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BEVERAGES'DRINKING'HABITS'AND'
TOOTH'SENSITIVITY'EXPERIENCE'
AMONG'ADOLESCENT'SECONDARY'
SCHOOL'STUDENTS'
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ABSTRACT'
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AIM:) The) recent) increase) in) consumption) of) acidic) beverages) is)
thought) to) be) the) leading) cause) of) dental) erosion) observed) among)
adolescents.) The) study) assessed) the) drinking) habits) of) Adolescent)
Secondary)School)Students)and)also)evaluated)their)tooth)sensitivity)
experience.) MATERIALS' AND' METHODS:) The) survey) was)
conducted) among) adolescent) secondary) school) students.) Purposely,)
students)in)boarding)hostels)were)excluded.)The)sample)was)selected)
from)twelve)public)and)private)secondary)schools)through)the)class)
teachers.)RESULTS:)582)questionnaires)were)analyzed)(294)females,)
288) males).) Soft) drinks) were) the) most) consumed) (97%)) beverage,)
predominantly) by) females) (94.6%).) Parents) especially) the) mother)
mostly)consume)soft)drinks.))(78%))pointed)out)that)that)“soft)drinks)
are)good)in)between)meals”)and)also)64%)indicated)that)“soft)drinks)
are)good)for)the)teeth”.))Participants)that)preferred)drinks)at)normal)
room) temperature) experienced) the) most) tooth) sensitivity.) Majority)
(42.3%))use)straw)but)the)most)tooth)sensitivity)experience)(63.3%))
associated) with) long) sipping.) A) statistically) significant) difference)
(X=0.252;) df=1;) p=0.005)) in) tooth) sensitivity) experience) found)
between) those) that) swish) their) drinks) and) those) that) did) not.)
CONCLUSION:) Soft) drinks) were) the) most) consumed) with) a) faulty)
believe)that)soft)drinks)are)good)in9between)meals)and)for)the)teeth.))
Tooth)sensitivity)experience)is)common)with)preference)for)drinks)at)
room) temperature) and) long) sipping.) Swishing) drinks) is) associated)
with)tooth)sensitivity.)
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TOKUNBO,)Bamise)Cornelius*) '
OLUNIYI,)Olusile)Adeyemi*) KEYWORDS'
ADEBANKE,)Kolawole)Kikelomo**) )
OZOVEHE,)Peter)Augustine***) Beverages)consumption.)Adolescents.)Drinking)habits.)Tooth)sensitivity.)
)
)
)
)
Department)of)Restorative)Dentistry,)Obafemi)Awolowo)University,)Ile9Ife,)Osun)State,)Nigeria*)
Department)of)Child)Dental)Health,)Obafemi)Awolowo)University,)Ile)Ife,)Osun)State,)Nigeria**)
Department)of)Preventive)and)Community)Dentistry,)Obafemi)Awolowo)University,)Ile)Ife,)Osun)State,)Nigeria***)
Correspondence:)bamisect@yahoo.com)(TOKUNBO)BC))|)Received)24)Jan)2014)Received'in'revised'form)27)Jan)2014)Accepted)29)Jan)2014)
)

# and# JRD#O#Journal#of#Research#in#Dentistry.# children# reported# to# be# associated# with# soft# drink# were# the# most# vulnerable# to# their# hazards# consumption.#calcium# chelating# properties. 4%6# with# excessive# accompanying# eating# and# swallowing# consumption# of# acidic# drinks# and# food# being# (especially# habits# which# increase# the# direct# reported#as#the#most#important#extrinsic#factor# contact#time#of#acidic#foods#and#drinks#with#the# contributing# to# dental# erosion.# and# as# a# consequence# health# manner#in#which#the#dietary#acid#is#introduced# hazards#chieIly#dental#erosion.# More#than#97%#of#male#and#female# parental# occupation#status# tend#to# drink# more# students# consumed# at# least# one# soft# drink# a# than# pupils# of# higher# parental# occupation# day.# and#carbonated#beverages#is#now#thought#to#be# availability#at#home#and#school# and# soft# drink# the# leading# cause# of# dental# erosion# observed# consumption#habits# of#parents# and#friends.# Sometimes# this# may# dental# erosion# have# been# mentioned# with# lead#to#irrational#use#of#soft#drinks#by#children# individual# variability.# fruit# juices# and# fruit# teas# is# problem# which#is# also# on#the# increase.12 # The# recent# dramatic# increase# in# # Associated# with# soft# drink# intake# in# consumption#of#acidic# fruit# juices.8 ) Dentine# hypersensitivity.#n.# These# include# the# and#adolescents.# fruit# juices# and# dental# # D r i n k i n g# h a b i t s# a n d# t h o s e# erosion# in# children.# has# as# increasingly# becoming# more# important# its# leading# etiological# factor# the# use# of# soft# because# of# the# concern# for# dental# erosion.1 into# the#oral#cavity.#2.