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15

Waiting Line Models

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Decision makers in queuing situations attempt to balance
a. operating characteristics against the arrival rate.
b. service levels against service cost.
c. the number of units in the system against the time in the system.
d. the service rate against the arrival rate.
ANSWER: b
TOPIC: Introduction

2. Performance measures dealing with the number of units in line and the time spent waiting are called
a. queuing facts.
b. performance queues.
c. system measures.
d. operating characteristics.
ANSWER: d
TOPIC: Introduction

3. If arrivals occur according to the Poisson distribution every 20 minutes, then which is NOT true?
a.  = 20 arrivals per hour
b.  = 3 arrivals per hour
c.  = 1/20 arrivals per minute
d.  = 72 arrivals per day
ANSWER: a
TOPIC: Distribution of arrivals

4. The manner in which units receive their service, such as FCFS, is the
a. queue discipline.
b. channel.
c. steady state.
d. operating characteristic.
ANSWER: a
TOPIC: Queue discipline

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 = 6 c. d.  = 6. b. the average time a unit spends in the system. an exponential distribution of service times. d.  = 6 ANSWER: c TOPIC: Structure of a waiting line system 6. and 10 units can be received every hour. All of the alternatives are correct. require Poisson and exponential assumptions. c. the cost of waiting. Operating characteristics formulas for the single-channel queue do NOT require a. ANSWER: c TOPIC: Operating characteristics . ANSWER: a TOPIC: Operating characteristics 7. b. What are  and ? a. and Lq. d.  = 10 d. d. arrivals occur. ANSWER: c TOPIC: Finite calling population 11.  = 10. Little's flow equations a. In a waiting line situation. ANSWER: b TOPIC: General relationships for waiting line models 9. every 10 minutes.2 Chapter 15 Waiting Line Models 5. All of the alternatives are correct. the maximum time a unit spends in the system. c. L. c. the average number of units in the system. Models with a finite calling population a. c.  > . All of the alternatives are correct. require independent calculation of W. are applicable to any waiting line model. Wq. c. In a multiple channel system a. ANSWER: d TOPIC: Economic analysis 10. the number of units in the system. b. b. have a service rate dependent on the number of units in the system. have an arrival rate independent of the number of units in the system.  = 10. each server has the same service rate.  = 10 b. each server has its own queue. the cost of a lost customer. an FCFS queue discipline.  = 6. Which of the following can NOT be found by the queuing formulas presented in the textbook? a. on average. b. d. ANSWER: b TOPIC: Multiple channel waiting line 8. > d. Poisson distribution of arrivals. c. the cost of service. the probability that no units are in the system. use the size of the population as a parameter in the operating characteristics formulas. b. The total cost for a waiting line does NOT specifically depend on a.

the minimum number of arrivals per time period. 37% of the service times are less than the mean service time. ANSWER: False TOPIC: Operating characteristics 2. For an M/M/1 queuing system. b. b. d. c. d. A waiting line situation where every customer waits in the same line before being served by the same server is called a single server waiting line. The assumption of exponentially distributed service times indicates that a. No discipline is assumed. W. ANSWER: d TOPIC: Distribution of arrivals 15. if the service rate. the mean number of arrivals per channel. ANSWER: a TOPIC: Queue discipline 14. last-in first-out. µ. a normal probability distribution. the mean number of arrivals per time period. is cut in half. the mean time between arrivals. service time increase at an exponential rate as the waiting line grows. c. 63% of the service times are less than the mean service time. ANSWER: False TOPIC: Queue discipline .Chapter 15 Waiting Line Models 3 12. d. b. b. ANSWER: False TOPIC: Distribution of arrivals 4. Queue discipline refers to the assumption that a customer has the patience to remain in a slow moving queue. a Poisson probability distribution. ANSWER: c TOPIC: Distribution of service times TRUE/FALSE 1. first-come first-served. 50% of the service times are less than the mean service time. an exponential probability distribution. is doubled. d. Use of the Poisson probability distribution assumes that arrivals are not random. c. What queue discipline is assumed by the waiting line models presented in the textbook? a. For many waiting line situations. c. ANSWER: False TOPIC: Single-channel waiting line 3. a uniform probability distribution. shortest processing time first. The arrival rate in queuing formulas is expressed as a. the arrivals occur randomly and independently of other arrivals and it has been found that a good description of the arrival pattern is provided by a. the average wait in the system. ANSWER: d TOPIC: Distribution of arrivals 13.

