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‫ﺩﻭﻓﺼﻠﻨﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ـ ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺸﻲ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﭘﮋﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﺍ‬

‫ﺳﺎﻝ ﭘﻨﺠﻢ‪ ،‬ﺷﻤﺎﺭﺓ ‪ ،9‬ﭘﺎﻳﻴﺰ ﻭ ﺯﻣﺴﺘﺎﻥ ‪1392‬‬

‫ﻧﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭﻱ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ‬
‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻜﻴﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ‬

‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻣﺤﻤﻮﺩﺭﺿﺎ ﮔﺸﻤﺮﺩﻱ‬
‫‪F0‬‬

‫‪2‬‬
‫‪F1‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺮﺍ ﺭﺿﺎﻧﻮﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺖ‪89/8/1 :‬‬
‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺐ‪91/2/10 :‬‬

‫ﭼﻜﻴﺪﻩ‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺶ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﻧﻘﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺛﺮ ﺁﻧﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﻭ ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﭘﻲ ﭘﺎﺳﺦﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ‬
‫ﭘﺮﺳﺶ ﺑﻮﺩﻩﺍﻳﻢ ﻛﻪ ﺗﺎ ﭼﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﻪﺍﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎ‬
‫ﻏﻠﻂﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻭ ﻭﻳﺮﺍﻳﺶ ﺳﺮﻭﻛﺎﺭ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﭼﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﺳﻮﺩﻣﻨﺪ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﺒﺤﺚ‬
‫ﻧﻘﺪ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻧﺎﮔﺰﻳﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﻱﺁﻭﺭﺩﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻫﺴﺘﻴﻢ ﺗﺎ ﺍﺯﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻧﻘﺪﻱ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﻝ ﺑﻪﺩﺳﺖ ﺩﻫﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻜﻴﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﻜﻤﻞ ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭﻙ ﻣﻌﻨﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺑﻌﺪﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﺒﺎﻓﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺧﺮﺩ ﻭ ﻛﻼﻥ ﻣﺘﻦ‪،‬‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺶ ﻛﻮﺷﻴﺪﻩﺍﻳﻢ ﺗﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻭ ﺩﺭﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ‪،‬‬

‫‪ .1‬ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺩﻳﺎﺭ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﺻﻔﻬﺎﻥ ‪gashmardi@hotmail.com‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺩﺍﻧﺸﺠﻮﻱ ﻛﺎﺭﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﺭﺷﺪ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﺻﻔﻬﺎﻥ ‪elmirfr@gmail.com‬‬

‫‪ /174‬ﻧﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭﻱ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻜﻴﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ‬

‫ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ )ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺴﻮﻱ(‬
‫ﺭﺍ ﻧﻘﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻛﻨﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻲﺗﻮﺟﻬﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﻛﺎﺳﺘﻲﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺩﺭﺳﻄﺢ ﻭﺍژﻩ ﻭ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‬
‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﮕﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺨﺘﻞ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺍژ ﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻱ ﻛﻠﻴ ﺪ ﻱ ‪ :‬ﻧﻘﺪ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﺯﺑﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .1‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ‬
‫ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﭼﺎﻟﺶﺑﺮﺍﻧﮕﻴﺰ ﺩﺭﺣﻮﺯﺓ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻧﻘﺪ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﮔﺎﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﺻ‪‬ﺮﻑ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺑﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻦ ﻣﻘﺼﺪ ﺧﻼﺻﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻣﺘﻦﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ »ﺧﻮﺏ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺪ« ﻭ »ﻏﻠﻂ ﻳﺎ ﺩﺭﺳﺖ« ﺳﺨﻦ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ‬
‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ؛ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺁﻧﻜﻪ ﺑﻪ ﭼﺮﺍﻳﻲ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺯﻧﻈﺮ ﺟﻮﻟﻴﺎﻥ ﻫﺎﻭﺱ‪ ،‬ﻧﻘﺪ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫»ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺒﺘﻨﻲﺑﺮ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪ؛ ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻧﺴﺒﺖﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﻭ ﺷﻴﻮﻩﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﺁﻥ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ« )ﻓﺮﺡﺯﺍﺩ‪.(31 :1382 ،‬‬
‫ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﺷﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻏﻴﺮﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺑﻪﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻲﺭﺳﺪ؛‬
‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻦ ﺧﻄﺎﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻭ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺷﺎﻳﺪ ﭼﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ؛‬
‫»ﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﻨﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺍﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺍﻣﺘﻨﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻦ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ« )ﻓﺮﺡﺯﺍﺩ‪.(33 :1382 ،‬‬
‫ﺍﺯﻧﻈﺮ ﺍ‪‬ﺯﺭﺍ ﭘﺎﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﺮژﻱ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻲ ﻣﻮﺳﻴﻘﺎﻳﻲ )ﻣﻠﻮﭘﻮﻳﺎ ‪ ،(1‬ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻲ ﺩﻳﺪﺍﺭﻱ )ﻓﺎﻧﻮﭘﻮﻳﺎ ‪(2‬‬
‫‪P‬‬ ‫‪P3F‬‬ ‫‪P‬‬ ‫‪P2F‬‬

‫ﻭ ﻧﻴﺰ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻱ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ )ﻟﻮﮔﻮﭘﻮﻳﺎ ‪ (3‬ﻣﻲﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻟﻮﮔﻮﭘﻮﻳﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻗﺺ‬
‫‪P‬‬ ‫‪P4F‬‬

‫ﺫﻫﻦ ﻣﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍژﻩﻫﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻛﺮﺩﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮﺩ؛ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﮔﺮ ﻓﻀﺎﻱ ﺫﻫﻨﻲ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﺓ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ‬
‫ﺭﺍ ﻛﺸﻒ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺷﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻴﺎﺑﻴﻢ )ﮔﻨﺘﺰﻟﺮ‪ 34 :1380 ،‬ﻭ ‪ .(35‬ﺍﺯ ﺩﻫﺔ ‪،1960‬‬

‫‪1. Mélopée/ Melopoeia‬‬
‫‪2. Phanopée/ Phanopoeia‬‬
‫‪3. Logopée/ Logopoeia‬‬

(191 :1386 ،‬ﺩﺭﻭﺍﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍژﺓ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﮔﺮﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﺍژﻩ‪ ،‬ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻭ ﮔﻔﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ ﻣﻲﻳﺎﺑﺪ‪.‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻠﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﻲﭘﺬﻳﺮﺩ؛ ﺍﻣﺎ »ﮔﻔﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺯﺑﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻘﺼﺪ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﺮﺍﺯﺑﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖﻫﺎﻱ ﻭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺘﻦ« )ﺣﻘﺎﻧﻲ‪ ،(141 :1386 ،‬ﺩﻭ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻪﺷﻤﺎﺭ ﻣﻲﺭﻭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻳﺖ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﭼﻨﺪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ‬ .‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪﺍﺯ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻓﺖ‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﺒﺎﻓﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﺷﻴﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺟﻤﻠﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻘﺪ ﻛﻨﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﺮﺳﺶ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺩﻫﻴﻢ ﻛﻪ ﺗﺎ ﭼﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﺧﻄﺎﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺩﺭﺳﻄﺢ ﻭﺍژﻩ ﻭ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﺘﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﺑﺮﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ‬ ‫»ﺑﻪﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻭ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﻦ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣﻜﻤﻞ ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮﻧﺪ ﻭ ﻫﺮﻛﺪﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﭘﻴﺶﺷﺮﻁ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ«‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺯﻱ‪ .‫ﺩﻭﻓﺼﻠﻨﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ـ ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺸﻲ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﭘﮋﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﺍ ‪175 /‬‬ ‫ﺯﺑﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﺓ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻧﻘﺶ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﻛﺮﺩﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎ ﺍﺯﺳﻮﻱ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻓﺮﺍﺯﺑﺎﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﮕﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﻱ ﺁﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺩﺭﻧﻈﺮﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺧﺮﺩ ﻭ ﻛﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺁﻥ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻣﻼً ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﺑﻪﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﺮﺳﺪ؛ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﺩ ﻭ ﻛﻼﻥ ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻣﻲﻳﺎﺑﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺩﺭﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﺍﻱ ﺩﻗﻴﻖﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺻﺤﻴﺢﺗﺮ ﺑﻪﺩﺳﺖ ﺩﻫﻴﻢ‪.‬ﺩﺭ ﻧﻘﺪ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﺯﺑﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﮔﻔﺘﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻫﺮﺩﻭ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺭﺍﻩﮔﺸﺎ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻜﻴﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻧﮕﺎﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺩﻫﺔ ‪ ،1980‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺣﻮﺯﺓ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺑﻪﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻛﻨﺶ ﺯﺑﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﮕﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﻧﺤﻮﻱ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﻱ ﺁﻥ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺪ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺩﺭﺳﻄﻮﺣﻲ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻧﺤﻮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﻨﺎﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻲ ﻭ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﮔﻴﺮﺩ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﮕﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭ ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻲ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺗﻠﻘﻲ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭﻱ ﺩﺭﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻲ ﻭ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺘﻦ ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻛﺮﺩﻩﺍﻳﻢ‪ .‬ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﮕﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ؛ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺩﺭﻧﻈﺮﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﺳﺎﺯﺓ ﻛﻼﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﻦ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ‪.

.‬ﻫﺎﺭﺗﻤﻦ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻳﮕﻮﺭﻱ ﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪﻧﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﺘﻨﻲ ﺑﻪﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﻣﻲﺁﻳﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﻲ ﺑﻪﻛﺎﺭ ﺭﻓﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ؛ ﺧﻮﺍﻩ ﮔﻔﺘﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺧﻮﺍﻩ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﺎﺭﻱ‪. .(35 :1384 ،‬‬ ‫ﺍﺯﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ‪ ،‬ﺯﺑﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺷﺎﺧﻪﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﮔﻔﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭﺣﻮﺯﺓ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﮔﻔﺘﻤﺎﻥ‪» ،‬ﻣﺘﻦ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﺯﻧﻤﻮﻥ ﮔﻔﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻛﺮﺩﻩﺍﻧﺪ« )ﺁﻗﺎﮔﻞﺯﺍﺩﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫‪ (102 :1385‬ﻭ ﺩﺭﺣﻮﺯﺓ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ‪» ،‬ﻣﺘﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﻳﺎ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻣﻌﻨﺎ ﻳﺎ ﭘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ« )ﻟﻄﻔﻲﭘﻮﺭ ﺳﺎﻋﺪﻱ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﺷﺎﺧﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﮔﻔﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺘﻮﻥ ﻣﻜﺎﻟﻤﻪﺍﻱ ﻭﻳﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﭼﻬﺮﻩﺑﻪﭼﻬﺮﻩ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪،‬‬ .‬ﮔﻔﺘﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﻦ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻱ ﻫﺪﻓﻤﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺴﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺮﻩﻣﻨﺪ ﻣﻲﺳﺎﺯﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭﻭﺍﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﻦ ﻫﻮﻳﺖ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﺍﻳﻲ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺴﺠﻢ ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﻳﻮﻥ ﮔﻔﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.(110 :1376 ،‬ﺩﺭﺣﻮﺯﺓ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ‪» ،‬ﻫﺮﺁﻧﭽﻪ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺘﻨﻲ ﻭ ﺩﺭﻙﺷﺪﻧﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ« )ﺷﻌﻴﺮﻱ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ .(44 :1385 ،‬‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻟﻤﺮ ﺩﺭﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻫﺮﻣﻨﻮﺗﻴﻚ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ ﺳﻪﮔﺎﻧﺔ ﮔﻔﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﻭ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺳﺨﻦ‬ ‫ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ »ﻫﺮﻣﻴﻨﻮﻳﻴﻦ« ﺑﻪﻣﻌﻨﺎﻱ »ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻛﺮﺩﻥ« ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪» :‬ﻭﻗﺘﻲﻛﻪ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺑﻪﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﺧﻮﺩ‪‬‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺷﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﺼﺎﺩﻡ ﻣﻴﺎﻥ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻭ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪﺓ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺑﻤﺎﻧﺪ؛ ﺍﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﺘﻲﻛﻪ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺑﻪﺯﺑﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﮕﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑﻣﻨﻈﺮﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻓﻖﻫﺎ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻧﻤﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻏﻔﻠﺖ ﻛﺮﺩ« )ﭘﺎﻟﻤﺮ‪. ‫‪ /176‬ﻧﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭﻱ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻜﻴﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﮔﻮﻧﺎﮔﻮﻥ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺑﺮﮔﺰﻳﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﮕﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺮﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍژﻩﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺟﻤﻠﻪﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻛﺮﺩﻩﺍﻳﻢ‪..‬؛ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﮔﻮﻧﻪﺍﻱ ﺩﺍﻟّﻲ ﻭ ﮔﻔﺘﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﮔﻮﻧﻪﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻟﻮﻟﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ )ﺷﻌﻴﺮﻱ‪..2‬ﻣﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﻧﻈﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺩﻫﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺧﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺣﻮﺯﺓ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎﺕ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﻱﻛﺮﺩﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻞ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺷﺪ ﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﮔﺎﻩ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯﺩﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺣﻮﺯﻩﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭﺣﻮﺯﻩﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺖﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﻧﻘﺪ ﺍﺩﺑﻲ‪ ،‬ﻧﺸﺎﻧﻪﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﻨﺎﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﻣﺘﻦﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺯﺑﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳﺨﻦﻛﺎﻭﻱ ﻳﺎ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﮔﻔﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻭ ﺯﻭﺍﻳﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺘﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .(40 :1381 ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﺸﺎﻧﻪ‪ -‬ﻣﻌﻨﺎﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻲ ﮔﻔﺘﻤﺎﻥ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥﺩﻫﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﻳﺎ ﺩﺍﻝّﻫﺎﺳﺖ‪..

