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Tutorial Materials for

ME 131B Fluid Mechanics


(Compressible Flow & Turbomachinery)

Calvin Lui
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Stanford University
Stanford, CA 94305
March 1998
Acknowledgments

This work is specially dedicated to the graduating class of 1998 and my dear oce-mate,
Zhongmin Xiong, here at Stanford University. They encouraged me to compile all these
tutorial materials together into one single volume which serves as future references for the
ME 131B class. I would like to express my gratitude to them for all their encouragement.

Calvin Lui
Stanford, California
March, 1998

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ii
Table of Contents

Tutorial One:
Thermodynamics Review 1
Solutions to Thermodynamics Review 4
Tutorial Two:
Isentropic Flow I 10
Solutions to Isentropic Flow I 14
Tutorial Three:
Isentropic Flow II 24
Solutions to Isentropic Flow II 28
Tutorial Four:
Normal Shock 40
Solutions to Normal Shock 44
Tutorial Five:
Fanno Flow 60
Solutions to Fanno Flow 66
Tutorial Six:
Rayleigh Flow 86
Solutions to Rayleigh Flow 90
Tutorial Seven:
Angular Momentum Principle 105
Solutions to Angular Momentum Principle 109
Tutorial Eight:
Turbomachinery 123
Solutions to Turbomachinery 127
References 135

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ME 131B Fluid Mechanics
Tutorial One: Thermodynamics Review

1. What is a thermodynamic property? What is the di erence between an intensive and


an extensive property? Give an example of both.

2. What is a simple compressible substance? What does the state principle for a simple
compressible substance tell us?

3. What do the following laws of thermodynamics mean to you? Describe them in your
own words.
(a) Zeroth Law

(b) First Law

(c) Second Law

4. Apart from the above laws of thermodynamics, what other basic principle(s) do we
usually apply in analyzing thermodynamic systems?

1
5. What are the di erent transfer modes for
(a) Energy,

(b) Entropy?

6. Write down the mathematical form of the First and Second Law for
(a) a close system,

(b) an open system.

Describe the meaning of each term in the equation.

7. A patent application describes a closed system which at steady-state conditions receives


a heat transfer of 500 W at a temperature of 400 K and develops a combined electrical
and mechanical power output of 500 W. There are no other energy transfers. Is this
claim thermodynamically feasible?

8. What is the ideal gas model? How about perfect gas model? Under what conditions
will these models be appropriate in describing real-life phenomena?

9. What is the relation between the speci c heats (Cp; Cv ) for an ideal gas?

2
10. What is an adiabatic process? When will it be realized physically?

11. What is an isentropic process? What is its signi cance in thermodynamic analysis?

12. What are some common causes for irreversibility in thermodynamic systems?

13. Write down the Gibbs equation.

14. Derive the P  T relationships for a perfect gas undergoing an isentropic process.

15. Sketch the following curves on a T s diagram


(a) constant pressure,

(b) constant density.

Based on the Gibbs equation, explain the di erence in the slope of the above two
curves.

3
ME 131B Fluid Mechanics
Solutions to Tutorial One: Thermodynamics Review

1. What is a thermodynamic property? What is the di erence between an intensive and


an extensive property? Give an example of both.
 A thermodynamic property is a macroscopic characteristic which describes the
state of a system.
 Extensive property depends on the size or extent of a system. Its value of an
overall system is the sum of its individual parts, like entropy and internal energy.
 Intensive property is independent of the size of a system and is not additive, like
temperature and pressure.

2. What is a simple compressible substance? What does the state principle for a simple
compressible substance tell us?
 Simple { there is only one reversible work mode which can alter the energy of the
system
 Compressible { work mode is associated with volume change R p dV
 The state principle states that two independent, intensive thermodynamic prop-
erties are sucient to fully determine the thermodynamic state of a simple com-
pressible substance, like (T; v); (u; v). (Reminder: Pressure and temperature are
not independent of each other in the two-phase region.)
 For a \non-simple" substance with n independent work modes, we need to know
a total of n + 1 independent, intensive thermodynamic properties to completely
specify its state.

3. What do the following laws of thermodynamics mean to you? Describe them in your
own words.
(a) Zeroth Law { Temperature
 Equality in temperature is a necessary and sucient condition for thermal
equilibrium.
(b) First Law { Energy
 Energy is conserved.
(c) Second Law { Entropy

4
 Entropy can only be produced but not destroyed. (Be careful that it does not
mean that entropy of a system can never decrease. If we have enough heat
transfer out of a system, it is possible to have a decrease in the entropy of
the system.)
 It is a powerful tool for us to determine the possible direction of a thermo-
dynamic process.

4. Apart from the above laws of thermodynamics, what other basic principle(s) do we
usually apply in analyzing thermodynamic systems?
 Conservation of mass
dmcv = X
m_ in
X
m_ out
dt
 Newton's law of motion
@ Z V~ ( dV ) + Z V~  V~  dA~  = X X
F~surface + F~body
@t CV CS

5. What are the di erent transfer modes for


(a) Energy,
 Mass transfer
 Heat transfer
 Work transfer
(b) Entropy?
 Mass transfer
 Heat transfer
 There is no entropy transfer associated with work. This is a major di erence
between the two energy transfer modes, work and heat.

6. Write down the mathematical form of the First and Second Law for
(a) a close system, X X
U = Qin Wout
X Qin
S = T + Ps

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(b) an open system.

enthalpy kinetic
z}|{
dE = X Q_ X X z}|{ V 2 potential
z}|{
in W_ out + m_ ( h + + gz )
dt | {z } | {z } | {z 2 }
heat trans. non- ow work mass trans.
dS = X Q_ in + X ms _ + |{z} P_s
dt T
| {z } | {z }
heat trans. mass trans. production
Remarks:
 Equation can be expressed in an overall or rate form.
 Examples of non- ow work:
{ shaftR work,
{ any PdV type of work such as compression and expansion
 Enthalpy consists of internal energy and ow work, h = u + P= (Hence, do not
double count the ow work in W_ out again!)
 Internal energy is a measure of microscopic molecular activities while kinetic and
potential energies are measures of bulk uid motion.

7. A patent application describes a closed system which at steady-state conditions receives


a heat transfer of 500 W at a temperature of 400 K and develops a combined electrical
and mechanical power output of 500 W. There are no other energy transfers. Is this
claim thermodynamically feasible?
 Since it is a closed system, there is no mass ow. Conservation of mass is trivial.
 First law (conservation of energy) is satis ed.
 Entropy production rate goes negative, hence, second law is violated.
 As a conclusion, the claim is not thermodynamically feasible.
8. What is the ideal gas model? How about perfect gas model? Under what conditions
will these models be appropriate in describing real-life phenomena?
 Ideal gas model:
{ It satis es the thermal equation of state: p =  R T where R is the gas
constant (di erent for di erent gases.)
{ u = u(T )
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{ It is appropriate for high temperature and low pressure condition (negligible
interaction between participating gas molecules.)
 Perfect gas model:
{ It is an ideal gas with constant speci c heats Cp; Cv .
{ It is an appropriate model if the temperature variations between states are
not too large (together with the conditions for ideal gas behavior.)

9. What is the relation between the speci c heats (Cp; Cv ) for an ideal gas?
 According to de nition
 
@h
Cp = @T and @u
Cv = @T
p v
 For ideal gases, they are reduced to ordinary derivatives
Cp = dTdh and Cv = dT du

 Again, from de nition


h = u + P = u + R T (P =  R T for an ideal gas)

 Take derivative with respect to temperature of above equation, we have


Cp = Cv + R
 Recall the de nition of speci c heat ratio
Cp = k
Cv
 Solve the above two equations for Cp and Cv , we have
Cp = k k 1 R and Cv = k 1 1 R

10. What is an adiabatic process? When will it be realized physically?


 Adiabatic process is a thermodynamic process in which no heat transfer occurs.
 It is a good model if
{ System has good insulation.
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{ Thermodynamic process proceeds at a much faster rate than heat transfer
does. For example, ow in a nozzle, valve.

11. What is an isentropic process? What is its signi cance in thermodynamic analysis?
 Isentropic process is reversible and adiabatic.
 It serves as a limit for real adiabatic process.
12. What are some common causes for irreversibility in thermodynamic systems?
 Dissipation like friction, viscous e ects
 Mixing
 Spontaneous chemical reaction
 Unrestrained expansion
13. Write down the Gibbs equation.
 Tds = du P
2 d or Tds = dh dP


14. Derive the P  T relationships for a perfect gas undergoing an isentropic process.
 T1 k = constant
 TP = constant
1
k
k

 P k = constant
15. Sketch the following curves on a T s diagram
(a) constant pressure,
T

decreasing pressure
s

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(b) constant density.
T

decreasing density

Based on the Gibbs equation, explain the di erence in the slope of the above two
curves.
 The slope of any curve on the T s plane is characterized by the derivative dT=ds.
 From the Gibbs equation,
Tds = dh dP 
Tds = Cp dT dP 
 For a constant pressure process, dP = 0, we obtain
dT = T
ds Cp
 Hence, the slope of a constant pressure curve on a T s diagram is equal to T=Cp.
 Similarly, we can obtain the slope of a constant density curve to be equal to T=Cv .
 Since Cp = Cv + R, the constant density curve has a steeper slope than the
constant pressure curve at the same temperature.

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ME 131B Fluid Mechanics
Tutorial Two: Isentropic Flow I
Choose the best answer in the following three questions:
1. Static property is dependent on/independent of the choice of reference frame.

2. Stagnation property is dependent on/independent of the choice of reference frame.

3. Stagnation property can/cannot be de ned for a non-isentropic ow.

4. Under what conditions can we say that the stagnation enthalpy remains constant in a
ow? How about stagnation pressure?

5. Is there any limitation on applying the following equations in a ow analysis?


T0 = 1 + k 1 M 2
T 2
!
P0 = 1 + k 1 M 2
k
k 1

P 2

6. Given a thermodynamic state (T1 ; P1) and its speed in terms of Mach number, M1 .
Can you locate its corresponding stagnation state on the T s diagram?
T
P1

T1

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7. Consider a ow through a valve as follows:

1 2

Locate the static and stagnation states of both the upstream Station (1) and down-
stream Station (2) on the same T s diagram.

8. Recall that the incompressible Bernoulli's model gives us


P0 = P + 21  V 2 :
But we obtain, from a compressible analysis, the following result:
!
P0 = 1 + k 1 M 2
k
1

:
k

P 2
These two equations give strikingly di erent expressions for the stagnation pressure.
How do you reconcile the di erence between the two? What does this di erence depend
on?

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9. In a wind tunnel experiment, 1.0 kg/sec of air is accelerated through an adiabatic
nozzle from an upstream section (P1 = 2.0 bar, T1 = 900 K, A1 = 50 cm2) to a Mach
1.2 ow in the downstream section.
.
m = 1.0 kg/s

1 2
M2 = 1.2
P1 = 2.0 bar
P2 = ?
T1 = 900 K
T2 = ?
A1 = 50 cm2
Adiabatic A2 = ?
Nozzle

(a) Sketch the general shape of the nozzle section.

(b) If the ow is further treated as isentropic,


i. What is the downstream cross-sectional area (A2 ), temperature (T2) and pres-
sure (P2 )?

ii. Sketch the variation of pressure, temperature, velocity and Mach number
from Station (1) to Station (2).

iii. Trace the process path from Station (1) to Station (2) on a T s diagram.

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10. Air ows through a passage of unknown shape. The upstream state is characterized
as follows:

1 2
A1 = 0.50 m2 A2 = 1.0 m2
M1 = 0.70 M2 = ?
P1 = 5.0 bar P2 = ?
Passage with
T1 = 270 K T2 = ?
unknown shape

Assume that the ow is isentropic.


(a) Determine the possible downstream State (2) where A2 = 1:0 m2 (i.e. Find
M2 ; P2; T2 .)

(b) Sketch the shape of the associated ow passage found in Part (a).

(c) Sketch the corresponding variation of density, velocity and Mach number from
Station (1) to Station (2).

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ME 131B Fluid Mechanics
Solutions to Tutorial Two: Isentropic Flow I
Choose the best answer in the following three questions:
1. Static property is independent of the choice of reference frame.
 Static property can be thought of being measured by someone who travels with
the uid particles.
 Hence, it does not depend on the choice of reference frame.
2. Stagnation property is dependent on the choice of reference frame.
 Consider our everyday running or biking experiences. We feel a higher pressure
on our face as we accelerate to faster speeds.
 It is because the air \appears" to travel faster with respect to us (a moving
reference frame) as we accelerate.
 Accordingly, its stagnation pressure is higher with respect to a moving observer.
Its value is given by the following isentropic relationship:
!
P0 = 1 + k 1 M 2
k
k 1

P 2
where P = 101 kPa and M is the Mach number of the observer.

3. Stagnation property can be de ned for a non-isentropic ow.


 The stagnation process is a hypothetical process which is not necessarily found in
the real physical ow.
 The stagnation state should be viewed as a reference thermodynamic state with
which the ow is compared with.
 Based on this reason, the stagnation state or properties can be de ned for any
physical ow regardless it is isentropic or not.
 In the case of isentropic ow, the stagnation state is constant in the ow. Hence,
it serves as a universal reference within the same ow.
 But the usefulness of the stagnation state as a reference will be highly degraded
if the ow is non-isentropic. In this case, P0 changes in the ow. (Depend on the
importance of heat transfer in the ow, T0 may also vary in the ow.)

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4. Under what conditions can we say that the stagnation enthalpy remains constant in a
ow? How about stagnation pressure?
 Stagnation enthalpy remains constant in a ow when
{ the ow is adiabatic,
{ the ow is not subject to any non- ow work.
This can be inferred from the rst law of thermodynamics (conservation of en-
ergy).
 Stagnation pressure remains constant in a ow when
{ the ow is adiabatic,
{ the ow is not subject to any non- ow work,
{ the ow is reversible.
This can be inferred from the rst and second law of thermodynamics.

5. Is there any limitation on applying the following equations in a ow analysis?


T0 = 1 + k 1 M 2
T 2
!
P0 = 1 + k 1 M 2
k
k 1

P 2
 The only limitation is that the uid should behave as a perfect gas.
6. Given a thermodynamic state (T1 ; P1) and its speed in terms of Mach number, M1 .
Can you locate its corresponding stagnation state on the T s diagram?
 By de nition, the stagnation state should have the same speci c entropy as the
static state. Hence, they should both be on the same vertical line on the T s
diagram.
 By de nition, the stagnation temperature can never be lower than the static
temperature. Hence, the stagnation state must be located somewhere above the
static state.
 The di erence in temperature between the static and the stagnation states is a
measure of the speci c kinetic energy carried by the uid:
h0 = h + 21 V 2
T0 = T + 21 VC
2
p
T = 12 VC
2
T0
p

15
The higher the uid velocity, the lower the static temperature compared with
its stagnation temperature. This observation points to one important behavior of
compressible ow: interchange between thermal and kinetic energy in an adiabatic
ow.
 Based on the above conclusions, we can locate the stagnation state relative to its
static state on the same T s diagram in the following gure:
T
P0,1

T0,1 P1

V2
T=
2 Cp
T1

s
s1 = s0,1

 From the T s diagram, we can con rm the fact that the stagnation pressure is
always higher than the static pressure.

7. Consider a ow through a valve as follows:

1 2

Locate the static and stagnation states of both the upstream Station (1) and down-
stream Station (2) on the same T s diagram.
 Based on the procedure outline in the previous problem, we can locate the static
and stagnation state of upstream Station (1) as our reference.
Across the valve,
{ The ow is adiabatic (no heat transfer). Stagnation temperature remains
constant (T0;2 = T0;1).
{ There are losses due to friction at the valve. Entropy is produced (s2 > s1).
Both static and stagnation pressure drop across the valve (P2 < P1; P0;2 <
P0;1).

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{ However, the non-trivial part is on the change in density. Does density in-
crease or decrease across the valve? To reason it out, we need to invoke both
conservation of mass and energy.
{ Assume the same cross-sectional area in both pipes, conservation of mass
(COM) gives
1 V1 = 2 V2
{ Conservation of energy (COE) gives
T1 + 2VC1 = T2 + 2VC2
2 2
p p
{ Let us examine exhaustively two di erent alternatives:
(a) 2 > 1
 By COM, a density rise will result in a drop of ow velocity (V2 < V1).
 By COE, a drop of ow velocity will result in a rise in static temperature
(T2 > T1 ).
 But a simultaneous rise in density and temperature cannot possibly
produce a pressure drop across the valve. Hence, this case is not feasible.
(b) 2 < 1
 By COM, a density drop will result in a rise in ow velocity (V2 > V1).
 By COE, a rise in ow velocity will result in a drop of static temperature
(T2 < T1 ).
 A simultaneous drop in density and temperature can produce a pressure
drop across the valve. We can conclude that this is indeed the case.
 Based on the above conclusions, we can locate the static and stagnation state of
downstream Station (2) with respect to those of upstream Station (1) on the same
T s diagram as follows:
T P0,1 P0,2

T0,1 = T0,2 P1

P2

T1
T2
s
s1 s2

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8. Recall that the incompressible Bernoulli's model gives us
P0 = P + 12  V 2 :
But we obtain, from a compressible analysis, the following result:
!
P0 = 1 + k 1 M 2
k
1

:
k

P 2
These two equations give strikingly di erent expressions for the stagnation pressure.
How do you reconcile the di erence between the two? What does this di erence depend
on?
 Assume a perfect gas model, we can write the incompressible model as:
P0 = 1 + 1 V 2
P 2 RT
= 1 + 2 k k VR T
1 2

= 1 + 1 k M2
2
 Results of the incompressible model are compared with those of the compressible
model in the following gure (for the k = 1:4 case):
2.0
Incompressible
Compressible

1.8

1.6
P0 / P

1.4

1.2

1.0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
M

 We can observe that the two models give nearly identical results in the low Mach
number range (M < 0:3).
 Di erence between the two models becomes apparent for M > 0:4 (compressibil-
ity is no longer negligible).
 The value of P0=P predicted by the two di erent models and the percentage
di erence between them are tabulated in the following table for further reference:
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Incompressible Compressible % Di erence
M1 = 0:10 1.0070 1.0070 0.0017283
M1 = 0:30 1.0630 1.0644 0.13438
M1 = 0:70 1.3430 1.3871 3.1794
M1 = 1:0 1.7000 1.8929 10.192
M1 = 2:0 3.8000 7.8244 51.434
M1 = 3:0 7.3000 36.733 80.127
 To nd out the di erence between the two models, we can invoke the binomial
expansion technique as follows:
!
P0 = 1 + k 1 M 2
k
k 1

P 2
= 1 + k2 M 2 + k8 M 4 + k (248 k) M 6 + : : :
| {z }
correction terms
 The leading correction term of the compressible model to its incompressible coun-
terpart scales with the fourth power of the ow Mach number. This explains why
the di erence between the incompressible and compressible models increases so
dramatically with compressibility (Mach number).

