Mechanical Services Technical

Procedure M01

DUCTWORK AND AIR DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEM DESIGN GUIDE

March 2007

23/0101205/WP/27820

AIR HANDLING PLANT COMPONENTS 16 4.7 Relief Air Grilles for On-floor Plant with Outside Air Cycle Operation 10 3.3 Door Grilles and Relief Air Grilles 9 2.1 Outside Air Louvres 8 2. use the Shortcut Keys or Autotext Contents 1. Grilles and Louvres 8 2.1 Diffusers 11 3.Comment [JAG1]: To reinsert the APPENDICES and TABLE INDEX lists if deleted.1 Ductwork Shafts and Plenums 3 1.5 Car Park Exhaust Grilles and Clearance 9 2.4 Riser Take-off Ducts 4 1.3 Masonry Risers and Plenums 4 1.2 Registers 13 3.3 Luminaire Air Diffusers 14 4. Ductwork and Air Distribution Systems 3 1.2 Return air Grilles 9 2.6 Stair Pressurisation Supply Grilles 10 2.7 Outdoor Air Pressurisation 7 2.2 Coils 16 4.5 Unfavourable Entry Conditions 4 1.3 Filters 17 4.6 Velocity and Friction Rate 5 1. Diffusers and Registers 11 3.1 Fans 16 4.4 Volume Control Dampers 17 23/01012/05/27820 .2 Design Basis 3 1.4 Toilet Exhaust Grilles 9 2.

Aspect ratios of 7:1 should not be exceeded unless special conditions apply. fittings.1 Ductwork Shafts and Plenums 1. Ductwork systems shall be designed with some flexibility to allow redistribution of air for tenancy changes.2 Design Basis Ductwork shall be designed such that the velocity limits and friction rates set out in this technical procedure are not exceeded. Thus ductwork towards the end of runs will generally be designed by the equal friction method.5 m/s).5 m/s respectively. As a general comment. Reducing fittings are more expensive to fabricate than straight ductwork. The extent to which the recommended velocities and friction rates can be exceeded will depend on the particular circumstances. traditionally manufactured reducing fittings are expensive to manufacture).e. They should be used economically and it will be appropriate in most cases to allow for two or more take-offs before reducing the duct size. Ductwork and Air Distribution Systems The design of ductwork and air distribution systems shall be in accordance with this Design Guide unless otherwise approved by the Principal Engineer or Project Manager. (i. 1. Square ducts and ducts with low aspect ratios are more economical than those with a high aspect ratio and should be used where practical.1. Friction rates are generally limited by fan static pressure capability or air balancing considerations. are cheaper and should be used in preference to those which reduce both dimensions. they should be limited to and 7. 1. ASHRAE handbooks). which reduce one duct dimension.1 General This technical procedure addresses the design of low velocity systems (less than 12. High velocity systems are rarely used because of high pressure losses and consequent high energy consumption. The changeover point will usually be at air quantities around 1000 to 3000 l/s. Shaft velocities of 10 m/s and main duct velocities of 9 m/s in office ceiling spaces have been used satisfactorily on some occasions but as a guide. 23/01012/05/27820 Mechanical Services Technical Procedure M01 . (Note that modern laser cutting machines can produce fittings which reduce both dimensions as cheaply as reducing one dimension however. The velocities and friction rates set our herein are therefore conservative and can be exceeded when more air is required from an existing system or when building constraints etc prevent use of the preferred rates. They are usually designed using the “static regain” method of calculation which is documented in other literature. Large air quantities will usually be governed by the velocity limit and smaller air quantities by the friction limit. 1.