‬؛ ﺩﺭﺣﺎﻟﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺷﺎﺧﺔ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﮔﻔﺘﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﻥ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﺎﺭﻱ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺳﺮﻭﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ )ﺁﻗﺎﮔﻞﺯﺍﺩﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻳﻨﻪﻣﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻫﺎﻳﻨﻪﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﭼﻬﺎﺭ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻧﺤﻮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﻨﺎﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻲ ﻭ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻛﺮﺩﻩﺍﻧﺪ )ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺯﻱ‪ 194 :1386 ،‬ﺗﺎ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺘﻦ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﺑﻪﻣﻌﻨﺎﻱ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻲ ﻭ ﺩﺭﻭﻧﻲ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .(102 :1385 ،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ‪ ،‬ﺯﺑﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺑﻪﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺷﺎﺧﻪﺍﻱ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺣﺎﻝ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻲ‪ ،‬ﺟﻨﺒﺔ ﭘﻴﺎﻡﺭﺳﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺑﻪﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﭘﻴﺎﻡﺭﺳﺎﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﺑﻂ ﺑﺮﺧﻼﻑ ﺗﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺍﻥ ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﺳﺎﺧﺖﮔﺮﺍﻳﻲ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺳﻄﺤﻲ ﻓﺮﺍﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ )ﺣﻘﺎﻧﻲ‪.‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺶ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻲ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺭﺩﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻣﺎﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﮕﻲ ﺩﺭﺳﻄﺢ ﻧﺤﻮﻱ ﻳﺎ ﺷﻜﻠﻲ ﺑﻪﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺁﻳﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﺭﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻲ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﺍﻳﻲ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﮕﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭ ﺷﺮﻁ‬ ‫ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞﺷﺪﻥ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪.(196‬ﺩﺭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻧﺤﻮﻱ‪ ،‬ﺟﻤﻠﻪﺁﺭﺍﻳﻲ ﻭ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﮕﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺳﺎﺧﺘﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺭﺩﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﺭ ﻭﻫﻠﺔ ﻧﺨﺴﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﺯﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻛﻪ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻓﻬﻤﻴﺪﻥ ﭘﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻲﺁﻳﺪ )ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺯﻱ‪..‫ﺩﻭﻓﺼﻠﻨﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ـ ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺸﻲ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﭘﮋﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﺍ ‪177 /‬‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﮔﻔﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﻧﺎﻣﻨﺪ‪.(195 :1386 ،‬‬ .(120 :1386 ،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﻧﻤﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﮔﻔﺖ ﺻ‪‬ﺮﻑ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺯﻧﻈﺮ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻥ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻦ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻫﻤﭽﻮﻥ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻱ ﻧﻈﺎﻡﻣﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﻱ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞﺩﻫﻨﺪﺓ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﺍﺑﻂ ﻣﻌﻴ‪‬ﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﭼﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﮕﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺯﺑﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻚ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﺑﻴﻢ ﻣﺘﻦ ﭼﻴﺴﺖ‪ ،‬ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺩﺭﻭﻧﻲﺍﺵ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ‬ ‫ﭼﻄﻮﺭ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭﻙ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ ..‬ﺩﺭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﻲ ﻭ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻧﻴﺖ ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻲ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺳﺨﻦ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .

. Texture‬‬ ‫‪2.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭ ‪ ،1‬ﻧﺨﺴﺖ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻲ ﻫﻤﭽﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ‪ 2‬ﻭ ﻫﻤﺒﺎﻓﺖ ‪ 3‬ﺳﺨﻦ‬ ‫‪P‬‬ ‫‪P7F‬‬ ‫‪P‬‬ ‫‪P6F‬‬ ‫‪P‬‬ ‫‪P5F‬‬ ‫ﮔﻔﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺳﺖﻳﺎﻓﺘﻦ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﺍﻱ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺭﺍﻩﮔﺸﺎﺳﺖ‪. ‫‪ /178‬ﻧﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭﻱ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻜﻴﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺘﻦ‪» ،‬ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺨﺎﻃﺒﻴﻦ )ﺷﻨﻮﻧﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﻳﺎ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ( ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ؛ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﺯﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻧﻬﻔﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺫﻫﻦ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪﻩ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ« )ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺯﻱ‪(196 :1386 ،‬؛ ﺑﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺯ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ‪ ،‬ﻧﺨﺴﺖ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﺩﺭﻭﻧﻲ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭﻙ ﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺳﭙﺲ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺸﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺫﻫﻦ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪﺓ ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﻣﻘﺼﺪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﻛﻨﺪ؛ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺭﺳﻴﺪﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﺎ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻦ ﻭ ﮔﻔﺘﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪» :‬ﻣﺴﻴﺮﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺩﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﻣﺘﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺭﺳﻴﺪﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻃﻲ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﻴﺮﻱ ﺑﺮﻭﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺭﻭﻧﻪ )ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﺍ( ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻣﺴﻴﺮﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺩﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﻛﻼﻣﻲ‬ ‫]ﮔﻔﺘﻤﺎﻧﻲ[‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺭﺳﻴﺪﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﺩﺭﻭﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺮﻭﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ« )ﺷﻌﻴﺮﻱ‪ .(40 :1381 ،‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻢ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﺍﻱ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﺯﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ . . Context‬‬ ‫‪3.‬ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺧﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺟﻤﻠﻪﻫﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺗﻌﺒﻴﺮﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻫﺪﺍﻳﺖ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺁﺷﻜﺎﺭﺍ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻧﺸﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ؛ ﺑﻠﻜﻪ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺍﺯﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻙ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻓﺮﺍﺯﺑﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﻴﺴﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻭﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻃﺮﺡ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻌﻨﺎ ﻭ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ‬ ‫‪P‬‬ ‫‪P8F‬‬ ‫ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻲ ﻫﺮ ﮔﻔﺘﺎﺭ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺖ ﺁﻥ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ . Context of Situation‬‬ .‬ﻓﺮﺙ ﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﺯ »ﻧﻘﺶ« ﺩﺭ »ﺑﺎﻓﺖ«؛ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺨﻦ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻱ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﻳﺎ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻱ‬ ‫‪1.‬ﭘﻴﺸﺘﺮ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﻮﺯﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﺎﺕ »ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺖ«‪» ،‬ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻜﻲ«‪» ،‬ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻲ« ﻭ‬ ‫»ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻲ« ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲﺷﺪ؛ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ »ﺑﺎﻓﺖ«‪ ،‬ﺑﻪﺗﻨﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺭﻭﺍﺝ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻮﻝ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﻧﻤﻲﮔﻨﺠﺪ؛ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺷﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻧﺨﺴﺘﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺍﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﻴﻨﻮﻓﺴﻜﻲ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ »ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺖ ‪ «4‬ﺭﺍ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ . Cotext‬‬ ‫‪4..

‬ﺭﻭﺍﺑﻂ ﻧﺰﺩﻳﻚ ]ﺟﻤﻼﺕ ﻫﻢﺟﻮﺍﺭ[ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻮﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺧﺮﺩ ﻣﺘﻮﻥ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺍﺑﻂ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﻛﻼﻥ ﻣﺘﻮﻥ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ« )ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺯﻱ‪ .(209 :1386 ،‬ﺩﺭﺣﻮﺯﺓ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻤﻲ ﻣﻮﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺭﻭﺍﺑﻂ ﺣﺎﻛﻢ ﺑﺮ ﺟﻤﻠﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻳﺎ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﻣﻘﺼﺪ‬ ‫ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺖ ﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‫ﺩﻭﻓﺼﻠﻨﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ـ ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺸﻲ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﭘﮋﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﺍ ‪179 /‬‬ ‫ﺗﻚﺗﻚ ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺁﻥ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ؛ ﺑﻠﻜﻪ ﻧﻘﺸﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺁﻥ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻳﺎ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺘﻲ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺍﻳﻔﺎ ﻣﻲ‪-‬‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪ )ﺁﻗﺎﮔﻞﺯﺍﺩﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺒﺎﻓﺖ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ ﺯﺑﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍژﻩﺍﻱ ﺑﻪﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻲﺭﻭﺩ‪ .(106 :1376 ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﺮﺩ ﻭ ﻛﻼﻥ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪» .(35 :1387 ،‬‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎﻥﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻫﻤﺒﺎﻓﺖ ﺑﺮﻣﻲﺁﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺣﻮﺯﺓ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﮔﻔﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺍﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺣﻮﺯﺓ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍژﺓ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐﺗﺮ ﺑﻪﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻲﺭﺳﺪ‪» .‬ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﻋﻼﻭﻩﺑﺮ ﺗﺴﻠﻂ ﺑﺮ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﻭ ﻣﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺧﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺯﺑﺎﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﺁﮔﺎﻫﻲ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ؛ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦﺭﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻭ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺗﺎ ﺑﺪﺍﻧﺠﺎ ﻛﻪ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪» :‬ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺧﺪﺍﻱ ﺍﺳﺎﻃﻴﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻫﺮﻣﺲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻭﺍﺳﻄﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ« )ﭘﺎﻟﻤﺮ‪.‬ﺩﺭ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻓﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪﺍﻕﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺭﺩﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﻔﺘﻪﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﺭﺟﺎﻉﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺯﺑﺎﻧﻲ ﻳﺎ ﻫﻤﺒﺎﻓﺖ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﺭﺟﺎﻋﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻤﻚ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻲﺁﻳﺪ‪ .(35 :1387 ،‬ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻲﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺭﺟﺎﻋﻲ ﺳﺨﻦ ﻣﻲﮔﻮﻳﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﺟﺎﻉ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﺯ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ ﻋﻴﻨﻲ ﻣﻮﺭﺩﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﮔﻔﺘﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻲﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭﻭﺍﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻫﺮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺟﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﻚ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﺭﺟﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻩ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ؛ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﻫﻤﺒﺎﻓﺖ ﺻﺮﻓﺎً ﺑﺨﺶ‬ ‫ﺯﺑﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﺭﺟﺎﻋﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻲﺭﻭﺩ )ﻳﻮﻝ‪.‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﺑﺮﻭﻥﺯﺑﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﺴﺖ‪.‬ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﻋﻜﺲ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﻛﻪ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭﻱ ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺍﺑﻂ ﺣﺎﻛﻢ ﺑﺮ ﺟﻤﻼﺕ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺭﺍ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ« )ﻟﻄﻔﻲﭘﻮﺭ ﺳﺎﻋﺪﻱ‪ .(22 :1385 ،‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻓﺖ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍژﻩﺍﻱ ﺑﻪﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻲﺭﻭﺩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﮔﻔﺖ‪» :‬ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﻋﻴﻨﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﺑﻪﻣﻨﺰﻟﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﻠﻲ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻣﻨﺪﻱ ﺑﺮ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﻲ ﺗﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺟﺎﻋﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ« )ﻳﻮﻝ‪ .(35 :1384 ،‬‬ .

