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13 1 1 313 5 OF AF R I CA ,

COM PRI SI N G AL L TH E S P E CI E S W H ICH OCCU R

IN TH E

E T H I OP I AN RE G I ON .

BY

G . E . S H E L L E Y, &c .

( L AT E G R E N AD I E R G U AR D S ),

“ ”
AU T H O R OF A H AN D B O O K To TH E B I RDS 0F E G YP T ,

“ "
A M O N O G R AP H OF TH E S U N B I RD S -

, E TC .

VO L . IV .

P AR T I .

L ON D ON
P U BL I S H ED F OR T H E AU TH O R BY

R . H . PORTE R , 7, P R I N CE S S TREE T , C AV EN DIS H S Q U AR E , W .

1 905 .

C ONT E NT S .

P AG E 3 82 . U r o b ra c h
ya z a n z i b ari c a.

LI ST OF P AT E S
L v ii .
(P 1 . x xx .
'

3 55 . L i n u rg u s c o n c ol o r H 3 83 .
p h ce n i c ea.
Fam i ly 11 . P L OC E I DZE w 3 84 . t r avers ii
S u bfa mi ly I V I DU I N E .
-
P
r 3 85 . m ec b o w i
G e n u s I H YP OC H E R A 3 86 b o c ag e i
t
J
. C .
5’

3 56 . H yp o c h e ra . c h al
y b ea t a .
D
O G en u s V . P YROM E L AN A

3 57 . u l t r a ma r i n a .
D
G 3 87 . P y ro m e l an a . capen s i s
3 58 . fun ere a . HO 3 88 .
n a ppro xi ma n s

3 59 . ni
g err i ma. 11 3 89 . x anth o mel a s
3 60 . a mau ro p t ery x 12 3 90 .
p h oen i c o mera
G e n u s II V I D U A
. 13 391 .
n au re a .

3 6 1 Vi d u a h yp o c h eri n a
. . 14 3 92 . a fr a.

3 62 . seren a . 16 3 93 . l a do e n s i s
3 63 . reg i a . 21 3 94 . t ah a .

3 64 . fi sc h e ri 23 3 95 . s tri cta .

3 65 . p ara di se a . 25 3 96 .
n d i adem a t a .

G e nus I I I . COL I U S P AS S E R 29 3 97 . n i gri v en t ri s

3 66 . Co li usp a sser pr o g ne 32 3 98 . fran c i sc ana .

3 67 . d el a m ere i 37 3 99 . o ri x

3 68 . l a t i c au du s 38 4 00 . s u n d eval l i

3 69 . a rden s 40 401 . w e rt h e ri

3 70 . c on c o l o r 44 4 02 . fri e de ri c h s e n i
3 71 . equ es 45 403 . an so r g e i

3 72 . a lb o n o t at u s 46 4 04 .
g i ero w i
3 73 . a sy m met ru rus 49 4 05 . fl a mm i c e p s
3 74 . m a cr o u ru s 49 G e us VI
n AN OM AL OS P I Z A
.

3 75 . m ac ro c erc us 52 4 06 . An o ma lo s pi z a. i mb e rb i s
3 76 . s o r o r (P I x xi x . .
) 53 (Pl . xx x1 .

3 77 .
p sa mm o c ro m i u s 53 G enu s VI I .
Q U EL E A
3 78 .
54 407 .
Q u ele a qu ele a . .

3 79 .
j a c k son i 55 408 . aat h i o p i c a.
G en u s IV . U R OB RAC H YA 59 4 09 . ery t h ro p s

3 80 U . ro br ac h
ya . a x i ll ar i s 60 41 0 . c a rd i n a l i s
3 81 n v ar . a fli n i s 60 Su bfam i ly II . E S T RI L DI N ZE

iv .
C ON T E NT S
P AG E
G e us I n AM AD I N A
. 1 22 44 5 . U raeg i n t h u s i a n t h i n o g as t er
41 1 . Amadi n a f as c i s t s . . 1 23 44 6 .
H a n g o l en si s

41 2 . m a rg n al i is 1 25 447 .
,3 c y ano c eph al us

41 3 . ery t h ro c ep h ala. 1 26 44 8 .
H b e n g a lu s
G e u s II
n . PH I L E T AI R U S 1 29 G us X I E ST
en . R IL DA
41 4 . P h i le t a i ru s so cius 1 30 44 9 E . s t r i ld a a s tr i ld
.

41 5 . arn a u di 1 32 45 0 .
1 ’ H c av e ndi sh i

41 6 . d o rs al i s 1 34 45 1 .
) 7 3 ’ d am a ren s i s
41 7 . e min i 1 35 4 52 .
1 ’ '3 san ct ae he l en ae -

41 8 . c ab a n i s i 1 35 4 53 .
H m i no r
G enus III N I G R I T A . 1 36 454 .
H o cc i de n t a l i s
41 9 . N i gr i t a f u sc o n o t a . 1 38 455 .
n S OU S E
4 20 . u ro p yg i al i s 1 39 45 6 .
U r u b r i ve n t ri s

42 1 . b i co lo r 1 39 4 57 .
H c i n erea .

422 . b ru nn e s c e n s 1 40 458 . ru fib ar b a

42 3 . c a n i c ap ill a . 1 41 4 59 . rh o do py g a.
(P l . x xxu .
)
42 4 . d i ab o l i ca . 1 42 460 .
H su b fl ava

4 25 . em i l i as 1 43 461 . cl a rk e i
42 6 . S c h i s t a c e a. 1 45 46 2 .
S , m e lp o da .

4 27 . l ut ei fro n s 1 46 4 63 .
1 ’ p a lu d i c o l a .

G e u s I V P ADD A
n . 1 48 464 .
, l r os e i c ri ssa.

428 . Pa dd a . o ry z i vo ra. 1 48 4 65 .
i ) p o li o p are i a .

G e us V n U R OL ON CH A
. 1 50 4 66 .
U o chr o g a s t er
429 . U ro l o n c h a c an i c e p s . 1 51 46 7 .
i , c aer u l esce n s
43 0 . c an t an s 1 52 4 68 .
) 7 p erre i n i
G e us V I
n ORT YG OS P I Z A . 1 55 469 .
’l H t h o men s i s
4 3 1 Ort yg o sp i z a p o l y z o n a
. . . 1 55 4 70 .
7, p o li o g a st ra .

43 2 . a t ri c o l li s 1 58 47 1 .
i , i n ca n a .

G en u s V I I S P E RM E S T E S . 1 59 4 72 . n i g r i c o ll i s

4 3 3 S p er m es t es f ri n g illo i de s
. 1 60 4 73 .
H v i n a c ea.

43 4 . b i co l or 1 62 474 .
H l arv a t a .

43 5 .
p o en s i s 1 64 4 75 .
1 ’
k a n dt i
43 6 . n i g r i c ep s 1 66 476 .
H n o nn u l a.

43 7 . m ino r 1 66 4 77 . e li z ae

43 8 . c u c u l l at u s 1 67 4 78 .
,l a t ri c ap i l l a.

43 9 . sc u tat u s 1 70 4 79 .
H e ry t h ro n o t a.

440 . n an a . 1 74 4 80 .
H d el a me re i
G e us V I I I
n . N E S OCH AR I S 1 75 48 1 . c h a r m o sy n a.

4 41 . N e so c h ari s s h el l e
yi 1 76 G e u s XI I
n COCCOP YG I A
.

G e us IVn CH L ORE S T R I L D A
. 1 76 482 . Co c c o p y gi a du f re s n e i
.

442 . Chl o r e s t r ild a a n so rg e i . . 1 77 483 .
H
b o c ag e i ( P I . x xx m)
.

4 43 . c api s t ra t a. 1 77 48 4 .
q u a r t i n ea .

