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Melesse, A.; Tiruneh, W.; Negesse, T.

EFFECTS OF FEEDING Moringa stenopetala LEAF MEAL ON NUTRIENT INTAKE
AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF RHODE ISLAND RED CHICKS UNDER
TROPICAL CLIMATE
Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, vol. 14, núm. 2, mayo-agosto, 2011, pp. 485-
492
Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán
Yucatán, México

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Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems
ISSN (Versión electrónica): 1870-0462
ccastro@uady.mx
Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán
México

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Hawassa.05) than those fed the aves alimentadas con MSLM fue mayor (p<0. 2008). Melesse1*. La ganancia de peso promedio en las MSLM diets were higher (p<0. g gain/g CP intake) were higher for chicks fed alimenticia (g ganancia/g consumo alimento) y la MSLM. pollos Rhode Island Red. Ethiopia *Corresponding Author SUMMARY RESUMEN The effects of Moringa stenopetala leaf meal (MSLM) Se evaluó el efecto de la harina de hoja de Moringa on nutrient intake and weight gain (WG) were stenopetala (MSLM) sobre el consumo de nutrientes y evaluated. 5. the productivity of poultry in the tropics has been limited Leaf meals of various plants have been incorporated in by scarcity and consequent high prices of the the diets of poultry as a means of reducing the high conventional protein and energy sources. there is a need to search for locally available alternative sources of protein for use as feed Poultry production plays a major role in bridging the supplement to poultry. dry matter and CP intake of the chicks fed materia seca y proteína de los pollos alimentados con MSLM diets were higher (p<0. Chicks fed T4 showed higher (p<0. Udedibie and Opara. nutrient intake. Average weight gain (AWG) of birds fed dieta control. in the diet of grower chicks to substitute expensive Los resultados indican que MSLM es un suplemento conventional protein sources. P. production in the tropics (Atawodi et al.. 4% (T3). El consumo de Daily feed. Faculty of Agriculture and Rural Development. Kakengi et al. y 6% (T4) de la dieta 6% (T4) of the diets (as fed basis) to replace 3%.492 EFFECTS OF FEEDING Moringa stenopetala LEAF MEAL ON NUTRIENT INTAKE AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF RHODE ISLAND RED CHICKS UNDER TROPICAL CLIMATE [EFECTO DE LA ALIMENTACIÓN CON HARINA DE HOJA DE Moringa stenopetala SOBRE EL CONSUMO DE NUTRIENTES Y COMPORTAMIENTO PRODUCTIVO DE POLLOS RHODE ISLAND RED EN CLIMA TROPICAL] A. P. 14 (2011): 485. College of Agriculture. 4% (T3). Nworgu and Fasogbon. the experimental diets (MSLM 0%). 5.05) than those fed the MSLM fue mayor (p<0. Box 419. Las aves alimentadas con la AWG than those on T2 and T3. 485 . Rhode proteicas convencionales de mayor precio. W. 1998.. Protein cost of conventional protein sources (D’Mello et al. Feed efficiency ratio dieta T4 mostraron una mayor ganancia de peso (FER. 2009). and MSML al 2% (T2). INTRODUCTION Hence. proteína cruda de la dieta control. Box 05. The results indicated that MSLM is a potential fueron mayores en las aves alimentadas con MSLM. consume nutrientes. Cuarenta pollos Rhode Island Red were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups.Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2007. One possible source of cheap protein gap in developing countries where average protein to poultry is the leaf meal of some tropical daily consumption is far below recommended legume and plants (Iheukwumere et al.05) en comparación con la control diet. 2007. sources are especially limiting factors in poultry feed 1987. plant protein supplement and could be included to 6% MSLM no causó ningún efecto detrimental en las aves.. growth performance Key words: Harina de hoja de Moringa stenopetala. crecimiento. y dietas experimentales que contenían contained MSML at a rate of 2% (T2). de proteína vegetal que puede ser incluido al 6% en la dieta de pollos de engorda en sustitución de fuentes Key words: Moringa stenopetala leaf meal.. O. Negesse1 1 Hawassa University. Iheukwumere et al.05) que control diet.9% (base fresca) para reemplazar 3%. O. MSLM elicited no deleterious effects in the eficiencia proteínica (g ganancia/g consumo proteína) birds.9% y 8.8% of the crude protein (CP) of the control diet. g gain/g feed intake) and protein efficiency ratio (p<0. Island Red chicks.05) las aves del grupo control.05) que las aves en T2 y T3. 2008). standards (Onyimonyi et al. La eficiencia (PER. Dilla. Ethiopia 2 Dilla University. The fueron asignados a 4 grupos.. Dieta control (T1) control diet (T1) (MSLM 0%).8% de la and 8. However. Forty unsexed Rhode Island Red chicks ganancia de peso. Tiruneh2 and T.