ANSWER: True TOPIC: Multiple-channel model with Poisson arrivals. ANSWER: True TOPIC: Queue discipline 13. arbitrary service times. ANSWER: True TOPIC: Distribution of service times 12. In developing the total cost for a waiting line. ANSWER: False TOPIC: Steady-state operation 16. Adding more channels always improves the operating characteristics of the waiting line and reduces the waiting cost. For a single-channel waiting line. the system has a finite calling population. P0 + Pw = 1. When a waiting system is in steady-state operation. an important decision is how many channels to provide. the arrivals’ cost of waiting must be estimated. Little's flow equations indicate that the relationship of L to L q is the same as that of W to Wq. approximately 63% of the service times are less than the mean service time. For all waiting lines. ANSWER: True TOPIC: Economic analysis of waiting lines 18. ANSWER: True . ANSWER: False TOPIC: Multiple-channel waiting line 8. Queue discipline refers to the manner in which waiting units are arranged for service. ANSWER: True TOPIC: Economic analysis 7. ANSWER: False TOPIC: Other waiting line models 10. Waiting line models describe the transient-period operating characteristics of a waiting line. ANSWER: False TOPIC: Steady-state operation 14. the mean number of units entering the system might be less than the arrival rate. the utilization factor is the probability that an arriving unit must wait for service. If some maximum number of customers is allowed in a queuing system at one time. If service time follows an exponential probability distribution. ANSWER: False TOPIC: Operating characteristics 6. Before waiting lines can be analyzed economically. ANSWER: True TOPIC: Operating characteristics 15. and no waiting line 11. ANSWER: True TOPIC: Economic analysis of waiting lines 17. In waiting line systems where the length of the waiting line is limited.4 Chapter 15 Waiting Line Models 5. the number of units in the system is not changing. waiting cost takes into consideration both the time spent waiting in line and the time spent being served. In a multiple channel system it is more efficient to have a separate waiting line for each channel. When blocked customers are cleared. ANSWER: False TOPIC: General relationships for waiting line models 9.

TOPIC: Blocked channel. A multiple-channel system has more than one waiting line. ANSWER: False TOPIC: Multiple-channel waiting line models 20. Give examples of systems you have seen in which a) blocked arrivals are cleared. finite population PROBLEMS 1. the average number of customers in the system equals the customer arrival rate times the average time a customer spends waiting in the system. a. What is the probability of a registration time shorter than 3 minutes? b.Chapter 15 Waiting Line Models 5 TOPIC: Some general relationships for waiting line models 19. boats arrive at the inlet drawbridge according to the Poisson distribution at a rate of 3 per hour. a. what is the probability that 2 boats arrive? c. the average number of customers in the waiting line is one less than the average number in the system. TOPIC: Multiple channel waiting line 4. In a 2-hour period. what is the probability that no boats arrive? b. How can a system be changed to improve the service rate? TOPIC: Improving the waiting line operation 3. Designate the line and the system. What is the probability of a registration time between 3 and 6 minutes? TOPIC: Distribution of service times . What is the probability of a registration time shorter than 6 minutes? c. For a single-server queuing system. ANSWER: False TOPIC: Single-channel waiting line model operating characteristics SHORT ANSWER 1. The time to process a registration at the Sea View Resort follows the exponential distribution and has a mean of 6 minutes. Discuss the importance of the utilization factor in a queuing system and the assumptions made about its value. what is the probability that 8 boats arrive? TOPIC: Distribution of arrivals 2. Explain what is meant by the following statement. and b) there is a finite calling population. For an M/M/k system." TOPIC: Operating characteristics 5. ANSWER: True TOPIC: Multiple-channel waiting line model operating characteristics 21. During summer weekdays. Diagram the servers and arrivals in the single and multiple channel models. "operating characteristics are non-optimizing. TOPIC: Operating characteristics 2.