G en u s X U . R ZE G I N T H U S 1 78 4 85 .
H k il i m en si s
4 44 . U r aa
gi n t h us g ra na t i nu s 1 79 G e u s III
n . H YP AR G OS

C ONT E N T S
P AG E P AG E

H yp e rg o s m a rg a ri t a t u s 240 5 04 . P y t e l i a. ph aen i c o p t e ra . 2 66
n i ve i g u t t a t us 2 40 505 .
H e mi n i 266
dy b ro w skii 2 42 506 .
H l in eat a . 2 67
n i t i d ul u s 242 507 .
H h y p o g ra m m i c a . 2 68
bar bet t i 2 44 5 08 . a fr a
. 2 69
XI V . L AG ON OS T I C T A 24 5 5 09 .
H c i t eri o r 2 70
L a go n o s t i c t a . c i n ereo v i na c e a. 2 46 51 0 .
H H j e s s ei 2 70
H
m e l a n o g a s t ra . 2 47 51 1 . me l ba . 2 73
i ! p o li o no t a . 2 49 51 2 . k i rk i 273
3 ’ rh o do p are i a. 51 3 .
3 ! s o u d a ne n s i s 2 73
(P l . xxx i v )
. 2 50 G e u s XV I
n CR YP T O S P I Z A
. 2 76
M c o n g i c a. 251 51 4 . Cry p t o s p i z a sal va do ru . 2 77
H j a me s o n i 2 52 51 5 . r e i c h e no w i 2 78
9 ’ r ubr i cata . 2 54 51 6 . a u stra l i s 2 79
H l a n d an ee 2 55 51 7 .
H j ac k s o ni 2 80
7 |
2 56 51 8 .
, 1 S h e l le y i 2 80
3 ! b r un n ei c e p s 2 58 G e u s XV I I
n . P YR E N E STE S 28 1
H r en d alli 260 51 9 . P y re n es t es sa n gu i n e u s 28 2
3 , ru f o p i c t a . 2 62 5 20 .
H
c o cc i n e u s 2 82
r h o do
p si s 2 64 52 1 .
7’ o s tri nu s 2 84
s XV . P TE Y L IA 2 64 52 2 .
1 ’ m i no r 287

.

LIS T OF P LAT E S — V OL . IV .
, P ART I .

P AG E
Pla t e XX I X , fig . 1 . P y ro m e l a n a l a d o e n s i s
53
3 ’ fig . 2 . Co li u s p a ss e r o o s r r
P lat e XXX .
, U r o b ra c h
ya z an z i b a ri c a
64
fig . 2 . a ffi n i s , Ca b .

P lat e XXX I . An o m a lo s p i z a re nd a lli
( T ri s t r ) . 1 08

P la t e XXX II fi g .
, . 1 . E s t ri lda rh o do
pyg a
H fig . 2 . vi na c e a , g 2 05
I ! fig . 3 .
U 9

P lat e XXX III fi g .
, . 1 . Co c c o p y g i a b o c a g e i , a S!
23 6
’7 fig . 2 . L a g o n o s t i c t a c i n e reovi n a c ea

P lat e XXX IV fi g . . 1 . rh o d o p a re i a
2 50
fig . 2 . P y t e li a c i t er i or

P lat e XXXV fi g .
, . 1 . P y re n es t e s m i no r
fig . 2 . Cryp t o sp i z a j ac k so ni 2 80
) 7
fig . 3 . s h elley i

L I N U RG U S C ON C OL O R

L i nu rgu s c on c ol o r .

Am b l yo s p i z a con color B ocage J orn L i sb 1 888 pp 2 29 2 3 2 S t , , . .
, .
, .

T homa s I s l S harpe Ca t B M xiii p 6 7 0 ( 1 890) S helley B Afr
.
, . . . . .
, . .

I N o 4 58 . .

N e o sp i z a co n color S alvad Ac c R S c T or i n o 1 9 03 p 2 6 ; B ocage J
, o rn . . . .
, , .
, .

L i sb 1 9 04 p 8 0 S t T homa s I s l ; Re i che n V og Afr iii p 2 7 8
.
, . . . . . . . .

( 1 9 04 )
Adu l t .s i m i l ar i n c o l o u r i n g t o L r ufibm nneu s bu t a mu ch larger
V ery .
,

b i r d E n t i re pl u m age ru fo u s bro wn wit h i ll defin e d blacki sh cen t res t o
.
,
-

t h e fea t hers of t he forehead cro w n h in d n ec k a nd m a n t le ; wi n gs a nd t a i l
, , ,

wi t h t h e e x cep t i on of t h e edges of t h e feat hers dark er bro w n un der s u rface ,

of t h e q u i ll s s i lvery bro w n sl i gh t ly paler o n t h e i nn er m arg i n s ; under
,

wi ng covert s r u fo u s bro w n l i k e t h e e nt i re u n der part s “ Ir i s pale bro wn ;
-

.

b i ll d u s ky bro w n wi t h t h e u n der m an d i ble w h i t i sh ; fee t bro w n
, T ot al .

le n g t h 8 i nches c u l m e n wi n g 42 t a i l
, t ars u s 3 9 90 R i o ,

. .

Q ui ja ( F N e w t o n )
. .

The Grea t Bro w n Shor t t ai l ed F inch i s con fi ned t o t h e -

Island of S t Thomas . .

The species w as discovered by Mr F Ne w t on w ho informs . .
,

u s t hat i t is k no w n t o t h e n a t ives o f t h e island as t he
“ ”
E n j o lo On t h e eas t coas t he procured t w o specimens a t
.

t he Rio Q ui j a w hich runs t hrough t he large fores t a t Ango
,

lares and he observed i t on t he w es t coas t at S t M iguel
, . .

I overloo k ed t h e a ffi ni t ies of t his b ird w hen I published my

t hird volume of t he B irds of Africa presuming t ha t i t had ,

been righ t ly assigned t o t h e genus Ambby osp i za where i t ,

remained un t il Coun t S al v a d o r i poi nt ed o u t t ha t i t is a t rue
Finc h and proposed t o ma k e i t t h e t ype o f a ne w genus
,

N eosp i za ( Acc R S c Torino 1 9 03 p . . .
, ,
.

This species appears t o me n o t t o be generically d is t inc t
from L i nurgu s r ufi bru nneus G ray and P hasosp i za thomensi s , ,
.
,

Bocage bo t h o f w h ich I have referred t o t h e genus L i nurgus
, ,

Reichenbach .

I t co m es int o m y k e y ( B Afr III p “
a Plumage . . .
, . .


nearly uniform t a w ny bro w n dar k er above t han belo w ,
.

Add a Larger w ing over 4 inches c on c olor
.
!
.
,
Wing under . .

3 5 i n ches r ufi brun n eu s and t homen s i s
,
.

[O c t o b er, 1 904 .

S ec t i o n III . F R I N G I L L ZE

F ami ly II . P L O CE I D H B ‘
.

B ill s t ro gn an d Fi ch l ik e wit h
n -
cu l m en e x t e n d i n g bac k i n a w edge
, th e
be t w een t h e s i des of t h e fron t al feat hers ; edges of t h e m an d i bles s m oo t h ,

e x cept in g i n P y ren es tes N asal aper t ure ro u n ded a nd i m p i n ged u po n by
.

t h e fro n t al fea t hers . W i n gs of t e n pri m ar i es t h e fi rs t a bas t ard pr im ary ,
-
.

T a i l of t w elve fea t hers var i able i n for m an d s o m et i me s d iff er i n t h e se x e s
, ,

accord ing t o t h e season T ars i a n d t oes moderat ely s t ro n g a n d t he cla w s
.
,

c urved an d sharply po i n t ed .

T he n am e of W eaver b i rd has been g ive n t o t h e m em bers o f t h i s fa mi ly
-

o n acco u n t of t he i r pec l i ar hab i t o f w eav i n g t oge t her t h e m a t er i als wi t h
u

w h i ch t hey co n s t r u c t t he i r sol i d an d oft e n bea u t i f l n es t s W he n o n reeds u .

or i n t rees t hey are of t e n s u spen ded i n colo n i es a nd t h e e n t ran ce passage ,

i s fre q u e n t ly form ed l i k e a sleeve vary i n g fro m a fe w i n ches i n le n gt h
,

u p t o abo u t fi ve fee t . Others wi ll co n stru ct i n co m pa n y a s i n gle s u bs t a nt i al
roof f o r t h e prot ec t i o n of a w hole colo n y .

The f amily i s con fi ned t o t h e t ropical por t ion of t h e Old
World S ome 2 50 species ( more t han t w o t hirds ) inhabi t t h e
.
-

E t hiopian region and o nl y abou t t e n of t hese r a nge beyond
,

i t s boundary .