‬ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻮﺩﻛﻲِ ﻳﻚ ﺩﻭﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺍﻣﺎ ﻣﺨﺎﻃﺒﺎﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺻﺮﻓﺎً ﻛﻮﺩﻛﺎﻥ ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ .3‬ﻧﻘﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﭘﺮﺧﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪﻩﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺮﺍﺳﺮ ﺩﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺛﺮ ﺁﻧﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﻭ ﺳﻨﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﺓ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺴﻮﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺴﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮔﺮﻭﻩﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺳﻨّﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺟﺬﺏ ﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻫﺮﻛﺴﻲ ﺩﺭﺣﺪ ﺧﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﭘﻴﺎﻣﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭﻭﺍﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺳﺆﺍﻟﻲ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻧﻲ ﻭ ﺗﺮﺱ ﺍﻭ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻮﺭﺩﻩﺷﺪﻥ ﮔﻠﺶ ﺍﺯﺳﻮﻱ ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻋﻞ »ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪ« ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺩﻭ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻫﻢ ﺑﺎ ﺿﻤﻴﺮ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻲ »ﺍﻭ« ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺩﺭﺣﺎﻟﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺩﺍﺭﻳﻢ؛ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻲﺭﺳﺪ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻧﻲ ﻭ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﺩﻏﺎﻡ ﻛﻨﺪ‪ . il mange aussi les fleurs‬‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺶﺍﺯ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺘﻦ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﻛﻼﻥ ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻜﺘﻪ ﻻﺯﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ :‬ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲﻛﻪ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺖ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺧﻠﺒﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻲ ﻛﺮﺩ ﻭ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﻫﻢ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻠﺒﺎﻥ ﺩﺭﺧﻮﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﺮﺩ ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻗﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻧﮕﻪﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﻳﺶ ﺑﻜﺸﺪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﭘﻨﺠﻤﻴﻦ ﺭﻭﺯ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺳﺆﺍﻟﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻠﺒﺎﻥ ﭘﺮﺳﻴﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺯﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﺑﺨﺸﻲ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺯﻧﺪﮔﻲ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺧﻠﺒﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪﻩ‪ -‬ﻛﻪ ﺗﺎ ﺁﻥ ﻟﺤﻈﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﮔﻞ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﻲ ﻧﺪﺍﺷﺘﻨﺪ‪-‬‬ ‫ﺁﺷﻜﺎﺭ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﻭ ﺑﻪ‬ . s’il mange les arbustes. ‫‪ /180‬ﻧﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭﻱ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻜﻴﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺳﺎﺯﺓ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺟﻤﻠﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﺰﺩﻳﻚ ﻭ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺑﺎ ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻛﻮﺷﻴﺪ ﻧﻘﺪﻱ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪﺩﺳﺖ ﺩﻫﻴﻢ‪.‬ﻧﮕﺎﺭﻧﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻳﺎﺯﺩﻩ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺩﺳﺖﺭﺳﻲ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﻛﺮﺩﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﻣﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺩﻩ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺍﺯﺭﻭﻱ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ )ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺴﻪ(‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺍﺯﻧﻮﻉ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﻭ ﮔﺮﺩﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭﻧﮓ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺩﻭ ﻭﻳﺮﮔﻮﻝ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﮕﺮ ﺗﺮﺩﻳﺪ ﻭ ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻧﻲ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ ﺗﺎ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺷﺎﻧﺰﺩﻩ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﭼﺎپ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪) 27‬ﻓﺼﻞ ﻫﻔﺘﻢ( ﺍﺯ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺴﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫?‪Un mouton.‬‬ ‫‪ .‬ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺛﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻝ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺸﻮﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ‪ .

‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻪﻛﺮﺩﻥ »ﻱ« ﻧﻜﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺷﺮﻃﻲ ﭘﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻲﺁﻳﺪ ﻛﻪ ﭘﻴﺶﻓﺮﺽ ﻗﻄﻌﻲ »ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪ ﺑﻮﺗﻪﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ« ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﻴﺖ ﺩﺭﻣﻲﺁﻭﺭﺩ؛ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻥ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ‪» :‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﻓﺮﺽ ﻛﻨﻴﻢ ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪﻱ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻧﻬﺎﻝ ﺩﺭﺧﺘﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺨﻮﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺍﻫﻢ ﺑﺪﺍﻧﻢ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪ ﮔﻞﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻪ؟«؛ ﺩﺭﺣﺎﻟﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻥ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ‪» :‬ﺣﺎﻝ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻲﺩﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪ ﺑﻮﺗﻪﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺍﻫﻢ ﺑﺪﺍﻧﻢ ﮔﻞﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ؟«‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍژﺓ ‪ Arbuste‬ﺩﺭ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺑﻪﻣﻌﻨﻲ »ﺑﻮﺗﻪ« ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪﺻﻮﺭﺕ »ﻧﻬﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺧﺘﺎﻥ«‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﺑﻪﻧﻈﺮ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺭﺳﺪ‪ .‬ﺣﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺒﻴﻨﻴﻢ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺪﺍﻡﻳﻚ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬ﺑﺎﺑﻚ ﺍﻧﺪﻳﺸﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺧﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺧﺮﺩ‬ .‫ﺩﻭﻓﺼﻠﻨﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ـ ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺸﻲ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﭘﮋﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﺍ ‪181 /‬‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺭﺳﻴﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪ ﺑﻮﺗﻪ ﻭ ﮔﻞ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ؛ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎﻥﻳﺎﻓﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﭘﺮﺳﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺩﺭﻧﻈﺮﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻭ ﺭﻭﻱﺩﺍﺩﻫﺎﻱ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻧﻤﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻱ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻣﻮﺭﺩﻧﻈﺮ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻗﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺘﻲ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺭﺧﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺋﻮﺑﺎﺏ ﺻﺤﺒﺖ ﻣﻲﻛﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺫﻫﻨﺶ ﺭﺳﻴﺪ ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺧﻠﺒﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﻳﺶ ﻛﺸﻴﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺧﺘﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺋﻮﺑﺎﺏ ﺭﺍ ﻗﺒﻞﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺑﺰﺭگ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻮﻣﻨﺪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻲﻛﻪ ﻧﻬﺎﻝ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺨﻮﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺎﺭﻩﺍﺵ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺎﺑﻮﺩﻱ ﻧﺠﺎﺕ ﺩﻫﺪ؛ ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻭﺍژﻩ ﺑﻪﺟﺎﻱ »ﺑﻮﺗﻪ«‪ ،‬ﺑﻪﺻﻮﺭﺕ »ﻧﻬﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺧﺘﺎﻥ« ﻳﺎ »ﺩﺭﺧﺘﭽﻪ« ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺩﻻﻳﻞ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.(28‬‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻌﻞ »ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺧﻮﺭﺩ«‪ ،‬ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭﺿﻤﻦ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺳﺆﺍﻟﺶ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻴﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻒ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﺑﻚ ﺍﻧﺪﻳﺸﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪﻱ ﻛﻪ ﻧﻬﺎﻝ ﺩﺭﺧﺘﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺨﻮﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﮔﻞﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻫﻢ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺧﻮﺭﺩ؟« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1386 ،‬ﺍﻟﻒ‪:‬‬ ‫‪.‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻧﭽﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﻻ ﮔﻔﺘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻧﺨﺴﺘﻴﻦ ﻧﮕﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﺷﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﻲ ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻭﺍژﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩﺑﺤﺚ ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ؛ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭﻱ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﻧﻪﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ؛ ﺑﻠﻜﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﺳﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻭﺍژﻩ ﺑﻪﺷﻤﺎﺭ ﻣﻲﺭﻭﺩ‪ .

‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪ ﺣﺘﻤﺎً ﺑﻮﺗﻪﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺑﺎ ﭘﻴﺶﻓﺮﺽ ﻗﻄﻌﻲ »ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪ ﺑﻮﺗﻪﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ« ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ..‬ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻭﻝ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ )ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﭘﺎﻳﺔ( ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎ ﭘﻴﺶﻓﺮﺽ ﻗﻄﻌﻲ ﻳﺎﺩﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺍﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺩﻭﻡ )ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﭘﻴﺮﻭ( »ﭘﺲ ﺣﺘﻤﺎً ﮔﻞﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ؟« ﺍﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ؛ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻛﻪ ﻧﻮﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻧﻬﻔﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻭﻗﺘﻲ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺍژﻩﻫﺎﻱ »ﭘﺲ ﺣﺘﻤﺎً‪ «.(23 :‬‬ ‫ﺩ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﺑﻮﺍﻟﺤﺴﻦ ﻧﺠﻔﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭﺧﺘﭽﻪﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺨﻮﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﮔﻞﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ؟« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1379 ،‬ﺍﻟﻒ‪.‬ﻣﻄﺮﺡ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻼﻣﺖ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﺑﻲﻣﻌﻨﺎﺳﺖ؛ ﭼﻮﻥ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺩﺭ ﺧﻮﺩ‪ ‬ﻣﺘﻦ ﻧﻬﻔﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .(31‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻮﺭﺩﺑﺤﺚ‪ Mouton ،‬ﺑﻪﻣﻌﻨﻲ »ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪ« ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺩﺭﺣﺎﻟﻲ ﻛﻪ »ﺑﺮﻩ«‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ‬ ‫‪ Agneau‬ﻳﺎ ‪ Jeune Mouton‬ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬ﻫﻤﺎﻥﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﻔﺘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ‪» :‬ﺣﺎﻝ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻲﺩﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪ ﺑﻮﺗﻪﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺍﻫﻢ ﺑﺪﺍﻧﻢ‬ ‫ﮔﻞﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ؟« ﻳﺎ »ﺍﮔﺮ ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪ ﺑﻮﺗﻪﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ )ﻛﻪ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ(‪ ،‬ﺁﻳﺎ ﮔﻞﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ؟«‪ ..‬ﺍﻳﻦﺩﻭ ﺑﺎ ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺨﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺷﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﮔﺮ ﻭﺍژﻩﻫﺎﻱ »ﭘﺲ ﺣﺘﻤﺎً« ﺣﺬﻑ ﻣﻲﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﭘﻴﺶﻓﺮﺽ ﻗﻄﻌﻲ‪،‬‬ .‬‬ ‫ﻩ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺣﻤﻴﺪﺭﺿﺎ ﺑﻠﻮچ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﺍﮔﺮ ﺑﺮﻩ ﻧﻬﺎﻝ ﺩﺭﺧﺖﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﭘﺲ ﺣﺘﻤﺎً ﮔﻞﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ؟« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1386 ،‬ﺏ‪:‬‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺭﺍﻣﺴﺲ ﺑﺼﻴﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺩﺭﺧﺘﭽﻪﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺨﻮﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﮔﻞﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ؟« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1387 ،‬ﺍﻟﻒ‪.(32 :‬‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭﺳﻄﺢ ﻭﺍژﻩ ﻭ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﮔﺮﺩﺍﻥ ﻣﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻭ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﮕﻲ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﻧﺴﺖ‪. ‫‪ /182‬ﻧﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭﻱ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻜﻴﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻛﻼﻥ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻧﻜﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﻪﺩﺳﺖﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﺍﻱ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺩﺭﺳﻄﺢ ﻭﺍژﻩ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺳﻄﺢ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﭼﺎﺭ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﮕﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‪.(26 :‬‬ ‫ﺝ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﭘﮋﻣﺎﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺩﺭﺧﺘﭽﻪﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺨﻮﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﮔﻞﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ؟« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1386 ،‬ﺩ‪.