9. In a wind tunnel experiment, 1.0 kg/sec of air is accelerated through an adiabatic


nozzle from an upstream section (P1 = 2.0 bar, T1 = 900 K, A1 = 50 cm2) to a Mach
1.2 ow in the downstream section.
.
m = 1.0 kg/s

1 2
M2 = 1.2
P1 = 2.0 bar
P2 = ?
T1 = 900 K
T2 = ?
A1 = 50 cm2
Adiabatic A2 = ?
Nozzle

(a) Sketch the general shape of the nozzle section.


 For air, R = 286:9 J / kg K.

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 Given P1 and T1 , the thermodynamic state at Station (1) is fully speci ed.
We can use the thermal equation of state
P = RT
to compute the ow density, which gives
1 = 0:775 kg/m3
 Assume one-dimensional ow,
m_ = 1 A1 V1
We obtain
V1 = 258 m/sec
 The speed of sound at Station (1) is given by
q
c1 = k R T1 = 601 m/sec
 This gives a Mach number of M1 = 0:429 at Station (1).
 Going from subsonic ow (M1 = 0:429) to supersonic ow (M2 = 1:2), we
need to pass through a converging-diverging nozzle.
(b) If the ow is further treated as isentropic,
i. What is the downstream cross-sectional area (A2 ), temperature (T2) and pres-
sure (P2 )?
 For an isentropic ow, the following quantities are constant in the entire
ow:
A; P0; T0 ; 0
They are invariant in the ow.
 Cross-sectional area (A2), static temperature (T2) and pressure (P2) can
all be computed in a similar manner as follows:
A2 = A2 =A2 = 1:03044 = 0:6866 ) A = 34:3 cm2
2
A1 A1 =A1 1:50072
T2 = T2=T0;2 = 0:77640 = 0:8051 ) T = 725 K
2
T1 T1=T0;1 0:96434
P2 = P2 =P0;2 = 0:41238 = 0:4683 ) P = 93:7 kPa
2
P1 P1 =P0;1 0:88065
ii. Sketch the variation of pressure, temperature, velocity and Mach number
from Station (1) to Station (2).
As the ow passes through the converging-diverging nozzle,
 velocity rises (nozzle is a ow accelerator),
 pressure drops (as a result of velocity rise, from momentum equation),
 temperature drops (as a result of velocity rise, from COE),
 Mach number rises (as a result of velocity rise and temperature drop).
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iii. Trace the process path from Station (1) to Station (2) on a T s diagram.
T
P0,1 = P0,2

T0,1 = T0,2 P1

T1
P2

T2

s
s1 = s2

10. Air ows through a passage of unknown shape. The upstream state is characterized
as follows:

1 2
A1 = 0.50 m2 A2 = 1.0 m2
M1 = 0.70 M2 = ?
P1 = 5.0 bar P2 = ?
Passage with
T1 = 270 K T2 = ?
unknown shape

Assume that the ow is isentropic.


(a) Determine the possible downstream State (2) where A2 = 1:0 m2 (i.e. Find
M2 ; P2; T2 .)
 This problem is very similar to the last one except that the Mach number
at the downstream Station (2) is unknown. The only information we have
about Station (2) is its cross-sectional area.
 Before we tackle this problem, let us examine the variation of A=A with
Mach number (refer to Section 13-3 in Fox & McDonald).
!2(
1 + k 2 1 M2
k+1

A = 1 k 1 )

A M 1 + k21

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The above equation can be described graphically in the following gure:
3.0

2.5

2.0

A / A*
1.5

1.0

0.5
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

 From the above gure, we observe that there are two possible solutions to
this question, namely a subsonic solution and a supersonic solution. Both
solutions have the same A=A ratio:
A2 = A2 A1 A1 =  1:0  (1:09437) (1) = 2:18874
A2 A1 A1 A2 0:50
 From the isentropic ow table,
{ subsonic solution is M2 = 0:277,
{ supersonic solution is M2 = 2:298.
 To nd the pressure at Station (2), we can use the following procedure:
P2 = P2 P0;2 P0;1 = P2 (1)  1  = 1:3871 P2
P1 P0;2 P0;1 P1 P0;2 0:72093 P0;2
 Similarly, the temperature at Station (2) can be found in a similar manner:
T2 = T2 T0;2 T0;1 = T2 (1)  1  = 1:0980 T2
T1 T0;2 T0;1 T1 T0;2 0:91075 T0;2
 For the subsonic solution (M2 = 0:277),
P2 = 0:9481 ) P = 6:58 bar
2
P0;2
T2 = 0:9849 ) T = 292 K
2
T 0;2
 For the supersonic solution (M2 = 2:298),
P2 = 0:08025 ) P = 55:7 kPa
2
P 0;2
T2 = 0:4864 ) T2 = 144 K
T0;2
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(b) Sketch the shape of the associated ow passage found in Part (a).
 For the subsonic solution, the ow passage will be a diverging one. It serves
as a di user.
 For the supersonic solution, the ow needs to go from subsonic to supersonic.
Hence, a converging-diverging passage will be necessary. It serves as a nozzle.
(c) Sketch the corresponding variation of density, velocity and Mach number from
Station (1) to Station (2).
 For the subsonic solution,
{ velocity drops ( ow through a di user),
{ pressure rises (as a result of velocity drop, from momentum equation),
{ temperature rises (as a result of velocity drop, from COE),
{ density rises (as a result of pressure rise and isentropic ow),
{ Mach number drops (as a result of velocity drop and temperature rise).
 For the supersonic solution,
{ velocity rises ( ow through a nozzle),
{ pressure drops (as a result of velocity rise, from momentum equation),
{ temperature drops (as a result of velocity rise, from COE),
{ density drops (as a result of pressure drop and isentropic ow),
{ Mach number rises (as a result of velocity rise and temperature drop).

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ME 131B Fluid Mechanics
Tutorial Three: Isentropic Flow II

1. From an energy view point,


(a) a nozzle is a device that converts into .
(b) a di user is a device that converts into .

2. For a steady, quasi-one-dimensional, adiabatic ow without wall friction, what do the


following principles simplify to:
(a) Conservation of Mass:

(b) Momentum Equation:

(c) Conservation of Energy:

(d) Second Law of Thermodynamics:

3. We have discussed how to locate the stagnation state of a given ow state (T1; P1; M1 )
last week. How about its sonic () state? Can you locate it on the T s diagram?
T
P1

T1

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4. Complete the following table with increases, decreases, remains constant for an
isentropic ow:
Subsonic Flow:
Converging Channel Diverging Channel
P

T
V
c
M
P0
0
T0
A
P

T
Supersonic Flow:
Converging Channel Diverging Channel
P

T
V
c
M
P0
0
T0
A
P

T
Trace each process path on a T s and a P  diagram.

25
5. Choose the best answer in the following questions which concern the sonic state in an
adiabatic, non-isentropic ow:
(a) T  decreases/increases/remains constant in the ow.
(b) P  decreases/increases/remains constant in the ow.
(c) A decreases/increases/remains constant in the ow.

6. A large supply chamber containing air at 6.0 atm and 300 K is connected to a converg-
ing nozzle on the left side and a converging-diverging (C-D) nozzle on the right side.
Both nozzles share the same minimum passage area of 100 cm2. The C-D nozzle has
an exit-to-throat area ratio of 1.2.
P = 6.0 atm
T = 300 K
Pamb
B

D C A

Converging Nozzle CD Nozzle

(a) Let us consider the converging nozzle on the left.


i. Compare the pressure level at Point A, B, C and D.

ii. If the ambient pressure is reduced to 5.0 atm, what is the mass ow rate in
the nozzle?

iii. How much do we need to lower the ambient pressure (relative to the chamber
pressure) to reach the choking point of this converging nozzle?

iv. What is the corresponding mass ow rate at the choking condition?

(b) Let us consider the C-D nozzle on the right.


i. If the ambient pressure is set at 5.0 atm, do you expect the mass ow rate
in the C-D nozzle to be the same as that in the converging nozzle computed
before?
26
ii. How much do we need to lower the ambient pressure for the nozzle to operate
at its rst critical point?

iii. What is the corresponding mass ow rate at the rst critical point?

iv. At the design point (third critical),


A. what is the ambient pressure?

B. determine the density and velocity at the exit plane.

(c) Look back to your calculations,


i. How do you compare the ambient pressure which is required to choke the
converging and C-D nozzle? Which one is higher? Can you explain it?

ii. How do you compare the mass ow rate between the two nozzles:
A. before choking?

B. after choking?

7. You are asked to build a supersonic wind tunnel with operating Mach number of 2.0
in the test section. The plenum conditions are constantly kept at 300 K and 10.0 bars.
Due to cost factor, air ow is delivered at a rate of 1 kg/sec.
(a) If the ow is treated as isentropic, what is the downstream cross-sectional area?

(b) If the entropy change between the plenum and the test section is 40 J/kg-K, what
will be the cross-sectional area in the test section? Compare the result with Part
(a) and label the two states on the same T s diagram.

27
ME 131B Fluid Mechanics
Solutions to Tutorial Three: Isentropic Flow II

1. From an energy view point,


(a) a nozzle is a device that converts static enthalpy into kinetic energy.
(b) a di user is a device that converts kinetic energy into static enthalpy.
 In the absence of heat transfer and non- ow work, the stagnation enthalpy of
the ow is constant .

2. For a steady, quasi-one-dimensional, adiabatic ow without wall friction, what do the


following principles simplify to:
(a) Conservation of Mass:
 V A = constant
Remarks:
The mass ow rate (product of density, velocity and area) is required to be a
constant to conserve mass. In subsonic ow, the change in density is not so drastic.
Velocity varies in a way which is consistent with our everyday experience. But the
situation is so much di erent in the supersonic regime. Density change becomes
very appreciable. Take the case of a supersonic ow in a converging passage: the
density increase outweighs the area decrease and forces velocity to go down in
order to conserve mass ow. Similar behavior is found in a supersonic ow in a
diverging passage but opposite e ects are observed. In summary, the \strange"
behavior of supersonic ow is caused by the appreciable density change. It seems
counter-intuitive because the world we encounter with on a daily basis operates
mostly in the incompressible regime.
(b) Momentum Equation:
dP =  V dV
Remarks:
Pressure and velocity change in opposite direction to each other in both
subsonic and supersonic regimes.
(c) Conservation of Energy:

h0 = h + V2 = constant
2

28
Remarks:
When the ow speeds up, the uid cools down and vice versa. This interchange
between static enthalpy and kinetic energy is fundamental in understanding an
adiabatic ow.
(d) Second Law of Thermodynamics:
s = constant

3. We have discussed how to locate the stagnation state of a given ow state (T1; P1; M1 )
last week. How about its sonic () state? Can you locate it on the T s diagram?
 By de nition, the sonic () state should have the same speci c entropy as its static
state. Hence, they should both be on the same vertical line on the T s diagram.
 By de nition, the Mach number of the sonic state is unity. Hence, its location
relative to that of its static state depends on the ow Mach number.
 If the ow is subsonic (M < 1), the sonic state will be below its static state. If
the ow is supersonic (M > 1), the sonic state will be above its static state.
 Based on the above conclusions, we can locate the sonic state relative to its static
state on a T s diagram in the following gures:
Subsonic Case Supersonic Case
T P1 P1* T P*1
T1 P1

T1* T1*

T1

s s
s1 s1

29
4. Complete the following table with increases, decreases, remains constant for an
isentropic ow:
Subsonic Flow:
Converging Channel Diverging Channel
P decreases increases
 decreases increases
T decreases increases
V increases decreases
c decreases increases
M increases decreases
P0 remains constant remains constant
0 remains constant remains constant
T0 remains constant remains constant
A remains constant remains constant
P remains constant remains constant
 remains constant remains constant
T remains constant remains constant

Supersonic Flow:
Converging Channel Diverging Channel
P increases decreases
 increases decreases
T increases decreases
V decreases increases
c increases decreases
M decreases increases
P0 remains constant remains constant
0 remains constant remains constant
T0 remains constant remains constant
A remains constant remains constant
P remains constant remains constant
 remains constant remains constant
T remains constant remains constant
Remarks:
Both the stagnation state and the sonic state are constant in an isentropic ow.
They serve as convenient reference states for the ow.

30
Trace each process path on a T s and a P  diagram.
Subsonic Case Supersonic Case
T T

T1*
Diverging
T1
Converging
Converging
T1
Diverging
T1*

s s
s1 s1

P
P k = constant P
P k = constant

P*1
P1
Diverging
P1
P*1
Converging Converging
Diverging

*1 1 1 *1

5. Choose the best answer in the following questions which concern the sonic state in an
adiabatic, non-isentropic ow:
(a) T  remains constant in the ow.
 For any speci c gas, the ratio of stagnation temperature to sonic temperature
is a constant:
T0 = 1 + k 1
T 2
 Since the stagnation temperature of an adiabatic ow is constant, so is the
sonic temperature.

(b) P decreases in the ow.
 For any speci c gas, the ratio of stagnation pressure to sonic pressure is a
constant: !
P0 = 1 + k 1
k
k 1

P 2
31
 Since the stagnation pressure of an adiabatic, non-isentropic ow decreases
in the ow direction, so does the sonic pressure.
(c) A increases in the ow.
 To see this point clearly, we can evaluate the mass ow rate at the sonic point:
m_ =  A c
p
where c = k R T :
 We know from previous results that T ; c remain constant but P  decreases
in the ow. This leads us to conclude that  decreases in the ow also, from
the ideal gas equation.
 Hence, A has to increase to conserve the same mass ow rate.
6. A large supply chamber containing air at 6.0 atm and 300 K is connected to a converg-
ing nozzle on the left side and a converging-diverging (C-D) nozzle on the right side.
Both nozzles share the same minimum passage area of 100 cm2. The C-D nozzle has
an exit-to-throat area ratio of 1.2.

P = 6.0 atm
T = 300 K
Pamb
B

D C A

Converging Nozzle CD Nozzle

(a) Let us consider the converging nozzle on the left.


i. Compare the pressure level at Point A, B, C and D.
 The main point of this part is to visualize the pressure variation and uid
acceleration within the supply chamber.
 When the uid \senses" the pressure di erential between the inner cham-
ber, P0, and the surrounding ambient, Pamb , it accelerates from negligible
velocity at chamber pressure to some nite velocity closed to the noz-
zle inlet. Associate with this ow acceleration, there is a corresponding
pressure drop.
 We can treat the ow going through an \imaginary" converging passage
from the inner chamber to the nozzle inlet.

32
 Between the inlet and exit, the ow continues to accelerate and pressure
continues to drop. We can conclude that
PA > PC > PD
 The cause of pressure di erence between Point B and C is apparent after
we draw the streamlines around the inlet of the converging nozzle. Since
the streamlines curve around the corner, there is a positive pressure gra-
dient developed in the normal (to the streamline) direction. Hence,
PC > PB
 The comparison between pressure level at Point B and D depends on the
exact nozzle geometry and requires further quantitative analysis.
ii. If the ambient pressure is reduced to 5.0 atm, what is the mass ow rate in
the nozzle?
 In this type of problem, we always need to check if the converging nozzle
is choked at Pamb = 5:0 atm.
 For a converging nozzle, we learned that the ambient pressure has to be
lower than 52.8 % of the chamber pressure before choking occurs.
 In this case,
Pamb = 5:0 = 0:833 > 0:528
P0 6:0
Hence, the nozzle is not choked. Furthermore, we can conclude that the
pressure at the exit plane is the same as the ambient value.
 For the given pressure ratio
Pexit = 0:833
P0
We can nd out from the isentropic ow table that
Mexit = 0:517
And the temperature ratio is
Texit = 0:94924
T0
which gives an exit temperature of Texit = 284:8 K.
 Using the thermal equation of state for an ideal gas
P = RT
we obtain an exit density of exit = 6:201 kg / m3.
33
 The mass ow rate can then be computed by
m_ = exit Vexit Aqexit
= exit Mexit k R Texit Aexit
) m_ = 10:8 kg/sec
iii. How much do we need to lower the ambient pressure (relative to the chamber
pressure) to reach the choking point of this converging nozzle?
 For a converging nozzle, the ambient pressure has to be lower than 52.8%
of the chamber pressure to choke the converging nozzle. This corresponds
to an ambient pressure of
Pamb  3:17 atm
 If Pamb is lower than 3.17 atm, the exit plane pressure will not be the
same as the ambient value (pressure mismatch). Pamb will keep staying
at 3.17 atm. This is because no downstream pressure information can
propagate upstream past the sonic point (exit plane). The ow within
the nozzle becomes invariant once the sonic condition is attained at the
exit.
iv. What is the corresponding mass ow rate at the choking condition?
 When Pamb = 3:17 atm, the Mach number at the exit plane just reaches
unity.
 Pressure at the exit plane equals to the ambient pressure
Pamb = 3:17 atm
 From the isentropic ow table, we obtain
Texit = 0:8333 ) Texit = 250 K
T0
 Using the ideal gas equation, we obtain
exit = 4:478 kg/m3
 The mass ow rate is
m_ = 14:2 kg/m3
(b) Let us consider the C-D nozzle on the right.
i. If the ambient pressure is set at 5.0 atm, do you expect the mass ow rate
in the C-D nozzle to be the same as that in the converging nozzle computed
before?