The members of t his fam ily may be readily dis t inguished
from all t h e o t her E t hiopian F inches n o t only by t h e w e ll ,

mar k ed fi rs t primary being short er t han all t h e o t hers b ut ,

also by t h e bare cu l m e n e x t ending bac k so as t o divide t he
feat hers of t h e forehead in t o t w o por t ions .

Wi t h regard t o t he English names I have endeavoured t o ,

ma k e t hem use f ul by res t rict ing cer t ain o n es t o w ell mark ed -

divisi ons .

Vol .
p 1 40
. .

P L OC E ID J
E 3

The include t he Co mb as o u s ( H yp oc hera ) Whydahs
V id u i n ae ,

( Vid ua Co li u sp a sser and U r obm c hg a ) B ishop birds ( P yromela na
, ,
-

and Anoma losp i za ) and t he Di o c h e s ( Quel ea ) , .

The E s t r il d i n ae include t h e R ibbon Wa x bills
S ocial Wa xb i lls ( P hi l eta i r u s ) Negro Finches ( N i gri ta ) S ilver , ,

bills Mann i k ins ( Or i ygosp i za S p e rmes tes and N 6 3 0 ,

Cha r i s
) Cordon blues ( U raegi n thu s ) Wa x bills ( E s tmlda 00000
'

-

, , ,

p ygi a an d Chlor es tr i lda ) T w in spo t s Fire fi n c h e s - -

,

( L a g onos ti c ta ) P y t el i a s ( P y teli a ) Crimson w ings ( Cryp tosp i za )
, ,
-

,

and t h e N o t c h b illed Wa x bills ( P yr en es tes )
-
.

T he P locein ae include t h e Blue billed Weavers ( S p er mo -

sp i za
) G ros b eak Weavers ( Amblyospi za ) Whi t e headed Weavers
,
-

,
-

( Di n emelli a ) B uff alo Weavers , S parro w Weavers
( P loc ep a sser ) An a pl ec t e s ( An ap lc c tes ) M a li mb e s ( M a li m bus)
, , ,

Blac k Weavers ( M ela nop teryx) Dar k bac k ed Weaver s ( S yc a ,
-

bro tu s) B l ac k w inged Weavers ( H et er hyp ha n tes ) S pec t acled
,
-

,

Weavers ( H yp ha n tu r gus ) Slender billed Weavers ( S i ta gm ) ,
-

,

Mas k ed Weavers ( H yp ha ntor n i s P a c hyp ha n tes and Ot ILyp ha n tes) , ,

Golde n Weavers ( Xa n thop hi lu s ) and t h e Fo d i e s ( F ou di a ) ,
.

KEY T O T H E S U BFAMILIE S .

a . B as t ard pr i m ary very s m all arro w
-

,
n an d fi n ely
po i nt ed n o t reach i n g beyo nd t h e en d o f t h e
,

pr i m ary cover t s .

a
1
. M an t le s t r i ped i n s o m e s t ages of pl u m age
h i n d cla w lo nger a n d m o re slen der ;
ge n eral ly wi t h s o m e of t h e i nn er feat hers
o f t h e wi n g la n ceola t e t a i l fea t hers oft en -

ob t u sely po in t ed T he pl um age o f t h e .

m ales af t er t h e au t u m n m o u l t u s u ally
rese m bles t ha t of t h e fe m ales ; b u t aft er
t h e spr i n g m o u l t ge n erally d i ffers e n t ir ely Vi du i me .

I
V DU I NE
bl . antle n ever s t ri ped ; h in d claw short er
M
an d s t o ut er ; n o n e of t h e in n er fea t hers of

t h e wi n g lan ceola t e ; t ai l f e at h e r s n ever o

ob t u sely po i n t ed P lu m age very s i mi lar
.

i n bo t h se x es a t all t i m es of t h e year E s t r i ld i n w .

b . B as t ard pr i mary larger broader an d n o t
-

,

sharply po i n t ed ; t ail al w ays s qu are o r
ro un ded P loc ei n w .

S u bfa mi ly I . VI DU I N E .

B il l s t o shor t er t han t h e head a n d varyin g i n colou r accord ing t o t h e
ut ,

seaso n W in g wi t h a bas t ard pri m ary w hi ch i s very s m al l n arro w a nd
.
-

,

sharply po i n t ed Y ou n g b i rds fe m ales and adul t m ales after t h e au t um n
.
, ,

m o ul t have t h e t a i l s qu are or ro u n ded an d t h e pl u m age very L ar k li k e i n
,
-

colour i n g ; t h e m ales for t h e breed i n g season ( Que lea e x cep t ed) ass um e a
t o t all y d iff ere n t a n d m ore beau t i f u l pl u m age a n d oft e n t h e shape a n d s i z e
,

o f t h e t a i l grea t ly al t er The spec i es m os t ly breed o n or n ear t h e groun d
.

i n m arshy places a n d co n s t r u c t an oval do m ed n es t o f grass
, ,
.

The fif t y t hree kn o w n species o f t his subfamily ar e all
-

con fi ned t o Tropical and S ou t h Afr ica .

This subfami ly i s par t icularly s u bj ec t t o a la w o f Na t ure ,

very li t t le unders t ood by wh ich i t s members are liable t o vary
,

some wha t in colouring F o r ins t ance : t o t his la w is due t h e
.

variat ion in t h e colour o f t h e bill in members o f t he genus
H yp oc hem t he presence o r absence o f blac k fea t hers o n t h e
chin in Vi du a s er en e ; t h e scarle t o r pale yell o w colouring of
t h e collar in Col i u sp a s s er a r den s t h e variable amoun t of
yello w on t h e flan k s of P yromela n a la doensi s ; t h e blac k on
t h e head and t hroa t o f Q u elea qu elea and Q ae t hi op i c a t hi s .
,

disappearing en t irely in some specimens w hen t hey assume t he ,

plumage described as Q r us si . .

These varia t ions probably depend t o some e x t en t upon t h e
cons t i t u t ion o f t h e indivi dual b ird bei n g aff ec t ed by t h e change
i n t h e flora and insec t f a una o f t h e large area over w hich t hey
are d is t ribut ed .

H YP OCH E RA 5

KEY T O THE GENE RA .

a. Ad u lt m ale fe male t o t ally d i ss i mi lar i n
an d

t he ir breed i n g pl u m age .

c
l
.I n f ull pl u m aged m ales : bac k n ever m o t
t l e d ; head n ec k a n d breas t n o t m os t ly
,

yello w B i ll less s t ou t
. .

N o fr i ll on t h e n ec k ; n o br i gh t red n o r
yello w o n t h e pl u m age .

a T ai l e nt ir ely s qu are ; plu m age black
3
.

wi t h a colou red gloss H yp oc hem .

6 F our ce n t re t ai l feat hers e x tremely
3
.
-

lo n g i n fu ll pl u m aged m ales Vi dua .

6 2 A fr i ll ro u n d t h e n ec k a n d ( wi t h t h e
.
,

e x cep t i o n of C c onc o lor) so m e br i gh t
.
'

red o r yello w i n the pl um age .

c T a i l longer t han t h e win g an d
3
.

grad u a t ed Co li u sp a sser .

d T a i l shor t er t han t h e win g
3
. .

T a i l di st i n ctly ro un ded ; fu ll
plu m aged m ales wi t h t h e head ,

n ec k body a n d t a i l blac k ; t h e
,

lesser wi n g covert s red orange o r-

,

yello w U ro bm c hy a .

b T ai l n early s qu are ; red or yello w
4
.

n o t co n fi n ed t o t h e wi n gs P y romelcm a .

bl
.B ac k al w ays m o t t led wi t h blac ki sh cen t res
t o t h e fea t hers ; head n ec k a n d breas t ,

mo st ly br i gh t yello w i n f u ll plu m aged
m ales ; b i ll s t o u t er An oma losp zza
'

.

6 . Ad u lt m ale an d fe m ale so m e w ha t s i m i lar i n
plu m age at all seaso n s ; bac k al w ays s t r i ped Quelea .

G us I
en . H Y P OC H E R A .

