Cheese is an excellent source of protein, fat and minerals such as
calcium, iron and phosphorus, vitamins and essential amino acids and
therefore is an important food in the diet of both young and old

stems of Bryophylum species or leaves of Calotropis procera.g.an enzyme extracted from calves’ stomachs that coagulates the proteins in milk. and then separating the curds from the liquid whey. • Fermenting to form lactic acid.g. . • Adding acid (e. Rennet produced by micro-organisms is available for vegetarian cheeses. lemon juice.CHEESE MAKING Is basically done by coagulating the casein (proteins in milk) to form curds. • Boiling or • Using plant extracts (e. Coagulation methods: • Using rennet (or ‘chymosin’) . fig bark (ficin enzyme). lime juice or vinegar). papaya sap (papain enzyme).

INGREDIENTS FOR CHEESEMAKING MILK is a white fluid secreted by female mammals for the purpose of rearing their offspring. .

and defines cheeses that are used as an ingredient in industrial applications. gravies. a stabilizer in ice cream or a thickener in soups. INGREDIENTS FOR CHEESEMAKING CASEIN is the main protein found in milk and subsequently found in the cheese curds. . or whipped toppings. It can be used as an emulsifier in coffee whiteners. Casein is used in a plethora of food applications. nutritional food bars or bakery products. It can also be used to provide texture to pasta.

It causes the lactose in the milk to turn to lactic acid. the bacteria in the starter culture fail to multiply and the cheese process could not continue. That bacteria forms acids in the milk. .Are pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria. lowering the PH to a critical acidity level. Milk is pumped into a cook vat where starter culture containing specific bacteria are added. It is the culture which gives different cheeses their special characteristics. If the specific temperature is not maintained. INGREDIENTS FOR CHEESEMAKING STARTER .It is the first ingredient added to pasteurized milk to make cheese. .

Rennet is the usual coagulant used but the juice extract of some fruits and plants. papaya sap (papain enzyme). Rennet produced by micro-organisms is available for vegetarian cheeses. • Adding acid (e. • Boiling or • Using plant extracts (e. lemon juice.INGREDIENTS FOR CHEESEMAKING Coagulant. e. • Fermenting to form lactic acid. . Coagulation methods: • Using rennet (or ‘chymosin’) .g. fig bark (ficin enzyme).an enzyme extracted from calves’ stomachs that coagulates the proteins in milk.g. lemons and Calotropis procera may be used for some cheese varieties. stems of Bryophylum species or leaves of Calotropis procera. lime juice or vinegar).g.

Microbial rennet is produced by produced in the abomasum of a calf. provolone. cottage cheese. growing the protein on microorganisms. mozzarella. Animal rennet is a complex of enzymes 2. Rennet based cheeses include cheddar. Acid based cheeses include cream cheese. Rennet 2 TYPES OF RENNET 1. Rennet based cheese is often referred to as hard cheese while acid based cheeses are referred to as soft cheeses. and farmers cheese. and hundreds of others. .

it may be rubbed into the finished cheese or the cheese may be immersed in a brine solution. Chemicals. the quantity and method of addition depending on the recipe. Occasionally it is required to bleach the original colour of the milk and to whiten the curd. Salt (sodium chloride) may be added to some varieties of cheese. Salt. . Salt may be added directly to the milk or curd pieces. The recipe and the market will determine if colouring matter should be used.INGREDIENTS FOR CHEESEMAKING Colour. Chemicals such as calcium chloride and sodium nitrate are recommended in recipes for some varieties of cheese to improve curd quality and prevent the growth of organisms which may cause problems during the ripening or maturing of the cheese.




addition to bread to increase the lactose and minerals. manufacture of alcohol manufacture of lactose producing whey cheese by evaporating the moisture. is pig and poultry feeds whey.WHEY is the greenish liquid and the basic by- product of cheese manufacturing. no longer white and thinner. The milk’s casein protein and much of its fat exit the milk and become curds. Liquid whey is rich in protein. The remaining milk USES OF WHEY material. It is the portion of the milk that did not precipitate out of the milk and form cheese curds. . Whey's nutritive value functionality has only been realized in fermented drink the past 25 years.

crumbly. Gouda. Muenster Hard 30-40 <30 Very firm. Montasio. spreadable days paneer. or more Swiss. Romano sometimes grainy . A few Edam. A few Cottage cheese. cheeses dense. cream cheese Semi-hard 35-45 <35 Firm. white. cheeses can be sliced months Colby. TYPES OF CHEESE Type of Moisture Fat Texture Shelf life Examples cheese Content Content (%) (%) Soft cheeses 45-75 <40 Soft. One year Cheddar. Parmesan.