which is situated T4 6 4 10 40 275 km south of Addis Ababa.0 34. 1993.9% and 8. T1 was the control scarce (Fahey.00 4. stenopetala leaf meal 0. 2001). The dried 486 . The dietary Moringa tree are exceptionally nutritious (Rams. at 74N Total (n) 40 160 latitude and 3831E longitude at an altitude of 1650 m above sea level. 2001). Gross composition (g/100 g) of experimental ranges between 12 0C and 27 0C.50 0. College of Agriculture. Pre-trial test minerals and oxycaretenoids which cause yellow colour of broiler skin.Melesse et al. The pre-trial test started when the chicks were 2 weeks Northern Kenya and Eastern Somali and is the most old and lasted 2 weeks which was sufficient to check economically important species after M. 2003). Edwards et Experimental design al. 1994. oleifera the palatability of MSLM diets. Moringa could thus be used as a protein supplement for poultry. 5.. Leaf parts are promising as a food and diets containing MSLM at the rate of 2% (T2). Both Soybean and noug cake protein (28. (2005) leaf meals do not only serve as protein mortar and pestle at 2 mm size. Recent studies conducted by diet with approximately 19. stenopetala) is native to Ethiopia. The present study was thus designed to investigate the effects of feeding different levels of Table 1.0 27.0 25.2%) and contain considerable have been reduced in T2 through T4 and replaced amounts of essential amino acids.. 2005). Branches from matured Moringa trees were cut Noug cake (Guizotia 11. 2000) and is used as vegetable food for human consumption and animal feed resources during dry Ten unsexed RIR chicks were assigned to each of the period (Abuye et al.20 like wire mesh) and dried in the open air until the Salt 0.0 Centers (Arbaminch. Moringa containing MSLM are palatable to the baby chicks. Experimental design of the feeding trial with Moringa stenopetala leaf meal (MSLM) on nutrient RIR chicks intake and growth performance of dual purpose Rhode Island Red (RIR) chicks. shank and egg yolk.3 35. treatments were the control diet (T1) without MSLM Teketay. stenopetala are rich in presented in Table 2.0 selected farmers’ fields which are located near the Soybean. (2009) ME/kg DM. source but also provide some necessary vitamins.16% CP and 3295 kcal Melesse et al.50 and twigs and leaflets were removed by hand. It is widely distributed in the Rift Valley of southern Ethiopia (Bekele. Using locally-made Total 100 100 100 100 satara for drying purpose is advantageous because it 1 Limestone contains 35% Calcium (Boushy and Van efficiently enhances air circulation during the drying der Poel.0 10. The abyssinica) collected leaves were then spread on a Satara (made of M.0 23. stenopetala (M.00 thinly sliced dried bamboo stalks and woven together Lime stone1 1. Rainfall is bi-modal and ranges between 674 and 1365 mm.50 leaves were dried out uniformly. A pre-trial test was conducted using small number of RIR chicks to check whether or not the diets Among various types of Moringa species.0 26. The mean temperature Table 2. 2011 2008). 4% source in the tropics because the tree is full of leaves (T3).2-36. Diets Inclusion Replicates Chicks Total rate of per chicks MATERIALS AND METHODS MSLM replicate per (%) treatment Experimental site T1 0 4 10 40 T2 2 4 10 40 The experiment was carried out at Hawassa T3 4 4 10 40 University.0 10.20 1.00 2. According to D’Mello et al. The edible parts of the four replicates of the four treatment diets.0 8.3 24. (1987) and Fasuyi leaves were hand-crushed and further ground using et al. roasted 28.3 25..0 34.50 0.20 1.20 1.00 6. The proportion of feed ingredients is indicated that leaves of M.8% of during the dry season when other foods are typically the CP of the control diet (Table 1). grower diets (n= 4 replications of 10 birds each) Preparation of experimental diets Feed ingredients (%) Treatment diets T1 T2 T3 T4 Moringa leaves were collected from Farmers Training Maize 34. (2009) and Negesse et al.50 0. 2000) process and prevents uneven drying of leaves by retaining the greenish color of the leaves. Ethiopia. Southern Ethiopia) and from Wheat bran 25. and 6% (T4) to replace 3%.8 center. The leafy part of proportionally by MSLM. (Olson.