34
 For this C-D nozzle case, we also need to check if the nozzle is choked at
Pamb = 5:0 atm.
 The main di erence between the C-D nozzle and the converging nozzle is
that the choking pressure ratio is dependent on the exit-to-throat area
ratio (not a universal constant anymore).
 With an area ratio of 1.20, we nd from the isentropic ow table that the
subsonic solution gives a pressure ratio
P = 0:78997 < 5:0
P0 6:0
Hence, we conclude that
{ the ambient pressure is high enough that the ow is not choked
{ the ow remains subsonic within the C-D nozzle
{ exit ; Mexit; Texit are the same as those in the converging nozzle case
 Since the exit area is 1.20 times as large as that of the converging nozzle,
we expect a 20 % increase in the mass ow rate. Hence,
m_ = 13:0 kg/m3
ii. How much do we need to lower the ambient pressure for the nozzle to operate
at its rst critical point?
 The rst critical point corresponds to an isentropic, subsonic solution
with Mach 1.0 ow at the throat.
 We obtain from the isentropic ow table that
Pamb = 0:78997 ) Pamb = 4:74 atm
P0
iii. What is the corresponding mass ow rate at the rst critical point?
 Once this converging-diverging nozzle is choked at its rst critical point,
we know that Mach 1.0 is achieved at its minimum ow area, i.e. at the
throat.
 Furthermore, Pthroat ; Tthroat ; Mthroat are the same as those of the converg-
ing nozzle choked case.
 Hence, we expect the same mass ow rate as that of the converging nozzle
choked case
m_ = 14:2 kg/m3
iv. At the design point (third critical),
A. what is the ambient pressure?
 The third critical point corresponds to an isentropic, supersonic so-
lution in the C-D nozzle.
35
 For an area ratio of 1.20, we obtain a supersonic solution from the
isentropic ow table
Mexit = 1:534
 This solution gives a pressure ratio of
Pamb = 0:25922 ) Pamb = 1:55 atm
P0
B. determine the density and velocity at the exit plane.
 For the Mexit = 1:534 solution, we obtain a temperature ratio of
Texit = 0:67995 ) Texit = 204 K
T0
 Using the ideal gas model, we obtain
exit = 2:693 kg/m3 and Vexit = 439 m/sec
(c) Look back to your calculations,
i. How do you compare the ambient pressure which is required to choke the
converging and C-D nozzle? Which one is higher? Can you explain it?
 For the converging nozzle, Pchoke = 3:17 atm.
 For the C-D nozzle, Pchoke = 4:74 atm.
 We conclude that the C-D nozzle is choked at a higher ambient pressure
than the converging nozzle.
 This conclusion can be explained by the following pressure plot for C-D
nozzle operation:
Pamb / P0

0.790 First Critical


(CD nozzle)

0.528

Choking Point
(Converging nozzle)
Third Critical
(CD nozzle)
x

 Due to the pressure recovery in the diverging section of a C-D nozzle


(subsonic ow), the C-D nozzle is choked at a higher back-to-plenum
pressure ratio. The exact value of the this pressure ratio depends only
on the exit-to-throat area ratio.

36
 In summary, there are three operating regimes:
A. Pamb =P0 > 0:790, both nozzles are not choked.
B. 0:790 > Pamb =P0 > 0:528, only the C-D nozzle is choked.
C. Pamb =P0 < 0:528, both nozzles are choked.
ii. How do you compare the mass ow rate between the two nozzles:
A. before choking?
 Before any choking occurs, the C-D nozzle has a higher mass ow
rate (20 % higher) than the converging nozzle simply because the exit
area of the C-D nozzle is 20 % larger than that of the converging nozzle.
 As the ambient pressure is reduced, the C-D nozzle gets choked rst.
Once it is choked, its mass ow rate is not a ected by the ambient
pressure anymore.
 Meanwhile the mass ow rate of the converging nozzle keeps increasing
as the ambient pressure is reduced.
B. after choking?
 The mass ow rate is the same in both nozzles after they are both
choked.
Graphically, the mass ow rate of the two nozzles can be compared as
follows:
.
m

CD
14.2 kg/sec Nozzle

Converging
Nozzle

Pamb / P0
0.528 0.790

7. You are asked to build a supersonic wind tunnel with operating Mach number of 2.0
in the test section. The plenum conditions are constantly kept at 300 K and 10.0 bars.
Due to cost factor, air ow is delivered at a rate of 1 kg/sec.
(a) If the ow is treated as isentropic, what is the downstream cross-sectional area?
 To achieve a supersonic ow in the test section, we need a C-D nozzle con-
necting the plenum and the test section, with a Mach 1.0 ow (sonic state)
right at the minimum throat area.

37
 From the isentropic ow table, we obtain
P  = 0:52828 ) P  = 5:283 bar
P 0
T  = 0:83333 ) T  = 250 K
T0
 The ideal gas equation further gives us the density at the throat:
 = 7:365 kg/m3
 The size of the throat can be found from the mass ow rate equation
m_ =  Vp Athroat
=  k R T  Athroat
) Athroat = 4:285 cm2
 To nd out the cross-sectional area at the test section, we need to relate the
Mach 2.0 ow in the test section with the sonic state at the throat. From the
isentropic ow table, Msection = 2:0 gives
Asection = 1:68750 ) Asection = 7:230 cm2
Athroat
(b) If the entropy change between the plenum and the test section is 40 J/kg-K, what
will be the cross-sectional area in the test section? Compare the result with Part
(a) and label the two states on the same T s diagram.
 The ow remains to be adiabatic. Hence, T0 ; T  remains constant even in
this non-isentropic ow.
 However, the entropy increase in the nozzle causes a drop in the stagnation
pressure. (Take State 1 to be the plenum state and State 2 to be the test
section state in the following analysis.)
! !
s2 s1 = Cp log T T 0;2 P
R log P 0;2
0;1 0;1
 
) P 0;2 s2 s 1
P0;1 = exp R
= 0:870
) P0;2 = 8:70 bar
 From the isentropic ow table, M2 = 2:0 gives
P2 = 0:12780 ) P2 = 1:11 bar
P0;2
T2 = 0:55556 ) T2 = 167 K
T
0;2

38
 The ideal gas equation further gives us the density in the test section:
2 = 2:32 kg/m3
 The cross-sectional area in the test section can be found from the mass ow
rate equation
m_ = 2 V2 Aq2
= 2 M2 k R T2 A2
) A2 = 8:31 cm2
 Comparing this result with that of Part (a), we conclude that a larger test
section area is necessary when irreversible e ects are taken into account.
 It is also interesting to point out that the ratio between the area obtained in
Part (a) and Part (b):
Asection;a = 7:230 cm2 = 0:870
Asection;b 8:310 cm2
is the same ratio as the stagnation pressure loss. Hence, we conclude from
this observation that
P0 A = constant
for an adiabatic ow. When stagnation pressure drops, the sonic area in-
creases.
 Both the isentropic and non-isentropic solutions are shown in the following
T s diagram for reference:
T P2,a P2,b

*
T2,a = T*2,b

T2,a = T2,b

Isentropic NonIsentropic
Solution Solution

s
s2,a s2,b

Comments:
The ridiculously small test section area is not reasonable for conducting wind
tunnel experiments. We can increase its size by
{ reducing the plenum pressure
{ increasing the plenum temperature
{ paying a higher cost to allow a higher mass ow rate

39
ME 131B Fluid Mechanics
Tutorial Four: Normal Shock

1. In normal shock analysis, what do the following principles simplify to:


(a) Conservation of Mass:

(b) Momentum Equation:

(c) Conservation of Energy:

(d) Second Law of Thermodynamics:

2. In what frame of reference are the shock jump relationships derived in?

3. How is the strength of a shock measured by? What does it depend on?

4. Derive the relationship between the entropy production within a shock and the corre-
sponding loss in stagnation pressure across it.

5. Choose the best answer in the following question and explain it:
The Mach number upstream of a shock can/cannot be less than unity.

40
6. Complete the following table with increases, decreases, remains constant for a ow
across a normal shock:
Across a Normal Shock
P

T
V
c
M
P0
0
T0
A
P

T
Trace the process path across a shock on a T s diagram. (Indicate clearly its
position relative to the stagnation state and the sonic state.)

7. Moving Shock Problem: A shock wave is propagating at Mach 2.0 into still air which
is at atmospheric condition. What is the change of stagnation pressure observed by
someone standing on the ground? How about the change in stagnation temperature?

P0 = ?
M = 2.0 Still air at atm. condition
T0 = ?

Moving shock

41
8. Shock Location Speci cation Problem: Air enters a C-D nozzle which has an exit-to-
throat area ratio of 1.8 (A5=A2 = 1:8). A normal shock occurs at a location where
the cross-sectional area is 1.2 times that of the throat (A3=A2 = 1:2). The schematic
is shown below:

(3) (4)

(1) (2) (5)


Shock

(a) Sketch the pressure variation with streamwise location.

(b) Locate the static and stagnation states of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 on a T s diagram.

(c) What is the operating pressure ratio P5=P0;1?

9. Back Pressure Speci cation Problem: Let us return to the C-D nozzle (with an exit-
to-throat area ratio of 1.2) we worked with last week. It connects again the same air
supply chamber at 300 K and 6.0 bars to the ambient.

P = 6.0 atm Pamb


T = 300 K

CD Nozzle

42
(a) Last week, we have found that the rst critical point operates at Pamb =P0 =
0:78997 and the third critical point operates at Pamb =P0 = 0:25922. What is the
ambient-to-chamber pressure ratio at the second critical point?

(b) We have learned last week how to compute the mass ow rate for both choked
and unchoked cases. Let us focus on some o -design operations of this C-D nozzle
this time. Describe qualitatively what happens inside the nozzle for the following
ambient pressure values:
i. Pamb = 5:4 bars

ii. Pamb = 4:5 bars

iii. Pamb = 4:2 bars

iv. Pamb = 2:4 bars

v. Pamb = 0:6 bars

(c) In the cases where standing normal shock occurs in the nozzle, compute its loca-
tion in terms of area ratio with respect to the throat.

(d) Look back to your calculations, how do you compare the shock location for dif-
ferent ambient pressure? Do you expect the shock to be closer to the throat or
to the exit for a high ambient pressure?

43
ME 131B Fluid Mechanics
Solutions to Tutorial Four: Normal Shock

1. In normal shock analysis, what do the following principles simplify to:


(a) Conservation of Mass:
 For a steady, quasi-one-dimensional analysis, the mass conservation equation
is simply  V A = constant.
 Shock thickness is usually of the order of a few microns which is much shorter
than most representative length scales in the ow.
 Hence, we can treat the ow cross-sectional area to be constant across the
shock. This reduces the mass conservation equation to
 V = constant
(b) Momentum Equation:
 Apply the results from mass conservation, we can directly integrate the mo-
mentum equation dP =  V dV to obtain the following results:
P +  V 2 = constant
(c) Conservation of Energy:
 The shock process is adiabatic.
h0 = h + V2 = constant
2

(d) Second Law of Thermodynamics:


 The shock process is irreversible. Entropy is produced.
s > 0

2. In what frame of reference are the shock jump relationships derived in?
 The shock jump relationships are derived in the shock frame of reference.
 Recall that the ow is treated as steady in the derivation, which is made possible
by a Galilean transformation from a stationary observer to one traveled with the
shock.
 We need to be careful when we apply these jump relationships to problems in
which the shock is propagating. A change of reference frame to that of the shock
will be necessary.
44
 Associated with this change of reference frame, the stagnation properties will be
di erent but the static properties will remain the same.

3. How is the strength of a shock measured by? What does it depend on?
 The strength of a shock can be measured by the pressure jump across it:
 = P2 P P 1
1
where P1 and P2 are the static pressure upstream and downstream of the shock
respectively. The larger the pressure jump, the stronger the shock is.
 The strength of a shock is dependent on the upstream Mach number:
P2 = 2 k M12 ( k 1 )
P1 k+1
 = 2 k (kM+1 1 1 )
2
)
 The variation of shock strength with upstream Mach number is shown graphically
in the following gure (for the k = 1:4 case):
10

8
(P2 - P1) / P1

Sound Wave Limit


2

0
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
M1

 As shown in the gure, the strength of a shock increases with the upstream Mach
number in a non-linear manner. Much higher pressure jump can be achieved at
high Mach numbers. More quantitative results are tabulated in the following table
for further reference:
M1 
1.0 0.0000
1.5 1.4583
2.0 3.5000
3.0 9.3333
5.0 28.000
7.0 56.000
45
Remarks: We can treat sound wave (M = 1) as a shock wave with zero strength.

4. Derive the relationship between the entropy production within a shock and the corre-
sponding loss in stagnation pressure across it.
 We can apply the Gibbs equation to evaluate the pressure drop between the
upstream and downstream stagnation states.
T0 ds0 = dh0 1 dP0
0

 The shock process is an adiabatic process, hence, the stagnation enthalpy (h0) is
constant across the shock
) d h0 = 0
 The Gibbs equation is then reduced to
ds0 = 1 dP
0 T0 0
= R dP
P0 0
 Direct integration of the above equation between the upstream State (1) and the
downstream State (2) gives
!
s0;2 s0;1 = R log PP0;2
0;1

 Since a stagnation state has the same speci c entropy as its static state, i.e.
s0;1 = s1; s0;2 = s2
we can also write the previous results as follows:
!
s2 s1 = R log PP0;2
0;1

The above equation relates the stagnation pressure drop to the entropy increase
across a shock.

5. Choose the best answer in the following question and explain it:
The Mach number upstream of a shock cannot be less than unity.

46
 From Question 4, we obtain the stagnation pressure drop across a shock in terms
of the associated entropy change:
P0;2 = exp  s2 s1 
P0;1 R
 Recall that the stagnation pressure drop across a shock depends only on the
upstream Mach number. It can be expressed by the following equation (Equation
13.37 in Fox & McDonald):
" # " #
P0;2 = ( k + 1 ) M12 k+1
k 1
k 1 k 1

P0;1 2 + ( k 1 ) M12 2 k M12 k + 1


 We can equate the above two equations and express the change of entropy across
the shock in terms of the upstream Mach number as
8" # " # 9
( k + 1 ) M12 k+1
1
< =
k
1 1

s2 s1 = R log
k k

: 2 + ( k 1 ) M12 2 k M12 k + 1 ;

 To unfold the physics contained in this complicated equation, we can plot the non-
dimensional entropy change ( ( s2 s1 ) = R ) against the upstream Mach number
(M1 ). Results are shown in the following gure:
1.0

0.5
(s2 - s1) / R

-0.5
Violation of Second Law

-1.0
0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
M1

 In the above gure, we observe two totally di erent behavior:


{ entropy increases across the shock for a supersonic upstream Mach number
(solid line),
{ entropy decreases across the shock for a subsonic upstream Mach number
(dotted line).
Apparently, the latter case violates the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Hence,
we conclude that the Mach number upstream of a shock cannot be less than unity.
 This conclusion also reveals the fact that a shock process is irreversible.
47
6. Complete the following table with increases, decreases, remains constant for a ow
across a normal shock:
Across a Normal Shock
P increases
 increases
T increases
V decreases
c increases
M decreases
P0 decreases
0 decreases
T0 remains constant
A increases
P decreases
 decreases
T remains constant
Trace the process path across a shock on a T s diagram. (Indicate clearly its
position relative to the stagnation state and the sonic state.)
P0,1 P0,2
T

T0,1 = T0,2
P0,1 > P0,2
(2)

T1* = T2*

(1)

s
s1 s2

 The upstream State (1) is supersonic, hence, it is located below the sonic state
on the T s diagram.
 The downstream State (2) is subsonic, hence, it is located above the sonic state
on the T s diagram.
 The shock process is an irreversible, adiabatic process. Entropy is produced from
State (1) to State (2). Hence, State (2) is located to the right of State (1) on the
T s diagram.
48
7. Moving Shock Problem: A shock wave is propagating at Mach 2.0 into still air which
is at atmospheric condition. What is the change of stagnation pressure observed by
someone standing on the ground? How about the change in stagnation temperature?

P0 = ?
M = 2.0 Still air at atm. condition
T0 = ?

Moving shock

 Recall from Question 2:


{ the shock jump relationships are derived in the shock frame of reference,
{ the stagnation properties are dependent on the reference frame while the static
properties are independent of the reference frame.
 Having the above basic concepts in mind, we can properly de ne the upstream
state in the shock frame of reference as follows:

M1 = 2.0
P0,2 = ?
P1 = 1.0 atm.
T0,2 = ?
T1 = 288 K

Stationary shock

 For an upstream Mach number of 2.0, we obtain from the normal shock table:
M2 = 0:57735
P2 = 4:50000 ) P = 4:50 atm.
2
P1
T2 = 1:68750 ) T = 486 K
2
T1
 We have just found out the static pressure and temperature downstream of the
shock in the shock frame of reference. Since the static properties are independent
of reference frame, an observer standing on the ground will also measure the same
static pressure and temperature as the above values.
49
 In the shock frame of reference,
p
V1 = M1 pk R T1 = 680 m/sec
V2 = M2 k R T2 = 255 m/sec

M2 = 0.57735 M1 = 2.0
P2 = 4.5 atm. P1 = 1.0 atm.
T2 = 486 K T1 = 288 K
V2 = 255 m/sec V1 = 680 m/sec

 To further obtain the stagnation temperature and pressure measured by an ob-


server standing on the ground, we need to know the downstream Mach number
in the ground frame of reference. This requires a change of reference frame from
that of the shock to that of the ground.
 In the ground frame of reference, an observer measures a downstream velocity of
V2 = 425 m/sec (to the left)
Or equivalently V2 = 425 m/sec (to the right)
This corresponds to a downstream Mach number of
M2 = 0:962 in the ground frame of reference.

M2 = 0.962 M1 = 0
P2 = 4.5 atm. P1 = 1.0 atm.
T2 = 486 K T1 = 288 K
V2 = 425 m/sec V1 = 0 m/sec

 For a Mach number of 0.962, we obtain from the isentropic ow table:


P2 = 0:55192 ) P = 8:15 atm.
0;2
P 0;2
T2 = 0:84382 ) T = 576 K
0;2
T0;2
Hence, the change of stagnation pressure and temperature is:
 P0 = 8:15 1:0 atm. = 7:15 atm.
 T0 = 576 288 K = 288 K
50
8. Shock Location Speci cation Problem: Air enters a C-D nozzle which has an exit-to-
throat area ratio of 1.8 (A5=A2 = 1:8). A normal shock occurs at a location where
the cross-sectional area is 1.2 times that of the throat (A3=A2 = 1:2). The schematic
is shown below:

(3) (4)

(1) (2) (5)


Shock

(a) Sketch the pressure variation with streamwise location.


