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LIOV Toolbox

Calculation of lightning-induced overvoltages
an overhead distribution networks
The LIOV (Lightning-Induced OverVoltage) The LIOV code has been validated by
code allows the calculation of lightning means of several experimental data, • Lightning-induced overvoltages
induced overvoltages on multiconductor related to natural and triggered lightning are transient overvoltages on
lines above a lossy soil as a function of the experiments, and by means of Nuclear overhead power lines caused
line geometry, lightning current waveshape, Electromagnetic Pulse Simulators and by indirect lightning events, i.e.
stroke location (Fig. 1), return-stroke reduced scale models. Fig. 2 shows an lightning strikes hitting the ground
velocity and soil electrical parameters. application example. or objects in the vicinity of the lines.
In order to deal with distribution networks The analysis of more complex system
having complex, realistic topology and configurations composed by several lines • LIOV code is a toolbox of
configuration, the LIOV code has been and power components can be dealt with EMTP for the calculation of
interfaced with the Electromagnetic by using the LIOV-EMTP module. lightning-induced overvoltages on
Transient Program (EMTP). multiconductor overhead lines.
> More information on the EMTP website.
• Lightning-induced overvoltages
can be a major concern for
distribution networks.

Fig. 1. Definition of the geometry for the calculation of the LEMP
and its coupling with an overhead line.

vol. pp. F. the horizontal component of the electric field. Ianoz. 163–174. A. c) LV side. 1992. 2. is computed using the Cooray- Rubinstein formula [5. Electromagn. 4. “Lightning electromagnetic field coupling to overhead lines: theory. “On lightning return stroke models for LEMP calculations. 559–610. vol. Gurbaxani. 2014. 360–372. [8] M. and long range. the return stroke channel is considered as a straight. [2] C. Nucci. Rachidi. A. 108–113. V. . 2009. Napolitano. A. and M. pp. J.” J. Power Deliv. The analysis of more complex system configurations composed by several lines and power components can be dealt with by using the LIOV-EMTP module based on the interfacing method presented in [9]. To this end. vol. Gutierrez. Mahseredjian. Rachidi. 53. Paolone. www. C. Paolone. An example of a system that can be simulated with the LIOV-EMTP module is shown in Fig. Jan. In this version of the LIOV code the Transmission Line model is used [2] in order to take advantage of the analytical formulation [3] for the fast calculation of the electromagnetic field. Rubinstein.. Rachidi. “Lightning-induced voltages on complex distribution systems: models. [1] C. 119–129. Nucci. K. pp. no. Sweden. A. “An approximate formula for the calculation of the horizontal electric field from lightning at close. no. May 1980.emtp-software. Rakov. 51. Aug. Austria. Cooray. Nucci. C. and J. vol.” IEEE Trans. pp.” in The Lightning Flash. taken from [10]. pp. “Lightning-induced overvoltages transferred through distribution power transformers. A. vol. [3] F. namely a model that describes the spatial and temporal distribution of the return stroke current along the channel. . 2–4.. vol. Paolone. A.. Aug. 3. Napolitano.The evaluated electromagnetic fields are used to calculate the induced overvoltages making use of a field-to-transmission line coupling model which describes the interaction between the LEMP and the line conductors. M. M. vol. Mazzetti. C.” IEEE Trans. 2008. b) MV side.” Radio Sci. Electromagn. pp. 532–547.” IEEE Trans. 2nd ed. A. and M. 2. Jul. A. Price. 529–537. no. the implemented model is based on the transmission line theory and on the field-to-transmission line coupling model of Agrawal et al [4]. For the calculation of the vertical component of the electric field. 1. Overvoltages on a 10-m high medium voltage line above a 10 mS/m conductiing soil due to a tyical subsequent return stroke (12 kA peak).. 27. A. A. Electromagn.. Rachidi. intermediate. pp.” in Proceedings of 19th International Conference on Lightning Protection. “An analytical formulation of the electromagnetic field generated by lightning return strokes. no. 1988. 3. The LIOV code has been experimentally validated by means of several experimental data. Petrache. Ed. Borghetti. [6] M. Nucci. 2011. Uppsala. H. Borghetti. related to natural and triggered lightning experiments.” IEEE Trans. 2004. Borghetti. For the evaluation of the electro- magnetic coupling. and M. numerical simulations. Napolitano. 3. [5] V. “Interaction of electromagnetic fields generated by lightning with overhead electrical networks. Comparison between the overvoltages calculated at the terminals of a 100 kVA transformer T2 due to a typical first return stroke (31 kA peak): a) topology of the distribution network. M. [7] A. Compat. Rubinstein. Feb. Electromagn. “An advanced interface between the LIOV code and the EMTP-RV. 1. Fig. Uman. Paolone. The coupling equations are solved using the finite difference-time domain-technique (FDTD). Compat. vertical antenna. V. Rachidi. no. “Horizontal fields generated by return strokes. Borghetti. E. Nucci. J. pp. Agrawal. On the other hand. S. H. Compat. Graz. A. 1996.The lightning return-stroke electromagnetic field change is calculated along the line employing a lightning return-stroke model. 6].The evaluation of lightning induced overvoltages is performed in the following way: . and by means of Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse Simulators and reduced scale models [7][8]. London: The IET. [4] A. advanced software tools and experimental validation. [10] A. 60. pp. Morched. F. 531–535. C. C. 3. F. and F. and S. 38. and experimental validation. the assumption of a perfectly conducting ground is considered (this assumption has been shown to be reasonable for distances not exceeding a few kilometers or so). F. Compat. 464–470. 2009. Nucci and F. no... no. “Transient response of multiconductor transmission lines excited by a nonuniform electromagnetic field.. Electrostat. which is appreciably affected by the finite conductivity of the ground.” in Proceedings of 29th International Conference on Lightning Protection. Cooray. [9] F. A.” IEEE Trans. 22. 24.