B ill w h it e redd i sh shor t as broad as deep at th e n os t r il s t h e t ip
or , , ,

po i n t ed ; c u lm en c u rved som e w hat s w o ll en an d rou n ded N os t r i ls basal
,
. ,

the aper t u res ro un d a n d al m os t e n t i rely h i dden by t h e fron t al plu m es .

P r im ari es : 1 very s m all n o t lon ger t han t h e c u lm en ; 2 3 4 an d 5
, , ,

lon ges t an d n early e qu al ; shor t est qu i ll fall in g shor t o f t i p of wi n g by
t h e le n g t h o f t h e t ars u s T ai l s qu are the i nn er pa i r o f feat hers sl ightly
. ,

t h e shor t es t ( t h e lat t er charac t er d i s t i n g u i sh i n g i t fro m all t h e o t her gen er a

6 H Y P OC H E R A C H AL Y BE AT A

of t h i s s u bfa mi ly) T ars i . an d feet redd i sh , m oderat e i n s i z e ; cla w s fa i rly
lon g an d c u rved .

H yp o c h er a , B p Co n sp . . i p
. . 4 50 ( 1 8 50) H . c h al y b ea t a .

The genus is con fi ned t o Tropical and S out h Africa and ,

comprises fi ve closely allied forms Of t hese t w o inhabi t -
.
,

Nor t hern T ropical Africa and may be readily dis t inguished
f ro m t h e more sou t hern forms by t h e blac k er colouring o f t h e
qu i lls and t ail and of t h e under surface of t h e w ings The
, .

longi t ude o f Grand B asam ( 3 3 0 W lon g ) forms apparen t ly ° '
. .

t h e boundary be t w een t he ranges of H c ha ly bea ta and H . .

u l tra /ma ma s .

The ranges of t h e t hree more sou t hern forms are e x t remely
b adly de fi ned .

KEY T O T H E S P E CI E S .

a. W i n gs a nd t ai l dark sep i a bro w n ; less w h i t e
o n u n der s u rface o f t h e wi n gs .

cl .Gl o ss o n head a n d body m ore bl ue d i s ,

t i n c tl y shaded wi th green c ha ly bea ta .

bl
.G loss o n head a n d body more l il ac wi t h
n o gree n shade . u l tr a ma ri na .

b . W in gs a n d t a i l paler bro w n ; m ore w h it e o n
t h e u n der s u rface of t h e wi n gs .

01
. G loss o n head a n d body m ore v i ole t wit h ,

n o gree n i sh bl u e shade .

“ G l o ss sl i gh t ly br i gh t er an d m ore v i ole t
f uner ea
’0
a . .
'

6 2
Gl o ss sl ight ly d u ller and blac k er
. n i g er ri ma . 1 ,
dl
.Gl o ss o n head a nd body o f a m o re
green i sh bl u e shade a maurop t ery x .
’ 1

H y p o c h er a c h al y b eat a .

F ri g illa
n c h al y b ea t a , P L
N S u ppl p 1 66
. . S . M ii ll S . . . . .

H y p o c h era c h a ly b ea t a , Re i che n V og Af r ii i p 2 1 3 . . . . .

Fr i n g i lla n i t ens , G m S N ii p 9 09 . . . . .

H yp o c h e r a as n ea , H ar t l J
f O 1 8 5 4 , p 1 1 5 S en ega mbi a S harpe ,
. . . . .

Cat . B
M xiii p 3 08
. . .u tler , B F
ore i gn i n ches i n Cap t i v i t y ,
. F
p 2 74 pl 4 7
.
, . S helley B Af I N , . r . . o. 3 05
L e Comb s S ou Vi eill -

, . Oi s Chant . . p . 44, pl . 21

. wit h s e i perfec arro b om m t n w u ff edges t o t h e pri m ar i es an d cent re ta i l . wi n g t ai l t ars u s D ak ah ( L a gl ai e) z . t h e Bi ss ag o s group ( 1 1 3 0 N l a t ) S ig Fea procured t w o ° ’ . B lac k s t ro gly glossed it h gr e i sh bl e . . of t h e wi n g . The Green Combasou ranges from S enegal t o G rand B a sam . H YP OCH E R A C H A L Y BE AT A M a lei n breedi ng p lu ma ge . feat hers o f t h e u pper bac k scap ul ars a n d lesser wi n g cover t s . u n der wi n g cover t s w h i t e shad i n g i n t o pale bro w n at t h e be nd - . s i des of head b u ff shad i n g i nt o bro w n o n t he ear covert s the u pper part . t h e B remen M u seum and i n t h e Bri t ish Museum t here are . feat hers . . . . ful l plumaged specimens i n July and t hree i n hal f moul t i n June and O c t ober . Adu l t f ema le . Dak ar on Cape V erde and one fro m S edhi u near Ca sa ma n s e . n w e n u o u t er half of t he m ed i a n an d great er cover t s qu i lls an d t ai l sep i a bro wn . feathers . t hree t o fi ve eggs obt usely poin t ed and pure w h i t e . flan k s w i th a fe w so m e w ha t h i dden w h i te feat hers Ir i s brow n . . ” . - . Adu l t ma le i n w i n ter V ery s im il ar i n pl u m age t o t h e fe m ale . - Iri s bro wn b ill horn y w h it e t ars i an d feet rosy p ink ( B u t ler) W in g . cen t re of cro w n bro w n i sh b ufl wi t h the s i des blacki sh bro wn . common near Q u inela O n B ulama one of t he islands of . re m a i n der . . . S e n egam b i a . From Seneg a mb ia came t h e t ype o f H w nea wh ich is i n . . . Mr J S B udg e t t W hile at t h e G a m bia found t h e species . . . o n e of his d id n o t change i t for fi ve years and t hen at t h e t ime when t h e o t hers . According t o Mr A G B u t ler t hese birds oft en re t ain t h e . breeding plum age for years i n con fi n emen t . . . i n n er l i n in g of t h e wi n g sep i a bro wn w i t h broad bro w n i sh bu ff i nn er edges t o t h e qu i lls a xillar i es a n d abo u t half o f t h e u n der w in g cover t s - w h i t e . The mos t eas t ern range recorded for t h e speci es is Grand Basam w here Ars ene procured an imma t ure spec i men . seven o t her specimens from t ha t c o un t ry including one from . . b il l an d legs redd i sh ( H artlau b) T o t al le n gt h 4 4 in ches cul m en. . . w ere assumin g t h e bl a c k plumage They lay he observes . of w h i ch i s dark er a n d for m s a n il l d efin ed ban d un der par t s l igh t bro w n - fadin g i nt o w h i t e o n t h e ce n t re of t h e breas t abdo m en a nd u n der t a i l cover t s . . U pper par t s bro w n m ottled w i t h dar k cen t res t o t h e . . - o f t h e wi n gs a n d the t a i l dar k bro w n wi t h very n arro w pale edges t o t h e .