 Since there is a shock in the diverging section of the nozzle, we can conclude
that we achieve Mach 1.0 at the throat. Then the ow goes supersonic from
the throat to Station (3).
 As the ow accelerates from Station (1) to Station (3), pressure decreases
continuously.
 Across the shock, the ow is compressed. Hence, pressure increases from
Station (3) to Station (4).
 The ow then becomes subsonic after the shock and decelerates in the di-
verging section. This leads to a pressure rise from Station (4) to Station (5).

P / P0

0.528

x
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

(b) Locate the static and stagnation states of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 on a T s diagram.


 State (1) is subsonic, hence, its temperature is higher than the sonic temper-
ature.
 State (2) is sonic.
51
 State (3) is supersonic, hence, its temperature is lower than the sonic tem-
perature.
 State (4) is subsonic after the shock:
{ Its entropy is higher than that of State (3) because of irreversibility
through the shock.
{ Its temperature is higher than that of State (3) because of shock com-
pression.
{ Hence, it is located to the right of and above State (3).
 State (5) is subsonic. Its temperature is higher than that of State (4) because
of uid deceleration in the diverging section.
T

T0
(5)
(1)

(4)
* (2)
T

(3)

(c) What is the operating pressure ratio P5=P0;1?


 We can express the operating pressure ratio as a product of several pressure
ratios:
P5 = P5 P0;5 P0;4 P0;3
P0;1 P0;5 P0;4 P0;3 P0;1
 Each of the pressure ratios on the right hand side of the above equation can
be determined separately by knowing the local Mach number. Let us examine
them individually:
{ P5=P0;5 depends on the local Mach number, M5 , only, which is an un-
known up to this moment.
{ P0;5=P0;4 = 1 because the ow is isentropic from Station (4) to Station
(5).
{ P0;4=P0;3 depends on the Mach number upstream of the shock, M3 . In
this problem, we achieve the sonic state at Station (2) because the ow
is supersonic between Station (2) and Station (3).
A3 = A3 = 1:2
A2 A3
52
which gives
M3 = 1:534 from isentropic ow table
This gives a stagnation pressure loss of
P0;4 = 0:91865 from normal shock table
P0;3
{ P0;3=P0;1 = 1 because the ow is isentropic from Station (1) to Station
(3).
We simplify to the following equation:
P5 = 0:91865 P5
P0;1 P0;5}
| {z
f1 (M5 )
 We need one more piece of information to complete this problem, namely the
local Mach number at Station (5).
 We can nd out the Mach number at Station 5 by relating the area ratio at
di erent stations as follows:
A5 = A5 A5 A4 A4 A3
A2 A5 A4 A4 A3 A2
 Similarly, the area ratios in the above equation can be determined separately
by knowing the local Mach number. Let us examine them individually:
{ A5=A2 = 1:8 as given.
{ A5=A4 = 1 because the ow is isentropic between Station (4) and Station
(5).
{ A4=A4 depends on the local Mach number, M4 , which is governed by the
Mach number upstream of the shock, M3 . For an upstream Mach number
of 1.534, we obtain from the normal shock table,
M4 = 0:68939
which in turn gives an area ratio of
A4 = 1:10230 from isentropic ow table
A4
{ A4=A3 = 1 because there is no area change across a shock.
{ A3=A2 = 1:2 as given.

53
 Hence, we can solve for the area ratio at Station (5):
A5 =A5 = 1:65345
which gives
M5 = 0:381 and P5 = 0:90446
P0;5
 Hence, we conclude that the operating pressure ratio to be
P5 = 0:83088
P0;1

9. Back Pressure Speci cation Problem: Let us return to the C-D nozzle (with an exit-
to-throat area ratio of 1.2) we worked with last week. It connects again the same air
supply chamber at 300 K and 6.0 bars to the ambient.

P = 6.0 atm Pamb


T = 300 K

CD Nozzle

(a) Last week, we have found that the rst critical point operates at Pamb =P0 =
0:78997 and the third critical point operates at Pamb =P0 = 0:25922. What is the
ambient-to-chamber pressure ratio at the second critical point?
 The second critical point corresponds to an isentropic, supersonic ow all the
way up to the C-D nozzle exit and then passes through a normal shock.
 For an exit-to-throat area ratio of 1.2, the condition just upstream of the
shock, State (1), is given by the isentropic ow table:
M1 = 1:534 and P1 = 0:25922 (third critical)
P0;1
 For an upstream Mach number of 1.534, the pressure jump across this shock
can be obtained by the normal shock table as
P2 = 2:57871 (shock jump)
P1

54
 Hence, the ambient-to-chamber pressure ratio at the second critical point is
P2 = P2 P1 = (2:57871) (0:25922) = 0:66845
P0;1 P1 P0;1
(b) We have learned last week how to compute the mass ow rate for both choked
and unchoked cases. Let us focus on some o -design operations of this C-D nozzle
this time. Describe qualitatively what happens inside the nozzle for the following
ambient pressure values:
 Recall from last week, the rst critical (FC) point is
PFC = 0:78997
P0
and the third critical (TC) point is
PTC = 0:25922
P0

P / P0

0.790 First Critical

0.668 Second Critical

0.259 Third Critical

 Please be reminded again that the rst, second and third critical points are
de ned by the nozzle geometry, namely the exit-to-throat area ratio. They
take on di erent values for di erent nozzle geometry.
 We need to compare the following ambient pressure values with the rst,
second and third critical pressure values before we conclude the ow behavior
inside the nozzle.
i. Pamb = 5:4 bars
{ Pamb =P0 = 0:9 in this case. It is higher than the rst critical point.
{ The nozzle is not choked. The ow remains subsonic inside the entire
nozzle.
55
{ Pressure drops in the converging section and rises in the diverging sec-
tion.
ii. Pamb = 4:5 bars
{ Pamb =P0 = 0:75 in this case. It is between the rst and the second
critical points.
{ The nozzle is choked. The ow reaches Mach 1.0 at the throat and goes
supersonic for a portion in the diverging section.
{ A normal shock is expected to occur in the diverging section of the
nozzle which terminates the supersonic ow.
{ The ow becomes subsonic after the shock. Pressure rises in the re-
maining portion of the diverging section.
{ Since the ow is subsonic, the ow comes out of the nozzle to match
with the ambient pressure.
iii. Pamb = 4:2 bars
{ Pamb =P0 = 0:70 in this case. It is between the rst and the second
critical points again.
{ Similar ow behavior is expected within the nozzle.
{ But the shock location is di erent.
iv. Pamb = 2:4 bars
{ Pamb =P0 = 0:40 in this case. It is between the second and the third
critical points.
{ The ow remains isentropic and supersonic throughout the entire di-
verging section.
{ When the ow comes out of the nozzle exit, it is over-expanded (pres-
sure is lower than the ambient value).
{ But a normal shock is too strong to match with the ambient pressure.
Instead oblique shocks (weaker than normal shock) are expected to
occur outside the nozzle to match with the ambient pressure.
v. Pamb = 0:6 bars
{ Pamb =P0 = 0:10 in this case. It is lower than the third critical point.
{ The ow remains isentropic and supersonic throughout the entire di-
verging section.
{ When the ow comes out of the nozzle exit, it is under-expanded (pres-
sure is higher than the ambient value).
{ Expansion waves (causes pressure drop) are expected to occur outside
the nozzle to match with the ambient pressure.
(c) In the cases where standing normal shock occurs in the nozzle, compute its loca-
tion in terms of area ratio with respect to the throat.

56
 Case (ii) and (iii) in Part (b) will have a normal shock located in the diverging
section of the nozzle.
 The solution procedure is similar in both cases. They follow the same logic
but the shock location will be di erent in the two cases.
 Let us rst label the states which will facilitate our calculations as follows:
P / P0
(1)
1.0
(5)
(2)
0.528
(3) (4)

x
Stagnation Sonic Shock Exit
State State Location

{ State (1) is the stagnation state in the supply chamber.


{ State (2) is the sonic state, at the throat.
{ State (3) is immediate upstream of the shock.
{ State (4) is immediate downstream of the shock.
{ State (5) is the exit state whose pressure has to match with that of the
ambient (Subsonic ow has the obligation to match the imposed pressure.)
 When we examine the problem statement carefully, we are only given the
operating pressure ratio and the exit-to-throat area ratio of the C-D noz-
zle. Hence, we need to work out the solution based on these two pieces of
information.
 Let us express the pressure ratio in the following manner:
P5 = P5 P0;5 P0;4 P0;3
P0;1 P0;5 P0;4 P0;3 P0;1
{ P5=P0;1 is imposed by the problem statement (0.75 in Case (ii) and 0.70
in Case (iii)).
{ P5=P0;5 depends on the exit Mach number, M5 .
{ P0;5=P0;4 = 1 because the ow is isentropic from Station (4) to Station
(5).
{ P0;4=P0;3 depends on the Mach number upstream of the shock, M3 .
{ P0;3=P0;1 = 1 because the ow is isentropic from Station (1) to Station
(3).
57
Hence, we simplify to the following relationship:
P5 = P5 P0;4 (1)
P 0;
| {z }1 P 0 ;5 P 0
| {z } | {z }; 3
Given f (M ) f (M )
1 5 2 3

 Similarly, we can express the area ratio in the following manner:


A5 = A5 A5 A4 A4 A3 A3
A2 A5 A4 A4 A3 A3 A2
{ A5=A2 = 1:2 as speci ed in the problem statement.
{ A5=A5 depends on the exit Mach number, M5 .
{ A5=A4 = 1 because the ow is isentropic from Station (4) to Station (5).
{ A4=A4 depends on the Mach number downstream of the shock, M4 .
{ A4=A3 = 1 because there is no area variation across a shock.
{ A3=A3 depends on the Mach number upstream of the shock, M3.
{ A3=A2 = 1 because the ow is sonic at Station (2) before it reaches
supersonic at Station (3) and it is isentropic from Station (2) to Station
(3).
Hence, we simplify to the following relationship:

1:2 = A5 A4 A3 (2)
A 5 A
|{z} |{z} |{z}4 A 3
g1 (M5 ) g2 (M4 ) g1 (M3 )
 The solution process consists of the following steps:
i. Guess M3 (between unity and 1.534 (design exit condition)).
{ Look up the isentropic ow table to nd out A3 =A3.
{ Look up the normal shock table to nd M4
{ Look up the normal shock table to nd P0;4=P0;3
ii. With the value of M4 just obtained, look up A4 =A4 in the isentropic ow
table.
iii. Substitute the above values into Equation (2) to nd out A5=A5.
iv. With the value of A5 =A5 just obtained, look up the corresponding M5
and P5 =P0;5 from the isentropic ow table.
v. With P0;4 =P0;3 and P5=P0;5 gured out in the previous steps, we can sub-
stitute their values into Equation (1).
vi. If the product between P0;4 =P0;3 and P5=P0;5 equals the value of P5=P0;1
as speci ed in the problem statement, the guess is correct in Step (i).
Otherwise, keep guessing di erent values for M3 and repeat the above
process until the pressure ratio matches with what is given in the problem.
58
(d) Look back to your calculations, how do you compare the shock location for dif-
ferent ambient pressure? Do you expect the shock to be closer to the throat or
to the exit for a high ambient pressure?
 There are two mechanisms to obtain pressure rise in the diverging section of
the nozzle:
{ compression due to normal shock,
{ subsonic pressure recovery after the shock.
 These two mechanisms work against each other. We need to evaluate the two
alternatives separately:
{ If the shock is closer to the throat, the pressure jump due to the shock
is less intense. But the subsonic ow (after the shock) has the entire
diverging section to recover its pressure. It is operating close to the rst
critical condition.
{ If the shock is closer to the exit, the pressure jump due to the shock is
more intense. But the subsonic ow (after the shock) does not have much
ow passage to recover its pressure. It is operating close to the second
critical condition (lower than the rst critical).
 As a conclusion, the shock is expected to be closer to the throat for a higher
ambient pressure.

59
ME 131B Fluid Mechanics
Tutorial Five: Fanno Flow

1. From which conservation principle(s) do we derive the Fanno curve?

2. Trace out a Fanno curve on a T s plane and locate the corresponding stagnation and
sonic states on the same diagram.

3. Show that the Mach number corresponds to the maximum entropy point on a Fanno
curve is unity.

4. Complete the following table with increases, decreases, remains constant for a ow
through a constant-area, frictional duct:
M <1 M >1
P

T
V
c
M
P0
0
T0
s
A
P

T
P + V2

60
5. A ow is supplied by a converging nozzle (unchoked).
(a) Will the addition of a diverging section increase or decrease the mass ow rate?

(b) What about adding a constant-area pipe? Will it increase or decrease the mass
ow rate?

(c) Sketch the variation of the mass ow rate, m_ , with back-to-stagnation pressure
ratio, Pb=P0, for the above two cases on the same plot and highlight the di erences.

6. Consider the following system:

Pamb < P0
P0 , T0

Converging Nozzle Frictional Pipe

In what direction will the cart move? Explain your answer.

61
7. Fanno Flow in Subsonic Regime
P0,1 , T0,1 Converging Nozzle

Pb

Frictional Pipe: f = 0.02


L=5m
D = 0.2 m

Consider the above setup.


(a) Where can Mach 1.0 be realized?

(b) Unchoked Case


In this part, we operate the above setup at a pressure ratio of Pb=P0;1 = 0.60.
What is the ow conditions at the exit (P; T; M )?

(c) Choked Case


How much do we need to lower the back-to-stagnation pressure ratio to reach the
choking condition? What does this ratio depend on? (Recall that it depends on
the exit-to-throat area ratio for a C-D nozzle.)

(d) L > Lmax


After we lower the pressure ratio to the value we computed in Part (c), the ow is
choked. What do you expect to happen if an extra two meters of pipe section is
added to the existing system? Do you expect the ow is still choked at the exit?
Explain your answer by showing the corresponding states on a T s diagram.

62
8. Fanno Flow in Supersonic Regime
P0,1 , T0,1 CD Nozzle (A2 / A1 = 2.0)
L
Pb

(1)
(2) (e)

Frictional Pipe: f = 0.02


D = 0.2 m

(a) Slightly di erent from the last problem, there are two possible locations at which
Mach 1.0 is attainable in the above setup. Where are they?

(b) L = Lmax
In the supersonic operation mode, determine the pipe length Lmax which gives a
sonic ow right at the pipe exit.

(c) L < Lmax


i. For L = 2:0 m, determine the range of the back-to-stagnation pressure ratio,
Pb=P0;1, over which
A. a normal shock appears in the diverging section of the C-D nozzle

B. a normal shock appears in the pipe

63
C. oblique shocks appear outside the pipe

D. oblique expansion waves appear outside the pipe

ii. For each of the above cases,


A. sketch the process path from the nozzle inlet to the pipe exit on a T s
diagram.

B. sketch the pressure distribution along the streamwise location from the
nozzle inlet to the pipe exit.

C. outline the solution procedure to locate the shock position in cases where
normal shock appears.

64
(d) L > Lmax (Common case)
i. For L = 5:0 m, qualitatively describe the ow in the system for the following
pressure ratios:
A. Pb=P0;1 = 0:50

B. Pb=P0;1 = 0:10

ii. For each of the above cases,


A. sketch the process path from the nozzle inlet to the pipe exit on a T s
diagram.

B. sketch the pressure distribution along the streamwise location from the
nozzle inlet to the pipe exit.

65
ME 131B Fluid Mechanics
Solutions to Tutorial Five: Fanno Flow

1. From which conservation principle(s) do we derive the Fanno curve?


 The Fanno curve is derived from the conservation of mass and the conservation of
energy principles.
 All states on the same Fanno curve have the same
{ mass ux, m=A
_
{ stagnation enthalpy, h0
 E ects of changing the mass ux and stagnation enthalpy on the Fanno curve are
displayed in the following gures:
Changing m=A
_ Changing h0
T T increasing h0
T0 .
m
increasing
A

T*

s s

2. Trace out a Fanno curve on a T s plane and locate the corresponding stagnation and
sonic states on the same diagram.
 Since the stagnation temperature is constant for a Fanno ow (adiabatic), all the
stagnation states lies on the horizontal line (T = T0).
 The ratio of sonic to stagnation temperature is a constant for any local static
state
T0 = 1 + k 1
T 2
Hence, the sonic temperature is also a constant. All the sonic states lies on the
horizontal line (T = T ).

66
T
10
T0 Locus of all
1 (static)
stagnation states

Subsonic
regime
1*
T* Locus of all
sonic states

Supersonic
regime

3. Show that the Mach number corresponds to the maximum entropy point on a Fanno
curve is unity.
 The road map to solve this problem is as follows:
(a) Derive the equation of a Fanno curve on the T s plane.
(b) Di erentiate the equation with respect to temperature.
(c) Solve for the maximum entropy point:
ds = 0
dT
 We rst start with the Gibbs equation:
T ds = du P2 d
ds = Cv dT T R d
 (ideal gas)
= Cv dT + R dV ( V = constant)
T V
 Integrate the above equation (assume constant Cv ), we obtain
s = Cv log T + R log V + constant (3)
 From energy conservation, we have
V2 = h h = Cp (T0 T) (perfect gas)
0
2
q
) V = 2 Cp (T0 T) (4)

67
 Combine Equation (3) and Equation (4), we obtain the equation of a Fanno curve
on the T s plane:
s = Cv log T + R2 log[ 2 Cp (T0 T ) ] + constant
 At the maximum entropy point,
ds = 0
dT
Cv R 1
T 2 T0 T = 0
Cv R 2 Cp = 0 From Equation (4)
T 2 V2
) V2 = Cp R T
Cv
= kRT
= c2
We conclude that the ow speed at the maximum entropy point equals the speed
of sound. Hence, it corresponds to a Mach 1.0 point.

