2012 7th International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering 925

20-22 December, 2012, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Boiler Gas Burner Management System Automation
Using PLC
P. K. Bhowmik,1* and S. K. Dhar2
Dept. of Instrumentation and Communication, Eastern Refinery Ltd., Chittagong, Bangladesh
Member, IEEE, Chittagong, Bangladesh

Abstract—This paper presents an operation and control II. PLC SYSTEM
system for gas burner management of steam boiler and discuss
PLC is a 'digital operating system' designed especially for
about the system structure and implementation of smooth
automatic operation using programmable logic controller (PLC).
use in an industrial environment, which uses a programmable
All criteria for safe starting of a burner are taken into account in memory for its internal operation of user-orientated
the PLC program with self protection and operation. The instructions and for implementing specific function such as
presented control system is simulated and tested on SIMATIC logic, sequencing, timing, counting and arithmetic [2-3].
S7-200 Controller with SIMATIC STEP 7-Micro/WIN Figure 2 shows the block diagram of the complete set up of
programming software presents the feasibility of real time the PLC [3-4]. The STEP 7 Microwin PLC programming
system deployment. Such systems are of frequent interest over software and S7- 200 Simulating software are used in this
analog and relay based old control systems provide less paper [2-3].
complexity in troubleshooting, commissioning and controlling as
well as ease of expansion or communication with other discrete III. PROCESS SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
control modules.
The process schematic diagram of crude oil distillation
Index Terms— PLC, Boiler burner management system, process is shown in Fig. 1.

Boiler burner management is a complicated control system
which requires continuous monitoring and inspection at
frequent intervals. There are possibilities of errors at
measuring and various stages involved with operators. In
order to automate the operation & control of boiler burner
management system and subsiding human intervention, PLC
based control system is a good option. The internal storage of
instructions of a PLC is used for implementing functions and
thus to control various types of equipment & process variables
through digital and or analog input or output modules [3-4].
The main control strategies in boiler burner management
system are primary control and combustion control. Primary
control allows fuel to flow only when all of the safe
conditions for fuel ignition are met. The combustion control
regulates furnace fuel and air ratio within limits for
continuous combustion and stable flame throughout the
demand operating limits of the boiler. The major steps in
boiler burner management system are checking boiler self
protection for start up, pre-purging, pilot trial and ignite, main
burner trial and ignite, maintaining air/fuel ratio according to
the load demand and post-purging after burner stop [1].
The ease of programming and simulation on the Siemens
S7-200 ensure accuracy of the system and reducing the
implementation time and cost. The conventional relay based
boiler burner management system of STG Unit-2 of Eastern
Refinery Limited; Bangladesh is taken as the reference system
model in this paper. PLC based control systems are now
widely used in the industries like; power plants, oil refineries,
process plant, and chemical industries etc[4]. It is anticipated
that this paper will be effective & helpful to keep pace with
the growing needs for PLC based automatic operation &
control in the sector of oil & energy. Fig. 1 Gas burner management system of a boiler [1]
978-1-4673-1436-7/12/$31.00 ©2012 IEEE