. . In Somaliland t h e genus has been m e t w i t h by M Revoil . Borgu province o f Cent ral Nigeria he mak es t h e t ype o f a n e w . . k illed in February t o H u l tr a ma r i n a To t his la t t er form . . . . D r Har t er t refers t h e specimen he procured a t Lo k o t o . . . . . t h e former ' Dr Har t ert re fers t o H u l tr a ma r i n a and t h e la t t er t o . . . . has bee n ob t ained by Mr B ut t ner a t B ismarc k burg and by . specimens from Abeo k u t a a n d from Rabba o n t h e Niger . . Fr i gi lla n ram ar in a G m S N ii p 9 2 7 ( 1 788) Aby ss i ni a ul t . . The U l t ramarine C ombasou ranges from t he G old Coas t t o t h e Niger and eas t w ard over Nor t hern Tropi cal Africa t o as far nor t h a t 2 3 N l a t ° . . H u l tr a ma r i n a and o n e o b t ained by Wilson a t Yel w a in t h e . t h e legs pi n k and remar k s t ha t t hey agree w i t h t he series . not es t he bill and legs w ere pale coral Q ui t e blac k e x amples . . . ’ .8 H Y P OCH E RA U L TR AM AR INA H y p o c h er a u ltra m ar i n a . Nj emps in July w hich had t h e bill w hi t ish horn colour and . . . . . in t h e Bri t ish Museum f rom Abyssinia and t h e Whi t e Nile . been collec t ed by E mi n at Lado and R imo . Har t laub refers a specimen in t he Bremen Museum from t h e G ol d Coas t t o t his form w hich can hardly be regarded a s . . . B Afr I N o 3 06 ( 1 89 6) Rei che n V og Afr iii p 2 1 3 . . . Dr B o w dler Sharpe refers all F isch er s specimens and t hose . . . . . . . . . D iffers from H c ha ly bea ta on ly i n t h e gloss on t h e pl um age of th e m ales . w n ea Mr Oscar Neu man n refers a specimen sho t in . . In Sou t hern Abyssi n ia Lord Lovat sho t a full plumaged male a t t h e Kassim R iver January 1 8 1 8 9 9 and according t o his . H yp o c h era u l t ra m ar i n a S harpe Ca t B M xiii p 3 09 ( 1 8 9 0) S helley . . be in g v i ole t shaded bl ue wi t h n o green . species H w i lsoni I n E qua t orial Africa speci mens have . H . . Lieu t Thierry a t Mangu In t h e Bri t ish Museum t here are . . ob t ained by Mr Jack son at K i ku m b u li u in December and a t . U ganda in May t o H p urp um sc en s and o n e from Kavirondo . . . m ore t han a subspeci es of H c ha ly bea ta In T ogoland i t . . .

L a gon os ti c ta br u nn ei c ep s T hey are lively li t t le b irds w hich . t h e females had t h e b ill red and t h e fee t pale flesh colour . . ’ w ild s t a t e There i s ano t her int eres t ing poin t in Mr B ut ler s . t h e o t her o n . i n t o t heir brigh t breeding plumage t o w ards t he commencemen t of t he rainy season They prefer t o frequen t t he clay hu t s . Nubia frequen t ing t he na t i ve vi llages i n company w i t h . Whi t e Nile from Khar t ou m t o Ka w a fro m Augus t t o March . orange red In Shoa Dr Ragazzi procured a male a t Farr e . . ” I sho t w ere hens . . . four mon t hs t o go t hrough t w o comple t e moul t s D o t hey . en t er t h e houses in search of food and w at er The m ales moul t . male w as of a glossy blue blac k w i t h t h e bill pale flesh colour . . Ababa January 1 5 I t had t h e bill pi n k ish w hi t e and t h e legs . . . . . H Y P OCH E R A U L TRAM A R INA 9 of t his bird w ere rare only o n e or t w o being seen among large . According t o Henglin t hey are residen t and abundant in . . very t ame b u t less so t han L a g on os ti c ta br u n nei c ep s w i t h which . flock s Mr P ease ob t ained a male in full plumage at Adis . . in t he comple t e glossy blue blac k plumage . ” sig n of moul t ing These birds h e wri t es w ere some t imes . . . c h ange aft er assuming t he bl u e plumage once ! I cer t ainly sa w only bro w n birds at G edare f in May 1 9 01 b u t bo t h of t hose . t hey are frequen t ly associa t ed They w er e abundan t along t h e . . Mr A L Bu t ler has k in dly sen t me fro m Khar t oum t w o . glossy blac k fea t hers freshly assumed and i t S ho w s no o t her . I have already m en t ioned t h e fact t hat cage birds have been - k no w n t o re t ain t h e glossy blac k plumage f o r as many as fi ve consecut ive years so w e may presume t hey do t he same i n t he . . observa t ions : The young birds are ap parent ly fi t t o breed ” before t hey have assumed t h e blac k plumage for t h e fi rs t t ime . . m ales bo t h of w h i ch w ere bree d ing . July 3 0 and t w o females a t t h e H a w ash R iver Augus t 7 The . - . . November 8 i s i n t he bro w n livery w i t h t he e x cep t ion of t w o . w hen t hey w ere in t heir f ull pl umage This leaves t hem only . . o n e sho t April 1 6 is . .

. F r i g illa f erea D e T arrag Rev Z ool 1 8 47 p 1 8 0 N t l n un . H yp h oc f erea S harpe C t B M xiii p 3 1 0 era un . B Af I N o 3 09 ( 1 8 96) Re i che V og Af iii p 2 1 5 . hair a n d shred s Occasionally t hey w ill t a k e possession of a . . . . . In t h e Bri t ish Museum t here is a specimen procured by M r . H ypo c h er a w il so n i . been recorded from Wes t ern Africa be t w een t he Niger and t he C o n go nor t o t h e sou t h o f Damaraland The presen t species . H ar t ert pp 3 42 3 43 Yelw a N ov . r . The Mourni ng Combasou ra nges from t h e Niger t hrough C en t ral Africa t o Nat al . Yel w a in Cen t ral Nigeria as coming from t he m os t nor t hern k no w n ran ge f o r t his species The genus H yp oc her a has n o t . S helley . . . . H yp h oc f erea p p rasce s ( n Re i che ) N e m J f O 1 9 00 e ra un ur u n no n . . . . . colour and measure 0 6 x . . n . . . r. . a . . . far sou t h as Na t al and Z ululand specimens having been . . u . as i t w as alo n g t ime i n sp iri t s t his de t ermina t ion may n ot . . . . - v ery sh arp harsh ch irp The nes t according t o Brehm is buil t . . and much resembles t hat o f o ur House Sparro w and i s c o n - . . ’ deser t ed S w allo w s nes t o r a hole in a t ree . . a a . . . be correct s o I prefer t o regard t h e t ype o f H w i ls oni from . n o gree n i sh bl u e gloss o n t h e plu m age . p 2 8 5 U g a nd a . . Z ool . . is ho w ever generally dis t ribu t ed over Cen t ral Af rica t o as . . 1 9 01 . . . . S i m i lar t o H u l tr amari n a b u t difl e r i n g i n t h e qu i l ls a n d t a i l be i n g of a . i n di fi er e n t ly o n t rees o r in t h e roofs of houses o r holes i n w al ls . . s t ruct ed o f st ra w rags co t t on f ea t hers and so on l ined w i t h . .10 H Y P OC H E R A FU NE RE A of Nubians t o t h e s t ra w t hat ched houses o f t h e S oudanese the - an d u sually more t han o n e pair live about t h e same farm building The so n g i s n o t remar k able and t h e call no t e i s a . Rob i n at Abeo k u t a w hich has been re f erred t o t his form b u t . The eggs are t hree t o fi ve in a clu t ch o f a bluish w h i t e . paler bro w n a n d i n hav i n g m ore w h i t e o n t h e un der su rface of t h e wi n g . H y p o c h er a f u n e r e a .

31 1 S helley . t ember and December and accord ing t o Mr Alfred Sharpe . land . . P Z . . H y p o c h er a n i g er r i m a . n or t h of Lak e Ngami ( Fleck ) Mauser o n t h e Z ambesi . Galungo al t o ( Hamil t on ) Kab a t a ( Anchie t a ) N u k an a t o t h e - . . . . many places i n Ny as al an d t h e t ype came fro m Na t al and t h e . . . This f orm h as bee n procured a t Ka sso n g o ( Bo hn d or lf ) . . . . . H yp o c h era n i g erri m a . . . H Y P OCH E R A N I G E RRI M A 11 collec t ed Buk oba ( S t uhlm a nn ) Ka mpala ( Neumann ) at . From Ny a sal a n d t here is a go o d series in t h e Bri t ish M useu m ob t ai n ed a t Z omba La k e S hi rw a Dedza For t Lis t er . . . . . . 1 871 . . H yp oc h era f u n erea n i g er ri m a S t ar k F a un S Afr B i p 1 54 . . Messrs Wood w ards ob t ained S pecimens a t E s c h o w e in Z ulu . 31 0 Re i chen V og Afr iii p 2 1 6 . B . p . . . . On t h e Z ambesi as w ell as i n Nyasaland and t he U s eg u a coun t ry bo t h t his form and H fu ner ea have bee n ob t ai n ed and . N ami w aw a and M al o s a i n full plumage in April July S ep . . S i m i lar t o H f uner ea b u t d i s t i n g u i shed by t h e gloss o n t h e ful l pl u m aged . w h ich de t rac t s some w h a t from t h e speci fi c value o f t h e shade o f t h e gl o ss o n t h e plumage by w h ich charac t er only can t hey . The Black Combasou ranges from t he Co n go i n t o t h e Lak e Ngam i dist ric t and eas t w ard t o L indi and t h e U s e g u a coun t ry . - id . “ ” t he bird i s k no w n t o t he na t ives as t he Mlimba . S helley B Afr I N o 3 08 . m ales be i n g d u ller an d blac k er . ) . . . . . S harpe . Afr . 1 33 G a lu ng o a l t o . S . . I No . . . . . . . . M a mb o i o ( Kir k ) Karema ( B ohm ) M a g n u a ( F ull e born and a t . . xiii p. born ) Lindi an d U s e g ua ( Fischer ) . . t he ranges of bo t h are comprised i n t ha t of H a ma ur op ter gz v . ( Ale x ander ) Z omba and For t L is t er ( Wh y t e ) U ndis ( Fti lle . H y p o c h e r a p u rpur asce n s Re i che n J f O 1 88 3 p 22 1 U segua L i n di . . B . M . . . . b e dis t inguished . . Ca t . .