4. Complete the following table with increases, decreases, remains constant for a ow
through a constant-area, frictional duct:
M <1 M >1
P decreases increases
 decreases increases
T decreases increases
V increases decreases
c decreases increases
M increases decreases
P0 decreases decreases
0 decreases decreases
T0 remains constant remains constant
s increases increases
A increases increases
P decreases decreases
 decreases decreases
T remains constant remains constant
P + V2 decreases decreases

68
5. A ow is supplied by a converging nozzle (unchoked).
(a) Will the addition of a diverging section increase or decrease the mass ow rate?
 The addition of a diverging section will increase the mass ow rate. The
reasons are outlined as follows:
{ Pressure rises in the diverging section for a subsonic ow which demands
the pressure at the nozzle throat to be lower than the back pressure.
{ This leads to a higher Mach number at the nozzle throat, hence, a higher
mass ow rate in the system.
(b) What about adding a constant-area pipe? Will it increase or decrease the mass
ow rate?
 The addition of a constant-area pipe will decrease the mass ow rate. The
reasons are outlined as follows:
{ Pressure drops along the pipe for a subsonic ow which demands the
pressure at the nozzle exit to be higher than the back pressure.
{ This leads to a lower Mach number at the nozzle exit, hence, a lower
mass ow rate in the system.
Pressure distribution of the above three cases can be compared in the following
gure:
P / P0
Converging
Nozzle Only Pipe Section
(Pressure drops)

Pb / P0

Diverging Section
(Pressure rises)
x
Throat

(c) Sketch the variation of the mass ow rate, m_ , with back-to-stagnation pressure
ratio, Pb=P0, for the above two cases on the same plot and highlight the di erences.
 The C-D nozzle is choked at a much higher pressure ratio (determined by the
exit-to-throat area ratio) than the frictional pipe (determined by fLmax=D).
 The mass ow rate out of a C-D nozzle is higher than that out of a frictional
pipe.
Mass ow rate of the above three cases can be compared in the following gure:

69
.
m
CD
. Nozzle
mnozzle
. . Converging
mpipe < mnozzle
Nozzle

ConstantArea
Pipe

Pb / P0
0.528 1.0
Pchoke, PIPE < 0.528 Pchoke, CD > 0.528

6. Consider the following system:


Control Volume
Pamb < P0
P0 , T0

Converging Nozzle Frictional Pipe

In what direction will the cart move? Explain your answer.


 As a rst step of our analysis, let us choose a control volume as indicated above
by the dotted line.
 We need to turn to the momentum equation
Z Z
~FS + F~B = @
 
~V ( dV ) + ~  V~  dA~
V
|@t CV {z
| {z }
} | CS {z }
external forces storage (acceleration) net momentum out ow
and examine the di erences in
{ momentum ux across the control surfaces
{ pressure forces on the control volume
before we conclude the motion of the cart.
 As we start lowering the back-to-stagnation pressure ratio, the exit plane pressure
at the converging nozzle and the pipe are equal to the back pressure (subsonic
ow). Hence, the net pressure force on the cart is zero.

70
 Let us examine the momentum ux
e Ve2 Ae = RPTe Ve2 Ae
e
for both cases. The two exit states can be represented on the T s diagram as
follows:
T Pb = Pe

Pipe Exit
T

Nozzle Exit

From the above diagram, we observe that


{ Pe;nozzle = Pe;pipe
{ Ve;nozzle > Ve;pipe
{ Te;nozzle < Te;pipe
Hence, we can conclude that the momentum ux out of the converging nozzle is
greater than that out of the frictional pipe.
 As a conclusion, The cart will move to the right.
7. Fanno Flow in Subsonic Regime
P0,1 , T0,1 Converging Nozzle

Pb

(1) (e)

Frictional Pipe: f = 0.02


L=5m
D = 0.2 m

Consider the above setup.


(a) Where can Mach 1.0 be realized?
71
 Mach 1.0 can only be realized at the pipe exit.
(b) Unchoked Case
In this part, we operate the above setup at a pressure ratio of Pb=P0;1 = 0.60.
What is the ow conditions at the exit (P; T; M )?
 We have learned from Question 5 that the pipe is choked at a lower pressure
ratio than the converging nozzle.
 In our case here, Pb=P0;1 = 0:60 > 0:528 (choking condition for converging
nozzle). Hence, we can conclude
{ the pipe is not choked
{ ow is subsonic at the exit
{ exit plane pressure, Pe, equals the back pressure, Pb
 We can write the pressure ratio as follows:
Pb = Pb Pe Pe;f  P P
1;f 1
 
P0;1 Pe Pe;f P1;f P1 P0;1
 Let us examine the individual terms in the above equation:
{ Pb=P0;1 = 0:60 as given.
{ Pb=Pe = 1 because exit pressure equals back pressure for subsonic ow.
{ Pe=Pe;f depends on the exit Mach number, Me (from Fanno ow table).
{ Pe;f =P1;f = 1 because Station (1) and Station (e) are on the same Fanno
curve and are driven to the same reference f state.
{ P1;f =P1 depends on the inlet Mach number, M1 (from Fanno ow table).
{ P1=P0;1 also depends on the inlet Mach number, M1 (from isentropic ow
table).
We then simplify to the following relationship:
P
0:60 = Pe 1;f P1 (5)
Pe;f P1 P0;1
 The pressure ratios in Equation (5) depend on two unknown Mach numbers
(M1 ; Me). We can relate them by using the pipe geometry:
! !
f L = f Lmax f Lmax
D D 1 D e
where
{ fL=D = 0:5 as given by system speci cation.
{ (fLmax =D)1 depends on the inlet Mach number, M1 (from Fanno ow
table).
72
{ (fLmax =D)e depends on the exit Mach number, Me (from Fanno ow
table).
We have
! !
0:5 = f LDmax f Lmax
D (6)
1 e
 The solution procedure is an iterative one. It is outlined as follows:
i. Guess M1 .
ii. Look up the Fanno ow table to nd out (fLmax=D)1.
iii. Calculate (fLmax =D)e from Equation (6).
iv. Look up the Fanno ow table to nd the corresponding Me.
v. With these two Mach numbers (M1 ; Me),
{ look up the Fanno ow table to nd Pe=Pe;f
{ look up the Fanno ow table to nd P1;f =P1
{ look up the isentropic ow table to nd P1 =P0;1
vi. If the product of the above pressure ratios equals 0.60 (Equation (5)), the
guess is correct in Step (i). Otherwise, keep guessing di erent values for
M1 and repeat the above procedure until the product of pressure ratios
converges to 0.60.
(c) Choked Case
How much do we need to lower the back-to-stagnation pressure ratio to reach the
choking condition? What does this ratio depend on? (Recall that it depends on
the exit-to-throat area ratio for a C-D nozzle.)
 The solution procedure for the choked case is simpler than the unchoked case
because we know
{ Me = 1
{ Pb = P1;f
 This also implies that
!
f L = f Lmax = 0:5
D D 1
 From the Fanno ow table, we obtain the inlet Mach number to be
M1 = 0:5978
 With M1 = 0:5978,
{ the Fanno ow table gives
P1 = 1:7705
P1;f

73
{ the isentropic ow table gives
P1 = 0:78538
P0;1
 The choking pressure ratio can then be computed as
Pb = P1;f P1 =  1  (0:78538) = 0:4436
P0;1 P1 P0;1 1:77051
 This choking pressure ratio depends on the value of fL=D of the pipe.
(d) L > Lmax
After we lower the pressure ratio to the value we computed in Part (c), the ow is
choked. What do you expect to happen if an extra two meters of pipe section is
added to the existing system? Do you expect the ow is still choked at the exit?
Explain your answer by showing the corresponding states on a T s diagram.
 After the ow is choked, addition of extra pipe section will reduce the mass
ow rate inside the pipe. This corresponds to switching to another Fanno
curve with a smaller mass ux value (m=A_ ) on the T s diagram.
 Since the exit pressure cannot be greater than the back pressure in subsonic
ow (no shock mechanism), the ow leaves the exit subsonically with Pe = Pb.
In other words, the addition of extra pipe section unchokes the system.
 This adjustment of ow conditions within the system is possible because sub-
sonic ow can communicate. The addition of extra pipe section downstream
can a ect the pipe inlet condition upstream. In this case, it reduces the local
Mach number at the pipe inlet. As we shall see in the next question, super-
sonic ow does not have this communication means. It can only adjust to
extra pipe section by shock/expansion mechanism.
 The above conclusion can be summarized graphically in the following gure:
T
T0 Flow changes from
unchoked (higher entropy Fanno Curve (1) to
(2) due to longer pipe) Pb Fanno Curve (2)
(1)

choked
T*

.
m
smaller
A
s

74
8. Fanno Flow in Supersonic Regime
P0,1 , T0,1 CD Nozzle (A2 / A1 = 2.0)
L
Pb

(1)
(2) (e)

Frictional Pipe: f = 0.02


D = 0.2 m

(a) Slightly di erent from the last problem, there are two possible locations at which
Mach 1.0 is attainable in the above setup. Where are they?
 Mach 1.0 can be realized at
{ the throat of the C-D nozzle
{ exit of the frictional pipe.
(b) L = Lmax
In the supersonic operation mode, determine the pipe length Lmax which gives a
sonic ow right at the pipe exit.
 Under supersonic operation mode, the inlet Mach number, M2 , is governed
by the area ratio of the C-D nozzle.
 For an area ratio of A2=A1 = 2:0, we obtain from the isentropic ow table
M2 = 2:197
 From the Fanno ow table, this corresponds to
!
f Lmax = 0:36017
D 2
which gives a critical pipe length of
Lmax = 3:602 m

(c) L < Lmax


i. For L = 2:0 m, determine the range of the back-to-stagnation pressure ratio,
Pb=P0;1, over which

75
A. a normal shock appears in the diverging section of the C-D nozzle
 There are two limiting cases to consider here:
Case I Case II

2a 2b

(1) (2) (e) (1) (2) (e)

 Case I: upper limit


{ With the normal shock right at the nozzle throat, the ow goes sub-
sonic in the diverging section of C-D nozzle.
{ Pipe inlet Mach number, M2 , is governed by the area ratio of the
C-D nozzle (subsonic solution from isentropic ow table):
M2 = 0:3060; P2 = 0:93712
P0;2
{ With M2 = 0:3060, the Fanno ow table gives
!
P2 = 3:5479 f Lmax = 5:031
P2;f D 2
{ This further gives the value of fLmax=D at Station (e)
! !
f Lmax = f Lmax f L = 4:831
D e D 2 D
{ From the Fanno ow table, this corresponds to an exit Mach number
of 0.3105 and a pressure ratio
Pe = 3:4947

Pe;f
{ This gives the back-to-stagnation pressure ratio for Case I to be
Pb = Pb Pe Pe;f  P P P
2;f 2 0;2
P0;1  
Pe Pe;f P2;f P2 P0;2 P0;1
 
1
= (1) (3:4947) (1) 3:5479 (0:93712) (1)
= 0:9231

76
 Case II: lower limit
{ With the normal shock right at the pipe inlet, the ow goes super-
sonic in the diverging section of C-D nozzle until it hits a shock at the
nozzle exit, then goes subsonic right before entering the pipe section.
{ The Mach number upstream of the shock is governed by the area
ratio of C-D nozzle (supersonic solution from isentropic ow table):
M2a = 2:197 P2a = 0:093936
P0;2a
{ With M2a = 2:197, the normal shock table gives
M2b = 0:54744 P2b = 5:4656
P2a
{ With M2b = 0:54744, the Fanno ow table gives
!
P2b = 1:9438 f Lmax = 0:74305
P2b;f D 2b
{ This gives the value of fLmax =D at Station (e)
! !
f Lmax = f LDmax f L = 0:54305
D e 2b D
{ From the Fanno ow table, this corresponds to an exit Mach number
of 0.5874 and a pressure ratio
Pe = 1:8037

Pe;f
{ This gives the back-to-stagnation pressure ratio for Case II to be
Pb = Pb Pe Pe;f  P P P P
2b;f 2b 2a 0;2a
P0;1  
Pe Pe;f P2b;f P2b P2a P0;2a P0;1
 
1
= (1) (1:8037) (1) 1:9438 (5:4656) (0:093936) (1)
= 0:4764
 Hence, a normal shock appears in the diverging section of the C-D
nozzle when
0:4764 < Pb < 0:9231
P0;1

77
B. a normal shock appears in the pipe
 There are two limiting cases to consider here:
Case II Case III

2a 2b
ea eb

(1) (2) (e) (1) (2) (e)

 Case II: upper limit It has already been studied in the previous part.
 Case III: lower limit
{ With the normal shock right at the pipe exit, the ow remains su-
personic from the nozzle throat all the way up to the pipe exit just
before the shock, then exits subsonically after the shock.
{ The pipe inlet Mach number, M2 , is again governed by the area ratio
of C-D nozzle (supersonic solution from isentropic ow table). It has
been found from the previous part:
M2 = 2:197 P2 = 0:093936
P0;2
{ With M2 = 2:197, the Fanno ow table gives
!
P2 = 0:35567 f Lmax = 0:36012
P2;f D 2
{ This gives the value of fLmax =D at Station (ea)
! !
f Lmax = f Lmax f L = 0:16012
D ea D 2 D
{ From the Fanno ow table, this corresponds to a Mach number of
Mea = 1:566 and a pressure ratio
Pea = 0:57292

Pea;f
{ With Mea = 1:566, the normal shock table gives
Meb = 0:6790 Peb = 2:6944
Pea
78
{ This gives the back-to-stagnation pressure ratio for Case III to be
Pb = Pb Peb Pea Pea;f  P P P
2;f 2 0;2
P0;1  
Peb Pea Pea;f P2;f P2 P0;2 P0;1
 
1
= (1) (2:6944) (0:57292) (1) 0:35567 (0:093936) (1)
= 0:4077
 Hence, a normal shock appears in the pipe section when
0:4077 < Pb < 0:4764
P0;1

For any back-to-stagnation pressure ratio which is lower than the critical
value corresponds to Case III, the ow within the C-D nozzle and pipe
section will be una ected. All the pressure adjustment will take place
outside the pipe. We will expect
 oblique shocks if the back pressure is higher than the design condition
 oblique expansion waves if the back pressure is lower than the design
condition
The back-to-stagnation pressure ratio corresponds to the design condition
(free of shock/expansion) is
Pb = Pb Pe Pe;f  P P P
2;f 2 0;2
P0;1  P  P2 P0;2 P0;1
Pe Pe;f 2;f

= (1) (0:57292) (1) 1  (0:093936) (1)
0:35567
= 0:1513

C. oblique shocks appear outside the pipe


 Oblique shocks appear outside the pipe when the back-to-stagnation
pressure ratio is between the design condition and the critical value
corresponds to Case III:
0:1513 < PPb < 0:4077
0;1
D. oblique expansion waves appear outside the pipe
 Oblique expansion waves appear outside the pipe when the back-to-
stagnation pressure ratio is below the design condition:
Pb < 0:1513
P0;1

79
ii. For each of the above cases,
A. sketch the process path from the nozzle inlet to the pipe exit on a T s
diagram.
Normal Shock in Nozzle Normal Shock in Pipe
T T
T0 T0
(2) Pe = Pb Pe = Pb
(e) (b)
(b) (e)

(1) (1)
T* T*

(a)
(a)
(2)

s s

Oblique Shock Outside Pipe Oblique Expansion Outside Pipe


T T
T0 T0
Pb

(1) (1)
T* Pe < P b T* P e > Pb

(e) (e)
Pb

(2) (2)

s s

Remarks:
State (a) and State (b) are the upstream and downstream states of the
normal shock respectively.

80
B. sketch the pressure distribution along the streamwise location from the
nozzle inlet to the pipe exit.
Normal Shock in Nozzle Normal Shock in Pipe

a b a b

(1) (2) (e) (1) (2) (e)

P P
P0 P0

0.528 0.528
a b a b

x x
(1) (2) (e) (1) (2) (e)

Oblique Shock Outside Pipe Oblique Expansion Outside Pipe

(1) (2) (e) (1) (2) (e)

P P
P0 P0

0.528 0.528

x x
(1) (2) (e) (1) (2) (e)

C. outline the solution procedure to locate the shock position in cases where
normal shock appears.
 Similar to our previous procedure in locating a normal shock in the di-
verging section of a C-D nozzle, we need to solve this problem iteratively.
 The solution procedure is outlined below for the case with a normal shock
standing in the diverging section of C-D nozzle (more dicult case):
81
a b

(1) (2) (e)

A. Guess the Mach number upstream of the shock, Ma .


B. Obtain the pressure ratio, Pa=P0;a, from the isentropic ow table (func-
tion of Ma ).
C. Obtain the Mach number downstream of the shock, Mb , and the pres-
sure ratios (Pb=Pa; P0;b=P0;a) from the normal shock table (function of
Ma ).
D. Relate Mb to the Mach number at the nozzle exit, M2 , as follows:
A2 = A2 A2 Ab Aa
A1 A2 Ab Aa A1
{ A2=A1 = 2:0 as given by system geometry.
{ A2=Ab = 1 because the ow is isentropic from Station (b) to Station
(2).
{ Ab =Aa = P0;a=P0;b because the shock process is adiabatic. This ratio
depends on Ma .
{ Aa =A1 = 1 because the isentropic ow from Station (1) to Station
(a) is choked at Station (1).
E. We then obtain the simpli ed equation:
2:0 = AA2 P0;a
 P0;b
2
F. With the pressure ratio, P0;a=P0;b, determined in Step (C), the above
equation gives the value of A2 =A2 which de nes the Mach number at
the nozzle exit, M2 (from the isentropic ow table).
G. Obtain P2=P0;2 from the isentropic ow table (function of M2 ).
H. Obtain P2=P2;f ; (fLmax =D)2 from the Fanno ow table (function of
M2 ).
I. Relate the Mach number at pipe exit, Me, with the Mach number at
pipe inlet, M2, as follows:
! ! !
f Lmax = f Lmax fL
D e D 2 D

82
J. With fL=D = 0:2 (given by system speci cation), the above equation
gives the value of (fLmax=D)e which de nes the Mach number at the
pipe exit, Me (subsonic solution from the Fanno ow table).
K. Obtain Pe=Pe;f  from the Fanno ow table (function of Me ).
L. The overall back-to-stagnation pressure ratio can then be computed as
follows:  P P P P P
Pb = Pb Pe Pe;f 2;f 2 0;2 0;b 0;a
P0;1 Pe Pe;f  P  P2 P0;2 P0;b P0;a P0;1
2;f
{ Pb=Pe = 1 because exit pressure equals back pressure for subsonic
exit.
{ Pe;f =P2;f = 1 because Station (2) and Station (e) are on the same
Fanno curve and are driven to the same reference f state.
{ P0;2=P0;b = 1 because the ow is isentropic from Station (b) to
Station (2).
{ P0;a=P0;1 = 1 because the ow is isentropic from Station (1) to
Station (a).
M. We then simplify to the following relationship:
Pb = Pe P2;f P2 P0;b
P0;1 
Pe;f
| {z } |P{z2 } P0;2}
| {z
P0;a}
| {z
Step K Step H Step G Step C
All the pressure ratios have been determined in the previous steps. We
just need to multiply all these pressure ratios together and check if their
product equals the given back-to-stagnation pressure ratio. If it is, the
guess is correct in Step (A). Otherwise, keep guessing di erent values
of Ma and repeat the above procedure until the product of pressure
ratios converges to the required value.
 The case with a normal shock standing in the pipe section can be analyzed
in a similar manner and is easier!
(d) L > Lmax (Common case)
 Since the fLmax =D values for supersonic ow is much smaller than those of
subsonic ow, for most applications, L > Lmax .
 Since L > Lmax and supersonic ow cannot communicate with downstream,
a shock is unavoidable within the pipe section.
 The ow goes subsonic after the shock. It can communicate with the down-
stream condition. It either exits the pipe subsonically, matching the back
pressure or sonically with an exit pressure higher than the back pressure.
 To decide between these two possible situations, we need to compare the back
pressure, Pb , with the sonic pressure on the Fanno curve, Pf.
83
{ If Pb > Pf, the ow exits subsonically and Pe = Pb.
{ If Pb < Pf, the ow exits sonically and Pe > Pb. Expansion waves are
expected to occur outside the pipe to adjust to the lower back pressure.
 In our present case, the sonic pressure on the Fanno curve, Pf, can be found
as follows:
i. From Part (b), we know that M2 = 2:197 in supersonic operation mode.
ii. From the isentropic ow table, we obtain
P2 = 0:093936
P0;2
iii. From the Fanno ow table, we obtain
P2 = 0:35567
P2;f
iv. Combine these two pressure ratios, we obtain
P2;f P2;f P2 P0;2
P0;1 = P2 P0;2 P0;1

= 0:35567 1  (0:093936) (1)
= 0:2641

i. For L = 5:0 m, qualitatively describe the ow in the system for the following
pressure ratios:
 In both cases, there is a normal shock within the system because L >
Lmax .
A. Pb=P0;1 = 0:50
 Since Pb > Pf, the ow exits subsonically with exit pressure equals
the back pressure.
 No pressure adjustment is necessary outside the pipe.
B. Pb=P0;1 = 0:10
 Since Pb < Pf, the ow exits sonically with exit pressure higher than
the back pressure.
 Pressure adjustment in the form of oblique expansion is expected to
occur outside the pipe.

