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CHAPTER-5

MEASUREMENT SYSTEM ANALYSIS

5.0 INTRODUCTION:

Two case studies (case study-3 and 4) conducted in bearing

manufacturing facility. In this industry the core process is bearing

rings machining using processor controlled grinding machines. The

rings dimensions must be close to the target values, other wise

bearing life will be reduced. The rings inner diameter is measured with

air gauges and outer diameter measured with dial gauges. As

measurement system plays crucial role in the industry, MSA is

conducted in Sujana Universal Industries Limited (SUIL).

As the tolerances are very important for bearings, measurement

system plays crucial role here. SUILs measurement system analysed

with Gage-RR studies. When appraisers/operators do not measure a

part consistently, the expense to a company can be great.

Traditionally, the tool to address the appraiser/operator consistency is

a gage repeatability and reproducibility(R&R) study, which is the

evaluation of measuring instruments to determine capability to yield a

precise response. Gage repeatability is the variation in measurements

considering one part and one operator. Gage reproducibility is the

variation between operators measuring one part.

Mathematically, measurement system analysis involves the

understanding and quantification of measurement variance, in

relation to process variability.

σ2T = σ2p + σ2m

Different Person Same part Same characteristic Same Instrument Same Set-up Same environmental conditions 5. Measurement system variation should be from common causes and not from assignable causes. 137 σ2T = Total variance σ2p = Process Variance σ2m = Measurement Variance Repeatability is the variation due to the measuring device.1 Gage R&R CONSIDERATIONS In a gage R&R study the following characteristics are essential:  The measurements must be in statistical control. Conditions for Gauge : RR. It is the variation found with different persons measuring the identical parts using the same device.Repeatability Same Person Same thing being measured Same characteristic Same Instrument Same Set-up Same environmental conditions Reproducibility is the variation due to the measurement system. . which is referred to as statistical stability.

for the measurement system to perform in an acceptable analysis of the process. The “Crossed Gauge-RR : Design” 1. 138  Measurement system variation must be low relative to the manufacturing process variation. Ask each operator to measure each part for selected no of times . 3.41 The number of distinct categories must be at least 5 or more . Select parts to be measured 2.2 Gage R&R RELATIONSHIPS: σm2 = σe2 + σo2 σm = Measurement System standard Deviation σe = Gage Standard Deviation σo = Appraiser standard deviation The measurement system study or an independent process capability study determines the part standard deviation σ p component of the total gage study variation in the equation σT2 = σp2 + σm2 The percentage of process variation contributed by the measurement system for repeatability and reproducibility (%R&R) is then estimated as % R&R = (σm/ σT)*100 Number of Distinct categories = (σp/ σm)*1. Select the persons to measure the parts. (less than 10 % of process variability) 5.

00-0.989 to 35.012 6211 Outer Outer Dia 99.012 6308 Outer Outer Dia 89. 5 Bearings were selected for study based on the volume of production.00 +0 15.Three trials The criterion to judge R&R is: Very good < 10%.015 32212 Outer Outer Dia 109.00 +0 55.00-0.00 +0 35.050 6308 Inner Bore Dia 39.985 to 65.925 to 34.992 to 15.00 0 90.00 0 110. Table 5.00 -0.00-0.95 to 100.015 .00-0.985 to 90.00 +0 40.00-0.00-0.9250 LM48548 Outer Outer Dia 64.008 6202 Outer Outer Dia 34.988 to 40.011 6211 Inner Bore Dia 54. Good : 20 % to 30%.00 0 60.985 to 60.988 to 55. 139 Popular Gauge RR.013 34.Design Three Operators-10 parts.938 +0.00-0.015 32212 Inner Bore Dia 59.015 LM48548 Inner Bore Dia 34.985 to 110.00 +0 100. Unacceptable: > 30 % Bearing Rings Selected for Study: The company makes wide variety of bearings.00 0 65.1 Bearing Ring Specifications Bearing No Ring Characteristic Specifications Specifications In mm In mm 6202 Inner Bore Dia 14.00-0.

00 Stable 6211 Outer Outer Dia 99.82 to 110.09 to 65. 140 5.88 to 40.00 Stable 6211 Inner Bore Dia 54.85 to 90.2 : Control Charts Summary Bearing No Ring Characteristic Specifications Remarks In mm 6202 Inner Bore Dia 14. three operators and three trials were performed.88 to 55.85 to 60.00 Stable LM48548 Inner Bore Dia 34.00 Stable 32212 Inner Bore Dia 59.92 to 15.89 to 35.4 GAGE-RR STUDIES: To analze the GAGE-RR studies 10 parts were selected . data collected and analysed using control charts like X-Bar and R-Charts.06 Stable LM48548 Outer Outer Dia 65.00 Stable 32212 Outer Outer Dia 109. 5.00 Stable 6202 Outer Outer Dia 34.00 Stable 6308 Outer Outer Dia 89.3 .85 to 100. Measured dimensions were shown in table 5.00 Stable 6308 Inner Bore Dia 39. Hence overall the process seems to be in statistical stable condition.93 to 35.32 Stable CONCLUSIONS FROM CONTROL CHARTS: For all the rings the values falls within the tolerance limits. Table 5.3 STATISTICAL STABILITY OF THE PROCESS: To check the statistical stability of the process.