 The curd is cut very finely to release more whey. 3.  After about six weeks each cheese is pierced with stainless steel needles to let oxygen in. .  The rind is sprayed with a surface mould (e.  For Mozzarella the curd is immersed in hot water or whey then kneaded and stretched.g. FRESH CHEESES  Lactic acid is used to form curds rather than rennet. 4. penicillium candidum) to produce the distinctive soft. HARD AND SEMI-HARD CHEESES  A high temperature is used to set the curd. 2. This encourages mould growth and permits other gases to escape.DIFFERENT METHODS FOR DIFFERENT CHEESES 1.  The cheese is not cut. BLUE CHEESES  The mould penicillium roqueforti is introduced to the milk.  The ripening process takes anything from three months to two years to reach the correct flavour and texture. velvety bloom and ripen the cheese from the outside in. pressed or ripened (except for Feta). SOFT-RIPENED CHEESES  The curds are cut into large cubes to help retain the moisture.

tasting cheese . from sheep's milk ● Was popular in colonial America ● Name from the fact that it was made ● In 16th century water buffalo in local cottages were introduced to Naples and ● Other names are "Farmer cheese" and the rich milk of those animals "Pot Cheese" (because it is made in a started to be used pot). Was made from raw milk poured into a pot and set in a fairly warm spot . Fresh cheese can Could be sliced and warmed to 100 be stored in water but must be degrees for several hours for sour eaten within two days.COTTAGE CHEESE MOZZARELLA CHEESE ● Originated in eastern and central ● First made by the monks of San Europe Lorenzo di Capua. Italy.this fresh cheese is very mild in The bacteria and the high levels of lactic flavor and adds texture to acid from the unpasteurized milk turned the milk protein into soft white curds cooked dishes.

whey. production of Ricotta cheese is no longer called whey but scotta. carotene which produces a white cheese. It is used in lasagna or brought to France by the Moors eaten as a side dish along with the in the 8th century. . ● It is one of the popular . caproic. buffalo or mixed ● Goat's milk doesn't contain whey.The liquid left over after the cheeses made in France. It is possible to start from sheep.Ricotta cheese is the product of acids capric.CHEVRE RICOTTA ● Chèvre is the french word for . goat. .made by heat-acid precipitation of proteins from blends of milk ● It is said that goats were and whey. and the thermo-acid coagulation of the caprylic.derives from the Latin term "goat" recoctus that stands for “re- cooking of the whey” ● The flavor specific to goat cheese comes from the fatty . main course.

herbs and spices.This fresh cheese is like cream cheese. Cream cheese can be blended with fruit and seasonings. It serves as an introduction to cutting curds and expressing whey in cheesemaking. smooth texture and a slight citrus flavor balanced with buttery cream. Cream Cheese.Cream cheese has a mild. Paneer. Cheddar also requires pressing and aging.An indian cheese. It does not melt when heated and is often used in curries Fromage blanc.Perhaps one of the most well known cheeses.A washed curd cheese.A French classic and a bloomy rind cheese. OTHER CHEESES Queso blanco . .is a white. This recipe adapts the cheddaring process for the home cheesemaker. It is eaten fresh and may be flavored with peppers. Cheddar-stirred curd. used as a dip or spread. Gouda is an intermediate cheese and requires pressing and aging. or used in desserts such as cheesecake. and requires only stirring the curds rather than truly cheddaring them. It is considered a “frying cheese” meaning it does not melt and may be deep fried or grilled. Gouda. The quality of the milk going into this cheese is one of key factors in getting good results. semi-hard cheese made without culture or rennet. Camembert. but is made from milk rather than cream and therefore is less rich Feta. Queso Blanco can also be made by renneting whole milk with little or no bacterial culture.Is a classic Greek cheese that is traditionally preserved in brine. As this cheese ages it is covered with a thick coat of white mold which eventually becomes part of the rind.

• fermentation by lactic acid bacteria increases the acidity which inhibits growth of food poisoning and spoilage bacteria. PRESERVATION OF CHEESE • the raw milk is pasteurised to destroy most enzymes and contaminating bacteria. • the moisture content is reduced and salt is added. both of which inhibit bacterial contamination .

Over-heating and slow cooling causes changes to flavour. • Correct time of ripening and ripening conditions. . • Adequate cutting and draining of the curd to remove most of the whey. • Correct time and temperature of cooking the curd to firm it sufficiently. colour and nutritional value. CONTROL POINTS THAT AFFECT THE SAFETY AND QUALITY OF CHEESE: • The temperature and time of heating and cooling the milk. If the temperature is too high the bacteria and rennet will be inactivated. which affects the firmness of the curd. if it is too low there may be insufficient acid production. • Correct amount of salt added. • Incubation temperature to allow rapid production of lactic acid by the inoculated bacteria. • Correct time and pressure during pressing the curd to give the required texture in the final product. which affect the flavour and texture. • Correct amount of rennet and starter culture added. under-heating may result in inadequate destruction of enzymes and micro-organisms leading to spoilage or food poisoning.

the development of too much acid during the fermentation. cutting the curd too finely. • Yeasty or sweet flavours indicate that yeasts. or that the milk was not properly pasteurised. • Tough. moulds or bacteria were introduced into the cheese by unclean utensils or a contaminated starter culture. or holding the curd for too long after cooking. dry curd results from insufficient acid development in the curd before it is cut. heating to a temperature that is too high. heating the curd at too high or too low a temperature. REASONS FOR IMPERFECT CHEESES: • Sour acid flavour is due to too much lactic acid produced by the fermentation. . wet curd is due to too much moisture in the cheese. • Soft. or too much whey retained in the curd.

com/index.php?page=recipes http://www.org/ag/againfo/themes/documents/milk/mozzarella .org.co.uk/userfiles/file/How_Cheese_Is_Made_ 04-10.fao.nz/ChemProcesses/dairy/3D.pdf http://joyofcheesemaking.com/2011/01/cheese-making.files.pdf file:///C:/Users/Benny%20Marie/Dropbox/MCL/3T%20AY%20201 6-2017/CHM150L/References/Cheese/Cheese.pdf .pdf http://nzic.cheeseboard.REFERENCES https://buelahman.pdf http://www.wordpress.