‬‬ ‫ﺯ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺳﻤﺎﻧﻪ ﺭﺿﺎﻳﻴﺎﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻮﺗﻪﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺨﻮﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﮔﻞﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ؟« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1386 ،‬ﺝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻁ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﺣﻤﺪ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﻮ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺘـﻪﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺨﻮﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﮔﻞﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ؟« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﺻﻐﺮ ﺭﺳﺘﮕﺎﺭ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﺑﮕﻮ ﺑﺒﻴﻨﻢ ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻮﺗﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺨﻮﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﮔﻞﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ؟« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪،‬‬ ‫‪.‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻛﺎﻓﻲ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺷﻜﺎﻝﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺩﺭﺳﻄﺢ ﻭﺍژﻩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺭﺥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺍﺯ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﮕﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‪.(28 :1380 ،‬‬ .‬‬ ‫ﺡ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻫﺮﻣﺰ ﺭﻳﺎﺣﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺘﻪﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﮔﻞ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ؟« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1387 ،‬ﺝ‪.‬ﺭﺳﺘﮕﺎﺭ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺭﺿﺎﻳﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻭﺍژﻩ ﺭﺍ »ﺑﻮﺗﻪ« ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﻛﺮﺩﻩﺍﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺭﻳﺎﺣﻲ ﻭ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﻮ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ »ﺑ‪‬ﺘﻪ« ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺩﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪.‫ﺩﻭﻓﺼﻠﻨﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ـ ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺸﻲ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﭘﮋﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﺍ ‪183 /‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺳﺖﺗﺮ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .(28 :1379‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺟﻤﻠﺔ »ﺑﮕﻮ ﺑﺒﻴﻨﻢ«‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﻲﺍﻱ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻛﻪ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻱ ﺑﺪﺍﻥ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﺑﻚ ﺍﻧﺪﻳﺸﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻋﻼﻭﻩﺑﺮ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﻲ ﻳﺎﺩﺷﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪﺟﺎﻱ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ »ﻧﻬﺎﻝ ﺩﺭﺧﺘﺎﻥ«‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫»ﺑﻮﺗﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ« ﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺒﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﺓ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﺑﻚ ﺍﻧﺪﻳﺸﻪ ﮔﻔﺘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﻫﻢ ﺻﺪﻕ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪.(31 :‬‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ‪ Les Fleurs‬ﺑﻪﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺻﻞ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺷﻜﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻧﻤﻲﻛﻨﺪ؛‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍژﺓ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ »ﮔﻞ« ﺑﻪﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺴﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ؛ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﻭﺍژﺓ »ﺑﺘﻪ«‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﻣﺤﺎﺭﻭﻩ ﺑﻪﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻲﺭﻭﺩ‪.‬ﻫﻤﺎﻥﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﻪ ﮔﻔﺘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺧﺘﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺋﻮﺑﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭﻱ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻭﺍژﺓ ‪» Arbustes‬ﺩﺭﺧﺘﺠﻪ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻬﺎﻝ ﺩﺭﺧﺘﺎﻥ« ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﺑﻮﺗﻪ ﻧﻤﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ‪ ،‬ﺧﻄﺮﻱ ﺑﻪﺷﻤﺎﺭ ﺭﻭﺩ‪ .(28 :‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﺷﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﺭﺳﻄﺢ ﻭﺍژﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﮔﺮﺩﺍﻥﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ؛ ﻭﻟﻲ ﺩﺭﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﺯﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﺨﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .

‬ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻭﺍژﺓ ‪ Le Pire‬ﻧﻴﺰ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺶ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺍﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ‪Très‬‬ ‫‪ Soucieux‬ﻭ ‪ Le Pire‬ﺍﺑﻬﺎﻡﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﺑﻚ ﺍﻧﺪﻳﺸﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺻﻐﺮ ﺭﺳﺘﮕﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺣﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻠﻮ ﻭ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻗﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ‪ ،Très Soucieux‬ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﺄﻣﻞ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻒ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﺑﻚ ﺍﻧﺪﻳﺸﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺗﻢ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﺦ ﺑﻮﺩ؛ ﭼﻮﻥ ﻛﻢﻛﻢ ﭘﻲ ﻣﻲﺑﺮﺩﻡ ﻛﻪ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﻲ ﻫﻮﺍﭘﻴﻤﺎﻳﻢ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻤﺎﻡﺷﺪﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﺁﺷﺎﻣﻴﺪﻧﻲﺍﻡ ﻣﻲﺗﺮﺳﻴﺪﻡ« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1386 ،‬ﺍﻟﻒ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺷﻜﺎﻝﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺩﺭﺳﻄﺢ ﻭﺍژﻩ ﻭ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺩﻳﺪﻩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻲﺗﻮﺟﻬﻲ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .(29 :‬‬ .‬‬ ‫ﻱ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﺳﺪﺍﷲ ﻏﻔﻮﺭﻱ ﺛﺎﻧﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪﻱ ﻛﻪ ﻧﻬﺎﻝ ﺩﺭﺧﺘﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺨﻮﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﮔﻞﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪.‬ﻏﻴﺮﺍﺯ ﻋﻼﻣﺖ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﻪﺟﺎﻱ ﻋﻼﻣﺖ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩﺑﺤﺚ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻣﻼً ﺑﺎ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻗﺎﺿﻲ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺖ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ )ﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﻧﺪﻳﺸﻪ(‪.(29 :1385 ،‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺳﺆﺍﻟﻲ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻪﺟﺎﻱ ﻋﻼﻣﺖ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺑﻪﻛﺎﺭ ﺭﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻮﺭﺩﺑﺤﺚ ﺑﺎ ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﻗﺒﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻨﻲ »ﺍﺯ ﻣﻦ ﭘﺮﺳﻴﺪ«‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﺨﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ؛ ﭼﻮﻥ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎ‪ ،‬ﺳﺆﺍﻟﻲ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺍﺯﻧﻮﻉ ﺧﺒﺮﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻪﺳﺒﺐ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺩﺭ ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻙ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻗﺎﺿﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪﻱ ﻛﻪ ﻧﻬﺎﻝ ﺩﺭﺧﺘﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺨﻮﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﮔﻞﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ؟« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1387 ،‬ﺏ‪.(35 :‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﺒﺤﺚ »ﻱ« ﻧﻜﺮﻩ )ﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﻧﺪﻳﺸﻪ(‪. et l’eau qui s’épuisait me faisait craindre le pire. ‫‪ /184‬ﻧﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭﻱ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻜﻴﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪﻱ ﻫﻢ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺘﻪﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺨﻮﺭﺩ )ﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﻧﺪﻳﺸﻪ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺻﻔﺤﻪﻫﺎﻱ ‪ 27‬ﻭ ‪) 28‬ﻓﺼﻞ ﻫﻔﺘﻢ( ﺍﺯ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺩﻳﺪﻩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫‪J’étais très soucieux car ma panne commençait de m’apparaître comme très‬‬ ‫‪grave.‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﻪﺻﻮﺭﺗﻲ ﺩﻗﻴﻖﺗﺮ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻛﺮﺩ‪.

.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺳﻄﺢ ﻭﺍژﻩ‪ Le Pire ،‬ﺑﻴﺎﻧﮕﺮ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺑﺪﺗﺮﺗﺮﺳﻴﺪﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﻧﻪ ﺑﺪﺗﺮﺷﺪﻥ ﻭﺿﻊ؛ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ‪» :‬ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺗﺮ ﻣﻲﺗﺮﺳﻴﺪﻡ؛ ﻧﻪ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﻭﺧﻴﻢﺗﺮ ﻭ ﺑﺪﺗﺮ ﻣﻲﺷﺪ«‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺏ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺭﺍﻣﺴﺲ ﺑﺼﻴﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﺳﺨﺖ ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﻮﺩﻡ؛ ﭼﻮﻥ ﻛﻢﻛﻢ ﻣﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﺪﻡ ﻛﻪ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﻲ ﻫﻮﺍﭘﻴﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻣﻼً ﺟﺪﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ...‬‬ ‫ﻧﻜﺘﺔ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ Le Pire ،‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬ﺣﺮﻑ ﺭﺑﻂ »ﻭ« ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺖ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‪.(26 :‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺳﻄﺢ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻳﺎ ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ؛ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻛﻪ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﻭ ﺟﻤﻠﺔ »‪.‫ﺩﻭﻓﺼﻠﻨﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ـ ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺸﻲ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﭘﮋﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﺍ ‪185 /‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺮﮔﺮﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﺍژﻩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺗﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ؛ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻛﻪ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ‪Très‬‬ ‫‪ Soucieux‬ﺑﻪﺻﻮﺭﺕ »ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺗﻢ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﺦ ﺑﻮﺩ«‪ ،‬ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻓﺮﺩ ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ؛‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺗﺶ ﺗﻠﺦ ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ؛ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺘﻲ ﺍﺻﺮﺍﺭ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺑﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﻗﺎﻧﻊﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺭﺍﻭﻱ ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﺓ ﺧﺎﺭﮔﻞﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺯﻧﺸﺪﻥ ﭘﻴﭻ ﺳﻔﺖ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﻫﻮﺍﭘﻴﻤﺎ ﻭ ﺗﻤﺎﻡﺷﺪﻥ ﺁﺏ ﺁﺷﺎﻣﻴﺪﻧﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻣﻲﺭﺳﻴﻢ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺑﻮﺩ ﺭﺍﻭﻱ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺧﻴﻢﺗﺮﺷﺪﻥ ﺍﻭﺿﺎﻉ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺗﺶ ﻫﻢ ﺗﻠﺦ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ؛ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺕﺗﻠﺨﻲ ﺻ‪‬ﺮﻑ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ؛ ﺑﻠﻜﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻧﻲ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺍژﺓ ‪ ،Car‬ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻧﻲ ﺭﺍﻭﻱ )ﺟﺪﻱﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﻲ ﻫﻮﺍﭘﻴﻤﺎ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺗﺮﺱ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﻡﺷﺪﻥ ﺁﺏ ﺁﺷﺎﻣﻴﺪﻧﻲ(‪ ،‬ﺁﺷﻜﺎﺭ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬ﺷﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻌﻨﻲﻫﺎ ﻧﺰﺩﻳﻚ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ؛ ﺍﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻗﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺻﻔﺖﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍژﻩﺍﻱ ﺟﺰ ﻭﺍژﺓ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﺪﺍﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺩﺍﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺝ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺣﻤﻴﺪﺭﺿﺎ ﺑﻠﻮچ‪:‬‬ .‬ﻛﺎﻣﻼً ﺟﺪﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ« ﻭ »ﺁﺏ ﺁﺷﺎﻣﻴﺪﻧﻲ‪ ،«.‬ﺁﺏ ﺁﺷﺎﻣﻴﺪﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭﺣﺎﻝ ﺗﻤﺎﻡﺷﺪﻥ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺧﻴﻢﺗﺮﺷﺪﻥ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﻣﻲﺗﺮﺳﺎﻧﺪ« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1387 ،‬ﺍﻟﻒ‪.‬ﻧﺒﻮﺩ‪ ‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺭﺑﻂ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺷﻲ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻳﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﺓ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺭﺍ ﻗﻄﻊ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ؛ ﭼﻨﺎﻥﻛﻪ ﺧﻮﺩ‪ ‬ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺭﺑﻂ »‪ «et‬ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻤﻠﺔ »…‪«et l’eau qui s’épuisait‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪﻛﺎﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺧﺮﺍﺑﻲ ﻫﻮﺍﭘﻴﻤﺎ »ﺷﺪﻳﺪ« ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮﺩ؛ ﺑﻠﻜﻪ »ﺟﺪﻱ« ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ؛ ﺑﻴﻤﺎﺭﻱ »ﺷﺪﻳﺪ« ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ ..