(Standard mechanical services detail drawings are being developed to show typical details of take-off ducts from risers). Installation of turning vanes at the point where supply air enters the riser would be the preferred option provided that airflow in the upstream duct is evenly distributed across the duct. 1. Where airflow in the riser is unfavourable due to a poor entry condition it may be necessary to use an air scoop take-off for sheet metal or concrete risers. Therefore they should not be used where leakage cannot be tolerated. These risers are very difficult to seal airtight especiall at brickwork to concrete joints where they tend to crack.4 Riser Take-off Ducts The preferred take-off from a concrete riser requires a volume damper downstream and has a low overall pressure loss. A flexible joint should be used in the joint between the top of the plenum wall and the soffit of the slab above. Brickwork and blockwork plenums have been successfully used for car park exhaust systems but care is needed in their construction. The plenum face needs to be reasonably smooth particularly in narrow sections to avoid high friction losses and at least one face must be bagged or rendered to ensure that it is airtight. Alternatively.5 Unfavourable Entry Conditions 23/01012/05/27820 Mechanical Services Technical Procedure M01 . 1. Trilock or similar rigid wall construction could be used. Brickwork and concrete block risers can be used for return air provided they are reasonably airtight and any leakage comes from the conditioned space.3 Masonry Risers and Plenums Slip formed concrete risers can be used for supply return and exhaust air (other than kitchen and toilet exhausts). When using this type of construction ensure that the fan is capable of a speed or pitch change if necessary to compensate for 10-20% leakage. This will usually be required on the first two take-offs following an entry condition as detailed below. 1.

2 Pa/m shall be used for large systems. a maximum friction rate of 1. The friction rates quoted below have been adjusted to compensate for this.2 23/01012/05/27820 Mechanical Services Technical Procedure M01 .8 Pa/m shall be used.0 -Large system (>3 000 l/s).0 - Main duct in ceiling space: . 6. The friction rates and velocities are those read from a Trane or Fantech Ductulator.5 1. 7. a maximum friction rate of 0.0 1. Exposed duct in occupied space without side blow registers. no longer included in the current Standard but retained as good practice). In general.0 0.0 - Exposed duct in occupied space with side blow registers. Where the friction rate is not listed the limit is dependent on the type of system. 6. 4. Where longer lengths are unavoidable use sheet metal inserts. Note that the actual friction rate for rough brickwork is about twice the rate for metal and for concrete is about 1. 4.8* (Max length 5m. Duct branch to single diffuser or register. 1.6 Velocity and Friction Rate The following table lists the maximum velocities and friction rates to be used for design of new ductwork systems.0 m/s is approximately double the Ductulator reading (refer to manufacturer’s data if actual losses are required). If detailed information on concrete or brickwork etc is required refer to tables in the CIBSE. This was an AS 1668. SYSTEM MAXIMUM MAXIMUM VELOCITY m/s FRICTION RATE Pa/m Supply Air Flexible ducts to outlets.0 - Duct branch with more than one diffuser or register directly 6. Guide Volume C or refer to ASHRAE handbooks.0 1.Small system (<3 000 l/s). * Note: Actual friction rate at 4.0 connected.5 times the rate of metal. For small systems where the pressure available from the fan is low eg packaged or fan coil units less than 3000l/s. 4.1-1979 requirement.

5 0.8 Carparks unoccupied service rooms and the like: .2 Ducts with return air grilles direct connected. 9.5 1. With return air opening to ceiling space.Metal 9.0 0.4 - Through slots to ceiling plenum (based on free area).0 1.0 0.0 1.2 Return Air Transfer ducts. 7.2 space.2 .2 23/01012/05/27820 Mechanical Services Technical Procedure M01 .Metal ducts. 6.Brick or blockwork ducts and plenums. damper and subduct from ceiling plenum to riser 6.0 1.0 - Free flow through ceiling plenum. 4.6 Fresh Air Opening. . . 0.8 Rough brick or blockwork. 0.5 1.0 0. 3. Duct to small system (<3000 l/s) where no fresh air fan is 6. 7.0 1. SYSTEM MAXIMUM MAXIMUM VELOCITY m/s FRICTION RATE Pa/m Risers and plantroom ducts: .0 1. 7.5 Ducts for small systems (<3 000 l/s). 4.Slip formed concrete (unlined) 9. Duct to large system.2 .0 - Riser Shafts With return air grilles directly connected to the occupied 6.6 Fire stair pressurisation.5 1.0 - Free flow along corridor. 9.2 Smooth concrete (unlined). 6. 7.5 used.0 Ducts for large systems (>3 000 l/s). 0.0 - shaft.

5 1. Existing offices with poorly sealed windows. Existing offices with aluminium 0.25 l/s. concrete. motels. 7. 7.5 1.m 2 wooden window frames. 13. 9.Commercial buildings. 23/01012/05/27820 Mechanical Services Technical Procedure M01 .0 0.2 Smoke Spill Shafts Ductwork. 7. unoccupied service rooms etc: .6 Other general exhausts (photocopiers and the like). SYSTEM MAXIMUM MAXIMUM VELOCITY m/s FRICTION RATE Pa/m Exhaust Air Toilet exhaust: .0 1.2 .0 l/s. with leaky facades. with 0.0 Limited by fan pressure capability 1.m windows and well sealed facades. 6.5 0.5 to 1. home units).2 . blockwork. hospitals. brick ducts and plenums.8 Car parks.7 Outdoor Air Pressurisation Outdoor Air Quantity l/s 2 New offices.Residential (hotels.Metal ducts.Blockwork.

