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In Partial Fulfilment of The Assignment of Theory of Reading

Lecturer: Dr. Alfan Zuhairi, M.Pd

Fithriyah Rahmawati NPM. 21502073071
Henni Herawati NPM. 21502073073
Mohammad Sadik NPM. 21502073081



Before addressing the role of reading strategies and metacognitivr skills. it can be inferred that strategies represent conscious decisions taken by the reader while skills are deployed unconsciously. Richards et al (1985) defined strategy as procedures used in learning. P. and attributes the rest of the text-mediated meaning-making endeavor to cognitive or comprehension skills.. Other researchers. view strategies as the steps taken by students to enchance their own learning in general. this paper below will define the characteristics that distinguish skills.. From those definitions. (1996) states that skills refer to information-processing techniques that are automatic at the level of recognizing phoneme-grapheme correspondence. strategies are more efficient and developmentally advanced when they become generated and applied automatically as skills. monitoring the progress of learning.S. Skills and Metacognition Wellman explained the term strategy as a deliberate or intentional attempts to help oneself (1988:5). Indeed. . D. It includes taking conscious control of learning. He said that an emerging skill can become a strategy when it is used intentionally. 1992) . (Ridley. However. planning and selecting strategies. In some literature. such as Oxford (1990). C. Paris et al. with metacognitive strategies being one of several categories of learning strategies available to the learner. Paris et al (1996) also define strategies as some actions selected deliberately to achieve particular goals. Another metaphor for the relationship between metacognition and skills has been developed by Crowly et al (1997). They discussed that metacognitive mechanism provide the assets required to explain the explicit part of cognition.A. analyzing the effectiveness of learning strategies. thinking. Schutz. They are applied to text unconsciously. Metacognition is an important concept in cognitive theory. correcting errors. There is a relationship between strategies. A. & Weinstein.E.. R. etc which serve as a way of reaching a goal. Glanz. strategies and metacognitive skills. There is a slight amount of confusion in the literature as to what distinguishes a skill from a strategy. and changing learning behaviors and strategies when necessary. reading skill is difined as visual and auditory processes of decoding.S. Definition of Strategies. skills and metacognitive in comprehending a text.

While-reading strategies. and Post-reading strategies. skimming and scanning etc. during and after reading. .These mechanism are adaptable and responsive to the particular goals of problem solving. Those reading strategies are : predicting. monitoring. This table below presents examples of Pre-reading strategies. B. Paris et al (1996) present text-processing strategies promoting comprehension that are applied prior to. reflecting and evaluating. such as: identifying the main idea. and reading skills operate within the context of such reading strategies as well as metacognitive. Pre-reading strategies involve several of academic study skill. The reader is simply attempting to finish an assignment and they also be motivated to learn content from the text and to complete a particular assignment or project. While- reading strategies. Post-reading strategies tend to be task.asking questions. For example: setting purpose. They operate to lessen demands on working memory by facilitating comprehension processing. making inferences. reader uses many recursive on-line strategies in constructing meaning. confirming. checking comprehension through out reading activity. Basic Reading Comprehension Strategies A reading strategy can be described as any interactive process that has the goal of obtaining meaning from connected text. purpose and affect determined. etc.

Such a view of metacognitive control . In this view.C. before they can strategically and efficiently control the processing of those text factors (Armbruster et al. whereas metacognitive skills help one understand and regulate the performance on the task (Scraw:1988). Metacognition and Automaticity in Application of Reading Strategies Metacognitive play a strategic role in such problem-solving cognitive activities as reading comprehension. language acquisition and logical reasoning (Flavel et al. knowledge of tast. Metacognition is different from cognition in that cognitive skills help one to perform a task. and their own characteristics as learners. possible strategies. learners mus first become aware of structures of text. Some researcher argue that metacognitive knowledge preceds metacognitive contol. 1983). 2002).writing.

.indicates that knowledge of cognition include three components: declarative knowledge. and evaluation involves the reader appraising her or his cognitive ability to carry out the task. procedural knowledge and conditional knowledge. Declarative knowledge includes knowledge about ourselves and our learning. about what factors affect us.summarizing or looking for the main idea in the text. Conditional knowledge refers to the knowledge we have about why and how to use different strategies. and about the structure of tasks and activities. D. where planning involves identifying a purpose for reading and selecting particular actions to achieve the reader’s goals. monitoring and evaluating of the reading process. Metacognition in reading represents the planning. Procedural knowledge includes knowledge about strategies such as guessing words in context. monitoring involves regulating and redirecting the reader’s efforts during the course of reading to accomplish that goal.