‬‬ ‫ﻩ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﺻﻐﺮ ﺭﺳﺘﮕﺎﺭ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﺳﺨﺖ ﻛﻼﻓﻪ ﺑﻮﺩﻡ؛ ﭼﻮﻥ ﻛﻢﻛﻢ ﺑﻮ ﺑﺮﺩﻩ ﺑﻮﺩﻡ ﻛﻪ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﻲ ﻫﻮﺍﭘﻴﻤﺎ ﺟﺪﻱﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻓﻜﺮﺵ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﻛﺮﺩﻡ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺩ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﭘﮋﻣﺎﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﻮﺩﻡ‪ .‬ﻛﻢﻛﻢ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻣﻲﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﻲ ﻫﻮﺍﭘﻴﻤﺎ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺟﺪﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻋﻦﻗﺮﻳﺐ‪ ،‬ﺁﺏ‬ ‫ﺁﺷﺎﻣﻴﺪﻧﻲ ﻫﻢ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﻣﻲﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺮ ﭼﻴﺰ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺣﺸﺘﻢ ﻣﻲﺍﻧﺪﺍﺧﺖ« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1386 ،‬ﺩ‪.(31 :‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﻪﻫﺎ‪ Le Pire ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺩﻭ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ :‬ﻳﻜﻲ »ﺑﺪﺗﺮﺷﺪﻥ ﺍﻭﺿﺎﻉ« ﻭ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻱ‪،‬‬ ‫»ﺑﻪﺷﺪﺕ ﻭﺣﺸﺖ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻢ«؛ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍژﺓ ﻣﻮﺭﺩﺑﺤﺚ ﻋﻼﻭﻩﺑﺮ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻳﻲ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺩﺭﻛﻞ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﺍﻱ ﺳﻠﻴﺲ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺍﻥ ﺑﻪﺩﺳﺖ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬ﺩﺭ ﺩﻭ ﺟﻤﻠﺔ »ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﻲ ﻫﻮﺍﭘﻴﻤﺎ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺟﺪﻱ ﺑﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭﺣﺎﻝ ﺗﻤﺎﻡﺷﺪﻥ ﺑﻮﺩ«‪ ،‬ﺫﻛﺮ ﺩﻭ‬ .‬ﺫﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﺁﺏ‬ ‫ﺁﺷﺎﻣﻴﺪﻧﻲﺍﻡ ﺭﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺪﺗﺮﺷﺪﻥ ﺍﻭﺿﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪﺷﺪﺕ ﻭﺣﺸﺖ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻢ« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪،‬‬ ‫‪1386‬ﺏ‪. ‫‪ /186‬ﻧﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭﻱ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻜﻴﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ‬ ‫»ﻋﻤﻴﻘﺎً ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﻮﺩﻡ؛ ﭼﻮﻥ ﻛﻢﻛﻢ ﻣﻲﻓﻬﻤﻴﺪﻡ ﻛﻪ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﻲ ﻫﻮﺍﭘﻴﻤﺎ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺟﺪﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﺓ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ‪ Le Pire‬ﻧﻴﺰ ﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺑﺼﻴﺮ‪.(23 :‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪﺳﺒﺐ ﮔﺬﺍﺷﺘﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺟﻤﻠﺔ »ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﻮﺩﻡ« ﺑﺎ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺟﻤﻠﻪﻫﺎ ﻗﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﻗﺒﻠﺶ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ؛ ﺩﺭﺣﺎﻟﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻂ ﻳﻚ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﻋﻠﺖ ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻧﻲ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﺔ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪﺍﺯ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ‪ Car‬ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪.(29‬‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ‪ Très Soucieux‬ﺑﻪﻣﻌﻨﺎﻱ ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻥﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﻧﻪ ﺳﺨﺖ ﻛﻼﻓﻪﺑﻮﺩﻥ )ﻧﮕﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻴﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﻧﺪﻳﺸﻪ(‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺁﺏ ﺁﺷﺎﻣﻴﺪﻧﻲ ﻫﻢ ﭼﻴﺰ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻱ ﻧﻤﺎﻧﺪﻩ ﺑﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻣﻲﺗﺮﺳﻴﺪﻡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﻢ ﺑﺪﺗﺮ ﺷﻮﺩ« )ﺳﻨﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1379 ،‬ﺏ‪ 28 :‬ﻭ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺳﻤﺎﻧﻪ ﺭﺿﺎﻳﻴﺎﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﻭ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻥ ﻫﻢ ﺑﻮﺩﻡ؛ ﭼﻮﻥ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﻲ ﻫﻮﺍﭘﻴﻤﺎ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺟﺪﻱ ﺑﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﺁﺏ ﺁﺷﺎﻣﻴﺪﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻪﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺩﺭﺣﺎﻝ ﺗﻤﺎﻡﺷﺪﻥ ﺑﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﺗﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲﺗﺮﺳﺎﻧﺪ« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1386 ،‬ﺝ‪.(28 :‬‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻋﻄﻒ »ﻭ« ﺷﺮﻭﻉ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺩﺭﺣﺎﻟﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‪ .

(28‬‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻚ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺒﻚ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﺨﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍژﺓ ‪ Très Soucieux‬ﺑﻪﻣﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫»ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻥ«‪ ،‬ﺑﻪﺻﻮﺭﺕ »ﺑﺮﺝ ﺯﻫﺮﻣﺎﺭ« ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻱ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻗﺎﺿﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺗﻢ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺗﻠﺦ ﺑﻮﺩ؛ ﭼﻮﻥ ﻛﻢﻛﻢ ﺑﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻣﻲﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﻲ ﻫﻮﺍﭘﻴﻤﺎ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻣﻲﺗﺮﺳﻴﺪﻡ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﻡﺷﺪﻥ ﺁﺏ ﺁﺷﺎﻣﻴﺪﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻌﻢ ﺑﺪﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺪ ﺷﻮﺩ« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1387 ،‬ﺏ‪.(35 :‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﺓ ‪ Très Soucieux‬ﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﻧﺪﻳﺸﻪ ﻭ ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍژﺓ ‪ Le Pire‬ﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺑﺼﻴﺮ‪.(32 :‬‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻣﻼً ﺁﺯﺍﺩ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺳﺒﻚ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺒﻚ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.Le Pire‬‬ .‫ﺩﻭﻓﺼﻠﻨﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ـ ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺸﻲ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﭘﮋﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﺍ ‪187 /‬‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ »ﺑﻮﺩ«‪ ،‬ﺑﻼﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﭘﺸﺖﺳﺮ ﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﭼﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﺯﻳﺒﺎ ﺑﻪﻧﻈﺮ ﻧﻤﻲﺭﺳﺪ؛ ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺑﻮﺩ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﻭ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺭﺍ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪﺻﻮﺭﺗﻲ ﺳﻠﻴﺲﺗﺮ ﻭ ﺯﻳﺒﺎﺗﺮ ﺩﺭﺁﻭﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺯ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻫﺮﻣﺰ ﺭﻳﺎﺣﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﺩﻏﺪﻏﻪﺍﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺎﻧﻢ ﺑﻮﺩ؛ ﭼﺮﺍﻛﻪ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﻲ ﺑﻪﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺑﻴﺦ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﻣﻲﻛﺮﺩ ﻭ ﺁﺏِ ﺧﻮﺭﺩﻥ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻪ ﻣﻲﻛﺸﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺪﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﭘﻴﺸﺎﻣﺪ ﻣﻲﺷﺪﻡ« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1387 ،‬ﺝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻙ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﺑﻮﺍﻟﺤﺴﻦ ﻧﺠﻔﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﻭ ﺳﺨﺖ ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﻮﺩﻡ؛ ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﻛﻢﻛﻢ ﺩﺭﻣﻲﻳﺎﻓﺘﻢ ﻛﻪ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﻲ ﻫﻮﺍﭘﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺟﺪﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺁﺏ ﺁﺷﺎﻣﻴﺪﻧﻲ‪-‬‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺭﻭ ﺑﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ -‬ﺍﺯ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻭﺧﻴﻢﺗﺮ ﺧﺒﺮ ﻣﻲﺩﺍﺩ« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1379 ،‬ﺍﻟﻒ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻁ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﺳﺪﺍﷲ ﻏﻔﻮﺭﻱ ﺛﺎﻧﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻣﻼً ﻣﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﺑﺎ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻗﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺡ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﺣﻤﺪ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﻮ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﻳﻮﺍﺵﻳﻮﺍﺵ ﺑﻮ ﻣﻲﺑﺮﺩﻡ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﻲ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺳﺎﺩﮔﻲﻫﺎ ﻛﻪ ﺧﻴﺎﻝ ﻣﻲﻛﺮﺩﻡ‪ ،‬ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺝ ﺯﻫﺮﻣﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻮﺩﻡ ﻭ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﺁﺑﻢ ﻫﻢ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﺗﻪ ﻣﻲﻛﺸﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺣﺸﺘﻢ ﻣﻲﺍﻧﺪﺍﺧﺖ« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪:1380 ،‬‬ ‫‪.(32 :‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺳﻴﺪﻥ ﺭﺍﻭﻱ ﺑﻪﺳﺒﺐ ﻛﻤﺒﻮﺩ ﺁﺏ ﺁﺷﺎﻣﻴﺪﻧﻲ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻧﮕﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻴﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻜﺘﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﻴﺎﻥﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﺓ ‪.

.(31 :‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﺟﻤﻠﺔ »ﻧﺨﺴﺘﻴﻦ ﭼﻴﺰﻱ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺫﻫﻨﻢ ﺭﺳﻴﺪ«‪ ،‬ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .:‬ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪،‬‬ ‫‪1386‬ﺍﻟﻒ‪..‬ﺷﺎﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﺎً‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺳﺮﺳﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻧﺨﺴﺘﻴﻦ ﭼﻴﺰﻱ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺫﻫﻦ ﺭﺍﻭﻱ ﺧﻄﻮﺭ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺷﺎﻳﺪ ﻫﻢ ﻧﻪ‪ ...‬‬ ‫ﺏ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺭﺍﻣﺴﺲ ﺑﺼﻴﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﻣﻦ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪﺧﺎﻃﺮ ﺁﻥ ﭘﻴﭻ ﻫﻮﺍﭘﻴﻤﺎ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﻲ ﻛﻼﻓﻪ ﺑﻮﺩﻡ‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﻴﻦﺟﻮﺭ ﺳﺮﺳﺮﻱ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺩﺍﺩﻡ‪) «. ‫‪ /188‬ﻧﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭﻱ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻜﻴﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 28‬ﺍﺯ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﭼﻨﺪ ﺳﻄﺮ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﭘﻴﺸﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫…‪J’étais irrité par mon boulon et je répondis n’importe quoi:‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺑﻬﺎﻡ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﮔﺮﺩﺍﻥ ﺩﺭﺳﻄﺢ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺩﻳﺪﻩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ؛ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﺁﻥﻫﺎﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻏﻔﻠﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﻇﺮﺍﻓﺖﻫﺎ ﺳﺒﺐ ﮔﺴﺴﺖ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭ ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﻳﻢ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻋﻄﻒ »ﻭ« ﺑﻪ ﻫﻢ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ؛ ﻭﻟﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻳﻚ ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﻲ ﻭ ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﻳﻢ؛ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻋﻄﻒ »ﻭ« ﺍﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺩﺭﺣﺎﻟﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺍﮔﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻲﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﺣﺮﻑ ﻋﻄﻒ »ﻭ« ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻧﺒﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻣﻲﺁﻣﺪ‪» :‬ﺑﻪﺧﺎﻃﺮ ﺁﻥ ﭘﻴﭻ‪ ،‬ﺣﺴﺎﺑﻲ ﻛﻼﻓﻪ ﺑﻮﺩﻡ ﻭ ﻫﻤﻴﻦﺟﻮﺭ ﺳﺮﺳﺮﻱ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺩﺍﺩﻡ«‪..(29 :‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻛﺎﻫﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﺷﺪﻥ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ‪ ،‬ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺕﺗﻠﺨﻲ ﺭﺍﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻛﻼﻓﻪﺑﻮﺩﻧﺶ ﺍﺯﺩﺳﺖ ﭘﻴﭻ ﺭﺍ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.:‬ﺳﻨﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1387 ،‬ﺍﻟﻒ‪.:‬ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1386 ،‬ﺏ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺝ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺣﻤﻴﺪﺭﺿﺎ ﺑﻠﻮچ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﻣﻦ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﭘﻴﭻ ﻟﻌﻨﺘﻲ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﻫﻮﺍﭘﻴﻤﺎ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﻲ ﻛﻼﻓﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻮﺩﻡ‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﻴﻦﻃﻮﺭ ﺳﺮﺳﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻧﺨﺴﺘﻴﻦ ﭼﻴﺰﻱ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺫﻫﻨﻢ ﺭﺳﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﮔﻔﺘﻢ‪) «.‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻫﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺷﻜﺎﻝﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻛﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻒ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﺑﻚ ﺍﻧﺪﻳﺸﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺗﻢ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﺦ ﺑﻮﺩ؛ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻳﻚ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺳﺮﺳﺮﻱ ﺩﺍﺩﻡ ﻭ ﮔﻔﺘﻢ‪) «.‬ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮ‬ ..(26 :‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ »ﻫﻮﺍﭘﻴﻤﺎ« ﻣﺼﺪﺍﻕ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .

.‬‬ ‫ﻩ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﺻﻐﺮ ﺭﺳﺘﮕﺎﺭ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﺍﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺯﺩﺳﺖ ﺁﻥ ﭘﻴﭻ ﻣﻠﻌﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺳﺨﺖ ﻛﻼﻓﻪ ﺑﻮﺩﻡ‪ ..‬‬ ‫ﻭ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺳﻤﺎﻧﻪ ﺭﺿﺎﻳﻴﺎﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪﺧﺎﻃﺮ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ ﻫﻮﺍﭘﻴﻤﺎ ﻛﻼﻓﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻮﺩﻡ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﺟﻮﺍﺑﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺫﻫﻨﻢ ﺭﺳﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺟﻮﺍﺑﺶ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺩﻡ ﻭ‬ ‫ﮔﻔﺘﻢ‪) «.‬ﺩﺭ ﻭﺍژﻩﻫﺎﻱ »ﻟﻌﻨﺘﻲ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﻫﻮﺍﭘﻴﻤﺎ« ﻧﻴﺰ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﻲ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻫﻤﻴﻦﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﺘﺮﻩﺍﻱ ﮔﻔﺘﻢ‪) «..‬‬ ‫ﺩ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﭘﮋﻣﺎﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻢ ﻛﻪ ﭘﻴﭻ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﻛﻼﻓﻪﺍﻡ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﻴﻦﺟﻮﺭﻱ ﮔﻔﺘﻢ‪) «.:‬ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1386 ،‬ﺝ‪.(29 :‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍژﺓ »ﻣﻠﻌﻮﻥ« ﺑﻪﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺻﻔﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ »ﭘﻴﭻ« ﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺗﺎ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﻛﻼﻓﮕﻲ ﺭﺍﻭﻱ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺩﻳﺪﻥ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺤﺎﺕ ﻧﮕﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻴﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺭﺍﻣﺴﺲ ﺑﺼﻴﺮ‪ .(23 :‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺣﺮﻑ ﻋﻄﻒ »ﻭ« ﺩﺭ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﻪﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺳﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫)ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ( ﻭ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻲ ﺫﻫﻨﻲ ﻣﺎ )ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻗﺒﻠﻲ(‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﺨﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‪.:‬ﺳﻨﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1387 ،‬ﺍﻟﻒ‪.‬ﺷﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﻳﻦﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﻲﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻢ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﻛﻤﻚ ﻛﻨﺪ؛ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﻛﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﺎً ﻓﻬﻢ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ﻛﻠﻤﻪﺍﻱ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻲ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ؛ ﻧﻪ ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﺓ ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻮﺭﺩﺑﺤﺚ ﻣﺎ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻭﺍژﺓ »ﺳﺮﺳﺮﻱ« ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺷﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺑﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺣﻤﻴﺪﺭﺿﺎ ﺑﻠﻮچ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺻﻔﺖ »ﻟﻌﻨﺘﻲ« ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲﻛﺮﺩ؛‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﺑﻪﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻲﺭﺳﺪ ﻭﺍژﺓ »ﻣﻠﻌﻮﻥ« ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺷﻴﺎ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﻓﺖﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻣﻌﻨﻲ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ‪.‫ﺩﻭﻓﺼﻠﻨﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ـ ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺸﻲ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﭘﮋﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﺍ ‪189 /‬‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‪ .:‬ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1386 ،‬ﺩ‪.‬ﻫﻤﺎﻥﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻟﻐﺖﻧﺎﻣﺔ ﺩﻫﺨﺪﺍ ﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻭﺍژﻩ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻋﺎﻣﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺳﺒﻜﻲ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺒﻚ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‪..‬‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻭﻩﺑﺮ ﺁﻧﭽﻪ ﮔﻔﺘﻴﻢ‪» N’importe Quoi ،‬ﻫﻤﻴﻦﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﺘﺮﻩﺍﻱ« ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ‬ ‫»ﻛﺘﺮﻩﺍﻱﮔﻔﺘﻦ« ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﺨﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻃﻼﻉ ﮔﻔﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﻲﺍﻧﺪﻳﺸﻪ ﮔﻔﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﮔﻔﺘﻦ )ﺩﻫﺨﺪﺍ‪،‬‬ ‫»ﻛﺘﺮﻩﺍﻱﮔﻔﺘﻦ«؛ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‪» ،‬ﻛﺘﺮﻩﺍﻱﮔﻔﺘﻦ«(‪ ..(28 :‬‬ ..

‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﻛﻼﻡ )ﺳﺮﺳﺮﻱﺟﻮﺍﺏﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﺧﻠﺒﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺯﺳﺮﺑﺎﺯﻛﺮﺩﻧﺶ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺁﺷﻔﺘﻪ(‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ »ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﺟﻮﺍﺑﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺫﻫﻨﻢ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻴﺪ«‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺩﻭﻡ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻨﻲ »ﻭ ﺍَﻟّﺎﺑﺨﺘﻜﻲ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺩﺍﺩﻡ«‪ ،‬ﺩﻭ ﻧﻜﺘﻪ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺷﺮﺡ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺧﻮﺭ ﺫﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻧﺨﺴﺖ ﺁﻧﻜﻪ ﺳﺒﻚ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺻﻼً ﺑﺎ ﺳﺒﻚ ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﻗﺒﻠﻲﺍﺵ ﻛﻪ ﺭﺳﻤﻲﺗﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ )»ﺷﺎﻩﺯﺍﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻭﻗﺘﻲ ﭼﻴﺰﻱ ﻣﻲﭘﺮﺳﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻫﻴﭻﮔﺎﻩ ﺍﺯ ﭘﺮﺳﺶ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺩﺳﺖﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭ ﻧﺒﻮﺩ«(‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﺨﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺳﺒﻚ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﻳﻚﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .:‬ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1387 ،‬ﺝ‪. ‫‪ /190‬ﻧﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭﻱ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻜﻴﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﻭﻱ ﺑﻪﺳﺒﺐ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ ﻫﻮﺍﭘﻴﻤﺎ ﻛﻼﻓﻪ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺑﻠﻜﻪ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻳﻚ ﭘﻴﭻ ﺍﻭ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻼﻓﻪ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺑﻮﺩ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﺩﺭﻋﻴﻦ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻞ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﻣﺘﻦ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﺯﺑﺎﻧﻲ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﺗﺎ ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﺴﺎﻥ ﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬ﭘﻴﭻ ﻫﻢ ﺟﺰﻭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻫﻮﺍﭘﻴﻤﺎﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﺍﺯ ﺟﺰء ﺑﻪ ﻛﻞ ﺭﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ ﻛﻼﻓﮕﻲ ﺧﻠﺒﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻞ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﭘﻴﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﻢ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺭﺩﻱ ﺧﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻨﻲ »ﭘﻴﭻ« ﺑﻪﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻛﻼﻓﮕﻲ ﺧﻠﺒﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻛﺮ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﺿﺎﻳﻴﺎﻥ ﻫﻢ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺑﻠﻮچ‪ ،‬ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﺧﻮﺩﺵ ﺭﺍ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ‪ N’importe Quoi‬ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫»ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﺟﻮﺍﺑﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺫﻫﻨﻢ ﺭﺳﻴﺪ« ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺯ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻫﺮﻣﺰ ﺭﻳﺎﺣﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﺑﺎ ﭘﻴﭻ‪ ،‬ﺣﺴﺎﺑﻲ ﺩﺭﮔﻴﺮ ﺑﻮﺩﻡ ﻭ ﺍَﻟّﺎﺑﺨﺘﻜﻲ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺩﺍﺩﻡ‪) «.‬‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻡ ﺁﻧﻜﻪ »ﺍَﻟّﺎﺑﺨﺘﻜﻲ«‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ‪ N’importe Quoi‬ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺎﺁﻧﻜﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻭﺍژﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻱ ﻳﻚﻫﻮﻳﻲ‪ ،‬ﺷﺎﻧﺴﻜﻲ ﻭ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﺩﺭﺷﺪﻥ ﭼﻴﺰﻱ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻓﻜﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺫﻫﻦ‪ ،‬ﻧﻬﻔﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ )ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‪» ،‬ﺍﻟّﺎﺑﺨﺘﻜﻲ«(‪،‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻱ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﻫﻴﭻ ﻧﻴﺘﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺯﺳﺮﺑﺎﺯﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺩﻳﺪﻩ ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮﺩ؛ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‪ ،‬ﺷﺎﻳﺪ ﺧﻠﺒﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺯﺳﺮﺑﺎﺯﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﻴﻦﻃﻮﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺷﺎﻧﺴﻜﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻭ ﺟﻮﺍﺑﻲ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ؛ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﺭﺵ‬ ‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ :‬ﺍﻭ ﻛﻼﻓﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﭘﻴﭻ ﺳﻔﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺎﺯ ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭﺣﺎﻝ ﺗﻤﺎﻡﺷﺪﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﺯﻫﺎﻱ‬ ..(26 :‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﺟﻤﻠﺔ »ﺑﺎ ﭘﻴﭻ‪ ،‬ﺣﺴﺎﺑﻲ ﺩﺭﮔﻴﺮ ﺑﻮﺩﻡ« ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺎﺯﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺁﻥ ﭘﻴﭻ ﺳﻔﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺍ ﺳﺨﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻐﻮﻝ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺑﻮﺩ؛ ﻭﻟﻲ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺭﺍﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺁﻥ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺣﺘﻤﺎً ﻛﻼﻓﻪ ﻫﻢ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﺁﺩﻡ ﺳﺨﺖ ﻣﺸﻐﻮﻝ ﻛﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ؛ ﺍﻣﺎ ﻛﻼﻓﻪ ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ؛ ﭘﺲ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺍﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻧﺎﻗﺺ ﺍﺳﺖ‪..

‬ﺩﺭ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺘﻲ ﻛﺴﻲ ﺑﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺳﺆﺍﻟﺶ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﭼﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﺮﺩ ﻏﻴﺮﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻭ ﺟﻮﺍﺑﻲ ﺳﺮﺳﺮﻱ ﺩﺍﺩ ﺗﺎ ﻣﺰﺍﺣﻤﺖ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻧﻜﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻭﺍﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺯﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﺭﺍﻭﻱ ﺩﺍﺳﺘﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﮔﻮﻳﺪ‪ :‬ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻲ ﺩﺍﺩﻡ ﻛﻪ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺮﻡ ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻢ؛ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺳﺮﺳﺮﻱ ﺩﺍﺩﻡ‪ . à quoi servent-elles‬‬ ..:‬ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪..‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺒﻚ ﺯﺑﺎﻧﻲ ﻭ ﺍﺩﺑﻴﺎﺕ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﮔﺎﻫﻲ ﻭﻱ ﻭﺍژﻩﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﺍﻳﺞ ﺩﺭ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﻛﻮﭼﻪ ﻭ ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ ﺭﺍ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻣﺤﺎﻭﺭﻩﺍﻱ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺯﻳﺒﺎﻳﻲ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺯﺑﺎﻧﻲ ﻫﻢ ﻛﺎﺳﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﻣﺜﻼً ﻭﺍژﺓ »ﭘﺮﺍﻧﺪﻡ«‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﺴﻄﺢ ﺑﺎ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻠﻮ ﺩﺭ ﻛﻞ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻁ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﺳﺪﺍﷲ ﻏﻔﻮﺭﻱ ﺛﺎﻧﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﻛﺎﻣﻼً ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻗﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ‪..:‬ﺳﻨﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1387 ،‬ﺏ‪..‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 28‬ﺍﺯ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﺭﺍ ﺩﻭﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻠﺒﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﭘﺮﺳﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫?‪Les épines.(35 :‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ؛ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﺳﻪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﻲﺑﻴﻨﻴﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻱ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻗﺎﺿﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻢ ﺍﺯﺩﺳﺖ ﺁﻥ ﭘﻴﭻ ﻟﻌﻨﺘﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﻠﺦ ﺑﻮﺩ؛ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺟﻬﺖ‪ ،‬ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺳﺮﺑﺎﻻ ﺩﺍﺩﻡ ﻭ ﮔﻔﺘﻢ‪) «.‬‬ ‫ﺡ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﺣﻤﺪ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﻮ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﻣﻬﺮﻩ ﭘﺎﻙ ﻛﻼﻓﻪﺍﻡ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ ..(28 :1380 ،‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻋﻄﻒ »ﻭ« ﺑﻪ ﻫﻢ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ؛ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﻮ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭ ﺟﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ ﺑﺎ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﻳﻢ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺍﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﻴﻦﺟﻮﺭ ﺳﺮﺳﺮﻱ ﭘﺮﺍﻧﺪﻡ ﻛﻪ‪) «.‬ﺑﻪﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﻴﺪ »ﺳﺮﺑﻪﻫﻮﺍ« ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﺓ ﺭﺍﻩﺭﻓﺘﻦ ﺑﻪﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻲﺭﻭﺩ؛ ﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺍﺏﺩﺍﺩﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻙ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﺑﻮﺍﻟﺤﺴﻦ ﻧﺠﻔﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﻣﻦ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﭘﻴﭻ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺳﺨﺖ ﻛﻼﻓﻪ ﺑﻮﺩﻡ ﻭ ﻫﻤﻴﻦﺟﻮﺭ ﺳﺮﺑﻪﻫﻮﺍ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺩﺍﺩﻡ‪) «.:‬ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪،‬‬ ‫‪1379‬ﺍﻟﻒ‪.‫ﺩﻭﻓﺼﻠﻨﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ـ ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺸﻲ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﭘﮋﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﺍ ‪191 /‬‬ ‫ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺳﺨﺖ ﻭ ﻃﺎﻗﺖﻓﺮﺳﺎ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .(33 :‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ‪» ،‬ﺳﺮﺑﻪﻫﻮﺍ« ﻣﻮﺭﺩﻧﻈﺮ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭﻱ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪..