84
ii. For each of the above cases,
A. sketch the process path from the nozzle inlet to the pipe exit on a T s
diagram.
Pb > Pf Pb < Pf
T T
T0 T0
Pe = Pb
(b) (b)
(e)

Pf* Pe = Pf*
(1)
T* T*
(1) (e)

Pb

(a) (a)
(2) (2)

s s

B. sketch the pressure distribution along the streamwise location from the
nozzle inlet to the pipe exit.
Pb > Pf Pb < Pf

a b a b

(1) (2) (e) (1) (2) (e)

P P
P0 P0

0.528 0.528
a b a b

x x
(1) (2) (e) (1) (2) (e)

85
ME 131B Fluid Mechanics
Tutorial Six: Rayleigh Flow

1. What do all the states on the same Rayleigh curve have in common?

2. Trace out a Rayleigh curve on a T s plane and locate the corresponding stagnation
and sonic states on the same diagram.

3. Consider the following system:


Shock Heat Addition

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

(a) Mark the following statements as true or false:


 P0;1A1 = P0;7A7
 P0;6A6 = P0;9A9
(b) Sketch the process path for the above system on a T s diagram. Indicate both
the static and stagnation states. Are State (2) and State (8) on the same Fanno
curve?

86
(c) Sketch the pressure distribution along the streamwise location from Station (1)
to Station (9).

4. Show the following results are true on a Rayleigh curve:


p
(a) M = 1= k at the maximum temperature point
(b) M = 1 at the maximum entropy point

5. Complete the following table with increases, decreases, remains constant for a ow
through a constant-area duct with heat transfer:
M <1 M >1 M <1 M >1
(heating) (heating) (cooling) (cooling)
P

T
V
M
P0
0
T0
s
A
P

T
6. In your opinion, which assumption(s) in the Rayleigh ow analysis may be potential
source(s) of error in solving a real life problem?

Remarks:
The procedure for solving Rayleigh ow problems is very similar to the approach used
for Fanno ow except that the link between any two ow states in Rayleigh ow is
determined by heat transfer q=m rather than wall friction fL=D.
87
7. This problem examines the e ects of heat transfer on the ow pattern ahead of a
combustor inlet.
Heat Addition

P = 1.0 bar
T = 250 K
V = 100 m/sec

(1) Combustion (2)


Chamber

(a) Unchoked Case


Air at 250 K and 1.0 bar is moving at 100 m/sec towards the entrance of a
combustion chamber. Determine the exit conditions if 300 kJ/kg is added to the
ow during the combustion process.

(b) Just Choked Case


How much more heat can be added without changing the conditions at the en-
trance to the combustor?

(c) Choked Case


Let us add sucient fuel to the system so that the exit stagnation temperature
is raised to 1500 K now. Assume that the receiver pressure is very low. What
do you expect to happen in the system? Describe the ow both qualitatively and
quantitatively.

88
8. A converging-diverging nozzle with an area ratio of 3.0, supplies air to a supersonic
wind tunnel. If there is moisture in the air, it is possible for the water vapor to
condense during the expansion process if the local static temperature drops below the
saturation temperature. In practice, this condensation process occurs very rapidly,
leading to an almost discontinuous change in the ow properties. Assume that the
stagnation temperature of the air/water vapor mixture entering the nozzle is 600 K and
that the mass fraction of water vapor in the stream is Yw = mwater =mmixture = 0:01.
The saturation temperature for the air/water vapor mixture is 14  C and the heat of
vaporization of water is 2470 kJ/kg.

(1) Condensation (2) Test Section


Front

(a) Determine the location of the condensation front, in terms of Acond=Athroat .

(b) Determine the test section Mach number


i. without condensation
ii. with condensation
How is the test section Mach number a ected by the presence of the condensation
process?

(c) Sketch the nozzle expansion process without and with condensation on a T s
diagram, including all appropriate stagnation and sonic states.

89
ME 131B Fluid Mechanics
Solutions to Tutorial Six: Rayleigh Flow

1. What do all the states on the same Rayleigh curve have in common?
 The Rayleigh curve is derived from the conservation of mass and the conservation
of linear momentum principles.
 All the states on the same Rayleigh curve have the same mass ux (m=A
_ ), and
impulse (thrust) function, (P +  V ).
2

2. Trace out a Rayleigh curve on a T s plane and locate the corresponding stagnation
and sonic states on the same diagram.
 Along a Rayleigh curve, neither the stagnation temperature nor the stagnation
pressure is constant. Hence, the stagnation states are not as trivial as those of
the previous ows we have studied in class.
 Nevertheless, the conservation of energy principle tells us that the stagnation
temperature always increases when there is heat addition into the ow regardless
the ow is subsonic or supersonic.
 Based on this conclusion, we can draw the stagnation lines (with positive slopes)
on the T s diagram in the following gure:
T
M=1/ k

M=1
Locus of all
stagnation
states

 We then need to address the question: \Which stagnation line corresponds to the
subsonic/supersonic regime?" To answer this question, it will be helpful to think
about a normal shock process on a Rayleigh line.
 Justi cation: Across a shock,
(a)  V = constant
(b) P +  V 2 = constant
90
(c) T0 = constant
Conditions (a) and (b) guarantee that the upstream and downstream states of a
shock lies on the same Rayleigh line. It is represented as follows:
T

T0,1 = T0,2
(2)
subsonic

(1)
supersonic

 Condition (c) shows us


T0;2 = T0;1
Hence, the stagnation states of (1) and (2) must be on the same horizontal line
on the T s diagram. Because s2 > s1 (due to irreversibility within the shock),
we can conclude that the upper stagnation curve corresponds to the supersonic
regime and the lower one corresponds to the subsonic regime.
 To trace out the sonic states, we need to realize
T0 = k + 1 = constant
T 2
Hence, the shapes of the sonic curves resemble those of the stagnation curves.
 As a conclusion, all the stagnation and sonic states can be summarized in the
following diagram:
T
M=1/ k

onic
Supers M=1
Locus of all ic
stagnation Subson
states

onic
Supers
u b s onic
Locus of all S
sonic states

91
3. Consider the following system:
Shock Heat Addition

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

(a) Mark the following statements as true or false:


 P0;1A1 = P0;7A7
 P0;6A6 = P0;9A9
{ The product, P0 A , is constant for a steady, adiabatic ow.
{ In our case here, the ow is adiabatic from Station (1) to Station (7) but
heat addition occurs from Station (7) and Station (8). Hence,
 P0;1 A1 = P0;7 A7
 P0;6 A6 6= P0;9 A9
{ From conservation of mass, we can show that
Pp0 A = constant
T0
Since the heat addition from Station (7) to Station (8) raises the stagna-
tion temperature at Station (9) relative to that of Station (6), we conclude
that
P0;6 A6 < P0;9 A9

92
(b) Sketch the process path for the above system on a T s diagram. Indicate both
the static and stagnation states.
T
(1)
T0
(8)
(2) (3)
(7)
(9)

T*
(4)

(6)
(5)

Are State (2) and State (8) on the same Fanno curve?
 Since there is heat addition from Station (7) to Station (8), Station (2) can-
not be on the same Fanno curve as Station (8) [h0;8 > h0;2 but (m=A _ )8 =
(m=A
_ )2:]
(c) Sketch the pressure distribution along the streamwise location from Station (1)
to Station (9).
Shock Heat Addition

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

P
P0
1.0

0.53

x
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

93
4. Show the following results are true on a Rayleigh curve:
(a) M = 1 at the maximum entropy point
p
(b) M = 1= k at the maximum temperature point
 The strategy to prove the necessary results is to obtain the derivatives: ds=dT
and dT=ds based on the following principles:
{ Gibbs equation
{ ideal gas equation
{ conservation of mass
{ conservation of linear momentum
Then set the derivatives to zero to obtain the corresponding Mach number con-
dition.
 Let us start with the Gibbs equation:
T ds = du P2 d
ds = Cv dT T R d
 (ideal gas)
 We then try to relate the density change, d, with temperature change, dT ,
through mass and momentum conservation. Let
P +  V 2 = C1 Momentum conservation
 V = C2 Mass conservation
we have
P + C2 = C1
2

 R T + C2 = C1
2

The above equation de nes a one-to-one correspondence between density and


temperature, i.e. knowing one enables us to nd the other.
 We can relate the di erentials in the above equation as follows:
 R dT + R T d C22 d = 0
2

or equivalently
d = R dT
 V2 RT
94
 We are ready to substitute the above results into the Gibbs equation now. It will
give
ds = Cv dT
T
R2 dT
V2 RT
Further rearrangement gives
ds = Cv R2 (7)
dT T V2 RT
dT = T (V 2 R T ) (8)
ds C V2 C RT
v p
(a) At the maximum temperature point,
dT = 0
ds
Equation (8) implies
V2 = RT
= k Rk T
c
= k
2

) M 2 = k1
or M = p1
k
(b) At the maximum entropy point,
ds = 0
dT
Equation (7) implies
Cv = R2
T V2 RT
R T = RC T
2
V2
v 
2
V = RT 1 + C R
v
= R T CpC (Cp = Cv + R)
v
= kRT
= c2
) M = 1
95
5. Complete the following table with increases, decreases, remains constant for a ow
through a constant-area duct with heat transfer:

M <1 M >1 M <1 M >1


(heating) (heating) (cooling) (cooling)
P decreases increases increases decreases
 decreases p increases increases p decreases
T increases (0 <pM < 1= k) increases decreases (0 <p M < 1= k) decreases
decreases (1= k < M < 1) increases (1= k < M < 1)
V increases decreases decreases increases
M increases decreases decreases increases
P0 decreases decreases increases increases
0 decreases decreases increases increases
T0 increases increases decreases decreases
s increases increases decreases decreases
A increases increases decreases decreases
P decreases decreases increases increases
 decreases decreases increases increases
T increases increases decreases decreases
6. In your opinion, which assumption(s) in the Rayleigh ow analysis may be potential
source(s) of error in solving a real life problem?
 Heat transfer causes the stagnation temperature to change signi cantly in the
ow, which leads to a large variation of static temperature. The perfect gas as-
sumption (constant speci c heats) may not be appropriate. At higher and higher
temperatures, more and more energy modes are activated within the molecules.
In general, this causes the speci c heats to rise with temperature.
 In cases where combustion occurs, chemical composition of the constituent gases
changes signi cantly. Reactant species will be consumed and product species will
be produced. Their relative ratio changes as combustion proceeds. Values like
gas constant, R, and speci c heat ratio, k, will no longer be constant but depend
on the extent of combustion.
Remarks:
The procedure for solving Rayleigh ow problems is very similar to the approach used
for Fanno ow except that the link between any two ow states in Rayleigh ow is
determined by heat transfer q=m rather than wall friction fL=D.

96
7. This problem examines the e ects of heat transfer on the ow pattern ahead of a
combustor inlet.
Heat Addition

P = 1.0 bar
T = 250 K
V = 100 m/sec

(1) Combustion (2)


Chamber

(a) Unchoked Case


Air at 250 K and 1.0 bar is moving at 100 m/sec towards the entrance of a
combustion chamber. Determine the exit conditions if 300 kJ/kg is added to the
ow during the combustion process.
 In this unchoked case, the chamber inlet can take in all the ow which comes
towards it. Hence,
T1 = 250 K P1 = 1:0 bar V1 = 100 m/sec
 For T1 = 250 K, c1 = 317 m/sec. This gives an inlet Mach number of
M1 = 0:3156
 From the isentropic ow table, we obtain
T1 = 0:9805 ) T0;1 = 255 K
T0;1
 From the Rayleigh ow table, we obtain
T0;1 = 0:3763 T1 = 0:4427 P1 = 2:106

T0;1;R 
T1;R P1;R
 From conservation of energy, we have
q = Cp ( T0;2 T0;1 )
) T0;2 = q + 1
T0;1 Cp T0;1
= 2:172

97
 At Station (2),
T0;2 = T0;2 T0;1 T0;1;R
T0;2;R T0;1 T0;1;R T0;2;R
= (2:172) (0:3763) (1)
= 0:8173
 From the Rayleigh ow table, this corresponds to an exit Mach number of
M2 = 0:5985 (subsonic)
and
T2 = 0:9152 P2 = 1:598
T2;R P2;R
 The exit state is
T T
T2 = TT2 T2;R T1;R T1 = (0:9152) (1) 0:4427
 
1 (250 K) = 517 K
2;R 1;R 1
P P
P2 = PP2 P2;R P1;R P1 = (1:598) (1) 2:106
 
1 (1:0 bar) = 0:7588 bar
2;R 1;R 1

(b) Just Choked Case


How much more heat can be added without changing the conditions at the en-
trance to the combustor?
 For the just choked case, M2 = 1. This implies
T0;2 = T0;1;R
 Apply the same energy equation in Part (a), we have
q = Cp ( T0;2 T0;1 )
= Cp ( T0;1;R T0;1 )
T
= Cp T0;1 ( 0;1;R 1 )
T0;1!
 
= 1:004 kJ (255 K) 1 1
kg K 0:3763
= 424 kJ/kg
 Hence, we can add an extra 124 kJ/kg into the ow before we choke it
thermally.
 At this choked condition, the stagnation temperature at Station (2) is
T0;1;R  
 1
T0;2 = T0;1;R = T T0;1 = 0:3763 (255 K) = 678 K
0;1

98
(c) Choked Case
Let us add sucient fuel to the system so that the exit stagnation temperature
is raised to 1500 K now. Assume that the receiver pressure is very low. What
do you expect to happen in the system? Describe the ow both qualitatively and
quantitatively.
 In this case,
T0;2 = 1500 K > 678 K (choking condition)
 The original ow cannot accommodate this large amount of heat. Something
has to happen in order to take in so much heat addition. In other words, it
cannot stay on the same Rayleigh line.
 Recall that the upstream (1) state can always communicate with the down-
stream states in a subsonic ow by means of pressure waves.
 \Sensing" the super-critical heat addition downstream, the ow decelerates
from the free stream to the inlet. Spillage occurs ahead of the inlet. It is
shown schematically as follows:
Heat Addition

P = 1.0 bar
T = 250 K
V = 100 m/sec
(1) (2)
M = 0.3156

Combustion
}

Chamber

Spillage

 With a smaller ow rate in the combustion chamber, the ow moves to a


di erent Rayleigh line with a smaller m=A
_ value.
 Since the receiver (back) pressure is very low, we can assume that the ow is
choked at the exit station (2), i.e.
M2 = 1
 With M2 = 1, we conclude that
T0;2 = T0;1;R = 1500 K
This leads to
T0;1 = 255 = 0:17
T0;1;R 1500

99
 From the Rayleigh ow table, we obtain
M1 = 0:1977 < 0:3156 = M1
The ow decelerates from M1 = 0:3156 to M1 = 0:1977 at the inlet.
 With M1 = 0:1977, we obtain from the isentropic ow table
T1 = 0:9922 P1 = 0:9731
T0;1 P0;1
 The inlet state is
T1 = TT1 TT0;1 TT0;1 T1 = (0:9922) (1) 0:9805
 
1 (250 K) = 253 K
0;1 0;1 1
P1 = PP1 PP0;1 PP0;1 P1 = (0:9731) (1) 0:9333
 
1 (1 bar) = 1:04 bar
0;1 0;1 1
 To determine the exit condition, we need to look up the Rayleigh ow table
for M1 = 0:1977.
T1  = 0:2024 P1 = 2:275
T1;R P1;R
 Recall that the exit state is the R reference state due to choking, we can
conclude the exit condition to be
  
T2 = T1;R = TT T1 = 0:2024
1;R
1
1 (253 K) = 1250 K
  
P2 = P1;R = PP P1 = 2:275
1;R
1
1 (1:04 bar) = 0:457 bar
 This heat addition process can be described qualitatively by the following
T s diagram:
T
exit

inlet

upstream

higher entropy due to


more heat addition

.
m
smaller
A
s

100
8. A converging-diverging nozzle with an area ratio of 3.0, supplies air to a supersonic
wind tunnel. If there is moisture in the air, it is possible for the water vapor to
condense during the expansion process if the local static temperature drops below the
saturation temperature. In practice, this condensation process occurs very rapidly,
leading to an almost discontinuous change in the ow properties. Assume that the
stagnation temperature of the air/water vapor mixture entering the nozzle is 600 K and
that the mass fraction of water vapor in the stream is Yw = mwater =mmixture = 0:01.
The saturation temperature for the air/water vapor mixture is 14  C and the heat of
vaporization of water is 2470 kJ/kg.
Condensation
Front

(1) (c) (2) Test Section

(a) Determine the location of the condensation front, in terms of Acond=Athroat .