a. it estimates that the arrival rate will increase to 10 per minute.4545 2. The Grand has space for ten customers to wait indoors to buy tickets. What is the probability that someone will be buying tickets when an arrival occurs? The Grand has booked the Stars Wars Trilogy and expects more customers. Which system will be better? g. each customer that comes to see a movie can be sold its ticket at the rate of 6 per minute. Number of Channels 2 3 Arrival Rate 10 10 Service Rate 6 6 Probability of No Units in System . Assume arrivals follow the Poisson distribution and service times follow the exponential distribution.3747 Average Number in System 5.1429 .7879 . What is the probability that someone will be buying tickets when an arrival occurs? The Flyers are playing in the league playoffs and anticipate more fans. Output is supplied for a two. customers arrive at the rate of 5 per minute. On average. What is the average number of customers in the system? d.0245 less than .5455 . a. The Grand Movie Theater has one box office clerk.2105 Average Waiting Time .cashier and a three-cashier system. Number of Channels 2 3 Arrival Rate 12 12 Service Rate 8 8 Probability of No Units in System .2368 Average Number in System 3.1727 Average Waiting Time . What is the average time a customer spends in the waiting line? c. What is the average number of customers waiting in line? b.9286 . On average. Output is supplied for a two-cashier and a three-cashier system. From conversations with other theater owners. customers arrive at the rate of 3 per minute.2857 .6 Chapter 15 Waiting Line Models 3. For the theater’s normal offerings of older movies. The Arctic Flyers minor league hockey team has one box office clerk.7576 .0414 Probability of Waiting .0088 f.0909 .6429 . What is the average number of customers in the system? d.2368 .0197 Average Time in System . For normal games.1607 .2998 Probability of 11 in System .1447 Average Number Waiting 1.3788 . each customer that comes to see a game can be sold a ticket at the rate of 8 per minute. Assume arrivals follow the Poisson distribution and service times follow the exponential distribution.0375 Average Time in System . What is the average time a customer spends in the waiting line? c. What is the average number of customers waiting in line? b.7368 Probability of Waiting . estimating that the arrival rate will increase to 12 per minute.2041 Average Number Waiting 3. Do you think it is more sensible for them to continue the one-cashier system? TOPIC: Operating characteristics 4. What is a customer’s average time in the system? e.4286 1. What is a customer’s average time in the system? e.

there are three registration clerks. Find average time in the system. d.Chapter 15 Waiting Line Models 7 Probability of 7 in System . d. Find probability of no units in the system. and the service occurs at one every three hours. The rink has space for six customers to wait indoors to buy tickets. b. Which system should be chosen? TOPIC: Economic analysis . h.0381 . If the average service time is 8 minutes. In a waiting line situation. the average time a customer is in the post office.0074 f.  and . g. a. Find average number of units in the system. b. The Sea View Resort uses a multiple-channel queue registration system. Assume the Poisson and exponential distributions. The cost for waiting is $18 per hour. arrivals occur at a rate of 2 per minute. Find probability of no units in the system. d. Assume the Poisson and exponential distributions. c. find a. Find probability that there is one person waiting. Arrivals to the checkout stand follow the Poisson distribution with  = 2 per minute. c. The first system has an exponential service rate of 5 per minute and costs $10 per hour to operate. TOPIC: Operating characteristics: M/M/3 8. What is ? c. when two service windows are open. the probability both windows are idle. TOPIC: Operating characteristics: M/M/1 6. the probability a guest will have to wait. d. the average time a customer is in line. and the service times average 18 seconds. the average time a customer is in line. Find probability that there is one person waiting. a. TOPIC: Operating characteristics: M/M/1 7. What is ? b. arrivals occur around the clock at a rate of six per day. e. h. where customers wait in a single line for the first available window. TOPIC: Operating characteristics: M/M/2 9. In a waiting line situation. What is ? c. the probability all three clerks are idle. Find probability an arrival will have to wait. Find probability an arrival will have to wait. Find average time in the system. the average number of customers in line. Which system will be better? g. f. Find average number of units in the system. Two new checkout scanning systems are under consideration by a retail store. If the average service time is 1 minute and the arrival rate is 7 customers every five minutes. Find average time in the waiting line. g. Do you think it is more sensible for them to continue the one cashier system? TOPIC: Operating characteristics 5. f. a. the probability a customer will have to wait. and guests arrive at the rate of one every 5 minutes. e. The second system has an exponential service rate of 8 per minute and costs $20 per hour to operate. e. Find average time in the waiting line. find. The post office uses a multiple channel queue. What is ? b.