‫‪ /192‬ﻧﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭﻱ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻜﻴﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﻜﻠﻲ ﺩﺭﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺮﮔﺮﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﺍژﻩ ﻳﺎ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﮕﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ؛ ﻭﻟﻲ ﺩﺭﺳﻄﺢ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﻗﺖ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﮔﺮﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻳﺎﺯﺩﻩ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻒ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﺑﻚ ﺍﻧﺪﻳﺸﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﻧﮕﻔﺘﻲ ﺧﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ ﭼﻪ ﺩﺭﺩﻱ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ؟« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1386 ،‬ﺍﻟﻒ‪.(35 :‬‬ .(29 :‬‬ ‫ﺏ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺭﺍﻣﺴﺲ ﺑﺼﻴﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﭘﺲ ﺧﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﭼﻪ ﺩﺭﺩ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﻧﺪ؟« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1387 ،‬ﺍﻟﻒ‪.(30 :‬‬ ‫ﺩ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﭘﮋﻣﺎﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﺑﻪ ﭼﻪ ﺩﺭﺩ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﻧﺪ ﺧﺎﺭﻫﺎ؟« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1386 ،‬ﺩ‪.(29 :1385 ،‬‬ ‫ﻱ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻗﺎﺿﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﻧﮕﻔﺘﻲ ﺧﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ ﭼﻪ ﺩﺭﺩ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ؟« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1387 ،‬ﺏ‪.(23 :‬‬ ‫ﻩ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﺻﻐﺮ ﺭﺳﺘﮕﺎﺭ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﺑﮕﻮ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻓﺎﻳﺪﺓ ﺧﺎﺭ ﭼﻴﺴﺖ؟« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1379 ،‬ﺏ‪.(32 :‬‬ ‫ﺡ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﺣﻤﺪ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﻮ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﭘﺲ ﺧﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﺎﻳﺪﻩﺷﺎﻥ ﭼﻴﺴﺖ؟« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪.(29 :‬‬ ‫ﻭ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺳﻤﺎﻧﻪ ﺭﺿﺎﻳﻴﺎﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﭘﺲ ﺧﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﭼﻪ ﻓﺎﻳﺪﻩﺍﻱ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ؟« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1386 ،‬ﺝ‪.(28 :‬‬ ‫ﺯ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻫﺮﻣﺰ ﺭﻳﺎﺣﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﺧﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﭼﻪ ﺩﺭﺩﺷﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ؟« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1387 ،‬ﺝ‪.(26 :‬‬ ‫ﺝ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺣﻤﻴﺪﺭﺿﺎ ﺑﻠﻮچ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﭘﺲ ﺧﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﭼﻪ ﻓﺎﻳﺪﻩﺍﻱ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﮔﻞ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ؟« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1386 ،‬ﺏ‪.(28 :1380 ،‬‬ ‫ﻁ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﺳﺪﺍﷲ ﻏﻔﻮﺭﻱ ﺛﺎﻧﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﻧﮕﻔﺘﻲ ﺧﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ ﭼﻪ ﺩﺭﺩ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ؟« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪.‬ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭﭘﻲ ﺑﺮﮔﺮﺩﺍﻥ ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﺩﺭﺳﻄﺢ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻣﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻳﺎﻓﺖ‪.

à quoi servent-elles‬‬ .‫ﺩﻭﻓﺼﻠﻨﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ـ ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺸﻲ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﭘﮋﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﺍ ‪193 /‬‬ ‫ﻙ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﺑﻮﺍﻟﺤﺴﻦ ﻧﺠﻔﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﺧﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ ﭼﻪ ﺩﺭﺩ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ؟« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1379 ،‬ﺍﻟﻒ‪.‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺍﻧﻴﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫?‪Les épines.‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺳﻤﺎﺟﺖ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺣﺎﻝﻭﻫﻮﺍﻱ ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻥ ﺭﺍﻭﻱ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻭﺍژﺓ ‪ Alors‬ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺎ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺖ ﺳﻤﺎﺟﺖ ﻭ ﺍﺻﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺮﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺗﺼﻮﺭ ﻛﻨﻴﻢ ﺗﺎ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﺑﻴﻢ ﺷﻴﻮﺓ ﭘﺮﺳﺶ ﻓﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﺞ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺩﺭ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺘﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺩﺭﻙ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬ﺩﺭ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻧﺪﻳﺸﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺿﻲ ﻭ ﻏﻔﻮﺭﻱ ﺛﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫)ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻗﺎﺿﻲ(‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺻﺮﺍﺭ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﻭﺩﻥ ﻭﺍژﺓ »ﻧﮕﻔﺘﻲ« ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﻭ ﺩﺭﺻﻮﺭﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺖ ﺗﺠﺴﻢ ﻛﻨﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﻓﺖ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪﻧﻈﺮﻣﻲﺭﺳﺪ ﺍﺯﻣﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻳﺎﺯﺩﻩ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻧﺠﻔﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺪﻳﺸﻪ‪ ،‬ﺭﺳﺘﮕﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺭﻳﺎﺣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺿﻲ ﻭ ﻏﻔﻮﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻛﺮﺩﻩﺍﻧﺪ؛ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﻧﺠﻔﻲ ﻭﺍژﺓ ‪ Les épines‬ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺟﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻛﻠﻴﺖ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﻫﺪ‪ .(32 :‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺩﻭ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪ :‬ﻧﺨﺴﺘﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ‪ Alors‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻣﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺁﻥ؛ ﭘﺲ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﻫﺮﺩﻭ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺭﺍ ﻳﻜﺴﺎﻥ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﻛﺮﺩ؛ ﻋﻼﻭﻩﺑﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﻪﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺭﺍﻭﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺑﻪﺩﺳﺖ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ ﻭ ﻣﻲﮔﻮﻳﺪ‪» :‬ﺗﺎ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﻧﻤﻲﮔﺮﻓﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻛﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺒﻮﺩ«‪ ،‬ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﺩﻭ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺭﺍ ﻳﻜﺴﺎﻥ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﻛﺮﺩ؛ ﺑﻠﻜﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺭﺍ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺑﺮﺩ؛‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﻧﺨﺴﺘﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﻣﻲﭘﺮﺳﺪ‪» :‬ﭘﺲ ﺧﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﭼﻪ ﺩﺭﺩﻱ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﻧﺪ؟« ﻭ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻡ‪،‬‬ ‫ﭼﻮﻥ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﻧﻤﻲﮔﻴﺮﺩ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﻪﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺳﻤﺎﺟﺖ ﺧﺎﺻﺶ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺩﺭﺁﻳﺪ‪» :‬ﺧﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﭼﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺩﻱ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﻧﺪ؟«‪.‬ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﮔﺮﺩﺍﻥ ﺭﺳﺘﮕﺎﺭ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﺻﺮﺍﺭ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﻭﺩﻥ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ »ﺑﮕﻮ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ«‬ ‫)ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﻲ( ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻲﺭﺳﺪ ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ؛ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﺭﻳﺎﺣﻲ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻫﻤﺎﻧﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺣﺮﻑ ﺭﺑﻂ »ﭘﺲ« ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﻗﺒﻠﻲ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺗﺎ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﺻﺮﺍﺭ ﻭ ﺳﻤﺎﺟﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪ؛ ﻋﻼﻭﻩﺑﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﻭ ﺍﺯﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺳﺖﺗﺮ ﺑﻪﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻲﺭﺳﺪ‪ .

‬ﻋﻠﺖ ﺯﻳﺒﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻤﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﻧﻈﺮﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺳﺨﻦﮔﻔﺘﻦ ﻳﻚ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‪ ،‬ﮔﺎﻫﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﻭ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺎﻩ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺖ ﺩﺍﺳﺘﺎﻥ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﻫﻴﻢ ﺗﺎ‬ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﻪﺻﻮﺭﺗﻲ ﻛﺎﻣﻼً ﺑﺠﺎ ﻭ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﺑﺮﮔﺮﺩﺍﻧﺪﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺩﺭﺣﺎﻟﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺷﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﻭﻝ ﺑﻪﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﺮﺳﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺗﺤﺖﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻲ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻫﻴﭻﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﺳﻴﺒﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺻﻞ ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺭﻳﺎﺣﻲ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪﺧﻮﺑﻲ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﺍﻱ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺑﻪﺩﺳﺖ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪» :‬ﺧﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﭼﻪ ﺩﺭﺩﺷﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﻧﺪ؟«‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪ 28‬ﺍﺯ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫‪Mais non! Mais non! Je ne crois rien! J’ai répondu n’importe quoi..‬ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﮔﺮﺩﺍﻥﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﺧﺎﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺘﻲ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪» :‬ﺧﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﭼﻪ ﺩﺭﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﻧﺪ«‪ ،‬ﮔﻮﻳﺎ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﺪﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﺑﻪﻃﻮﺭﻛﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺧﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﭼﻴﺴﺖ ﻭ ﭼﺮﺍ ﺁﻓﺮﻳﺪﻩ ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ؛‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﻫﻤﺎﻥﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﻪ ﭘﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﮔﻔﺘﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻤﻠﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻗﺒﻠﻲ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪﺧﻮﺑﻲ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﺎﻳﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﮔﻞﻫﺎ ﻣﺪ‪‬ﻧﻈﺮ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪. Je‬‬ ‫!‪m’occupe de choses sérieuses‬‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮﺍﺯ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎً ﻋﻴﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺴﻪ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺍﻭﻝ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪﺻﻮﺭﺗﻲ ﺳﻠﻴﺲﺗﺮ ﻭ ﻣﻠﻤﻮﺱﺗﺮ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪﺓ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲﺯﺑﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﮔﺮﺩﺍﻧﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺳﻠﻴﺲ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺍﻥﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﻛﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻗﺘﺒﺎﺱِ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﺨﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺩﺭ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ )ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺗﻠﺦ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺳﻤﺎﺟﺖ ﻭ ﺑﻪﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﮔﻴﺮﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﻛﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺍﻋﺼﺎﺏﺧﺮﺩﻱ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻭ‪ ،(. ‫‪ /194‬ﻧﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭﻱ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻜﻴﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﮔﻮﻝ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻗﺴﻤﺖﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻭﻝ ﻭ ﺩﻭﻡ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ ‪) Elles‬ﺁﻥﻫﺎ( ﺑﻪ ‪Les‬‬ ‫‪) épines‬ﺧﺎﺭﻫﺎ( ﺑﺮﻣﻲﮔﺮﺩﺩ؛ ﺩﺭﺣﺎﻟﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ‪) Elles‬ﺁﻥﻫﺎ( ﺭﺍ ‪) Fleurs‬ﮔﻞﻫﺎ(‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺽ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﻛﻪ ﮔﻮﻳﺎ ﺩﺭﺳﺖﺗﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺩﺭﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺧﻠﺒﺎﻥ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻲﮔﻮﻳﺪ‪» :‬ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﺮﭼﻪ ﮔﻴﺮﺵ ﺑﻴﺎﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ«‪ ،‬ﺳﺆﺍﻟﻲ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺫﻫﻨﺶ ﺧﻄﻮﺭ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ‪» :‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﮔﻞﻫﺎ ﺧﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪ ﻧﻤﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺨﻮﺭﺩ«‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻭﻗﺘﻲ ﺩﺭ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺆﺍﻟﺶ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺧﻠﺒﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﺷﻨﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪ ﺣﺘﻲ ﮔﻞﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﺎﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﺑﻌﺪﻱ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺑﻪ ﺫﻫﻨﺶ ﺧﻄﻮﺭ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪» :‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‪ ،‬ﭘﺲ ﺧﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﭼﻪ ﺩﺭﺩ‪ ‬ﮔﻞﻫﺎ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﻧﺪ؟«‪ ..