The pressure drop at design velocity is large and can be a disaster if the intake is for equipment such as a cooing tower. The design velocities listed below are based on the types of grilles commonly used in projects i. Grilles and Louvres The major considerations in sizing grilles and louvres are pressure loss and noise generation. 2. The noise and pressure loss are greatly influenced by the form of grille used.e. 2. Insect screens should be used in lieu of bird screens in such applications as long as they are readily accessible for cleaning.: » Egg crate type ceiling return and exhaust grilles » Full chevron type door and wall return grilles » Half chevron type external louvres Velocities should be modified if other types of grilles with significantly higher pressure losses are used. In such cases ensure that the type of louvre or grille to be used is known at the outset and provide sizing information to suit the pressure drop characteristics.5 m/s. Face velocities of up to 3. The Architect is usually given sizes for outside air louvres “based on free area of 55%”. For package units and fan coil unit systems where outside air is ducted to the unit the above pressure drop should be reduced so that the total outside air path pressure loss is comparable with the return air path losses.1 Outside Air Louvres In general the face velocity should not exceeds 2.e. Bogong moths being drawn into Parliament House relief air louvres in huge numbers). These are controlled by limiting the air velocity through the grille. In addition the total pressure loss for grille and birdscreen should not exceed 50 Pa. He then specifies a vertical sight proof louvre with excellent weather proofing properties built like a three break eliminator with hooked edges. eg an egg crate type grille has a much lower pressure loss than a full chevron door grille at the same velocity. Where internal lighting can shine through louvres or grilles at night.5 m/s can be used on intakes for stairwell pressurisation systems where the grille type selected permits this velocity without excessive pressure drops. 23/01012/05/27820 Mechanical Services Technical Procedure M01 . insects can be drawn into the building (i. A particular problem arises when grilles and louvres are provided by others.

will require any vehicular path of travel to or from a parking space for people with disabilities to have a headroom clearance of 2300 mm. This can usually be achieved by centering them on the marked dividing lines between parking bays and preferably in line with columns.6 Off-street Parking for People with Disabilities. However. Low-level grilles should be located where they are least susceptible to damage by reversing vehicles (especially those with tow bars). AS/NZS 2890. Refer to AS 1668.2 Return air Grilles Face Velocity Eggerate grille in ceiling.1 Parking Facilities. 2. 23/01012/05/27820 Mechanical Services Technical Procedure M01 . The number of grille sizes used should be minimised for any particular project eg 0. Typically.1 m 2 minimum with 2.25 m/s 55% of the gross area. size increments of 0.2 for additional requirements in relation to location sizing and installation height. 2. They should also be of substantial construction.05 m 2.3 Door Grilles and Relief Air Grilles Based on a grille having a net free area not less than 1. Through slots in the “T” bars or lights (based on 4 m/s free area). Ensure that the design documents clarify that the 150 x 150 is open face size not overall size inclusive of border. 2. Provide a grille over each toilet bowl and urinal. reference is made to a new standard that is in preparation (as at September 2004). maintain 2200 mm clear headroom beneath ductwork run within carparks. 150 150 is a good minimum size to standardise on (up to 55 l/s). Off-street Parking.5 Car Park Exhaust Grilles and Clearance Car park exhaust grilles shall be sized such that the pressure drop through the grille and opposed blade damper does not exceed 25 Pascals.75 m/s occupied spaces or corridors.5 m/s Wall mounted grilles at high or low level in 1. Preferably use one size of grille only for any particular project and at a maximum use two sizes.4 Toilet Exhaust Grilles Based on a net free area of not less than 90% of the 2. note that under AS/NZS 2890. In some cases guard rails or bollards may be advisable.5 m/s gross area (egg crate grille or similar). 2.

