 4 3.090 values are presented in Table 1.6239 1.148 7 3. MAXIMUM AMPLITUDE & RMS VALUES OF HEALTHY CONTROL VALVE OPERATED AT GAIN OF 41dB AND AT MIDDLE BODY POSITION Test no Kurtosis Standard deviation Max amplitude RMS 1 3.3708 1.9823 0. maximum amplitude and RMS 2 2. 7.1790 0.3588 1.9827 0. 2.134 control valve does not exceed 2.069 Statistical method to the monitoring and controlling of the process is used to analyze and indicate the healthy and TABLE 3.0348 0. STANDARD DEVIATION.9954 0.003 3 2.5556 1.6337 1. an experiment is conducted on a 3.9954 0.0 Vpp at three different 7 2. It is caused by the incipient stage of deteriorating of the leakage control valve. the RMS values prove that the control valve used for experimental is in healthy and good condition because the RMS values are much less than the RMS values for a leakage control valve.3700 1. The water can be seen visually control valve or it is due to the condition of the control coming out from the stem position when conducting the valve that has been used for maintenance for several times.0009 0.269 From the time domain analysis. KURTOSIS.

the time domain signals obtained from the leakage control 12.0213 0. Time domain of AE signal for unhealthy control valve 8 4.2050 1.543 6 Kurtosis stem 8 5.1579 0.9976 2.7497 1.0720 6.7230 1. of samples of the (a) healthy and (b) unhealthy control valves operated at different location.2886 1.8620 6.415 10 4.1380 5. KURTOSIS.1 Test no Kurtosis Standard deviation Max amplitude RMS 3 1 5.7428 1.0688 6.7194 5.5690 6. & MAXIMUM AMPLITUDE OF UNHEALTHY CONTROL VALVE OPERATING AT (b) 41dB OF GAIN AND AT MIDDLE BODY POSITION Figure 10.692 7 5.9381 2.7613 4.7712 3.2846 1.8139 8.401 5 10 5. well as the RMS values.373 2 4.1602 0. and 6.9194 2. which are Figure 9.8956 0.6166 5.377 6 4. 10.7522 3.246 Figure8.9666 9. The kurtosis values are more than 3 and the standard deviation values alter for more than 0.533 .0931 6.9206 6.5629 1.9499 6. Healthy Control Valve 3.308 3 4.0498 0.785 middle body 4 5.7861 3.9585 2.1186 9. 5.4470 1.4 Standard Deviation bottom body 3 5.2 middle body Kurtosis stem 41dB OF GAIN AND AT BOTTOM BODY POSITION 3.906 7 6 5.7192 5.8901 2.262 Healthy Control Valve 2 4. KURTOSIS.047 2 5.3 TABLE 4.0446 0.592 1.7741 6.827 0.0814 7.386 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 3 5.2407 1.0740 8.709 9 5.329 5 4.1063 6.6068 2.550 0.059 Unhealthy Control Valve 5 5.0813 7. and 13. valve are shown in Table 4. amplitude and Vrms between the healthy and unhealthy standard deviation.6593 4. The comparison of kurtosis.3 8 5.4493 1.8068 3.9673 8. 9 4.7503 3. STANDARD DEVIATION.4976 1.225 4 4.2466 3.0 Vpp) which exceed the normal condition maximum amplitude of 2.458 bottom body middle body 7 5.9229 4.6129 3.6492 1. TABLE 6.5824 2.2501 1.0957 7. Kurtosis values over no.8171 9.0525 6.204 operated at gain of 41dB and at the middle of body position.7572 3. STANDARD DEVIATION.6540 6.2305 1. maximum amplitude and RMS values of control valves are plotted in graphs and shown in fig.751 stem 5 5. standard deviation.9567 8.2094 0.9696 8.6998 1. & MAXIMUM AMPLITUDE OF UNHEALTHY CONTROL VALVE OPERATING AT 41dB OF GAIN AND AT STEM POSITION Test no Kurtosis Standard deviation Max amplitude RMS 1 4.119 From the time domain analysis.458 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 No of Samples TABLE 5.0814 7. KURTOSIS.8071 2.9377 4.5 for all the experiment conducted on the unhealthy control valve.9424 9.3724 5. maximum The statistical analysis parameters such as kurtosis. Test no Kurtosis Standard deviation Max amplitude RMS 1 4. STANDARD DEVIATION.0645 7.9665 8.3039 0.5481 1.771 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 9 5. 11.1621 0.7484 3.7515 3.5481 1.1895 0. it is proved that the results indicate that the amplitudes of the AE signals of the unhealthy control valve at different positions notably increase to higher values (reach 9.0 Vpp.35 6 5.8034 6.213 No of Samples (a) 4 5.9807 8.003 0.0134 6.4249 4. & MAXIMUM bottom body AMPLITUDE OF UNHEALTHY CONTROL VALVE OPERATING AT 3.9553 8.2026 1.0183 6.8327 6. Time domain of AE signal for unhealthy control valve relatively higher compare to the healthy control valve as operated at gain of 41dB and at stem position.799 No of Samples (a) 10 5.266 7 4.2197 1.

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