7 >1.Pressure Indication & Controller.95 of air/fuel ratio and fuel rich trip Successful operation of a process system depends upon set at or below 0. This keeps that the important for safe and economical fuel combustion. F. Then the pilot block valve circuit and their components [1]. fuel gas pressure FT. The UV scanner detected main burner flame and after C. Initial Start up by Checking for Pre purging FCV (Gas) MCR O2 FCV (Air) At the initial start up the pre purging system are checked. At any case if main ÷ burner fails or intentionally boiler stopped after pilot valve O2 O2 to opening the process of furnace post purging will initiated.3 times the total fuel flow and on falling demand system. the furnace pre-purging will be started by the “Burner or by flame failure.Low Level Set. Air/fuel Ratio Control simultaneously controlled by AFRC (air/fuel ratio controller). and the main gas system is necessary to ensure supply of required gas to the furnace according to the demand. steam flow and drum water level. After stop or fail of pilot or main gas Start Switch”.85 of air/fuel ratio. The opening of parameters that have fundamental importance for boiler gas valve will supply gas to the main burner and it fired by the burner start up and safe operation. gas block valve. FIC.Fuel Control Valve condition (10~15% opening) and illuminated the “Furnace Fig. It also consists of air damper. FRA <0. FRT During this checking system mainly check the combustion air flow. The fuel gas valve and air damper are E.3 energized the main burner and ensured by the main burner flame detector and finally throttling the fuel valve and air HSS HSS damper to ensure the proper air/fuel ratio according to track the demand of steam flow from boiler. safety device. This keeps the air/fuel ratio reasonably controlled. burner or flame fail after trial of burner the furnace post- This is done to remove gases that may cause explosion during purging system will initiated & continue for a fixed time. pilot gas valve open and CA damper position to near 20% opening. D. pilot burner flame within the ignition trial time of pilot burner. respective interlock. careful installation & initial start up. FIC curve × FIC AFR Thus the entire process is carried out [1]. The safe operation & normal shutdown of a system should be done according to the FT PT FT design of that unit. are safe condition than the air damper open to the pre purge HSS. ÷ A.Pressure Transmitter.Air Fuel Ratio. PIC. combustion air flow. lamp.High Level Set. drum water level. Pilot Burner Trial Ignition The process model of boiler burner management system After completion of furnace pre-purging “Furnace Pre- can be categorized into the following basic type of process purged” lamp will be illuminated. Main Burner Fire After energizing of pilot burner and pilot flame detection B. air/fuel ratio always higher (air rich) during change in demand The fundamental elements of the above circuit are: gas than the normal steady condition. LSS.Flow Transmitter. furnace firing. Pre-purging. Steam and Water Circuit afterwards the main gas block valve open. gas pressure switch. There is fixed time for furnace pre-purging. PROCESS OPERATION DESCRIPTION Fuel rich alarm set at 0. 2 Logic schematic diagram of Air/ Fuel Ratio control of a boiler ready to pre-purge” lamp. Pilot flame scanner. control trip. Fuel Gas Circuit transformer energise and pilot ignite and flame detected by It consists of main gas circuit and the pilot gas circuit. Before start up there should be a thorough check of the system. vent valve close Boiler drum water level and steam pressure are the vital and main gas valve open to start up position. PT. After that the ignition A. It is on falling demand the air will lag the fuel.7 times the total for air flow. gas valve. PROCESS MODEL DEVELOPMENT C. Pilot valve open and pilot energized by ignition LSS LSS transformer. 926 IV.Flow Indication & and alarm condition. and all the mechanical and electrical system that should be in Gas Range H/S Air Range PIC good condition. . It consists of FD (force draft) fan. like valves. vent valve close. FCV. open. Ensure that on rising demand the air will lead the fuel and The AFRC maintain the proper burning of the fuel. Pilot flame detected and fuel valve open to <0. FD fan and transmitter the total fuel flow cannot fall less than 0. V.85. Combustion Air Circuit expiration of the trial time pilot system will be de-energized. If all the criteria for start up protection Controller. gas On rising demand the total combustion air flow cannot rise vent valve and flame detector for both main and pilot gas more than 1. Burner Fail or Stop and Furnace Post-purging B.95. <0. air damper. Furnace Pre-purging The gas burner will continue to operate until it is stopped After illumination of the “Furnace ready to pre-purge” intentionally by the “Gas Stop” switch or by interlock failure. There is fixed time for the ignition trial of the gas system is requisite to start the furnace in a low fuel supply pilot burner. air flow transmitter. The boiler burner management system is categorized in the subsequent phases: Initial start up and self protection and precondition for furnace pre-purging check up. regulator. AFR.

3 Process flow diagram of gas burner management system Fig. 4 Process variable declaration for PLC system . LD is based on graphical representations with contacts. 927 G. I.4.5.5. program debugging. The Ladder Diagram (LD) PLC programming language used easy to understand. Program Execution The ladder logic program execution by Step 7 Microwin V4. Process Flow Diagram H. PLC always scan its input and give an output signal according the corresponding input and instruction of the program [3-4].0. Fig. as per the circuit diagrams [3]. program transfer to Simulator S7-200 and finally simulate the program.08 software requires the following steps [3]: program development. Then the PLC executes the program successfully after run the program.08 and simulate in S7-200 PLC simulating software.0. coils and boxes. Program Development In this paper PLC programme is developed in SIMATIC Step 7-MicroWIN V.

Ian G. 2009. effectiveness and reliability in a more economical way. & Comm. Noman and R. provides more flexibility of the system in case of operation. K. their implementation and the problems that can occur have also been investigated with due importance. 1988. INDIA December 27-29. The paper has furnished itself to study the integral parts of the entire processd. Dept.A Learing Aid for Undergraduate Students” Third International Conference on Power Systems. of Inst. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank Mr.. the system presented in this paper would be a great scope. “PLC Based Operation of Three Natural Gas Generator Models. contacts and controller with a single PLC. VII. Considering the limitation of required version of the software a simplified form of the precise control strategy of the air/fuel ratio controller is described. Bangladesh and Md. 928 Fig. S. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The simulated result of proposed system by using S7-200 simulator is identical to the described reference system. commissioning and modification. AGM. Replacement of the conventional system which is consists of many discrete elements like relay. timer. Chittagong. K. A.” Prentice-Hall. Kharagpur. Before opening of the fuel valve all features and interlock for safe start up and operation must be satisfied leading by furnace pre purging system. Interlocks that are used in the proposed system to ensure the system safe operation are tested independently.0. REFERENCES [1] Operation Guideline of Boiler of STG Unit-2 of Eastern Refinery Limited. Khan. troubleshooting. [2] Warnock. Dey. “Programmable Controllers: Operation and Application. It will also provide better flexibility in customization of operation and control with minimum effort. NJ. control. Interruption of any interlock or process sequence by operation fault or sensor or system fault the respective program sequence for safe operation or shutdown is ensured by the simulation result. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission for their valuable guidelines. Ali Zulquarnain. Englewood Cliffs. PLC Software [4] P. 5 LD program for gas burner management process of a boiler VI. In general if any safety interlock is breached the burner is shut off leading by closing the fuel valves and energizing the furnace post purging.. CONCLUSIONS To cope with the technological advancement and to ensure higher efficiency. Eastern Refinery Ltd. . Member. Sharafat Ali. Planning. A. The presented system would also be beneficiary in economical aspect. review and comments to complete the task.. Bangladesh. [3] SIMATIC Step 7-MicroWIN V4.08.5.