Refer to 1.4 m/s manufacturer’s catalogue for selection. 5. 2.6 Stair Pressurisation Supply Grilles Face Velocity Based on egg crate grille register or similar.0 m/s Balancing dampers shall be provided behind grilles. Where a grille has to be located opposite a doorway a grille that deflects the supply air shall be used with the velocity reduced such that the pressure drop across the grille is in the region of 25-35 Pa. Grilles shall not be located opposite doorways or in other locations where they can directly discharge out through doorways. 2. 23/01012/05/27820 Mechanical Services Technical Procedure M01 .7 Relief Air Grilles for On-floor Plant with Outside Air Cycle Operation Face Velocity Suitable for the application.

Alternatively. not 225 x 225 neck size). 23/01012/05/27820 Mechanical Services Technical Procedure M01 . Linear air outlets. noise and pressure loss. Diffuser shall be provided complete with insulated cushion heads. throw. Diffusers and Registers The principal criteria for selection of diffusers and registers are Air Diffusion Performance Index (ADPI). Drop is also important for register selection. The minimum throw can be reduced by 1. two and three way blow diffusers can be used when the minimum throw is obstructed on one or more sides. Diffusers shall be sized so that minimum throws do not overlap each other or any wall or obstruction at ceiling level and the maximum throw provides reasonable coverage of the area served.5 m/s for ceiling slot diffusers). If no boundary wall. outlets must be selected to provide satisfactory air distribution at both the maximum and minimum air flows. The minimum diffuser throw is also affected by the ceiling height. Air Diffusion Performance Index (ADPI) also affects selection of air terminals. Cushion heads shall be full diffuser face size and not neck size (i. eg a four way blow diffuser blanked to provide two way blow can only handle 50% of its rated capacity.1 Diffusers Diffusers shall be selected from catalogue data taking note of maximum and minimum throw and noise level. One. Flexible ductwork shall be connected horizontally into the side of the cushion head and not vertically onto the top as vertical connections adversely affect the cushioning effect provided by the cushion head and hence air throw from the diffuser.7 m. (L = the distance from the diffuser to the nearest boundary wall in the principle horizontal direction of the airflow. ADPI is related to the ratio of the air throw at 0. Details of ADPI are covered in ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook. 600 x 600 say. the cooling load within the air conditioned space. and the characteristic room length L. Diffusers shall be provided complete with neck plates in accordance with the manufacturer’s selection criteria. For variable air volume (VAV) systems. A grille consists of a frame enclosing a set of either vertical or horizontal blades (single deflection) or both (double deflection or universal type). Full size cushion heads provide flexibility for fitout modifications by enabling simple changes to be made to the neck plates to suit altered supply air quantities.25 m terminal velocity (0. A register is a grille in combination with a volume control device such as opposed blade dampers (OBD’s).e.0 metre for every metre of ceiling height above 2. then half the distance between adjacent diffusers plus the distance the diffused supply air and room air travels down to reach the occupied zone). 3. the same effect can be achieved by partially blanking the back of the diffuser face provided that the reduced capacity of the diffuser is taken into account. plaque diffusers and light air diffusers are more suitable for varying air flows than some other outlets 3.

23/01012/05/27820 Mechanical Services Technical Procedure M01 . Refer to paragraph 3. The Coanda effect is the principle by which velocity pressure in the airstream causes a lowering of static pressure thereby enabling the higher room static pressure to hold the cold airstream against the ceiling. Whilst this technique may be useful for reducing an existing problem the recommended procedure is to install diffusers in accordance with standard specification as illustrated below. A level of 35 or below is acceptable for most applications. When the velocity is too low the cold air stream falls from the ceiling before sufficient room air has been entrained and the result is a cold draught and uneven room temperatures.R. Spigot Length Greater Than Neck Dimension Equalising Deflection Grid Turning Vanes Spigot Length Less Than Neck Dimension Conventional square or circular type supply air diffusers are unsatisfactory for variable volume systems which turn down below 40% maximum volume as they will normally “dump” supply air below this value. Noise problems can be experienced with louvre type diffusers where restricted ceiling space prevents installation of diffuser spigot connections of adequate length. Noise level is usually expressed as room N.3 Luminaire Air Diffusers. “Dumping” occurs when the discharge velocity from the diffuser reduces to the point where the Coanda effect is insufficient to hold the cold air stream against the ceiling. level. and AS 2107 Acoustics. (The total pressures in the room and in the airstream are equal). For more specific information on recommended noise ratings refer to the AIRAH handbook section 9 Noise and Vibration. Noise can be generated by air flowing obliquely across the top of the diffuser blades and can be significantly reduced in existing installations by fitting split plastic tubing over the sharp leading edges.