 Condensation occurs when Tc = 14C = 287 K.
) Tc = 287 = 0:4783
T0;c 600
 From isentropic ow table, we obtain
Mc = 2:335 Ac = 2:264
Ac
Since the ow is choked at Station (1) before reaching supersonic in the
diverging section, Ac = A1 . Hence,
Acond = 2:264
Athroat
(b) Determine the test section Mach number
i. without condensation
 With A2 =A1 = 3:0, the isentropic ow table gives a supersonic solution
of
M2 = 2:637

101
ii. with condensation
 When the water vapor condenses, it releases the heat of vaporization to
the air ow. The amount of heat release is
q_ = m_ water hfg
 Since the condensation process occurs over a very short distance in space,
we can assume that there is no signi cant area variation during the heat
addition process.
 Hence, we can apply our Rayleigh ow analysis to analyze this ow.
 Let us label the states as follows in our analysis:

cx cy

(1) (c) (2)

 From the Rayleigh ow table, Mcx = 2:335 gives


T0;cx = 0:73404
T0;cx;R
 Apply conservation of energy across the condensation front, we have
q_ = m_ mixture Cp (T0;cy !T0;cx)
m_ water h = C T T0;cy 1
fg p 0;cx
m_ mixture
!
T 0;cx
! !
(0:01) 2470 kJ = 1:004 kJ (600 K) T0;cy 1
kg kg K T0;cx
) T0;cy = 1:041
T0;cx
 We then relate the Mach number upstream and downstream of the con-
densation front as follows:
T0;cy = T0;cy T0;cy;R T0;cx;R
T0;cx T0;cy;R T0;cx;R T0;cx

1:041 = T0;cy (1) 1 
T0;cy;R 0:73404
) T0;cy = 0:7641
T0;cy;R

102
 The Rayleigh ow table gives
Mcy = 2:154
which gives an area ratio of
Acy = 1:926
Acy
from the isentropic ow table.
 After the condensation front, the ow continues to expand isentropically
from Station (cy) to Station (2). Their Mach numbers can be related by
their area ratio.
Acy = Acy Acy A2
A2 Acy A2 A2
2:264 = (1:926) (1) A2
3 A2
) A 2
A = 2:552
2
which corresponds to a test section Mach number of
M2 = 2:465
How is the test section Mach number a ected by the presence of the condensation
process?
 Without condensation, M2 = 2:637.
 With condensation, M2 = 2:465.
 The condensation process reduces the Mach number in the test section.
 This is because the heat addition process slows down the supersonic ow at
the condensation front (Mcx = 2:335 ! Mcy = 2:154).

103
(c) Sketch the nozzle expansion process without and with condensation on a T s
diagram, including all appropriate stagnation and sonic states.
T
T0
(1)
T*

(cy)

(cx)
(2) with condensation

(2) without condensation


s

104
ME 131B Fluid Mechanics
Tutorial Seven: Angular Momentum Principle

1. In control volume analysis, all governing principles share the same common structure:
storage = in ow out ow + production
The main di erence between di erent physical principles is in the production term, P .
For the following principles, what is this production term equal to?
(a) conservation of mass

(b) conservation of linear momentum

(c) conservation of angular momentum

(d) conservation of energy

2. The Reynolds Transport Theorem is the core basis in control volume analysis. It serves
as a bridge between the control mass and the control volume approach. We can state
it as: ! Z Z
dN = @  (  dV ) + 

 ~  dA~
V

dt system @t CV CS
For the following principles, what are the quantities N and ?
(a) conservation of mass

(b) conservation of linear momentum

(c) conservation of angular momentum

105
(d) conservation of energy

3. What is the main criterion in choosing a suitable control volume in problem solving?

4. From what physical principle is the angular momentum equation derived?

5. Choose the best answer in the following question:


Pressure is always directed into / out of the control volume of interest.
6. The angular momentum principle can be expressed in the following two forms:
 Form 1: Z
~
~r  Fs + (~r  ~g) ( dV ) + T~shaft
CV
Z  Z 
= @
  
~
r  ~ ( dV ) +
V ~r  ~  V~  dA~
V
@t CV CS
 Form 2: Z
~
~r  Fs + (~r  ~g) ( dV ) + T~shaft
CV
Z h i
~r  2~!  V~ + !~  (~!  ~r) + ~!_  ~r ( dV )
CV
= @t @ Z  
~r  V~ ( dV ) +
Z  
~r  V~  V~  dA~

CV CS
(a) What is the main di erence between the above two forms?

(b) Give a verbal description to each term in the equations.

106
7. A total water discharge of 200 cm3 is issued from a sprinkler as shown in the following
gure:
2
Aj = 0.1 cm
10 cm 10 cm 10 cm Wj Wj Wj

40 o
40 o
A
Wj Wj Wj
10 cm 10 cm 10 cm

Assume that the jet speed is the same from all the holes.
(a) Static Case: Determine the torque that must be applied to the sprinkler arms to
hold them from rotating.

(b) Frictionless Case: Determine the angular speed if the arms are free to rotate and
there is no friction.

(c) Frictional Case: Determine the angular speed if there is a constant frictional
torque of 1 N-m resisting rotation of the arms.

(d) Relative Motion: Determine the absolute velocity of the uid leaving Hole A in
Part (b) and (c).

(e) Sketch the corresponding velocity vector diagrams for Part (d).

107
8. Refer to the schematic below, a \wye" joint splits a pipe ow into two equal amounts,
Q=2, which exit at a distance R0 from the x-axis. The system rotates about the x axis
at a rate
.
Q/2

, R0 >> Dpipe

Q x

R0

Q/2

(a) Inertial Frame Analysis: Apply the angular momentum principle in an inertial
frame to
i. determine the torque required to turn the pipe (constant speed).

ii. determine the additional torque which is required to generate an angular


acceleration
_ on the existing system (constant acceleration).

(b) Rotating Frame Analysis: Repeat the analysis in Part (a) in a rotating frame.

108
ME 131B Fluid Mechanics
Solutions to Tutorial Seven: Angular Momentum Principle

1. In control volume analysis, all governing principles share the same common structure:
storage = in ow out ow + production
The main di erence between di erent physical principles is in the production term, P .
For the following principles, what is this production term equal to?
(a) conservation of mass
 Mass can neither be created nor destroyed.
Pmass = 0
(b) conservation of linear momentum
 According to Newton's law of motion, we can change the momentum of a
system by apply an external force on it.
X
Plin:mom: = F~
 There are two main types of forces:
{ Surface force
 It is present along the control surfaces of your selected control volume.
 The best way to identify the surface forces is to trace along the entire
control surface and ask yourself the question \What force does my
control volume experience along this surface?"
 Some examples of surface force are pressure force (normal direction)
and friction (tangential direction).
{ Body force
 It is present due to the contents inside the selected control volume under
the in uence of the surrounding force eld.
 Some examples of body force are gravitational force and electrostatic
force.
(c) conservation of angular momentum
 If we draw the analogy between linear momentum in translational motion and
angular momentum in rotational motion, external force will be analogous to
external torque. Hence, X
Pang:mom: = ~
109
 Since the angular momentum equation is derived from the linear momentum
equation, all the external forces, F~ , (both surface and body) in the linear
momentum equation are capable of generating torque, ~r  F~ , on the same
control volume as long as the line of action of the force does not pass through
the center of rotation.
(d) conservation of energy
 We can change the total energy of a system by adding heat (Q) or doing work
(W ) on the system
Penergy = Qin + Win
2. The Reynolds Transport Theorem is the core basis in control volume analysis. It serves
as a bridge between the control mass and the control volume approach. We can state
it as: ! Z Z
dN = @  ( dV ) + 

 ~  dA~
V

dt system @t CV CS
 Most physical laws are Lagrangian in nature, i.e. they are derived for a system
with a xed amount of substance (control mass approach).
 However, this approach is not easy to follow for a uid system simply because a
uid can be deformed continuously as it moves around in space.
 The Reynolds Transport Theorem relates the rate of change of an extensive prop-
erty N of a control mass system
!
dN
dt system
with the rate of change of the same property in a control volume
@ Z  ( dV ) + Z   V~  dA~ 
|@t CV {z } | CS {z }
storage out ow - in ow
 There are two major components in the above equation:
{ The rst one is the storage term which accounts for the rate of increase in
property N within the control volume.
{ The second one is the net out ow term which accounts for the loss of property
N due to the uid motion in and out of the control volume.
 Only with the Reynolds Transport Theorem, we can then relate the physical laws
to what we measure in a xed region in space (control volume approach).

110
For the following principles, what are the quantities N and ?
 The quantity N is an extensive property of the system whereas the quantity  is
its intensive counterpart.
(a) conservation of mass
N = M (total mass of system), =1
(b) conservation of linear momentum
N=M ~ (total linear momentum of system),  = V~
(c) conservation of angular momentum
N = A~ (total angular momentum of system),  = ~r  V~
(d) conservation of energy
~2
N = E (total energy of system),  = u + jV2j + g z

Remarks: With the results of Question 1 and 2, we can summarize all the conservation
laws in the following form:
@ Z  ( dV ) + Z   V~  dA~  = P
@t CV CS

3. What is the main criterion in choosing a suitable control volume in problem solving?
 We should put the control surfaces at places where
{ we know how the ow behaves, for example, (V~ ; P )
{ we want to know something about, for example, frictional shear, exit pressure.
4. From what physical principle is the angular momentum equation derived?
 The angular momentum equation is derived by taking the cross product between
the position vector, ~r, and the linear momentum equation.
 Hence, its main physics comes from Newton's law of motion.
 The main di erence is that the linear momentum equation governs the transla-
tional motion while the the angular momentum equation governs the rotational
motion of the system.
111
5. Choose the best answer in the following question:
Pressure is always directed into the control volume of interest.
 Pressure is a compressive force. Hence, it is always directed into the system of
interest.

6. The angular momentum principle can be expressed in the following two forms:
 Form 1: Z
~
~r  Fs + (~r  ~g) ( dV ) + T~shaft
CV
@ Z ~r  V~  ( dV ) + Z ~r  V~   V~  dA~ 
= @t
CV CS
 Form 2: Z
~
~r  Fs + (~r  ~g) ( dV ) + T~shaft
Z CV
h i
~r  2~!  V~ + !~  (~!  ~r) + ~!_  ~r ( dV )
CV
@ Z
= @t
 
~r  V~ ( dV ) +
Z  
~r  V~  V~  dA~

CV CS
(a) What is the main di erence between the above two forms?
 Form 1 is derived in an inertial frame.
 Form 2 is derived in a rotating (non-inertial) frame.
 We need to make sure that the velocity vector, V~ , is consistent with the cor-
responding choice of reference frame when we invoke the angular momentum
principle.
 As long as we use the two forms in a consistent manner, they should give
identical results.
(b) Give a verbal description to each term in the equations.
 ~rR  F~s is the torque generated by surface force, F~s.
 CVR (~r  ~g)( dV ) is the torque generated by gravitational force.
 RCV ~r  (2~!  V~ ) ( dV ) is the torque generated by Coriolis force.
 RCV ~r  [~!  (~!  ~r)] ( dV ) is the torque generated by centripetal force.
 CV ~r  (~!_  ~r) ( dV ) is the \ ctitious" torque due to angular acceleration
of the
R
rotating reference frame.
 @t CV (~r  V~ ) ( dV ) is the rate of increase in angular momentum within the
@
control
R
volume.
 CS (~r  V~ ) ( V~  dA~ ) is the net out ow of angular momentum caused by uid
motion in and out of the control volume.

112
7. A total water discharge of 200 cm3 is issued from a sprinkler as shown in the following
gure:
2
Aj = 0.1 cm
10 cm 10 cm 10 cm Wj Wj Wj

40 o
40 o
A
Wj Wj Wj
10 cm 10 cm 10 cm

Assume that the jet speed is the same from all the holes.
 We rst choose a control volume to include the entire sprinkler arm as indicated
above.
 Let us solve this angular momentum problem using an inertial reference frame
and see how the analysis works. The corresponding angular momentum equation
is Z  Z 
X @
~ = @t ~

~r  V ( dV ) +

~r  V~  V~  dA~

CV CS
 We then examine every individual term in the above equation:
{ The sources of external torque in this problem come from
 shaft torque, ~shaft
 frictional torque, ~f
{ The storage term is zero because we are dealing with a steady problem.
{ The net angular momentum out ow term can be evaluated by rst considering
the jet out of one hole only:
Wj

ri

ri

For this single jet case,


 
 V~  dA~ = (r Vt) ( Wj Aj ) ~ek = (r Vt)  Q6 ~ek
 
~r  V~
where Vt is the tangential velocity component measured in an inertial frame.

113
{ Consider the relative motion equation V~ = U~ + W~ , we can resolve it in the
tangential direction as
Vt = Ut + Wt
= ri ! + Wj sin 
) r Vt = ri2 ! + ri Wj sin 
= ri2 ! + ri Q sin 
6 Aj
{ Hence, the angular momentum out ow from this hole is equal to
! 
Q 2 Q
ri 6 A sin  ri !  6 ~ek
j
{ The total angular momentum out ow can be obtained by summing the con-
tribution from all six holes together
Z    3 "
X Q  !
Q  #
~ ~ ~
~r  V  V  dA = 2 2
ri 6 A sin  ri !  6 ~ek
CS i=1 j
where r1 = 10 cm, r2 = 20 cm, r3 = 30 cm.
 The entire angular momentum equation can then be simpli ed to
 " #
Q Q 
2
shaft + f =  3 6 A (r1 + r2 + r3) sin  ! r1 + r2 + r3 2 2
j

 This general equation of motion forms the common basis for the following special
cases of interests.
(a) Static Case: Determine the torque that must be applied to the sprinkler arms to
hold them from rotating.
 In this static case, we have
{!=0
{ f = 0
 The restraining torque is
Q 2 !
shaft =  18 A (r1 + r2 + r3 ) sin 
j

(b) Frictionless Case: Determine the angular speed if the arms are free to rotate and
there is no friction.
 In this frictionless case, we have
114
{ shaft = 0
{ f = 0
 The angular speed of the sprinkler arm is
! = 6QA rr21 +
+ r2 + r3 sin 
r22 + r32
j 1

(c) Frictional Case: Determine the angular speed if there is a constant frictional
torque of 1 N-m resisting rotation of the arms.
 In this frictional case, we have
{ shaft = 0
 The angular speed of the sprinkler arm is
" #
1 Q
! = r2 + r2 + r2 6 A (r1 + r2 + r3 ) sin   Q 3  f
1 2 3 j
which reduces to the results in Part (b) for f = 0.
(d) Relative Motion: Determine the absolute velocity of the uid leaving Hole A in
Part (b) and (c).
 In both cases, we can apply the relative motion equation V~ = U~ + W~ to
analyze the velocity components.
{ Radial component:
Vr = Ur + Wr
= 0 + Wj cos 
= Q cos 
6 Aj
{ Tangential component:
Vt = Ut + Wt
= r3 ! + Wj sin 
= 6QA sin  r3 !
j
 The absolute velocity of the uid is given by
q
V = Vt2 + Vr2
v
u !2 !2
u
t Q Q
= 6 Aj sin  r3 ! + 6 Aj cos 
v
u !2
u
t Q r 2 Q r ! sin 
= + ( 3 !)
6 Aj 3 Aj 3

115
(e) Sketch the corresponding velocity vector diagrams for Part (d).
Q
W=
6 Aj

Vr = Wr

V Vt = U Wt

U = r3

8. Refer to the schematic below, a \wye" joint splits a pipe ow into two equal amounts,
Q=2, which exit at a distance R0 from the x-axis. The system rotates about the x axis
at a rate
.
Q/2

, R0 >> Dpipe

Q x

R0

Q/2

(a) Inertial Frame Analysis: Apply the angular momentum principle in an inertial
frame to
i. determine the torque required to turn the pipe (constant speed).
ii. determine the additional torque which is required to generate an angular
acceleration
_ on the existing system (constant acceleration).
 The angular momentum equation in an inertial frame is
Z  Z 
X @
~ = @t ~

~r  V ( dV ) +

~r  V~  V~  dA~

CV CS
 Let us rst consider a control volume which includes the upper tube only:

116
CV1 Q/2

dr

, r @@@
@@@ R0
y

Q @@@

x

 According to the coordinates system chosen, we can express the position


and velocity vectors as
 
~r = r cos ~i + sin  ~j
V~ = 2QA cos ~i + sin  ~j + r
sin  ~k
 

 We can then perform the cross product evaluation as follows:


 
~r  V~ = r cos ~i + sin  ~j
 
 2QA cos ~i + sin  ~j + r
sin  ~k
 

= Q r sin  cos  ~i  ~j + r2
sin  cos  ~i  ~k
   
2A
+ r sin  cos  ~j  ~i + r2
sin2  ~j  ~k
Q    
2A  
= r
sin  sin ~i cos  ~j
2

 The total angular momentum stored in the upper tube can be obtained
by integrating the above expression along the entire upper tube length
Z   Z R = sin  h  i
~
~r  V ( dV ) =
0
r2
sin  sin ~i cos  ~j ( A dr)
CV1 0
=  A R20
sin ~i cos  ~j
3  
3 sin 
 The storage term can then be obtained by take the time derivative of the
above expression. (Notice that only the angular speed is a function of
time.)
@ Z ~r  V~  ( dV ) =  A R03
_ sin ~i cos  ~j 
@t CV 1 3 sin2 
 The angular momentum out ow term can be obtained by evaluating the
~r  V~ expression at r = R0 = sin 
Z " 2   #  Q