TOPIC: Operating characteristics: M/D/1 14. Quick Clean Rooter cleans out clogged drains. with  = . find a. What is the probability there is no one in the office or waiting when you come? TOPIC: Finite calling population 15. the average number of clients Andy has on backlog b. what is the probability that all the operators are idle? TOPIC: M/G/k model with blocked customers cleared . is a training consultant for six mid-sized manufacturing firms. Service times are constant at 7. the probability an arriving customer must wait for service. the average number of customers waiting to use the photo machine b. with  = . the average length of the queue. For an M/G/1 system with  = 20 and  = 35. The company wishes to hire enough operators so that at most 4% of its potential customers get the busy signal. find a. Customers arrive at the machine according to a Poisson distribution at the mean rate of 20 per hour. b. TOPIC: Operating characteristics: M/G/1 13. The Quick Snap photo machine at the Lemon County bus station takes four snapshots in exactly 75 seconds. On the average.. a. the average number in the system. a customer tries to call Quick Clean every three minutes and the average time to take a service order is 200 seconds. Quick Clean management estimates that on the average. Given your answer to a). Ph.8 Chapter 15 Waiting Line Models 10.5 seconds. The service rate is 14 per hour. Andy typically spends an average of five days at the client's firm during each consultation. For an M/G/1 system with  = 6 and  = 9. the proportion of the time Andy is busy TOPIC: Finite calling population 16. Andy Archer. Find the average length of the waiting line.D. The arrival rate is 10 per hour. the average length of the queue. Assuming that the time between client calls follows an exponential distribution. determine the following: a. the probability the system is idle. then should the second counter be opened? TOPIC: Economic analysis 11. Assume there is a service rate of 10 per hour and adequate time is available for all. The 8 students in a seminar class must come to the professor's office to turn in a paper and give a 5- minute oral summary. each of his six clients calls him for consulting assistance once every 25 days. On the basis of this information. if a customer calls Quick Clean and finds the line busy. determine the following: a. c. Circle Electric Supply is considering opening a second service counter to better serve the electrical contractor customers. How many operators should be hired to meet this objective? b.005. the probability the system is idle. The arrival rate for each unit is 5 per hour. the average number in the system. If the cost of waiting is $30 and the cost of each service counter is $22 per hour. TOPIC: Operating characteristics: M/G/1 12. c. b. TOPIC: Constant service times 17. the average time a client must wait before Andy arrives to it c.03. Arrivals at a box office in the hour before the show follow the Poisson distribution with  = 7 per minute. they immediately try another company and Quick Clean loses the business. Due to the competitive nature of the drain cleaning business. the average time a customer spends in the system c.