# taste# preferences.#2. 151 INTRODUCTION low#pH#can#cause#erosion#in#permanent7#and#in# ! In# modern# societies.# the# increased# deciduous#teeth.# In# among# children# and# adolescents.2# status.# a# dental# consumption# of# acidic# drinks# as# soft# drinks.# sport# drinks.9#Soft#drink# intake#has#been#found#to#be# According#to# a#study#of#1000#secondary#school# the# most# important# factor# related# to# dentinal# students#within#the#ages#of#10#to# 20#years.13# Also# several#behavioral# factors# probably#due#to#the#fact#that#they#are#unaware# that# determine# the# clinical# appearance# of# of# their# harmful# effects.#v.#mar/apr.# soft# tubule# exposure.1# drinks.14#Also#the#type#of#acid.#2014 .# the# frequency# of#exposure# # Many# population#studies# have# shown#a# and# duration# of# the# erosive# content# being# in# direct# correlation# between# consumption# of# contact#with#teeth.10# Boys# tend# to# drink# more# drink# consumption#by# Nigerian# adolescents# is# soft# drinks# than# girls11# and# pupils# of# lower# increasing.1# Experimental# teeth)# have# an#obvious# direct# correlation# with# studies# have#also# shown# that# soft# drinks# with# dental# erosion.1 carbonated# drinks.#Tubarão.# temperature.# fruit# drinks# schoolOaged# children# are.3# Since# the# one# study# television# viewing# have# been# production# of# soft# drinks# started.

#Tubarão.#2.#Purposely.# The# the# afIirmative# they# were# asked# to# signify# sample# was# selected# from# twelve# public# and# whether# they# are# aware# of#side# effects# of# soft# private#secondary#schools.#The#Iirst#part# erosivity# of# beverages.#2014 .0.# In# residing# at# Ile# Ife# Osun# State.# may# also# reduce# the# erosive# potential# of# soft# # From# a# list# of# common# beverages.# Reliability# of# the# questionnaire# was# (very# rarely).# T h e# c o n t e n t# v a l i d i t y# o f# t h e# variables# were# measured# according# to# the# questionnaire#was#determined#by#presenting#it# Likert’s# scale# of# measurement# were# assigned# alongside# the# objectives# to# the# project# weight# values# of# 5# (very# frequently). Based# on# the# information# provided# by# administered# paper# questionnaires# were# the#respondents#the#data#was#analyzed#by#SPSS# distributed#through# the#class# teachers# in#each# Software# Version#16.# Nigeria.AND.# students# drinks# on# the# teeth# and# the# presence# of# any# in# boarding# hostels# were# excluded# from# the# sensitive#teeth#in#their#mouth.14# Drinking# through# a# of# the# questionnaire# sought# information# on# straw#positioned#toward#the#back#of#the#mouth# their#socioOdemographic#data.# other# siblings.# 4# supervisor# after# which# modiIications# were# (frequently).# they# drinks.# hypersensitivity)#was#found#to#be#increasing#in# # The# frequency# of# consumption# of# soft# younger# adults.#2.# forms# of# that# the# prevalence# of# dental# erosion# with# consumption#and#various#sources#of#the#drinks# dentine#exposure#(that#often#results#in#dentine# were#to#be#noted.# Also# weight# values# of# 5# for# ensured# by# administering# it# to# the# target# population# who# participated# in# the# research# JRD#O#Journal#of#Research#in#Dentistry. 152 exposure# time# are# also# important# to# the# through#test#and#reOtest#methods.# therefore# there# is# a# need# to# drinks# by# parents.# tooth#sensitivity.#v.15 were#asked#to# indicate#their#preferred#drink#in# # Splieth# and# Tachou16# in# 2013#observed# the#last#one#year. Their# attitude# to# the# consumption# of# soft# drinks# was# evaluated# by# Iive# statements# with# MATERIALS.# Self# .#mar/apr.# 2#(rarely)#and#1# made.METHODS responses# that#ranged# from# “I#strongly# agree”# ! The# survey# was# conducted# among# to#I#strongly#disagree”.# 3#(occasionally).#n. # They# were# asked# to# indicate# their# adolescent# secondary# schools# students# preferred# method# of# drinking# soft# drinks.# uncles# and# understand#the#drinking#habits#of#this#group#of# friends# were# evaluated# with# responses# that# young# adults# and# also# evaluate# associated# ranged#from#“very#frequently”#to#“very#rarely”.# study# because# participants# were# asked# to# provide# information# about# their# parents# and# DATA#ANALYSIS: other# siblings# at# the# time# of# the# study.# Part# of#the# data#where# s c h o o l .# also# the#frequency.