Drop is a characteristic of side blow outlets because they do not establish a Coanda effect by blowing air across the surface of the ceiling. the greater the drop.0 T0. Conventional registers are unsatisfactory for variable volume systems because they dump at low airflow.0 range of 35 to 160 w/m 2 (Range of 1. Throw shall be selected to adequately cover the area being served.0 m above floor level before the air stream is substantially dissipated. The colder the supply air.2 Registers Side blow registers shall be selected to have suitable throw and drop characteristic for the particular application. A square register has the longest throw and drop whereas a long narrow register has a short throw and drop.25/L: 1.3) 23/01012/05/27820 Mechanical Services Technical Procedure M01 .25/L: 2. Face velocity should be between 1. The vertical direction control blades can be set for a straight blow or divergent blow. Air Diffusion Performance Index Cooling load in air conditioned space ADPI >70 2 To 125 w/m T0.5 m/s. Register throw and drop are affected by the register’s aspect ratio and the setting of the direction control blades. Drop shall be selected so the air stream does not fall into the occupied level (ie 2.5 and 2. A divergent blow shortens the throw and drop. As a general rule the throw is adequate if it covers the required distance with the vertical blades set for a straight blow. Thus a change of register aspect ratio can sometimes be used to overcome a problem of overblow or underblow. Air Diffusion Performance Index ADPI >80 ADPI >90 Cooling load in air conditioned space within T0. based on 50% free grille area.6 (Range of 1.2 to 2.4) (Range of 1. It is often expressed in catalogue data as minimum ceiling height and is affected by supply air temperature. Special registers are available which maintain a constant volume discharge through the bottom edge of the register to prevent dumping when the upper section of the register reduces its volume.0 to 3.4 to 3.25/L: 2. For most applications the highest aspect ratio from the available standard sizes should be used ie choose a 100 mm deep register rather than a 150 mm deep register where applicable. The other factor controlling throw and drop is register face velocity. Higher velocities produce longer throws and slightly less drop.

Outlet Type Slot Width mm Slot Length mm Max Air Quanity l/s Single 12 1020 45 Double 12 1020 75 Single 12 1400 50 Double 12 1400 75 Single 19 1020 55 Double 19 1020 85 Single 10 1400 60 Double 19 1400 85 The above figures are based on data supplied by Anemostat and will not necessarily apply directly to other manufacturers products. Dumping is only likely to occur on start up in winter. 2 125 to 190 w/m T0. These include outlets incorporated with light fittings in a luminaire air diffuser or as a continuous slot around the perimeter of the building often with alternative sections of the slot for the variable volume system and a separate perimeter constant volume system. 23/01012/05/27820 Mechanical Services Technical Procedure M01 .3 Luminaire Air Diffusers For variable volume systems narrow slot type diffusers typically provide the best performance. The slot type diffuser has the advantage that due to the Coanda effect the slot will not dump supply air even when turned down to below 20% design capacity. This is more important in the perimeter zones that the interior zones as the turn down is likely to be much greater on the perimeter. Where the flexibility of blowing in either or both directions is required a more expensive type outlet can be provided to give this flexibility.5 to 2. Typically this is the direction back towards the flexible duct connection. To minimise dumping it is important that variable volume outlets be selected to operate at near peak design capacity to allow the maximum turn down before dumping occurs.25/L: 1. The standard luminaire air diffusers will only blow in one direction. Generally this flexibility is not considered necessary. Below this design capacity some dumping may occur but at this capacity the problem should not be great as the air quantity is very small.2) 3. Slot type outlets come in the following configurations.8 (Range of 1.