‬ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﺪﻱﺗﺮﻱ ﺩﺍﺭﻡ«‬ ‫)ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1387 ،‬ﺏ‪.‬ﺑﺎ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺧﺮﺩ ﻭ ﻛﻼﻥ ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪﺻﻮﺭﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﻴﻖﺗﺮ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﻭ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﻲﺑﻴﻨﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻢﺗﺮﻱ ﺩﺍﺭﻡ« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪1386 ،‬ﺍﻟﻒ‪.‬ﺩﺭ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﻮ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ »ﺍﻱ ﺩﺍﺩ ﺑﻴﺪﺍﺩ!« ﺩﻭ ﺑﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻮﻑ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ‪ .(36 :‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻪ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ !‪ Mais Non! Mais Non‬ﺑﻪ ﺳﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﻫﻤﺨﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻛﻪ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺑﺠﺎ ﻭ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .(29 :1380 ،‬‬ ‫ﺝ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻗﺎﺿﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﻧﻪ ﻭﺍﷲ! ﻧﻪ! ﻫﻴﭻ ﺧﻴﺎﻟﻲ ﻧﻤﻲﻛﻨﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭ ﺑﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﭘﺸﺖﺳﺮﻫﻢ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻛﻼﻓﮕﻲ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲﺭﺳﺎﻧﺪ؛ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕﻫﺎﻱ »ﻋﺠﺐ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﺎﺭﻱ ﺷﺪﻡ« ﻭ »ﻧﻪ ﻭﺍﷲ! ﻧﻪ!« ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻧﺔ ﻛﻼﻓﮕﻲ ﺭﺍﻭﻱ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺮﺩﺍﻥﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺴﻪ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪.‬ﺳﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻣﻮﺭﺩﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕﺍﻧﺪ ﺍﺯ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻒ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﺑﻚ ﺍﻧﺪﻳﺸﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﻧﻪ! ﻋﺠﺐ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﺎﺭﻱ ﺷﺪﻡ! ﻣﻦ ﻫﻴﭻ ﺧﻴﺎﻟﻲ ﻧﻤﻲﻛﻨﻢ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﺩﺭﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭﻱ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﻧﻤﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺍﺑﻬﺎﻡﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪ؛ ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻲ ﻧﻬﻔﺘﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﭘﻲ ﻣﻲﺑﺮﺩ ﻭ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﺍﻱ ﺩﻗﻴﻖﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻪﺩﺳﺖ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ .(29 :‬‬ ‫ﺏ( ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﺣﻤﺪ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﻮ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﺍﻱ ﺩﺍﺩ ﺑﻴﺪﺍﺩ! ﺍﻱ ﺩﺍﺩ ﺑﻴﺪﺍﺩ! ﻧﻪ! ﻣﻦ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻛﻮﻓﺘﻲ ﻓﻜﺮ ﻧﻤﻲﻛﻨﻢ! ﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﻫﺰﺍﺭ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﻣﻬﻢﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﻢ!« )ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪.‬ﻫﻤﻴﻦﻃﻮﺭﻱ ﻳﻚ ﭼﻴﺰﻱ ﮔﻔﺘﻢ‪ .‫ﺩﻭﻓﺼﻠﻨﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ـ ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺸﻲ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﭘﮋﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﺍ ‪195 /‬‬ ‫ﺍﺯﺭﻩﮔﺬﺭ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻭ ﻟﻤﺲﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﺍﻱ ﺭﻭﺍﻥﺗﺮ ﺑﻪﺩﺳﺖ ﺩﻫﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻛﻠﻴﺖ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ‬ .4‬ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪﮔﻴﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺶ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻜﻴﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺩﺭﻧﻈﺮﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﻤﻠﻪﻫﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺹ ﺍﺯ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻘﺪ ﻛﺮﺩﻩﺍﻳﻢ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﻴﻦﻃﻮﺭﻱ ﻳﻚ ﭼﻴﺰﻱ ﮔﻔﺘﻢ‪ .

-‬ﺍﻟﻒ(‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺟﻤﻠﻪﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﮕﻲ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ؛ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪.-‬ﺏ(‪ .‬ﺍﺻﻔﻬﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﻧﻘﺶ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺭﺷﻴﺪ‪.‬ﭼﺎپ ﺍﻭﻝ‪.‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﺻﻐﺮ ﺭﺳﺘﮕﺎﺭ‪ .(1384) .‬‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺧﺮﺩ ﻭ ﻛﻼﻥ ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﻛﻤﻚ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻧﺨﺴﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﻧﻬﻔﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﺑﺪ ﻭ ﺳﭙﺲ ﺑﻜﻮﺷﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﺷﺪﻩ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﺣﻤﺪ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﻮ‪ .‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺣﻤﻴﺪﺭﺿﺎ ﺑﻠﻮچ‪ . ‫‪ /196‬ﻧﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭﻱ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺷﺎﺯﺩﻩﻛﻮﭼﻮﻟﻮ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻜﻴﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞﺍﺯ ﺷﺮﻭﻉ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺳﺖﻛﻢ ﻳﻚ ﺑﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻣﻮﺭﺩﻧﻈﺮﺵ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﺩﻗﺖ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﻛﻨﺪ؛ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻱ ﻛﻠﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺑﻪﺩﺳﺖ ﻣﻲﺁﻭﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﻛﻠﻲ ﻭ ﺳﺒﻚ ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺁﺷﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪ :‬ﻧﮕﺎﻩ‪.‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﺑﻮﺍﻟﺤﺴﻦ ﻧﺠﻔﻲ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺁﻗﺎﮔﻞﺯﺍﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺩﻭﺱ )‪ .‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻣﺤﻤﺪﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺣﻨﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﺎﺷﺎﻧﻲ‪ .‬ﺷﺎﺯ ﺩ ﻩ ﻛﻮ ﭼﻮﻟﻮ‪ .(1386‬ﻧ ﻈﺮ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻧ ﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻱ ﺗﺮ ﺟﻤﻪ‪ .(1385) -----------------.‬ﭼﺎپ ﭼﻬﺎﺭﻡ‪ .-‬ﺷﺎﺯ ﺩ ﻩ ﻛﻮ ﭼﻮﻟﻮ‪ .‬ﭼﺎپ ﺍﻭﻝ‪ .-‬ﺏ(‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﭘﺎﻟﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺭﻳﭽﺎﺭﺩﺯ ﺍ‪ .‬ﭼﺎپ ﺩﻭﻡ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪1379) -----------------.‬ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻫﺮﻣﺲ‪.‬ﺷﺎﺯ ﺩ ﻩ ﻛﻮ ﭼﻮﻟﻮ‪ .‬ﭼﺎپ ﺍﻭﻝ‪ .‬‬ .‬‬ ‫‪ .‬ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﻭ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮕﻲ‪.(1380) -----------------.‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﻭ ﮔﺮﺩﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﺳﺪﺍﷲ ﻏﻔﻮﺭﻱ ﺛﺎﻧﻲ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﮔﺰﻭﭘﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﺁﻧﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﻭ )‪1379‬ﺍﻟﻒ(‪ .‬ﭼﺎپ ﺍﻭﻝ‪ .‬ﺷﺎﺯ ﺩ ﻩ ﻛﻮ ﭼﻮﻟﻮ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪1386) -----------------.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺭﺳﻴﺪﻩﺍﻳﻢ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻧﻜﺮﺩﻩﺍﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺳﺘﻲﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪﻫﺎﻳﺸﺎﻥ ﭘﺪﻳﺪ ﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﭼﺎپ ﺳﻮﻡ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻬﺪ‪ :‬ﺭﺩﻛﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺣﻘﺎﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﻧﺎﺩﺭ )‪ .-‬ﺷﺎﺯ ﺩ ﻩ ﻛﻮ ﭼﻮﻟﻮ‪ .‬ﻧﻜﺘﺔ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻫﺮﮔﺎﻩ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﮔﺮﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍژﻩ ﺍﺷﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﻛﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﮕﻲ ﻫﻢ ﺩﭼﺎﺭ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻲﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﮔﺮﺩﺍﻥ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﺷﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻢ ﻫﺮﻣﻨﻮﺗﻴﻚ‪ .‬ﭼﺎپ ﺳﻮﻡ‪ .‬ﭼﺎپ ﺍﻭﻝ‪ .‬ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪ :‬ﻣﺠﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪1386) -----------------.‬ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪ :‬ﺍﻣﻴﺮﻛﺒﻴﺮ‪.‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﺑﻚ ﺍﻧﺪﻳﺸﻪ‪ .‬ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪ :‬ﻧﺸﺮ ﻫﻨﺮ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﺭﻳﻨﻪ‪.(1385‬ﺗﺤﻠﻴ ﻞ ﮔﻔﺘﻤﺎ ﻥ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎ ﺩ ﻱ‪ .‬ﺷﺎﺯ ﺩ ﻩ ﻛﻮ ﭼﻮﻟﻮ‪ .‬ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻧﻴﻠﻮﻓﺮ‪.

‬‬ ‫ﺻﺺ‪ 29 .-‬ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻠﻴ ﻞ ﻧﺸﺎﻧﻪ‪ -‬ﻣﻌﻨﺎ ﺷﻨﺎ ﺧﺘ ﻲ ﮔﻔﺘﻤﺎ ﻥ‪ .‬‬ .‫ﺩﻭﻓﺼﻠﻨﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ـ ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺸﻲ ﺯﺑﺎﻥﭘﮋﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﺍ ‪197 /‬‬ ‫‪1386) -----------------.‬ﭼﺎپ ﺍﻭﻝ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪1387) -----------------. Le Petit Prince.‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﻓﺮﺡﺯﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺯﺍﻧﻪ )‪» .-‬ﺝ(‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺷﻌﻴﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﺣﻤﻴﺪﺭﺿﺎ )‪ .‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺻﻠﺢﺟﻮ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪.‬ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪ :‬ﻧﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺷﻘﺎﻥ‪.-‬ﺍﻟﻒ(‪ . Antoine de.‬ﭼﺎپ ﺳﻮﻡ‪ .‬ﺷﺎﺯ ﺩ ﻩ ﻛﻮ ﭼﻮﻟﻮ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪1387) -----------------.‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻫﺮﻣﺰ ﺭﻳﺎﺣﻲ‪ .‬ﭼﺎپ ﺍﻭﻝ‪ .‬ﺷﺎﺯ ﺩ ﻩ ﻛﻮ ﭼﻮﻟﻮ‪ .‬ﭼﺎپ ﺍﻭﻝ‪ .‬ﭼﺎپ ﺍﻭﻝ‪ . (1946).‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺳﻤﺎﻧﻪ ﺭﺿﺎﻳﻴﺎﻥ‪ .-‬ﺏ(‪ .3 .‬ﭼﺎپ ﺍﻭﻝ‪ .-‬ﺝ(‪ .‬ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪ :‬ﺳﻤﺖ‪.‬ﭼﺎپ ﺳﻮﻡ‪.‬ﭼﺎپ ﺩﻭﻡ‪ .‬ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪ :‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎ )ﻭﺍﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻫﺮﻣﺲ(‪.(1380‬ﻧ ﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻱ ﺗﺮ ﺟﻤﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻋﺼﺮ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﻟﻄﻔﻲﭘﻮﺭ ﺳﺎﻋﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻇﻢ )‪ . Paris: Gallimard.‬ﺷﺎﺯ ﺩ ﻩ ﻛﻮ ﭼﻮﻟﻮ‪ .-‬ﺩ(‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ .‬ﭼﺎپ ﺍﻭﻝ‪ .‬ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪ :‬ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮕﻲ‪ -‬ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺸﻲ ﭼﺎپ ﻭ ﻧﺸﺮ ﻧﻈﺮ‪.(1382‬ﭼﺎﺭﭼﻮﺑﻲ ﻧﻈﺮﻱ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻧﻘﺪ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ«‪ .‬ﺷﺎﺯ ﺩ ﻩ ﻛﻮ ﭼﻮﻟﻮ‪ .(1376‬ﺩﺭﺁﻣ ﺪ ﻱ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺻﻮ ﻝ ﻭ ﺭﻭ ﺵ ﺗﺮ ﺟﻤﻪ‪ .1 .‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﻳﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﺟﻮﺭﺝ )‪ .‬ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻫﺮﻣﺲ‪.‬ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪ :‬ﺳﻤﺖ‪.(1385) -----------.‬ﭼﺎپ ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪ :‬ﺳﻤﺖ‪.‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﭘﮋﻣﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻓﺼﻠﻨﺎﻣ ﺔ ﻣ ﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎﺕ ﺗﺮ ﺟﻤﻪ‪ .‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻣﺤﻤﻮﺩ ﻋﻤﻮﺯﺍﺩﻩ ﻣﻬﺪﻳﺮﻳﺠﻲ ﻭ ﻣﻨﻮﭼﻬﺮ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﮕﺮ‪ .‬ﺵ‪.36‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﮔﻨﺘﺰﻟﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺩﻭﻳﻦ )‪ .(1387‬ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮ ﺩ ﺷﻨﺎﺳ ﻲ‪ .‬ﺱ‪ .‬ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪ :‬ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻧﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻫﻲ‪.‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻗﺎﺿﻲ‪ .‬ﺷﺎﺯ ﺩ ﻩ ﻛﻮ ﭼﻮﻟﻮ‪ .‬ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺩﺟﻮ‪ /‬ﺩﺑﻴﺮ‪.‬ﺗﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪1386) -----------------.28‬ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪ :‬ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﻬﺎﻣﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﻴﺒﻲ‪ /‬ﺍﻣﻴﺮﻛﺒﻴﺮ‪.(1381‬ﻣﺒﺎﻧ ﻲ ﻣﻌﻨﺎ ﺷﻨﺎﺳ ﻲ ﻧﻮﻳ ﻦ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪1387) -----------------.Saint-Exupéry.‬ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺭﺍﻣﺴﺲ ﺑﺼﻴﺮ‪ .