# The# 2).# of#the#best#time#to#consume#soft#drinks#as#they# the# closer# the# value# to# 5# the# higher# the# predominantly# indicated# that# “soft# drinks# are# signiIicance#of#the#variable#for#the#participants.#mar/apr. percentage# of# the# variable# scores# (VS)# were# # Majorly# the# participants# obtain# their# calculated# by# dividing#the#scores# by# 5#and#the# drinks#from#home#(75.6%#females#and#87.7%# has# no# preference.#25.# 3# (undecided).#2014 .# Findings# weight# value.4%# variable#i.# and#Wi# consumed#(97%)#by#the#participants#especially# the# weight# assigned# to# the# rating# of# the# among#the#females#(94.4%)# answer#multiplied#by#100%.#restaurant#(13.#Tubarão.# for#each#rating#and#the#respective#weight#value.8%#prefer# drinks# at# normal# room# temperature# while# 23.# Fi# is# the# frequency# of# shows# that# soft# drinks# were# the# most# respondents# that# rated#the# variable# i.# yoghourt.# parents# particularly# the# expressed# mathematically# below:# variable# mother#(76%)#was#the#highest.7).#v.# Participants# that# JRD#O#Journal#of#Research#in#Dentistry.#2.#(i)#frequency#of#consumption#of# are#good#in#between#meals”#and#64%#indicated# soft# drinks# by# parents# and# other# siblings.# (Table# attitudes# towards# the# use# of# soft# drinks.#this#is#followed# by# their# best# friends# (74%)# and# other# sibling# score#(VS)#=# # where#N=number# of#study# had#the#least#percentage#(68%)#(Table#1). arrived# at# by# dividing# the# TWV# for# each# item# # On# the# consumption# of# beverages# by# by# the# total# number# of# respondents# which# is# family# members.# tea.# However. # # The# participants# had#a# fair# knowledge# # The#variable#scores#ranged#from#1#to#5.# sizable# These# were# calculated#for# two# sections# in#the# number# (78%)# pointed# out# that# “soft# drinks# questionnaire.#SD#2.7.# 2# RESULTS (disagree)#and#1#(strongly#disagree)### ! F i v e# h u n d r e d# a n d# e i g h t y# t w o# The# total# weight# value# (TWV)# for# each# questionnaires# were# analyzed# comprising# of# variable#was#obtained#through#the#summation# 294#females#and#288#males.#Their#ages#ranged# of# the# products# of#the# frequency# of# responses# from#10#to#19#years#(Mean#15.# (ii)# that#“soft#drinks#are#good#for#the#teeth”.#n.# 50%#of#the# participants#prefer#cooled#drinks. males)# followed# by# fruit# juice# (95.# good# at# mealtimes”# (86%).# fresh# pine#apple# and#energy# drink)# in# TWV# =# # (where# TWV# is# the# total# the# past# one# year# was# evaluated.9%)# and# # The# score# for# each# variable# (VS)# was# energy#drinks#were#the#least#consumed.# fresh# orange.6%).# 4# (agree). population#(582).# fruit# juice.#2. 153 (strongly# agree).# and#school#premises# was# the#least.# # Consumption# of# seven# common# drinks# This# is# also# expressed# mathematically# below:# (soft# drinks.