05) than those on the control diet. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) for completely randomized designs consisting of four 487 .05) higher than those fed on T1. the ether extract. respectively. a measured amount of feed content of diets. weighed and Table 4 shows the daily mean nutrient intakes of recorded at 8:00 AM before feed was offered. The ME values were calculated indirectly from significantly (p<0. 2001). and energy (from 3235 to 3296 kcal/kg DM) contents. Ca and P and 9:00 AM before the feed was offered. Mortalities were observed only in chicks fed on Statistical analysis the control diet. was offered to birds. throughout the entire experimental period. This is apparently reflected in the ME depth of 5 cm. Experimental pens. watering and feeding troughs were cleaned and disinfected with appropriate disinfectants RESULTS prior to the commencement of the experiment. No significant chicks was carried out in the morning between 7:00 differences were observed in the ME. body weight gain and feed combusting the sample at 550oC for 5 hrs. crude fiber and ash adopting the Average body weight and weight gain of chicks fed on equation proposed by Wiseman (1987). noted otherwise. Wood shavings were used as litter at a soybean in T1. Where significant differences Poultry Multiplication and Distribution Center. Dry matter content of feed Body weight gain and efficiency ratios offered and refused was determined by drying the samples at 105oC overnight. Body When the MSLM level increased from 2 % (T2) to 6% weight was taken at the beginning of the experiment (T4). The fat content of T1 was slightly higher than those of They were kept in a deep litter housing system with the other treatment diets because of higher amount of concrete floors. Weight intake of chicks fed the MSLM diets and the control. Nutrient analysis The CP intake showed linear increase with increasing levels of MSLM supplementation. The center multiplies chickens of Tukey's studentized range (HSD) test. The diets chicks were randomly assigned to each of the four were very close in their CP (from 18. CF.492 Management of experimental chicks treatments by 4 replications using the General Linear Models (GLM) Procedure of Statistical Analysis Unsexed dual purpose RIR chickens were bought from System (SAS. DM intake remained similar throughout the and subsequently on a weekly basis. 14 (2011): 485. significantly (p<0. Daily feed refusals in each pen was collected. Ash was determined by The average body weight. Each day. Crude protein (CP) was calculated as N x body weight gain of chicks fed the MSLM diet was 6. Weighing of the experimental period (Table 4).05 unless Research Institutes and smallholder farmers. were observed treatment means were compared with Awassa.Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. The average method. Chicks were vaccinated against Newcastle and Infectious Nutrient composition Bursal Diseases (Gumboro) on the 7th and 12th days. gain. All statements this breed and distributes to private investors. Ethiopia. determined by continuous flow auto-analyzer (Chemlab. nutrient intake.05) higher in all Mortality and any abnormality were recorded chicks fed MSLM diets than those on the control diet. Ethiopia.25. crude fiber (CF) and ash were determined according to AOAC (1990). Phosphorus was increased levels of MSLM supplementation. Total efficiency ratios of RIR chicks fed the different levels nitrogen was determined using the micro-Kjeldahl of MSLM diets are presented in Table 5.8 to 19. the CP intake of T4 was efficiency ratios were calculated. 1978).05) higher than those of T2 and T3 whereas it was higher in T3 than those of T2 and T1. Daily offer of each group was 10% more than intake of the previous day and fresh Nutrient intakes clean water was available at all times. chicks fed different levels of MSLM. of statistical differences were based on p<0. nutrient conversion and nutrient Within treatment groups.9% CP) replicates of the four treatment diets. They were then leg-tagged and 10 experimental diets are presented in Table 3. Dry matter.05) higher than those on T2 concentration of calcium was analyzed using an and T3 indicating improved performance with atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Dry matter and CP intake were significantly (p<0. significantly higher (p<0. The T4 were significantly (p<0. The chicks were fed a starter ration for Nutrient and energy contents of the MSLM and the first two weeks. All samples were analyzed in The FER and PER of chicks fed the MSLM diets were duplicates at the National Veterinary Institute (NVI) not significantly different among each other but were Laboratory.