Re i che n V og Afr iii p 2 1 5 . . I N o 31 1 . S im i lar t o H . On t h e w es t ern side of t h e con t inen t i t has been ob t ained a t Ko s s a n g o ( B o h n d o r lf ) Malandj i i n Angola ( S ch ut t ) Gambos . and one from S ou t h An g o n i l a n d c l o se t o Ny a sa La k e Dr . B Af r . B xiii p 3 09 ( 1 89 0) S helley . have t h e bill w hi t e and t h e feet red . Rust enburg and from t he same place a similar bird w as pro . . Besides t h e specimens already no t iced I have e x amined . . Reicheno w gives t h e names of t hirt een locali t ie s w here i t has been procured in G erman E as t Africa also Ki k u mb u li u and . . H yp o c h era ul t ram ar i n a or i en t ali s . M . . . At Ki t ui in U k amba . . . . . ’ from nor t h o f t h e Limpopo t w o of S ir John Ki rk s fr om Tet e . . . . ” p in k t arsi an d feet yello w ish .12 H YP OC H E RA AM AU R OP T E RY X H y p o c h er a a m a u rOp t e r y x . . . . Ca t . . Ar us ha . 1 88 ( 1 89 4) P a re. . N guru ma n . . The Bro w n w inged Combasou ran ges f ro m t he Congo - sou t h w ard t hrough Ondonga in t o t he Transvaal and over cen t ral and eas t ern Sou t h Tropical Afri ca . Karema . The mos t sou t hern range y et recorded f o r t hi s form i s t h e Transvaal where t he t ype w as ob t ained by Mr Barra t t a t . . ’ o n e procured by G u ei n z i u s a t M o s a m b i qu e one o f Bradsha w s . being red and according t o S t ar k all t h e S out h African forms . . . B u ko ba . d i s t in gu i shed by t h e glo ss on but th e fu ll plu maged males be ing o f a green i sh bl u e shade . Re i che n V og O Afr . S harpe . f u nerea an d H . N j emps ( Jac k son ) and Ki k uyu ( Doher t y ) i n our Bri t ish P ro t ec t or at e . . . and Humpa t a ( Kellen ) O ndonga ( Andersson ) . . . . “ cured o n January 5 by Mr W Lucas w ho no t es : B ill dar k . Kag ey t . ” according t o H il debrand t t heir nat ive name is T c hor el li . . L ayard men t ions t h e bil l as . . D . H yp oc h era a mau ro pt ery x . H yp o c h era fun erea a m auropt ery x S t ar k F aun S Afr B i p 1 54 . nig er ri ma . . . p . In t h e U n i a m w e si coun t ry S pe k e found t hem common i n t h e v illages feeding l i k e S parro w s .

. . W ell k no w n by t ha t name as by t hat o f Wido w s and t h e . F o r c e t re t a i l feat her s very m ch elongat ed u n - u M a les i n breedi ngp lu mag e . p 9 . L af re sn Rev e t M a g ool 1 850. 1 " . seren a . V r egt a . . c u l m en c u rved . n - breadt h t hro u ghou t t he i r len g t h . V fisc heri . 3 . T e t rw n u r a . . p 3 2 5 . “ E lo gat ed t a i l feat hers blac k a . S le n der wi t h t h e cla w s rat her lo n g an d c u rved . . V . aper t ure roun ded an d covered by t h e fro n t al feat hers P r i mar i es 3 4 an d . V p a r a di sea . . V . S t eganu ra . 1 78 3 Whydah i s t h e name o f a t o w n on t h e coas t of Wes t . I n t he m ales o n ly a great change t ak es place by t h e spr in g m ou l t t h e .9 b4 . Africa i n 2 E long ° . . . E lo gat ed t a i l feat hers of moderat e a3 . V idu ell a . . former name has priori t y having been used by Lat ham in . I call t h e m embers o f t his genus Whydahs t hey being as . . m o t t led colo u r i n g i s replaced by a m ore beco m i n g un spo t t ed pl um age B i ll . . VI DU A . . . . . T ars i and fee t fairly . . Re i chen b t c p 6 1 ' . . t h e form of t h e elonga t ed t ail fea t hers assumed by t h e males - for t he court ing seaso n . . n - . Re i che n b S ys t Av pl 7 6 . elo gat ed t a i l feat hers arro w . a1 B i ll red . 5 t h e lo n ges t 2 abo u t e qu al t o 6 . T a i l shor t er t han t h e wi n g an d n early . Z . U n derp art s w h i t e serena . regt a . oft en red rat her s t ou t an d shor t er t han t h e head . bro wn . ' . Re i che n b S i n g v p 59 ( 1 8 6 3 ) . n - n . KE Y T O T H E S P E C IE S . S qu are e x cep t i n g i n m ales i n breed i n g pl u m age . w ell mar k ed genus in t o four wh ich can be done solely upon - . Re i chen Orn Cen t ralbl 1 88 2 . a‘ . . fi g 3 ( 1 850) . V ID U A 13 G enu s II . n asal . G u v L e gon s An at Co m p i . . . V i d u a . . T . fou r ce nt re t ai l feat hers beco mi n g very mu ch elon gat ed w hi le t h e bro wn - . T he n es t l in gs are un i form . abl 2 ( 1 800) . V i dest re lda . a. The fi ve k no w n species o f t his genus are con fi ned t o Trop i cal and Sou t h Africa I t is unnecessary t o brea k up such a . V s up er c tlt osa . . L i n ur a . E n t ir e p l u mag e g l o s s y g r ee n i sh blac k hyp oc herlna . [ 7 .