#(Table#3) always# accompanied# by# a# reduction# in# intake# # 29.3%)# brain. 154 preferred#drinks# at# normal# room# temperature# density# due# to# their# high# sugar# content.6%# “nip”# their# drinks# while# to# eating# of#solid# foods.#This#is# consumption# in# school# aged# children# which# similar# to# that# of# Rampersaud#et# al# in# the# US# include# taste.# as# do# other# sugarO present# study# reported# the# home# as# the# most# sweetened#beverages.#Tubarão.2%# of# the# participants# agreed# they# of# solid# foods.#A#number#of#personal.1%#indicated#otherwise.# were#found#among#those#that#that#sipped#their# Furthermore.# Soft# drinks.## Consumption# of# liquid# foodstuffs# can# have# On#habits# of#drinking.17 therefore# may# signiIicantly# inIluence# the# # Overwhelming#Increase#in#consumption# behaviour#of#their#children.# who# assessed# the# consumption# of# 100%# fruit# consumption# habit# of# friends# and# other# juice# and# other# beverages.#v.# df=1.# w h o# o b s e r v e d# t h a t# m a l e s# w e r e# t h e# p=0.#this#is#in# of# those# that# swish# drinks# with# a# difference# contrast# to# the# results# of# Forshee# and# Storey# that# is# statistically# signiIicant# (X=0.9%).18 mouth#while#70.# parental# consumption# habits.#2.8%# predominantly# consumed#by#females.#The#authors#found#that#soft#drink# intake# drinks#was#more#likely#to#consume#soft#drinks# was# signiIicantly# higher# than# consumption# of# compared# with# those# whose# parents# did# not# fruit# juice# and# milk.# ! Consumption# of# soft# drinks# was# higher# social.# consumption# of# Iluids# is# not# drinks#for#a#longer#time.#2014 .# readily# available# and# marketed# role# model# for# children# and# adolescents# and# extensively.252.#mar/apr.3%#claimed# to# drink# distinct# physiological# effects# when# compared# with# a# straw.#Tooth# # I n# o u r# s t u d y# s o f t# d r i n k s# w e r e# sensitivity# experience# was# reported# by# 68.# Soft# drinks# are# wellO regularly#drink#soft#drinks.#especially#to#adolescents.2%.#n.005)#from#those#that#did#not#(44.# cultural# and# environmental# factors# are# than#other#drinks# accessed#in#this# study# and#it# associated# with# increased# soft# drink# is#predominantly#consumed#by#females.# using# data# from# siblings.11 # Findings#in#this#study#show#that#most#of# DISCUSSION the# participants# were# inIluenced# by# parent# especially#their#mothers.# as# drinking#Iluids# will# holding# is# least#5.# 42.#Parents#constitute#a# known.# have# a#very#high#energy# JRD#O#Journal#of#Research#in#Dentistry.#2.#In#a#study#by#Grimm#et#al. predominant#users.# 19.# Those#that# reported#the# often# not# activate# the# satiety# centers# of# the# most# tooth# sensitivity# experience# (63.) of# soft# drinks# as# dietary# habit# has# been# # The#adolescents#that#participated#in#the# explained.# which# leads# to# increased#energy#intake.# claimed#the# most#tooth#sensitivity# experience.# which# also# leads# to# increased# have#the# habit# of#swishing# their# drinks# in#the# caloric#intake.13#they#found# nationwide#surveys# conducted#1994O1996#and# that#youth#whose# parents# regularly#drank# soft# 1998.

8) JRD#O#Journal#of#Research#in#Dentistry.19# It# is# Table)1.9 78 between0meals Soft0 drinks0 are0 good0 to0 3 930 792 270 120 48 2160 3.5%) 3 Anyone 138)(23.#v.6%) 69)(60.#2014 .)Consumptions)of)beverages)by)relations.7%) 60)(43%) Methods0of0drinking 1 Nipping 114)(19.3 86 meal0times Soft0 drinks0 are0 good0 in0 2 795 1092 198 138 27 2250 3.3%) 5 Holding 30)(5.#mar/apr.5%) 2 Gulping 50)(8.7%) 4 School 27)(4.5%) 57)(63.6%) 18)(66.8 76 2 Father 940 708 351 168 15 2182 3. S t r o n g l y0 Strongly0agreeAgree Undecided Disagree Total0 weight0Variable0 Score0 S/N Statement disagree % W=5 W=4 W=3 W=2 W=1 value0(TWV) (VS) Soft0 drinks0 are0 good0 at0 1 1275 1056 153 42 3 2529 4.7 74 3 Other0siblings 675 648 441 198 21 1983 3. Total0Weight0 Variable0score Very0frequently Frequently Occasionally Rarely Very0rarely value % S/N Relations (VS) (TWV) W=1 W=2 W=3 W=4 W=1 1 Mother 855 792 405 144 12 2208 3.6%) 18)(36%) 3 Long)sipping 90)(15.2 64 the0teeth Table)3.2%) 15)(41. 155 common#source#of#the#soft#drinks# in#a#list#that# therefore# not# surprising# that# their# parents# includes# some# outside# environments# like# the# ranked# highest# in# the# consumption# of# soft# school#setting.#2.#2. Number0of0participants0(n=582) Tooth0sensitivity0experience Sources0of0drink 1 Home 440)(75.7) Forms0of0drink 1 Cooled 291)(50%) 153)(52%) 2 Normal)Temperature 135)(25.3%) 120)(48.2%) 15))(50%) 6 Sucking)with)straw 246)(42.#n.#restaurants#and#vendors.8%) 18)(35.7 74 Table)2.#This#is# drinks#by#relations.#Tubarão.4 68 4 Best0Friend 1080 480 414 180 18 2172 3.6%) 219))(49.9 78 general0health Soft0 drinks0 are0 good0 for0 5 555 696 360 204 63 1878 3.)Association)of)Tooth)sensitivity)experience)with)Sources)of)drinks.3%) 4 Short)sipping 51)(8.8%) 2 Restaurant 78)(13.)Forms)and)Preferred)methods)of)drinking. similar# to# the# Iindings# of# Estimal# et# al.4%) 39)(50%) 3 Vendor 36)(6.8%) 75)(55.)Knowledge)of)participants)about)the)beneFits)of)soft)drinks.7 74 quench0thirst Soft0 drinks0 are0 good0 for0 4 1035 852 234 132 24 2277 3.