which is slightly higher in layer hens fed diets containing 10 and 20% levels of than found in the present study. EE=Crude fat.M p Average body weight (g) 293c 318b 320b 333a 1.63 3236 MSLM 11. CaI=Calcium intake.39 47. NFE=Nitrogen-free extract.54 0. P=Phosphorous.10 0. CPI=Crude protein intake.7 0. DMI=Dry matter intake.37 2992 CP=Crude protein.65 0.5% CP (Kakengi et al.73 Means between treatment diets in the same row with different superscript letters are significantly (p< 0.55a 0.05 c c b CPI (g/chick/d) 12.9 8. stenopetala leaf obtained in the broilers by Scanes et al.35 49.6a 1.12 0. stenopetala leaf meal Parameters T1 T2 T3 T4 S. S.65a 0.46 0. Average body weight. S.M= Standard error of means DISCUSSION slightly higher ME content in the respective treatments than the recommended 3200 kcal ME/kg DM for The CP content of M. Eekeren et al.03c 7. Similarly.097 <0.45 9. ME=Metabolizable Energy Table 4.003 <0.130 <0.05 CFI (g/chick/d) 5.98b 8.74 18. feed and protein efficiency ratios of RIR chicks fed different levels of M. 2009 (36.5%) and Melesse et al.82 0.4a 0.56 0. (2008) for grower and finisher broilers..73 8.127 0. Soliva et al.162 <0..0%).68 3235 T4 7.12 0.56 MEI (g/chick/d) 218 217 216 219 0.743 <0.232 <0.19 48. 2008 (27.73 3266 T3 7. (1997) suggested the minimum CP requirement for However.34 CaI (g/chick/d) 0.01 Means between treatment diets in the same row with different superscript letters are significantly (p<0.6 13.E. Ca=Calcium.49 PI (g/chick/d) 0. reported similar intake values for groups on 5% dietary levels of Cassava leaf meal.E.001 0.057 0. olifera leaf meal in which inclusion rates were diets varied between 18..3a 62.6 4.01 b a a FER (g gain/g feed) 0.2 2.83 19.05) different.Melesse et al.. olifera leaf meal levels up to 5% growing chicks as 18% on air dried basis.18 48. (28. olifera leaves.46 0.1 0.79 5. MEI=Metabolizable Energy intake. Mean daily nutrient and ME intake of RIR chicks fed diets with different levels of M.09 0.01 Body weight gain (g/bird/d) 6. about twofold higher than those of the present study.8 30.8 to 19.E. 2009 chickens in the tropics is scanty.74 0.M p T1 T2 T3 T4 DMI (g/chick/d) 61.05) different.77 5.8 8.52 9. Iheukwumere et al. respectively.50b 0.2 9. 2007). CF=Crude fiber.8 0.65a 0.47 0.01 PER (g gain/g CP) 0.2%) but lower than CP values found by Negesse et al.1% Kakengi et al.75 3295 T2 7. stenopetala leaf meal Treatment diets Nutrient intakes S. Ekenyem and Madubuike (2006) increase than the other treatments.46 0.6 12.56 0..71 0. dietary M.003 0. (2004) although maximum present study was slightly higher than reported by ME requirement is not stated and information on RIR Oduro et al. body weight gain.97 19.43b 7. (2005) reported 32.74 9.76 0.13a 0.E.80 5.4 8.9a 62. The CP contents of the M.55 0. (2004) recommended 20% and 18. CFI=Crude fiber intake.61a 0.30 40. This resulted in reported improved feed intake for broilers fed diets 488 .0 0.M=Standard error of means Table 5. 2011 Table 3. did not show any significant effect on feed intake Scanes et al.3b 61. Consistent with The fat content of the control diet showed a slight the present study. (2007) observed increased feed intake of CP for M.0 13.88 19. PI=Phosphorus intake.9%.17 9. Nutrient and metabolizable energy contents of Moringa stenopetala leaf meal and the experimental diets Nutrients (% DM) ME Diets Ash CP EE CF NFE Ca P (kcal/kg DM) T1 7.