. . . Re i che n Orn Ce n t ral b l 1 8 7 9 p 1 80 . b i ll red . t ai l . . S hel ley B . u - broad port i o n of t h e i n n er w ebs of the q i lls w h i t e Ir i s d s k y bro wn . u . V err Rev e t M a g J E ool 1 8 56 . J f . . 1 " 6 b . . b E lon gat ed t a i l feat hers b u ff 2 . M a le H ead n ec k body a n d scap u lars glossy i n breedi ng p lu mag e . u . S harpe . U pper par t s u n i for m bro w n or i rreg u larly m o t tled You ng of a ll sp ec i es . pl 1 6 2 60. 02 . S om e blac k o n s i des of head . 0 1 . u b i ll a n d legs d s k y ( H awk er) . F orbes P Z p 4 5 7 pl 4 7 fi gs 1 3 . . P a r i s M us . a broad w h i t e eyebro w shaded i n fro n t a n d beh i n d wi t h r u fou s b u ff l i k e t h e chee k s an d ear cover t s - . bl u e black sl i gh t ly shaded wi t h gree n t o w ards t h e upper t ai l cover t s . N o blac k o n si des o f head . E lo gat ed t ai l feat hers very arro w . . Forbes) T o t al len gt h 1 0 7 i n ches c u l me n . wi n g dar k bro w n wi t h broad glossy gree n i sh bl u e edges t o t h e i n n er . broad blac k ban d fro m t h e n ost r i ls t o t h e n ape . . s e en a r . 8 3 S i des o f cro w n m ot t led wi t h bro w n . u n der wi n g coverts an d a . . s m all er wi n g abo u t . . . U pper par t s s t ro n gly m o t t led Adu l ts . - wi t h t he fo u r elon gat ed feat hers blac k glossed wi t h gree n a n d t h e rem ai n . . . p . Adu l t f ema le Ce n t re o f cro w n r u fo u s bu ff flank ed o n each s i de by a . . . f2 . o n t h e h i n der half wi t h blac k fis c heri . . b i ll d u skv horn colo u r larger w i n g abo u t 3 i n ches p a r a di sea [ . Fou r ce n t re t a i l fea t hers n ot elon gat ed - Ma les i n w i n t er f ema les . . S . i d . . i 3 Cro w n r fo u s shaded bro w n s t reak ed . V i dua h y p o c h er i na . i n g feat hers dar k bro w n wi t h w h i t e edges broades t o n the i r i n n er w ebs . . . . . . b il l an d fee t bri gh t coral red (W A u ” . regi a . Ce n t re of cro w n n early w h i t e . . fisc her i l - 3 . B . 1 . hyp o c heri n a . feat hers a n d n arro w b ff edges t o t h e pr i m ar i es . . n - n un der par t s b u ff regi a 7 2 . 1 8 8 0. . . . V i d u a splen den s . s i des o f cro wn blac k . . .14 VI DU A H Y P OC H E R IN A b3 . . Z . . . . Ca t M xiii p 2 08 . . - broad p a ra di sea A . p . Ce n t re of cro w n pale r u fo u s . . 4 2 . . . elon ga t ed t a i l feat hers very 1 . d1 . d L ess w h it e o n u n der part s 3 . V i du a h y po c h er i n a . 3 2 6 Ki ba r a dj a . 0 3 M ore w h i t e o n u n der par t s . . Re i chen V og Afr iii p 2 1 6 . . “ dz . . a nd y o ung bi r ds . ) 1 b B i ll blac k . U g o g o ( K i r k) . win g 2 6 t ai l t ars u s . Afr I N o 3 1 3 . e 2 .

been found by Mr Wer t her Fischer m et w i t h t he species at . edges of . found t hese birds in flock s o f from t e n t o t hir t y i n company w i t h L a g onos ti c ta bru nn e i c ep s and Vi d ua ser en a feeding o n t he bare grou n d where caravans had hal t ed a n d lef t sca t t ered corn . . u n der s u rface w h it e w ashed wi th r u fo u s b ufl o n t h e s i des of t h e crop a n d body w h i ch . . V Hunt er and a n o t her o n e i n full plumage ob t ained by Mr . . . December . The mos t sou t hern range k no w n t o m e for t his species i s U g o g o a coun t ry due w es t o f Z anz ibar . a t Arabsiyo a n d H argeisa . .In S omaliland Mr Ha w k er s a w t hese birds o n ly . . . I mma tu re . wi n g 2 0 t a i l . V ID U A H YP OC H E RI N A 15 the lat t er s ur mo un t ed by a blac k ban d h in d n eck bac k an d wi n gs m o t t led . t o t h e sou t h o f t h e Kilima n j aro Moun t ain sho t by Mr H C . Jack son at Lak e Jipe S ep t em b er 2 7 1 8 8 5 o u t o f a large . t ars u s L a mu ( J ack son) . T he species has n o t been recorded upon sat isfac t ory . V sp l ende ns a t Ki b ar a dj a o n t h e Tan a R ive r in November . . s o me o f t h e m ed i an cover t s a n d very n arro w pale edges t o t h e pr i m ari es w h i t e t a i l bro w n i sh blac k wi t h w h it e edges t o the feathers . . procured an adul t an d an i mma t ure bird w hich are n o w in t h e Bri t ish Museum w here t here are also specimens from t h e plains . . . . . . Here S ir John Kir k . . mos t nor t hern k no w n range for t his species i s Mar k o 9 3 0 . He . lat t er p a r t s are sl i gh t ly s t reak ed wi t h bro w n shaft s t r i pes Iri s bro w n bi ll - . . . . behind . D iffers i n plu m age fro m t h e ad u l t fem ale i n be i ng o f a more u ni for m san dy colo u r wi t h t h e dar k m ar ki n gs of t h e head n ec k a n d bac k . N gu r u m a n near L ak e N a i w a sh a and procured t h e t ype of . Adu l t ma le i n w i n ter S i m i lar i n pl u m age t o t h e fe m ale L a m u ( J ac k so n) . T he S plendid Blac k Whydah ranges from U g o g o in t o Somalil and and Sou t h Abyssinia . . . a t t h e la tt er place t hey oined in j “ ” floc k s w i t h o t her Finches on t he j o wari s t ubbles The . bro wn i sh blac k wit h broad r u fo u s b uff edges t o t h e feat hers . ° ’ N l at 4 1 E long w here Mr P ease obt aine d a hen bird i n . i mperfec t ly developed 2 3 1 2 9 7 Arabs iyo ( H awk er) . . . . floc k of t h e much commoner V ser en a A t I t uru t hey have . a n d legs pale bro w n T ot al len gt h 4 2 in ches cu l men .

m o t tled - wi t h blac k on the p in i o n . . . win g - blac k . . V i d u a seren a . o rn i sb 1 904 . . . t ail blac k . recorded i t from t ha t par t o f t h e con t inen t The t ypes of . B . . . l o w er bac k an d broad edges t o t h e t ai l covert s ashy w h i t e . . Af r . Ib i s . . p 1 78 on do la nd G ra nt . L V i d u a f u l i g i n o sa . . B . F ! r i n g i lla s u perc i l i osa . . . E m ber i z a pr in c i pal i s . nn .16 V ID U A S E R ENA au t hori t y from w es t of 3 5 E long Rochebrune men t io n s ° . accuracy o f t h e locali t y . . collar . wi t h w h it e i nn er edges t o t h e basal half . 1 8 68 . H ar t l Ib i s . T he spri n g and au t um n m oul t s t a k e place abou t March a n d November and t h e colour o f t h e b ill and legs also cha n ges . . B . u n der wi ng cover t s w h i t e . S w a i n s W Af r i p 1 76 . . . M a lei n breedi ng p lu mag e U pper par t s j et blac k wi t h a clear w h i t e . u n der s u rface of qu i lls d u sk y blac k . . . E mber i a sere a L i z n S N i p 312 . P . . i ch t N o m en c l p 4 9 . . . . . S harpe . 1 903 p 2 2 4 Ora n ge R S hor t . . N . t h e blac k dress and w as moul t ing i n t h e follo w ing March w hen . . . T he specimen fi gured by Forbes w a s presen t ed t o t h e Z oo logical Gardens b y Mr Archibald Bro w n on July 1 7 1 8 78 . V i d ua e s r en a . . . . D . . . . r idge . 1 8 6 2 . E L m ber i z a v i d u a . . . . V i d u a e ry t h rorh y n c h a . p 3 4 0 An g ola . t he short fea t hers wi t h w h i t e w edge . pl 1 2 ( 1 83 7) S eneg a l . p 8 2 S t T ho mas I s l . . t c p 2 5 6 D a i ra Ai la . E st re l d a car m el i t a . . Re i che n V og Afr iii p 2 1 7 . . . Cat M xiii p 2 03 ( 1 8 9 0) S helley . . . 1 904 . I N o 3 1 2 ( 1 8 9 6) W h i t ehead . . . V i d u a decora . i t died . B J . Commandan t Guislain and al t hough labelled in t ha t Museum . Ib i s . . wi t h t h e leas t a n d m ed i an cover t s an d edges of i n n er grea t er coverts w h it e wit h a fe w blac k shaft s . and I may remar k t hat t h e sa m e supp o sed Gaboon collec t ion con t ained many o t her E as t African forms such as P a ss er c a s ta n op teru s & c . . p 4 6 N a ta l . as coming from Gaboon M Ou st al e t right ly doub t s t h e . i n n S N i p 3 1 2 ( 1 7 6 6) I n di a . i n n S L i p 3 1 3 Angola . V i e i ll N xii p 2 1 6 . V i du a pr i n c i pal i s . s c ve ral local i t ies f o r i t in S enegambia b u t no o n e else has . . . t h e species w ere given t o t h e P aris Museum in 1 8 52 by . H ar t l Ib i s . . . . . w hen i t w as i n i mmat ure plumage In t hat summer i t assumed . L ocage .

