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Journal for Research | Volume 02 | Issue 10 | December 2016

ISSN: 2395-7549

Comparative Analysis of Chemical and Physical
Properties of Mini Cement Plant and Major
Cement Plant
Hiren Patel Bibhabasu Mohanty
Assistant Professor Assistant Professor
Department of Civil Engineering Department of Civil Engineering
SAL Institute of Technology and Engineering Research, SAL Institute of Technology and Engineering Research,
Ahmedabad, Gujarat Ahmedabad, Gujarat

This research is about analyzing the chemical and physical characteristics of cement and concrete. Cement can be classified
based on its chemical properties. The sample taken for this research work is Kamal OPC 53 grade mini cement plant and
Ultratech OPC 53 grade major cement plant. The difference can be analyzed by determining the chemical composition of the
cement and its effect on physical properties of cement and concrete. Secondly, it is not necessary that in every structural member
of a building, the cement used needs to be same. To determine that which cement is more suitable for which structural element
this analysis is beneficial. Again, if any new type of admixture needs to be introduced in the concrete, it is important to
understand the chemical composition of cement and how the new admixture may react with the cement. Also, this research is
about how the changes in chemical composition of cement affect the physical properties of cement and concrete. It is noticed that
due to lack in standardization of cement, even the same sample of cement gives different result.
Keywords: Chemical, Physical, Test, Cement and Concrete


The aims of the research paper are to analyses chemical & physical characteristics of cement and concrete, to understand the
effects of chemical composition of cement on physical properties of cement and concrete and to understand how different types
of cement gain their different properties by changing the chemical composition. Materials used in this research work are
Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) of 53 grade, normal size aggregate, sand, required water and various chemicals. Various
chemical and physical standard properties of cement and standard properties of workability of concrete are given in following
Table - 1
Chemical Requirement of OPC 53 grade Cement
No. Chemical Characteristic Requirement
Ratio of percentage of lime to percentages of silica, alumina and iron oxide, when calculated by the formula:
1 0.80-1.02
(CaO-0.7SO3) / (2.8SiO2+1.2 Al2O3+0.65Fe2O3)
2 Ratio of percentage of alumina to that of iron oxide, Min 0.66
3 Insoluble residue, percent by mass, Max 4.0
4 Magnesia, percent by mass, Max 6.0
Total sulphur content calculated as sulphuric anhydride 3.5
5 3.5
(SO3)percent by mass, Max
6 Loss on ignition, percent by mass, Max 4.0
7 Chloride content, percent by mass, Max 0.1
8 Alkali content 0.05
Table - 2
Physical Requirement of OPC 53 grade Cement
Method of Test,
No. Physical Characteristic Requirement
Ref to
1 Fineness, m2/Kg, Min 370 IS 4031 (Part 2)
2 a) By Le Chatelier method, mm, Max 10.0 IS 4031 (Part 3)
b) By autoclave test method, percent, Max 0.8
Setting time:
3 a) Initial, min, Min 60 IS 4031 (Part 5)
b) Final, min, Max 600
4 Compressive strength, MPa IS 4031 (Part 6)

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Comparative Analysis of Chemical and Physical Properties of Mini Cement Plant and Major Cement Plant
(J4R/ Volume 02 / Issue 10 / 004)

a) 72 ± 1 h, Min 27
b) 168 ± 2 h, Min, Max 37-37.5
c) 672 ± 4 h, Min, Max 53
mm = milimeter, Min = minimum, Max = maximum, MPa = Mega Pascal, h = hour.
Table - 3
Workability of Concrete
Degree of Slump
Use for which concrete is suitable
workability (mm)
Very low 0-25 Very dry mixes; used in road making. Roads vibrated by power operated machines.
Low 25-50 Low workability mixes; used for foundations with light reinforcement. Roads vibrated by hand operated Machines.
Medium workability mixes; manually compacted flat slabs using crushed aggregates. Normal reinforced concrete
Medium 50-100
manually compacted and heavily reinforced sections with vibrations.
High 100-175 High workability concrete; for sections with congested reinforcement. Not normally suitable for vibration


Various physical and chemical tests were conducted for cement and concrete. They are explaining as below:
 Standard Consistency Test: The basic aim is to find out the water content required to produce a cement paste of standard
consistency as specified by the IS: 4031 (Part 4) – 1988. The principle is that standard consistency of cement is that
consistency at which the Vicat plunger having 10 mm diameter and 50 mm length penetrates to a depth of 5-7 mm from the
bottom of Vicat mould. This test helps to determine water content for other tests like initial and final setting time,
soundness & compressive strength.
 Initial And Final Setting Time: Initial setting time is that time period between the time water is added to cement and time at
which 1 mm square section needle fails to penetrate the cement paste, placed in the Vicat’s mould 5 mm to 7 mm from the
bottom of the mould. Final setting time is that time period between the time water is added to cement and the time at which
1 mm needle makes an impression on the paste in the mould but 5 mm attachment does not make any impression. It is
essential that cement set neither too rapidly nor too slowly. In the first case there might be insufficient time to transport and
place the concrete before it becomes too rigid. In the second case too long a setting period tends to slow up the work
unduly, also it might postpone the actual use of the structure because of inadequate strength at the desired age.
 Slump Test: The slump test result is a measure of the behavior of a compacted inverted cone of concrete under the action of
gravity. It measures the consistency or the wetness of concrete. The slump test is used to ensure uniformity for different
batches of similar concrete under field conditions and to ascertain the effects of plasticizers on their introduction.
 Compressive Strength Test: The tests are required to determine the strength of concrete and therefore its suitability for the
job. For doing this test concrete mix design are prepared as following table.
 Various chemical tests like lime saturation factor, alumina iron ratio, insoluble residue, magnesia, sulphuric anhydride, loss
of ignition, alkali oxides were conducted.
Table - 4
Mix Design
Mix design for Concrete
Sample Water (ml) Cement (gm) Fine Aggregate (gm) Coarse Aggregate (gm)
Kamal cement 600 1200 1800 3600
Ultratech Cement 600 1200 1800 3600
Mix design for Cement Mortar
Kamal Cement 87 185 555 -
Ultratech Cement 87 185 555 -
ml = milliliter, gm. = gram.