essential amino acids in Moringa leaves might have contributed to the observed better nutrient intake and The intakes of both major minerals (Ca and P) in growth performance of chicks fed the MSLM diet chicks fed on MSLM diet were not different to those compared to those on the control diet. Reduced growth performance was utilization in layers fed 20% levels of M. Among others.. 2009) are similar (10. more specifically at presence of this limiting amino acid as well as other higher levels of inclusion rate. Nworgu and Fasogbon (2007) reported reduced of chicks on high dietary inclusion rates of Leucaena feed intake for Black Nera pullets fed diets containing leucocephala leaf meal. Similar levels (Coon. of M. On the other (1989) reported depression in the growth performance hand. 2008). 2002). Thus. On the other hand. In agreement with the of 2%. 10% difference in growth performance of 3 weeks old and 15% cassava (Iheukwumere et al. (2008) observed Broiler chickens fed on 2. unextracted leaves to the other leaf meals (Makkar and Becker. unextracted leaves of M. Nworgu and Fasogbon (2007) good agreement with the present findings. supplemented with 0.05) body weight gain in growing pullets fed diets converting feed to body tissues. oleifera. 1997). 2%. pubescens leaf meal compared to those on control acids in M. oleifera leaf observed in broilers fed diets containing increased meal.0 MJ/kg DM).5-5% levels of C. stenopetala leaves is higher than those diet. However. stenopetala leaves. 2009). Moreover. 1996). broiler chicks fed on 5-10% C.. pubescens leaf meal. 2006). 1994. the ME content of high levels of phytate were also reported by Gupta et soybean meal (Ensminger. pubescens leaf meal. Moreover. Melesse et al. the 15% (Iheukwumere et al.492 with 5% and 10% levels of Ipomoea asarifolia leaf Madubuike. humans consume Moringa leaves protein (Agbede and Aletor. leaves from M.. 10% and methionine compared to soybean meal.0% levels of M. Negesse et al. Similarly. stenopetala al.Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. methionine is in particular the primary limiting sulfur containing amino acid in soybean meal based poultry Nworgu and Fasogbon (2007) observed lower CP diets (NRC. 2004). Reduced CP intake was also reported in broilers found in soybean meal. Kakengi et al. cyanogenic glycoside and maize. low FER other hand. (2007) observed low feed oleifera leaf meal. Besides. 1982) which justifies why Ca present study. (2009) reported diet may affect the response of chickens to amino acid high levels of phytate in M. without apparent harm. 2008) and I. 10. These discrepancies observed in the weight gain of The present findings indicate that MSLM to have chicks maintained on diets containing MSLM and lowered anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) and toxic other leaf meal supplements might be explained by the substances reported in other leaf meals (Makkar and presence of high pepsin soluble nitrogen (82-91%). On the an alternative protein supplement. 4% and 6% Centrosema pubescens leaf meal. 4% and 6% C. broilers (Arbor Acres) that were fed on diets asarifolia leaf meal (Ekenyem and Madubuike. 4% and 6% levels of Table 6. The Ca content in MSLM (2. 14 (2011): 485. wheat bran and noug cake which demands glucosinolates were not detected in leaves of M. D’Mello and Acamovic meal but intake was depressed at 15%. Moreover.. 1997). (1989) and Makkar and Becker (1996) for leaves (Melesse et al.. Thus. Nworgu and Fasogbon (2007) observed enhanced All MSLM fed chicks showed better efficiency in (p<0. these substances need further intake did not change with increasing levels of leaf investigation. Similarly. Moreover.0. 1972). Cavins et al. 1992) and M.09%) was due to the influence of other substances such as the much higher than that of soybean (0. monogastric animals (Kakengi et al. 1. Backer 1997). 4% and 6% C. Du et al. 2. As shown in intake in growing pullets fed 2%. vitamins in MSLM diet. 2003). Ensminger. 2006). ME concentration in the meal supplementation. stenopetala did not show any haemolytic activity of the depressed appetite in chicks fed the control diet saponin (Negesse et al. (2009) observed low acid detergent insoluble protein (1-2%) and low negligible amounts of tannins and total phenols in anti-nutritional factors in Moringa leaf meal compared leaves of M.0 and 3. Phytate is known to reduce bioavailability of efficiency of feed utilization of RIR chicks in the minerals (Reddy et al. Fasuyi et al. It might also be of control diet. (2007) observed no significance was observed in broilers fed diets containing 5%. supplementation of cereal based diets with animal oleifera.26%. (1997) reported similar observations in containing 2%. The MSLM is notably rich in fed on cassava leaf meal at levels of 5%. the concentration of most essential amino C. oleifera had negligible amounts of tannins (14 This suggests that the protein in Moringa leaf is g/kg DM) and condensed tannins were not detectable readily available to most animals and more suitable to (Makkar and Becker. observed increased FER in growing pullets fed diets Omeje et al. Apart from this.5. Similarly. which improved the 1992). pubescens leaf meal which is in present findings. pubescens reduced FER in broiler chicks fed the diets containing leaf meal showed increased growth performance different levels of Amaranthus cruentus leaf meal as compared to control group (Nworgu. levels of Ipomoea asarifolia (Ekenyem and 489 .17 vs. According to Makkar could probably be due to the amino acid imbalance in and Becker (1997).. stenopetala..