41 Reproducibility 0.0000011 0.994 14.992 TO Machine 53002 Tolerances 15 MM Process: IR -Bore Grinding OPERATOR-1 OPERATOR-2 OPERATOR-3 TRIAL.996 14.995 5 14. TRIAL.992 14.998 14.993 14.0004973 0.181 0.995 14.996 2 14. TRIAL- PART 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 14.994 14.0000067 0.992 9 14.MTW Gage R&R Study .994 14.998 14.3 Data to analyze Gage—RR studies Gauge: Air Bearing Ring Code:6202 Inner Ring Gauge 14.995 14.0000053 0.998 14.993 14.995 14.999 14.0000001 1.00 Number of Distinct Categories = 8 .998 14.999 14.996 14.993 14.999 14.0000002 3.0000004 4.992 14. TRIAL.50 Part-To-Part 0.000 OPERATOR 2 0.994 14.995 14.995 14.995 14.998 6 14.993 14.996 10 14.25 Gage R&R %Contribution Source VarComp (of VarComp) Total Gage R&R 0.995 14.992 14.0000005 1.995 14. TRIAL.999 14.995 14.996 14.995 14.996 14.996 14.994 4 14.996 14.996 14.994 14.996 14. TRIAL.993 14.999 14. 141 Table 5.996 14.996 14.996 14.995 14.992 14. TRIAL.996 14.00 Repeatability 0.995 14.0000063 100.993 14.0000001 1.996 14.257 PART * OPERATOR 18 0.994 14.998 14.999 14.995 14.ANOVA Method Two-Way ANOVA Table With Interaction Source DF SS MS F P PART 9 0.0005105 Alpha to remove interaction term = 0.465 0.0000000 0.708 0.996 Results for: 6202-IR.000 Repeatability 60 0.995 14.0000001 Total 89 0.993 14.994 14.994 14.996 14.994 14.992 14.999 14.996 14.998 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 8 14.0000553 148.993 3 14.0000001 1.998 14. TRIAL.999 15 15 7 15 14.996 14.999 14.995 14.0000061 97. TRIAL.995 14.993 14.59 OPERATOR 0.09 OPERATOR*PART 0.00 Total Variation 0.994 14.996 14.

52 11 6211 Inner Bore Dia 7.000 OPERATOR Sample Mean 1 Average _ 2 _ 14.03 5 6211 Outer Outer Dia 2.ANOVA for Responses Table 5.995922 14.996 14.84 6 6308 Inner Bore Dia 4.22 9 32212 Inner Bore Dia 27. No of Distinct No RR Categories 6202 Inner Bore Dia 3 8 6202 Outer Outer Dia 4.93 2 32212 Outer Outer Dia 2.996127 X=14.992 0 Gage R&R Repeat Reprod Part-to-Part 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 PART R Chart by OPERATOR RESPONES by OPERATOR 1 2 3 0.000 LCL=0 1 2 3 OPERATOR Xbar Chart by OPERATOR 1 2 3 OPERATOR * PART Interaction 15.55 6 6308 Outer Outer Dia 1.992 0.996 UCL=0.06 13 .4 Summary of GAGE-RR –Results Bearing Ring Characteristic GAGE.996 UCL=14.35 5 LM48548 Outer Outer Dia 1. 142 Gage R&R (ANOVA) for RESPONES Reported by : G age name: Tolerance: Date of study : M isc: Components of Variation RESPONES by PART 100 % Contribution 15.995718 14.1 Gage RR.000515 _ R=0.000 15.002 15.001 14.996 3 LCL=14.000 Sample Range 0.000 % Study Var Percent 50 14.0002 14.992 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 PART Figure 5.95 8 LM48548 Inner Bore Dia 6.992 14.

143 5. The details of Six Sigma projects are given in Chapter 7(Case Study-3) and Chapter 8 (Case Study-4) . Reasons for failure of Gage-RR for the bearing-32212 could be excessive variability between pieces.5 CONCLUSIONS ON GAGE-RR STUDIES: Except for one bearing ring(32212). quality improvement programs can be planned and executed. Six Sigma programs are planned and conducted. other ring Gage-RR studies indicates that the measurement system is sound. Once the Measurement System is sound. As the Gage-RR study here shows measurement system is performing satisfactorily.