topic-specific vocabulary

Geography
A. Put the words in each line in the box in order according to their size (the smallest first, the
largest last). In each list there is one word that does not belong with the others.

1. forest • tree • copse • beach • wood

2. road • peak • footpath • track • lane

3 mountain • hillock • shore • hill • mountain range

4. gorge • plain • waterfall • hollow • valley

5. gulf • ridge • inlet • bay • cove

6. cliff • brook • river • estuary • stream

7. city • continent • tributary • county • country

8. pond • puddle • ocean • sea • cape • lake

Can you think of any examples of the following in your country?

Forest

Mountain

Mountain range

Valley

Gorge

Plain

Gulf

River

Estuary

Sea

Lake

B. Put the words and expressions in the box into their correct category in the tables on the
next page. Some can be included in more than one category.

depopulation • mountainous • urban sprawl • fertile • ridge • cliff
densely populated • coast • under-developed • summit • industrialised
peninsula • shore • vegetation • glacier • beach • plateau
irrigation • conurbation • cape • source • coastline • tributary
waterfall • mouth • peak • overcrowding • highlands

the road we were travelling along became a 13_________________________ which was only just wide enough for our vehicle. And then suddenly. and miles of 3_________________________ as housing estates and shopping centres spread out from the 4_________________________ centre for miles. It is largely due to this rural 9_________________________ that the sugar-cane industry is suffering. Now look at this report of a journey and fill in the gaps with one of the words or expressions from Tasks A and B. The open 18_________________________ surrounding the 19_________________________ of the Rio Cauto as it reaches the ocean is rich and 20_________________________ . fast-moving 12_________________________ which are not even wide enough to take a boat. We began our journey in the capital. damp soil. Our destination was the town of Santiago de Gibara. with low 17_________________________ covered in rich tropical jungle. The countryside here undulates gently. with mountains rising high above us on both sides. Trinifuegos. You may need to change some of the word forms. built on a 16_________________________ sticking out into the blue waters. It was a relief to leave. things improved considerably. It is not a pretty place. heavily 2_________________________ . and then an unpaved 14_________________________ which almost shook the vehicle to pieces. and small. ideal for growing the tobacco plants which need a lot of warm. the Pacific 15_________________________ was in front of us. The climate is dry and it is difficult to grow anything. In some cases. I dreamt of the people who had first inhabited this 22_________________________ almost two thousand years before. We saw few people. as many have moved to the towns and cities to look for more profitable work. which helps bring water in from the Rio Cauto (the huge river with its 6_________________________ high up in the snow-covered 7_________________________ of the Sierra Maestra 8_________________________ ). listening to the waves gently lapping the 21_______________________ . As soon as we got into the countryside. . Further south and we entered the Holguin 10_________________________ . and when I eventually fell asleep. with huge factories belching out black fumes. but thanks to 5_________________________ .topic-specific vocabulary Geography Geographical features associated with Geographical features associated with water and the sea land. more than one answer may be possible. however. hills and mountains Words associated with agriculture and Words associated with towns and cities rural land C. The land here drops sharply to the sea and the slow-moving waters of the Rio Cauto give way to 11_________________________ which tumble over cliffs. That night I lay in my cheap hotel. the land is fertile enough to grow the sugar cane on which much of the economy is based. At this point. a 1_________________________ conurbation of almost ten million.

Valley 11. urban sprawl 4. waterfalls 12. lane 14. plain 19. peaks 8. country Other words and expressions which you might find useful include: lowlands / mountainous / hilly / flat / climate / diverse . footpath track lane road (peak does not belong here) 3. hills and mountains: mountainous ridge cliff summit glacier plateau peak highlands Words associated with agriculture and rural land: depopulation fertile under-developed vegetation irrigation Words associated with towns and cities: urban sprawl densely populated industrialised conurbation overcrowding C. streams 13. fertile 21. industrialised 3. 1. tree copse wood forest (beach does not belong here) 2. city county country continent (tributary does not belong here) 8. depopulation 10. hillock hill mountain mountain range (shore does not belong here) 4. Geographical features associated with water and the sea: coast peninsula shore beach cape source coastline tributary waterfall mouth cliff Geographical features associated with land. delta 20. track 15. hills 18. Ocean 16.Geography answers A. inlet cove bay gulf (ridge does not belong here) 6. 1. puddle pond lake sea ocean (cape does not belong here) B. brook stream river estuary (cliff does not belong here) 7. shore / beach 22. cape / peninsula 17. city 5. hollow gorge valley plain (waterfall does not belong here) 5. densely populated 2. irrigation 6. mountain range 9. source 7.