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Heterogeneous Catalysis

-Intro-

CH3101- Course objectives CH3101- Course objectives
After completion of the course you should be able to:
HOW?
w Basic theory Characterization Techniques
w Provide an overview of the different characterization
and preparation techniques applied in heterogeneous Preparation Methods
catalysis. Testing Methodology
w Describe the basic theory behind each
characterization technique. w Elementary notion/understanding
§ Insight Structure-Activity relationship
w Choose the most adequate characterization
§ Reaction Mechanism
techniques and testing methods for a given
catalyst/reaction couple. w Application skills for design
§ Choosing the right Cat for a given reaction
w Interpret characterization and kinetic data.
w Information acquisition/processing
w Relate catalyst structure with catalytic activity for a
§ literature/data
certain chemical reaction. Details in course book

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outline topics essentials ‘Heterogeneous Catalysis for Chemical Engineers’ w Handout materials (through Blackboard) § Transparencies lectures (essentials / extended) CH3101 Grading § Previous exams – Exam(ple)s enroll course w Written examination (80%) HetCatCourse w Case study (20%) further info: http://blackboard.Tools/materials CH3101.tudelft.Teaching w Course book Moulijn/Kapteijn/Mul w Lectures . CH3101.nl Case Studies Case Studies HOW? Proposed case studies w Groups of X students w Case studies given at the beginning of the course § Methanol to olefins (week 2) § Hydro-isomerization w Main objective: for a given chemical conversion the group proposes an heterogeneous catalyst along with § Synthesis of Ethylene oxide via oxidation of ethylene the most appropriate characterization techniques that § Synthesis of Propylene oxide from propylene can be applied to fully understand catalytic behavior § Methane halogenation and the way of testing catalytic performance w Students present their work during the last lecture § Methane aromatization day at DOW Terneuzen (no written report needed) § Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx 2 .

Heterogeneous Catalysis CH3101 – Schedule 2017 Lecturers Jorge Gascon Freek Kapteijn CH3101 – March 29 Attention ! 1 ECTS ~ 28 h 3 ECTS in 9 weeks w 7:00 Bus departs from ChemE ≈ w 10:00 Welcome by DOW senior leader 9 hours per week w 10:10 Introduction to Dow and opportunities for ≈ engineers (HR) 1 day full-time per week w 10:30 Seminar from Dow “Heterogeneous Catalysis: Research and application in Chemical Industry” w 11:30 Student presentations (poster session + lunch) Ø attending lectures Spending too little time can w 15:30 Site tour and social event seriously reduce your chances Ø reading literature w 17:00 Departure of passing the course! Ø studying Ø exam preparation 3 . CH3101.

A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a reaction towards equilibrium without being appreciably consumed • How does a Catalyst work? . Attention ! Registration for the exam is -History and importance of Catalysis- mandatory! No registration = No exam Catalysis Catalysis • What is a Catalyst? . The rate of the reaction is increased as this alternative route has a lower activation energy than the reaction route not mediated by the catalyst 4 .A catalyst works by providing an alternative reaction pathway to the reaction product.

Catalysis Catalysis .h.Functionality Acid Transfer Redox Basic Heterogeneous Catalysis - Catalysts Functionality Al2O3 (g.a) • Heterogeneous surface area SiO2 Acid Transfer • (non)-porous solid dispersion active phase TiO2 • (un)supported strength Activated carbon access Dispersion Mixed oxides ZrO2 • Homogeneous Hydrophilicity Hydrophobicity • metal-organic complexes • Organo catalysts Redox Basic Shape • Biocatalysts selectivity • enzyme • cells 5 .q.

_______________________ Environmental sector largest Source: Chem.5 19 Ø Together these sectors account for more than 10 trillion dollars (15%) of the world’s GDP. News.9 22 2. Eng.6 100 10.7 100 billion (2012).2 Total 8.8 17 contributes to greater than 35% of global GDP Environmental 3. estimates are that catalysis Polymerisation 1. GECATS roadmap 6 .0 37 Ø Total market size industrial catalysis is estimated at $ 15. GECATS roadmap Heterogeneous Catalysis: Global Catalyst Market Economic Importance Ø Four sectors of the world’s economy critically depend on catalysis: Sector 1995 2001 Ø petroleum 103M$ % 103M$ % Ø energy production / environmental apps Ø chemicals production Refining 1. Eng.4 22 Ø food industry Chemical 2.2 26 2.1 36 4. News.4 12 1. Catalysis: Three Levels in Catalysis Economic Importance Ø Catalysts are used globally in the manufacture of over 10000 products worth over $10 trillion per year porous carrier Ø More than 85 % of all today’s chemical products are (catalyst support) bed of produced using catalytic processes catalyst particles reactants substrate product reactor reaction desorption Ø Globally there are about 100 catalyst manufacturing products adsorption companies catalyst support active site _______________________ Source: Chem.

15 5 Cracking 2 350 Hydrotreating 6 50 a Price of metal not included Historical overview New trends in Catalysis Energy transition?? Source: Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (CBS) 7 .Catalyst cost per Ton of Product Price Indication of Refining Catalyst Type of catalyst Price1990 World Market $/kg kt/a Reforminga 10 .

Refinery capacity per region – Away Scarcity of raw materials: oil from historical distribution Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 Largest refineries in the world – No Scarcity of Raw Materials – Catalyst longer in the West raw materials Source: Oil and Gas Journal Source: Albemarle® 8 .

org/index. C 5 . C 3 . 1920 Catalyst R&D Example: Catalyst R&D Example: Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Methanol to Olefins synthesis (MTO) C 2 . Catalyst R&D Example: Position of NL Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis http://www.html Fischer-Tropsch synthesis n CO + m H2 CnH2(m-n) + n H2O • Process invented by Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch (1920) • More than 1000 Catalysts were tested • Widely used in Germany and Japan during 2nd World War and in South-Africa during the Apartheid • Currently ≈ 10 plants operate worldwide First F-T patent.fischer-tropsch. C 6 Methanol ZSM-5 • Process invented by Mobil in 1974 • First plant will be operative in 2011 9 . C 4.

Plant built in Linyi City. Shandong Province. Catalyst R&D Example: Catalyst R&D Example: Methanol to Olefins synthesis (MTO) Methanol to Olefins synthesis (MTO) Jiutai Energy Co. China using Honeywell’s UOP/Hydro MTO technology: in operation since 2012 Catalyst R&D Example: Methane to Ethylene -History and importance of Catalysis- 10 . Ltd.