TOPIC: Economic analysis of waiting lines 20. g. a.Chapter 15 Waiting Line Models 9 18.6065 = . Customers arrive at the insurance desk at a mean rate of one every six minutes and form a single queue.0446 c. Lq = . a. Which applicant should be hired? TOPIC: Economic analysis of waiting lines 19. The postmaster at the Oak Hill Post Office expects the mean arrival rate of people to her customer counter will soon increase by fifty percent due to a large apartment complex being built.5 b. 4.665 d. a. The one cashier system won’t work because now the arrival rate is faster than the service rate. determine if Shear's should install a new minicomputer system.2083 c.. each working at a mean speed of 8 customers per hour. Wq = .2386 3. . If Shear's estimates its cost of having a customer in the system at $3 per hour. Agents work 8-hour days. the mean arrival rate is 15 people per hour. The insurance department at Shear's has two agents. and if so. System B which leases for $23 per day and will increase an agent's efficiency by 50%. Lq = 1. The three-cashier system is probably too good and not cost effective. W = . P(time < 6) = 1 . The postmaster can serve an average of 25 people per hour.5 f. L =1 d.1667 c. Shear's competitor. or. Workmen arrive to draw parts at an average rate of 12 per hour. P(time < 3) = 1 . P(3 < time < 6) = . a. Management feels that some customers are going to find the wait at the desk too long and take their business to Word's. Pw = . His average service time is 4 minutes. P(8) = . which one..3935 b.. What is the average waiting time a workman would spend in the system under each applicant? b. Two men have applied for the position of distributing parts to the workmen. George Fuller is fresh out of trade school and expects a $6 per hour salary. Wq = . A company has tool cribs where workmen draw parts.3679 = .04 b. John Cox is a veteran who expects $12 per hour. By what percentage must the postmaster's mean service rate increase when the apartment complex is completed in order that the average time spent at the post office remains at its current value? TOPIC: M/M/1 waiting line model SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS 1. a. P(0) = . P(2) = .0025 b.625 f.1033 2.6321 c. His average service time is 2 minutes. A workman's time is figured at $10 per hour. L = 1.3935 = . Pw = .3333 e. Currently. In order to reduce the time required by an agent to serve a customer Shear's is contemplating installing one of two minicomputer systems: System A which leases for $18 per day and will increase an agent's efficiency by 25%.6321 . W = . The three-cashier system is probably too good and not cost effective.3333 e.

The one cashier system won’t work because now the arrival rate is faster than the service rate. N = 8 P0 = .0625 14.375 f. P(2) = .67 b. P0 = .25 d. Choose two windows.2738 d. Lq = . a.1765 b.964 13. a.  = 5. Wq = .  = 7. P0 = .  = 10. W = .25 d. a. Wq = . L = 1. Lq = . Wq = . c.56. b.75 min. Pw = . f. Lq = . =6 b. L = .  = 3/min.0009 .3819 12.43 per minute. 10.75 6. 5. Wq = . second system costs . P0 = . Lq = 3. g. L =3 e.5765 c.37 per minute.00 min.  = 12 per hour.1872 c. P0 = . 11. a. a.7153 c.140625 h.3922 (of a five-minute period) 9. Pw = .1406 h. P0 = . =8 c. Pw = .1922 (of a five-minute period) d.5 g. W = . With two windows the cost per hour is 68.3129 8. P(2) = .0261 e. a. With one window the cost per hour is 97. First system costs .10 Chapter 15 Waiting Line Models g. L =3 e. P0 = .3926 c.75 7. Choose first system. Pw = .4286 b.  = 4/min.5 per hour b. W = 1.

Chapter 15 Waiting Line Models 11 15.028 hour = 1. PW = . No system: $49. John = $18. Total Cost: George = $46. 30 percent . PW = . Hire John 19.20.331 18. Install System B 20.96 days c. W = . Lq = . a. Wq = 4. a.67.417 17.021 b. P0 = .7 minutes c.7094 b. a.00. George: W = 20 minutes. k = 4.7151 16.15 b. System B: $47. a.00. Lq = . System A: $50.50. 1 – P0 = . John: W = 3 1/3 minutes b.