The performance..A.. Possible explanation leaves as feed supplement in laying hens. Atawodi. utilized resources. Urga.45 Ethiopia) for his support and cooperation during the Tryptophan 1. G. Useful trees and shrubs of Ethiopia. CONCLUSION Cavins.84 5. Moringa leaf extracts exhibited anti. 1990. H. Abnet Awele and his family Phenylalanine 4.75-01.50 acknowledge Mr. Amino acids Soybean M. USA. needed to establish the optimum level of MSLM Chemlab Instrument. 2: 57-62. Applied Tropical Fasuyi et al. CW2-0. Fasogbon (2007) observed increased PER in growing nutrient utilization and cost implications of pullets fed 2.. for the absence of mortality in chicks fed on the African Journal of Biotechnology.F. pubescens leaf meal. oleifera might be potential feed Processing and Use. 2009 A. 1993. Du et al. P.143.B. Isolucine 4..54 collection of the feed materials. The Netherlands. Amino Acid Analysis of Soybean Dry matter and crude protein intake and average Meal: Inter-laboratory Study..22 1. A. (2007) reported that dietary supplementation of M..34 Education for funding this research project. Winterhalter.62 4. Nworgu and Fasogbon (2007) observed no mortality Atawodi.. weight gain of RIR chicks fed on MSLM diets http://fnicsearch. Y.. J. 2nd ed. 2011 Table 6: Composition of essential amino acids of inclusion in grower dual purpose chicks such as RIR. 1972. Regional Soil Conservation Unit (RSCU) and microbial activity including inhibition of the growth of Swedish International Development Authority Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from food and (SIDA).70 2. C. 7 (3): 317- MSLM diet might be due to the presence of 321.13 6. in chicks fed MSLM diets throughout entire 13th ed. comparable whereas those on 6% MSLM were more efficient compared to those on other diets.. J. which enhances the immune system of animals (Yang et al. Consistent with the present findings. However. Van der Poel. Continuous flow analysis method chicken production practices in Moringa growing sheet no. Kluwer Academic additives in livestock production. stenopetala and M.pdf supplementation of chicks’ diet with MSLM could be an alternative feeding strategy in rural and peri-urban Chemlab.nal. Southern Threonnine 3. further investigation is Orthophosphate in water and waste water.C.K.A. Determination of tropical regions.O.. pp 12-18. pubescens leaf meal which feeding broiler finishers conventional or under- is in agreement with the current study.08 5.. Knapp. when pullet chicks were fed diets containing different Y. leaf meal from both Handbook of Poultry Feed from Waste: M. Cowan.71 The authors are grateful to the Development Cystine 1. 490 . chicks fed varying levels of A.M. cruentus leaf meal. Abuye. Aletor. oleifera might have increased Boushy.76 4. immune ability of broilers.. F. V. A. animal intestines.68 REFERENCES Arginine 7. C. 2006). the 31371/1/CAIN729088308. Bekele. Bureau of Agriculture. J.usda. Selmar. 1978. 2008.72 8. antioxidants in Moringa leaves. Thus.. A compositional study of Moringa stenopetala leaves. Omwega. E. East African Medical Journal. stenopetala leaves b ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS meal a Methionine 1. Hornchurch. English Press.R.47 Lysine 6. no mortality was observed (A. J.C). Arlington. We also Leucine 7.59 5.. 80 (5): The PER among the Moringa leaf fed groups was 247-252. However. Kenya. Inglett. Official Methods of Analysis. 4 and 6% C.Melesse et al.. Assessment of Leucaena leucocephala levels of C. Imungi. S.. Thus. Association of Official Analytical Chemists Except in the control group. F. and Yahaya.4 Source: aHossain and Becker.24 1. Essex. A. Mari.. pp. E. K. Virginia. Moringa stenopetala leaves (g/16g N) compared to Inclusion of MSLM did not cause any health problems soybean meal in the experimental birds.. Nworgu and Agbede. 2000. 1997. 2003. D. Publishers. Nairobi. Moreover. experiment. 2001. Kwolek.gov/bitstream/10113/ increased with increasing levels of MSLM. bMelesse et al.27 (Arbaminch Woreda. (2008) observed a reduced PER in broiler Agriculture. D.04 Innovation Fund (DIF) and Ethiopian Ministry of Valine 4. J.Y.O.

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