# Consumption# randomized# order.# One# study# with#a# straw# but# the#ones# that# indulge# in# long# by# Eisenburger# and# Addy20# concluded# that# sipping# drinking# method# reported# the# most# erosion# depth# increased# signiIicantly# with# tooth#sensitivity# experience.# leave#the# teeth#bathing# in# acidic# medium#for#a# Holding# the# drink# in# the# mouth# before# longer# time# and# soft# drinks# especially# brands# swallowing# led# to# the# most# pronounced# pH# with#lower#pH# are#known#to#cause#tooth#wear# drop.#2014 .14# and# effect.# (erosion).# of# soft# drinks# inObetween# meals# is# believed#to# longOsipping.#v.#Tubarão.# shortOsipping.23# The#toothOsurface# and#“soft#drinks# are#good#for#the#teeth”#(64%).#2.#2.24# nutritional# information# in# the# schools# and# evaluated# six# methods# of# drinking# in# a# warped# messages# in# the# media.#This#probably#accounts#for#the# the#mouth# during# consumption.# Long# sipping# is# a# increased# temperature.#mar/apr.# Majority#of#the#participants#in#our#study# tooth# sensitivity# as# a# sequel.# Rapid#erosion# highest# tooth# sensitivity# experience# observed# has# been# observed# when# erosive# drinks# are# among# those# with# preference# for# drinks# at# consumed# from# a# straw# placed# labial# to# the# room#temperature.25 acidic# soft# drinks# has# been# said# to# affect# how# JRD#O#Journal#of#Research#in#Dentistry.# High# erosion# fronts# which#was# revealed# in#their# responses.# Our# Iindings# show# that# teeth#by#soft#drinks#is#likely#to#be#inIluenced#by# majority#of#the#participants#preferred#drinking# the# temperature# of# the# beverages.# nipping.# or# are# “swished”# between# the# # The# individual# manner# of# drinking# teeth.# was# found# to# be# associated# with# method# of# Notable# in#their# responses# are# the#claims# that# drinking# whereby# the# drink# is# kept# in# the# “soft#drinks# are# good#in# between#meal”#(78%)# mouth#for#a#longer#period.#n.# holding.# Johansson# et# al.# followed# by# the# longOsipping# method.# and# sucking.# # Gulping# resulted# in# only# a# small# # Anecdotal# reports# show# that# erosion#of# decrease# of# pH.# # Also# tooth# prefers# drinks# at# normal# room# temperature# s e n s i t i v i t y# e x p e r i e n c e# w a s# r e p o r t e d# which#we#suspected#may#be#high#enough#to#aid# predominantly# by# those# that# swish# drinks# in# erosive#activity.# In# view# of# this# Fayad# drinking#habit#that#increases#the#direct#contact# and# Amani21# therefore# suggested# that# acidic# time# of#acidic# foods# and#drinks#with#the#teeth# b e v e r a g e s# s h o u l d# b e# c o o l e d# b e f o r e# and# had# been# suggested# to# have# an# obvious# consumption# and# hence# reduce# the# erosive# direct# correlation# with# dental# erosion.# gulping.# pH# is# strongly# affected# thereby# the# increased# This# may# not# be# unconnected# with# defective# risk# for# dental# erosion. 156 # There# is# unfortunate# understanding# of# long# the# teeth# are# in# contact# with#the# erosive# the# participants# about# health# beneIits# of# soft# challenge22#and#therefore#inIluence#the#pattern# drinks#because#they#hold#damaged#view#on#few# of# destruction# caused# by# them. anterior# teeth.

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