provide suitable protection to prevent damage to finished surfaces. • The ceiling contractor shall install the ceiling tiles and adjust the final position of all luminaries to meet the lighting layout requirements. Flexible duct connections should be a minimum of 150 mm diameter for single luminaire air diffusers and 200 mm diameter for double luminaire air diffusers. The specification should also detail installation sequencing requirements to ensure full coordination amongst the contractors involved. within 250 mm of the final position. 23/01012/05/27820 Mechanical Services Technical Procedure M01 . Air quantities are selected for a room noise level of NC35 allowing a room attenuation of 8dB for an absorbent room. • The mechanical contractor shall provide single and double luminaire air diffusers. • The electrical trade shall install fluorescent tubes in the luminaires to form a complete luminaire/air diffuser installation. • The mechanical contractor shall install flexible ductwork and connect each luminaire air diffuser to the main supply duct spigot. if undamaged. fit them securely to each luminaire on the floor. • The electrical contractor shall connect power and control wiring to each luminaire. to keep noise to a minimum. if undamaged. and shall check each luminaire for full compliance with all documented requirements. The specification should include a requirement for the electrical and mechanical contractors to provide a sample light fitting and single and double-sided luminaire air diffusers for NATA certified acoustic testing. Maximum airflow rates for specific manufacturer’s equipment should be based on acoustic test data to achieve the desired room noise level. • The electrical contractor shall unpack each luminaire. Luminaire air diffusers should comply with AS 2946. and position each luminaire on the floor directly beneath its final ceiling location. check them for damage and compliance with AS 2946 and. Suggested specification clause: • The electrical contractor shall provide luminaries in accordance with AS 2946. identical to prototype luminaire provided for acoustic testing. • The electrical contractor shall install each combined luminaire/air diffuser in the false ceiling suspension system. inspect it for damage and. Smaller diameter connections produce higher noise levels even with small air quantities.

4. This ensures that installed fans have adequate spare electrical power available to suit the actual installed system (as opposed to the system shown on the design documents) and a reasonable increase in fan duty if required.Maximum air velocity 3. nominate the design air quantity and the static pressure and schedule the size of each fan motor to satisfy 120% of the selected fan power requirement. 4. Include the following words in the fan schedule notes: Scheduled fan static pressures and minimum motor kilowatts are provided for tendering purposes only. Fan motor sizes shall be provided to have a minimum of 120 % of the power required by the fan for the installed system duty. AIR HANDLING PLANT COMPONENTS 4.Maximum airside pressure drop 100 Pa (50 Pa for VAV) 23/01012/05/27820 Mechanical Services Technical Procedure M01 .1 Fans When completing Fan Schedules.Maximum air velocity through the coil face area (to 2.5 m/s prevent moisture carry over) . They shall be adjusted by the contractor as necessary before ordering the fans to ensure that the supplied equipment meets the requirements of the installed system duty.Maximum airside pressure drop 100 Pa Heating Coils .8 m/s .2 Coils Cooling Coils .

Maximum Air Velocity: 7 m/s.Maximum pressure drop with dirty filter 125 Pa Deep Bed Type High Efficiency: . .Maximum face velocity 1.Maximum pressure drop with dirty filter 250 Pa Medium Efficiency: .Maximum pressure drop with dirty filter 125 Pa 4.Motorised multi-blade damper sets for control of minimum outdoor air supply.3 Filters Panel Type High Efficiency: .5 m/s .Maximum face velocity 2.Motorised smoke control or smoke exhaust dampers. .5 m/s .Maximum pressure drop with dirty filter 250 Pa Medium Efficiency: .5 m/s .8 m/s . 4.Motorised multi-blade damper sets for unison control of outdoor/relief/return air.Maximum face velocity 2.Maximum face velocity 2. PARALLEL BLADE DAMPERS . 23/01012/05/27820 Mechanical Services Technical Procedure M01 . Maximum Pressure Drop in Closed Position: 90 Pa.4 Volume Control Dampers The following type of volume control damper blade action shall be used for the specified application.

Motorised coil bypass dampers.Manually adjustable splitter dampers at parallel flow duct branch takeoffs. . . MULTI-BLADE STREAM SPLITTER DAMPERS .Manually adjustable dampers at spigot takeoffs serving outlets and registers mounted on the side of ductwork. 23/01012/05/27820 Mechanical Services Technical Procedure M01 .Motorised zone mixing dampers. Maximum Air Velocity: 6 m/s. SINGLE OR OPPOSED BLADE DAMPERS .Manually adjustable dampers at return and exhaust grilles. SPLITTER DAMPERS .Motorised multi-blade 2-position outdoor air dampers for control of tenants’ supplementary outdoor air.Manually adjustable damper sets. . OPPOSED BLADE TYPE .Motorised dampers serving floor supply and return duct branches. Maximum Pressure Drop in Closed Position: 90 Pa. . .Manually adjustable single or opposed blade dampers in branches other than parallel flow duct branch takeoffs.