~

~ ~
 R
~
~r  V  V  dA = sin  sin  i cos  j
0 ~ 2
CS
1

117
 These procedures conclude the analysis of the upper tube. We can then
proceed to analyze the lower tube by following the same procedures.

y
,

Q x

r @@@
@@@ R0 z

@@@
dr

Q/2
CV2

 The main di erences will be in the expressions of position and velocity


vectors
 
~r = r cos ~i sin  ~j
V~ = 2QA cos ~i sin  ~j r
sin  ~k
 

 After algebraic manipulations, we obtain


@ Z ~r  V~  ( dV ) =  A R03
_ sin ~i + cos  ~j 
@t CV "3 sin2 
 #  Q
2
Z    R 2

and ~r  V~  V~  dA~ = sin  sin ~i + cos  ~j
0 2
CS2
 To obtain the global conservation equation for the entire system, we need
to sum up the results from the upper and the lower tubes.
@ Z ~r  V~  ( dV ) + Z ~r  V~   V~  dA~ 
@t CV CS
2  A R 3 !
=  Q R0
+ 3 sin 
_ ~i
2 0

 From the angular momentum equation in an inertial frame, we deduce


that the applied torque is
2  A R 3 !
~ =  Q R0
+ 3 sin 
_ ~i
2 0

 The rst term corresponds to the torque required to turn the pipe at
constant speed,
, while the second term corresponds to the additional
torque required to produce an angular acceleration,
, _ on the existing
system. Hence,
~
=  Q R02
~i
2  A R 3
_
~
_ = 3 sin  ~i 0

118
(b) Rotating Frame Analysis: Repeat the analysis in Part (a) in a rotating frame.
 The angular momentum equation in a rotating frame is
Z h i
~ ~r  2~!  V~ + ~!  (~!  ~r) + ~!_  ~r ( dV )
CV

= @t @ Z  
~r  V~ ( dV ) +
Z 
~r  V~  V~  dA~
 
CV CS
 Let us rst consider a control volume which includes the upper tube only:
CV1 Q/2

dr

, r @@@
@@@ R0
y

Q @@@

x

 According to the coordinates system chosen, we can express the position,


velocity and angular velocity vectors as
 
~r = r cos ~i + sin  ~j
V~ = 2QA cos ~i + sin  ~j
 

~! =
~i
 Since ~r is collinear to V~ , their cross product is equal to zero
~r  V~ = ~0
Hence, the storage term and the net out ow term both equal zero and do not
contribute to the angular momentum balance in the rotating frame.
 Let us evaluate each cross product term in the \ ctitious" torque carefully:
 
2 ~!  V~ = 2
~i  2QA cos ~i + sin  ~j


= QA
sin  ~i  ~j
 

= QA
sin  ~k
h  i
!~  ~r =
~i  r cos ~i + sin  ~j
 
= r
sin  ~i  ~j
= r
sin  ~k
119
!~  (~!  ~r) =
~i  r
sin 
 ~k 
= r
2 sin  ~i  ~k
= r
2h sin  ~j i
_!~  ~r =
_ ~i  r cos ~i + sin  ~j
 
= r
_ sin  ~i  ~j
= r
_ sin  ~k
 These combine to give
 
~ _ Q

2 ~!  V + ~!  (~!  ~r) + ~!  ~r = sin  A + r


~k r
2 sin  ~j
_

and
 
~r  2 ~!  V~ + ~!  (~!  ~r) + ~!_  ~r = r sin2  QA
+ r
_ ~i
h i

 
Q

r sin  cos  A + r
~j r2
2 sin  cos  ~k
_
 The combined \ ctitious" torque can be obtained by integrating the above
expression along the entire upper tube length
Z h i
~r  2 ~!  V~ + ~!  (!~  ~r) + ~!_  ~r ( dV )
CV1
Z R0 = sin   
Q   
rsin2 
_ ~ Q
_ ~
=
0 A + r
i i r sin  cos  A + r
j
r2
2 sin  cos  ~k ( A dr)
" ! !
Q R 0
_ R 0
_

2 cos  Q
R
= ( A) R02 + ~
i 0 + ~j
2 A 3 sin #
 sin  2 A 3 sin 
R03
2 cos  ~k
3 sin2 
 These procedures conclude the analysis of the upper tube. We can then
proceed to analyze the lower tube by following the same procedures.

120
y
,

Q x

r @@@
@@@ R0 z

@@@
dr

Q/2
CV2

 The main di erences will be in the expressions of position



and velocity vectors
~r = r cos ~i sin  ~j
V~ = 2QA cos ~i sin  ~j
 

 After algebraic
Z
manipulations, we obtain
h i
~r  2 ~!  V~ + ~!  (~!  ~r) + ~!_  ~r ( dV )
CV2
" !
Q
R 0
_ R 2 cos  Q
R _ !

= ( A) R02 ~i + 0 + 3 sin  ~j
0
2 A + 3 sin  sin  2 A
R 3
2 cos  #
+ 0 2 ~k
3 sin 
 To obtain the global conservation equation for the entire system, we need to
sum up the results from the upper and the lower tubes.
Z h i
~r  2 ~!  V~ + ~!  (!~  ~r) + ~!_  ~r ( dV )
CV
" !#
Q
R 0
_ ~
= ( A) 2 R02
2 A + 3 sin  i
 From the angular momentum equation in a rotating frame, we deduce that
the applied torque is
Z h i
~ = ~r  2 ~!  V~ + ~!  (!~  ~r) + !~_  ~r ( dV )
CV
" !#
Q
R 0
_ ~
= ( A) 2 R02
2 A + 3 sin  i
 The rst term corresponds to the torque required to turn the pipe at constant
speed,
, while the second term corresponds to the additional torque required
_ on the existing system. Hence,
to produce an angular acceleration,
,
~
=  Q R02
~i
3 _
~
_ = 2 3 AsinR0
~i

121
 This example demonstrates that we can obtain the same results by choosing
either the inertial or rotating reference frame to analyze angular momentum
problems as long as the velocity vector is consistent with the corresponding
chosen reference frame.
 In this problem,
{ the production, the storage and the net out ow terms are all active in the
inertial frame analysis;
{ the production term and the \ ctitious" torque are both active but the
storage and the net out ow terms are both zero in the rotating frame
analysis.

122
ME 131B Fluid Mechanics
Tutorial Eight: Turbomachinery

1. The Buckingham Pi Theorem is fundamental in dimensional analysis.


(a) Can you state it in your own words?

(b) In the application of turbomachinery, what does it lead to?

2. Every ow is characterized by a Reynolds number.


(a) How is it de ned?

(b) Give a physical meaning to it.

(c) Why do we ignore its e ects in the analysis of turbomachinery?

3. What is/are the necessary condition(s) for two ows to be dynamically similar?

4. (a) What is the unique characteristic of speci c speed as a non-dimensional parame-


ter?

123
(b) Can you give a physical meaning to speci c speed?

(c) It can be expressed by two common forms. What are they?

5. What does the net head of a pump signify?

6. The Euler turbomachine equations are:


T = Q (r2Vt;2 r1Vt;1 )
Pw = Q (U2 Vt;2 U1 Vt;1)
H = g1 (U2Vt;2 U1Vt;1 )
(a) What are the assumptions behind these equations?

(b) From which basic principles and de nitions are they derived?

7. The least trivial quantity in the above Euler turbomachinery equations is the uid
tangential velocity relative to an inertial frame, Vt. We often need to invoke the
following equation to nd it out:
V~ = U~ + W ~
How do you verbally describe the di erent velocity vectors in the above equation?

124
8. We encounter two common types of turbomachine:
 centrifugal ow type
 axial ow type
Pro ciency in analyzing each of them is crucial in designing machines with better
performance. We will examine both of them in this problem.
(a) Centrifugal Flow Type:
Backward Curved Blade

2 W

i. Draw the velocity vector diagram at the outlet.

ii. Which velocity component is responsible for carrying uid in and out of the
machine?
iii. Determine the following velocity components:
Ur =
Ut =
Wr =
Wt =
) Vr =
Vt =
iv. Determine the torque and power input.

v. What is the theoretical head? Give a verbal description to it.

125
(b) Axial Flow Type:
This plane is parallel Inlet Outlet
to the Meridional plane.

Axial Flow Direction (x)


U
1

Rotor rotates about this axis

Stator Rotor
Blade Blade

i. Draw the velocity vector diagram at the inlet.

ii. Which velocity component is responsible for carrying uid in and out of the
machine?
iii. Determine the following velocity components:
Ux =
Ut =
Wx =
Wt =
) Vx =
Vt =
iv. Determine the torque, power input and theoretical head.

v. What is/are your assumption(s) in determining the results in Part(iv)?

126
ME 131B Fluid Mechanics
Solutions to Tutorial Eight: Turbomachinery

1. The Buckingham Pi Theorem is fundamental in dimensional analysis.


(a) Can you state it in your own words?
 If there are N dimensional variables characterizing a physical system and
there are M independent physical dimensions associated with these N vari-
ables, we can describe this physical system by using N M non-dimensional
parameters ( groups).
 Take the example of nding the drag FD on a sphere in low-speed ows. The
relevant dimensional variables are
{ FD { drag on the sphere (dimension: ML=T 2 )
{  { density of uid (dimension: M=L3 )
{ V { velocity of uid (dimension: L=T )
{  { viscosity of uid (dimension: M=LT )
{ D { diameter of sphere (dimension: L)
 There are ve dimensional variables and three independent dimensions (mass
(M), length (L), time (T)) in this description.
 The Buckingham Pi Theorem tells us that the same physical problem can
be described by two non-dimensional parameters instead of ve dimensional
variables.
 There are many di erent ways to write these two non-dimensional parameters.
One such way is to express them in terms of the drag coecient and Reynolds
number:
CD = 1  FVD2 D2 Re =  V D
2

(b) In the application of turbomachinery, what does it lead to?


 In the analysis of turbomachinery, the relevant dimensional variables are
{ Q { volumetric ow rate (dimension: L3 =T )
{ H { net head (dimension: L)
{ ! { rotational speed (dimension: 1=T )
{ D { impeller size (dimension: L)
{ P { brake horse power (dimension ML2 =T 3)
{  { density of uid (dimension: M=L3 )
 These six dimensional variables contain three independent dimensions (M; L;
T ).
127
 By Buckingham Pi Theorem, we can characterize the machine performance
by three non-dimensional parameters:
{ CH = g H=(!2 D2) head coecient
{ CP = P=( ! D )
3 5 power coecient
{ CQ = Q=(! D ) 3 ow coecient
 Choosing the ow coecient to be the independent non-dimensional param-
eter, we can express the head coecient and the power coecient as:
CH = f1 (CQ)
CP = f2 (CQ)
Remarks:
There are two other non-dimensional parameters which can be formed by
combining the above three non-dimensional parameters:
{ speci c speed (to be discussed in Problem 4)
{ eciency,  = CH CQ= CP
2. Every ow is characterized by a Reynolds number.
(a) How is it de ned?
 Reynolds is de ned as
Re =  V L
where V is a characteristic velocity while L is a characteristic length of the
ow problem.
 Take the example of a uniform ow over a sphere. The characteristic veloc-
ity will be the free stream velocity and the characteristic length will be the
diameter of the sphere.
(b) Give a physical meaning to it.
 The Reynolds number can be interpreted as the ratio of inertial to viscous
force in a ow.
(c) Why do we ignore its e ects in the analysis of turbomachinery?
 The higher the ow Reynolds number gets, the less important the viscous
e ects are, compared with the inertial e ects.
 As the ow Reynolds number exceeds a certain limit, we can ignore the viscous
e ects without causing too much error in our analysis.
 Take the example of the Moody diagram. The friction factor is a function of
both relative roughness (e=D) and Reynolds number (Re).
128
 As the Reynolds number reaches 106 or above, the value of friction factor
approaches nearly a constant value for relative roughness greater than 0.001
and becomes independent of the Reynolds number.

3. What is/are the necessary condition(s) for two ows to be dynamically similar?
 The two ows must be geometrically similar.
 The independent non-dimensional parameters which characterize the ow must
be of comparable magnitude.

4. (a) What is the unique characteristic of speci c speed as a non-dimensional parame-


ter?
 The speci c speed does not depend on the size of the system.
(b) Can you give a physical meaning to speci c speed?
 Speci c speed can be interpreted as the operation speed of the machine at
which it produces a unit head rise per unit ow rate through the system.
(c) It can be expressed by two common forms. What are they?
 Speci c speed is another non-dimensional parameter which characterizes the
machine operation.
 It can be formed by combining di erent non-dimensional parameters in such
a way that the size of the system (D) is factored out of its de nition.
 It can be formed by combining the ow coecient and the head coecient as
follows:
C 1=2 1=2
Ns = Q3=4 = !HQ3=4
CH
or by combining the power coecient and the head coecient as follows:
1=2
Ns = 5=4 = !HP5=4
C 1=2
P
CH

5. What does the net head of a pump signify?


 The net head of a pump signi es the amount of energy gained by the uid as it
passes through the machine.
 It is related to the power required to drive the pump through the pump eciency.

129
6. The Euler turbomachine equations are:
T = Q (r2Vt;2 r1Vt;1 ) (9)
Pw = Q (U2 Vt;2 U1 Vt;1) (10)
1
H = g (U2Vt;2 U1Vt;1 ) (11)

(a) What are the assumptions behind these equations?


The main assumptions are:
 steady state (no storage term)
 uniform ow at each station ( ow variables do not vary with azimuthal di-
rection)
 (Optional) In evaluating the tangential velocity component Vt, we often invoke
one more assumption in the analysis: attached ow is achieved on the blade
surface (no ow separation).
(b) From which basic principles and de nitions are they derived?
 Equation (9) is derived from the conservation of angular momentum principle
based on the above assumptions.
 Equation (10) is derived from Equation (9) together with the de nition of me-
chanical power Pw = T !.
 Equation (11) is derived from Equation (10) based on a 100 % eciency assump-
tion, i.e. all the mechanical power is converted to head gain in the uid. The
head value calculated in this way is called the theoretical head. It represented the
upper limit of any physical system.

7. The least trivial quantity in the above Euler turbomachinery equations is the uid
tangential velocity relative to an inertial frame, Vt. We often need to invoke the
following equation to nd it out:
V~ = U~ + W ~
How do you verbally describe the di erent velocity vectors in the above equation?
 V~ is the uid velocity measured with respect to an inertial frame.
 U~ is the blade velocity measured with respect to an inertial frame.
 W~ is the uid velocity measured with respect to the rotating blade (non-inertial
frame).

130
8. We encounter two common types of turbomachine:
 centrifugal ow type
 axial ow type
Pro ciency in analyzing each of them is crucial in designing machines with better
performance. We will examine both of them in this problem.
(a) Centrifugal Flow Type:
Backward Curved Blade

2 W

i. Draw the velocity vector diagram at the outlet.


W2
2

V2
U2 = r2

ii. Which velocity component is responsible for carrying uid in and out of the
machine?
 The radial velocity component (Vr ; Wr ) is responsible for carrying uid
in and out of a centrifugal machine.
iii. Determine the following velocity components:
Ur = 0
Ut = r !
Wr = 2 Qr b (mass conservation)
131
Wt = Wr cot (assume attached ow)
= Q cot
2rb
) Vr = Ur + Wr
= Q
2rb
Vt = Ut Wt
= r ! 2 Qr b cot
iv. Determine the torque and power input.
 By the Euler turbomachine equation,
T =  Q (r2 Vt;2 r1 Vt;1 )
P =  Q (U2 Vt;2 U1 Vt;1)
where subscripts 1 ;2 refer to the inlet and outlet stations respectively.
v. What is the theoretical head? Give a verbal description to it.
 By the Euler turbomachine equation,
H = g1 (U2 Vt;2 U1 Vt;1)
 It corresponds to the ideal case (no losses), which gives the maximum
head available.

132
(b) Axial Flow Type:
This plane is parallel Inlet Outlet
to the Meridional plane.

Axial Flow Direction (x)


U
1

Rotor rotates about this axis

Stator Rotor
Blade Blade

i. Draw the velocity vector diagram at the inlet.


V1

U1 = r

W1

1
1

ii. Which velocity component is responsible for carrying uid in and out of the
machine?
 The axial velocity component (Wx; Vx) is responsible for carrying uid in
and out of an axial machine.
iii. Determine the following velocity components:
Ux = 0
Ut = r !
Wx =  ( r 2 Q r 2 ) (mass conservation)
o i
133
Wt = Wx cot (assume attached ow)
Q
=
 ( ro ri2 ) cot
2
) Vx = Ux + Wx
= Q
 ( ro ri2 )
2
Vt = Ut + Wt
= r ! +  ( r2 Q r2 ) cot
o i
where ri and ro denote the inner and outer radii of the rotor cross section
respectively.
Remarks:
At the design point operation, the stator blade outlet angle 1 is set so that
tan 1 = VVx;1
t;1
to achieve ow attachment.
iv. Determine the torque, power input and theoretical head.
 The results from the Euler turbomachine equation apply to both centrifu-
gal and axial machines:
T =  Q (r2 Vt;2 r1 Vt;1 )
P =  Q (U2 Vt;2 U1 Vt;1)
H = g1 (U2 Vt;2 U1 Vt;1)
where subscripts 1 ;2 refer to the inlet and outlet stations respectively.
v. What is/are your assumption(s) in determining the results in Part(iv)?
 Usually, we assume a mean radius value rm to evaluate the U and Vt
terms in the above equations:
rm = ri +2 ro
U = rm !
Vt = rm ! +  (r2 Q r2) cot
o i
which is an approximation itself.
 By doing so, we can avoid integrating the angular momentum distribution
along the radial direction at both the inlet and the outlet.
 But this assumption requires the di erence between the outer and inner
radius, ro ri, to be small compared with the mean radius, (ro + ri)=2.

134
References

Fox, R. W. & McDonald, A. T., Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, Wiley, New York,
1973.
Shapiro, A. H., The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Compressible Fluid Flow,
Volume I, Wiley, New York, 1953.
White, F. W., Fluid Mechanics, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986.
Zucker, R. D., Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Matrix, Ohio, 1977.

135