Various test results of ordinary Portland cement of kamal cement 53 grade mini cement plant and ultratech cement 53 grade
major cement plant samples are given below tables.
Table - 5
Standard Consistency Test Results
Depth of penetration from bottom (mm) P – Standard Consistency
Percentage of Water added %
Kamal Cement Ultratech Cement Kamal Cement Ultratech Cement
25 11 17
28 8 13
30.5 6 10
30.5 35
33 3 8.5
35 0 6.5
Table – 6
Initial and Final Setting Time Test Results

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Comparative Analysis of Chemical and Physical Properties of Mini Cement Plant and Major Cement Plant
(J4R/ Volume 02 / Issue 10 / 004)

Sample P Initial Setting Time (Mins) Final Setting Time (Mins)
Kamal Cement 30.5 65 155
Ultratech cement 35 90 270
P = standard consistency, Mins = minutes.
Table – 7
Slump Test Results
Sample Slump (mm) Type of Slump Workability
Kamal Cement 10 True Very low
Ultratech cement 35 True low
Table – 8
Compressive Strength of Concrete Cube Test Results
Sample Mix Design w/c Ratio Wf (KN) Ap (mm2) Compressive strength (N/mm2) at 28 days
Kamal Cement 1:1.5:3 0.5 550 150*150 24.44
Ultratech Cement 1:1.5:3 0.5 600 150*150 26.67
w/c = water cement ratio, Wf = Maximum applied load just before load, Ap = Plan area of cube mould.
Table – 9
Compressive Strength of Cement Mortar Cube Test Results
Wf Ap
Sample Mix Design w/c Ratio Compressive strength (N/mm2) at 28 days
(KN) (mm2)
Kamal Cement 1:3 0.5 84.6 75*75 15.04
Ultratech Cement 1:3 0.5 112.84 75*75 20.06
Table - 10
Chemical Test Results of Cements
Test Results (%)
No. Description Requirements (%)
Kamal cement Ultratech cement
1 Lime Saturation Factor 1.10 0.82 0.8-1.2
2 Alumina Iron Ratio 3.12 1.18 Min 0.66
3 Insoluble Residue 1.72 1.14 Max 2%
4 Magnesia 2.79 1.12 Max 6%
5 Sulphuric Anhydride 2.36 1.93 Max 3%
6 Loss of Ignition 2.87 1.39 Max 4%
7 Alkali Oxides 1.5 0.6 0.3-1.2


 From the results of the test, we can conclude that even mini plant cement has good physical properties like major plant
 Due to low workability of mini plant cement it can be used in roads.
 Also Mini plant cements can be used as a replacement for Rapid Hardening Cement, as they have quick Setting time.
 The Setting time is directly proportional to the lime saturation factor. Higher the CaO content, higher will be lime saturation
factor, and ultimately, the setting time will reduce drastically.
 From the test, it can be said that alkali oxides in mini plant cement is more than permissible value. Hence it is possible that
mini plant cement may undergo alkali aggregate reaction in future.
 On the other hand, the major plant cement has higher setting time due to low lime saturation factor.
 Considering the Alumina Iron ratio, mini plant cement has higher ratio than major plant cement, hence, mini plant cement
cannot be used for marine structure, due to sulphate attack.
 Similarly, mini plant cement has higher loss of ignition than major plant cement, which indicates that, mini plant cement
cannot be used in structures exposed to high temperature.
 But on the other hand, magnesia in major plant is lower than mini plant cement. Magnesia provides hardness to the
concrete. Hence in terms of hardness, mini plant cement is better than major plant cement.
 The difference in the cost of mini plant and major plant cement can bring optimization in construction. Major plant cement
should be used in structural members, while mini plant cement can be used for masonry work, plaster work, stairs,
boundary walls, etc. By doing so the cost of the construction is reduced.

[1] Neville A.M., “Concrete Technology”, 4th ed. 1996, Singapore: Long man Singapore Publishers Ltd.
[2] Taylor H. F. W., The Chemistry of Cements. Vol 1. 1964, New York: Academic Press.
[3] Furman N.H., et al., Standard Method of Chemical Analysis, 6th ed. 1962, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.
[4] Bogue R.H., The Chemistry of Portland Cement, 2nd Ed. 1955, Reinhold Publishing Corporation.
[5] Pandey G. N. and S. D. Shukla, A Text Book of Chemical Technology. Vol. 1. 1980, New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.

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