. 1 904 . w ebs w h i t e as w ell a s rat her broad w h it e edges t o t h e o u t er w ebs . wi n g 2 8 t ai l 9 wi t h t h e shor t feat hers . V ID U A S EREN A 17 shaped m ark s o n t h e e n d half of t h e i nn er w ebs i n creas i ng rap i dly i n s i z e . wi n g . . The Whi t e breas t ed Whydah inhabi t s Afr ica generally - sou t h of abou t 1 7 N l a t also t h e islands of S t Thomas ° . u . . crop a nd s ides of body shaded wi th san dy ru fo s flan k s s t reak ed wi th d u s k y bro wn u Ir i s brow n . thr or hyn c ha w hich has been nicely fi gured a n d I m a y remar k . From S enegal S w ainson ob t ai n ed t h e t ype of hi s V erg . . and Fernando P o . c ul m en win g 2 7 t a i l 2 tars u s 2 1 8 6 81 . a n d s i des of crop blac k t h e la t t er for m i ng a n i n co m ple t e collar . . . t ars u s 28 1 8 1 Ru s t en burg ( W L u cas ) . r ufou s S hade . san dy ru fou s from t h e eye t o t h e n ape a broad blac k han d t hro u gh t h e eye an d a n arro w o n e alo n g t h e chee k s re m ai n der of t h e s i des of t h e head w h i t e l ik e t h e u n der part s ge n erally . sho w s a considerable amoun t of blac k o n t h e ch i n a charac t er . i nn er m arg in s o f q u i lls an d t h e u n der wi n g cover t s r u fo u s shaded w h i t e - s i des of head w h i t ey bro wn wi th t h e fro n t par t d u s k y e n t i re u n der par t s u n i form b u fl t i nt ed wi t h ashy . basal port i o n o f i n n er edges o f q u i lls an d t h e u n der cover t s w h i t e m ot t led wi t h blac k on t h e p i n i o n eyebro w bu ff shad in g i nt o . . re m ai n der of - cover t s a n d t h e seco n dar i es wi t h r u fou s b uff edges broades t o n t h e fea t hers . 2 . M a le i n w i n ter p luma g e S i m i lar t o the fe m ale W i ng 2 9 t ai l . N e w cast le ( B ut ler) . - . . . e qu ally broad ban d of blac k o n each s i de fro m t h e n os t ri ls t o t h e n ape . You ng U pper par t s e n t i rely u n i for m bro w n sl i gh t ly dar k er o n t h e . t here i s n o t race o f w h i t e o n t h e t ai l . blac k ce n t res t o t h e feat hers t ai l blac k an d sl i gh t ly gradu at ed wi t h sandy . pr i m ary cover t s a n d pr i m ar i es u n i for m . . Ir i s bro wn . [Oc t ob er. . i n creas in g i n e x t en t t o w ard s t h e o u t er on es w h i ch have t h e en t i re i nn er . t a i l cover t s - Ir i s d u s k y b i ll horn colou r wi t h t h e base reddi sh t ars i and . . b i ll oran ge red t ars i a n d feet blac k T o t al len gt h 1 1 5 i nches c u l men . . . ” win g 2 6 t ai l . . . . . edges t o t h e fea t hers a n d a co n s i derable a m o nt of wh i t e o n t h e i n n er w ebs . t ars u s 29 1 2 99 . p in k coral . . n eares t t o t h e bac k . . b i ll l i k e . . . N e w cas t le ( B ut ler) . t o w ards t h e o u t er m os t on es re m ai n der of the head a nd t h e n ec k p u re w h i t e l ik e t h e u n der par t s wi t h t h e s i des of t h e head i n fron t of t h e eye . bro w n i sh blac k . . . . feet dark bro w n T ot al lengt h 45 i n ches c ulm e n . . . s i des a nd bac k of n ec k bac k a n d lesser win g cover t s r ufo u s b u ff wi t h broad . M o an d a t R ( D ela m ere) r . wi n gs a nd t ai l t h e edges o f t h e fea t hers of w h i ch are of a rat her m ore . t ars i a n d fee t blac k ( S av i le Re i d) T o t al len g th 4 7 i n ches . . Adu l t f ema le Ce n t re o f forehead a n d cro w n sa n dy r u fo u s wi t h a n . . 3 1 8 6 81 ‘ . bro w n t o w ards t h e crop a n d wi t h a t aw n y shade o n t h e breas t a nd u n der . . .

according t o S t ar k i t largely ou t numbers i t s congeners and . i n t h e Bri t ish Museum I t w as describ ed as dis t inc t from . t o Mr Franci s Ne w t on and Mr Boyd Ale x an d er has found i t . breeding season When I w as on t he Gold Coas t w i t h T E . na t ives as sacred o r Fe t ish birds . t h e na t ives b y several names : at Q u i ll e n g u e s as Cah e n g u a ” and at Q uindumbo a s Genge and Co l u mb a q ui n di o nj i o . on Fernando P O . . . . . b u t fro m t h e Cunene R iver sou t h wa rd t o Cape T o w n i t appears t o be less common t han i n any o t her por t ion o f i t s range and i s here . . of Vidua i n t his large area In o t her par t s of Sou t h Afric a . .18 V ID U A S E R E NA I have generally found mos t s t rongly developed in b i rds from S enegambia and B ri t ish Eas t Africa . Buck ley w e frequen t ly m e t w i t h t hese b irds i n small fl ock s along t h e roads near Cap e Coas t and Accra . O n t h e Island of S t Thomas i t is very common according . Mr Mont eiro procured t h e t ype o f Vi d ua decora w hi ch i s no w . . b u t i n February and March none of t he males had assumed t heir f ull breeding plumage and for t hat reason possibly w e d id no t fi nd o u t . L in n aeus d escribed t h e t ype of h i s E mber i za p r i n c ip a li s fr o m Angola and t his name has generally b u t w rongly been given . en t irely w hi t e . . . . I n L iberia Mr B ii t t i k o f e r found t h e species co mmon on t h e . In B enguela according t o Anch ie t a t he species is k no w n t o . . I t i s cert ainly abundan t t hro u ghou t t hi s coun t ry . . i n many dis t ric t s is a very co mm o n b ird . V ery thr or hyn c ha S w ainson on account of i t s having t h e chin . . . as Gordon informs us t ha t t hey w ere loo k ed upon here by t h e . . desert ed farm lands w hi ch had become overgro wn w i t h grass - and bushes . he also m e t wi t h i t frequen t ing gardens i n t h e cen t re of villages and congregat ing i n large flock s af t er t he . precedence over his E mber i za s er en a In t h e same coun t ry . some w ha t replaced by V r egi a w hich is t h e commones t species .

b a n k s of L i tt le Bushman River n e ar Mari t zburg in Na t al . t h e w e t season from November t o t h e end of February or . E s tr elda c a rmeli ta Har t l is a young b i rd of t hi s species in t h e . The male of t his species has a ° c urious habi t of hoveri n g over i t s ma t e whe n she is feeding o n t he groun d bobbing up and do w n as you s e e t h e May fl i e s and . . b a c k i nt o t he w in t er garb w hich much resembles t ha t of . . - ’ m i d ge t s d o o n a summer s evening in E n gland T his e x ercise . i t w as sh o t by Mr T Ayres o n t h e . . “ ” “ ” as Koning Roo de b ec or King of t he Red bills and i s . s is t ing of a single m ale and f rom t e n t o for t y or even fi ft y ” females . . found in small floc k s t hroughou t C ape C olon y He w as one . - . The egg i s glossy grey ish w h i t e w i t h underlying viole t . fi ne grass is sus pended be t w een t h e s t ems o f a t hic k grass t uft a fe w i nches off t h e ground t h e ends of t h e gro w ing grass . fee d s upon small seeds principally grass seeds also upon small . - . insect s and t heir eggs I t s ordinary call no t e is a sharp chirp . . evenly dis t ribu t ed I t measures 0 6 8 X 05 0 The t ype o f . V ID U A S E R EN A 19 Mr Layard remark s t ha t i t is k no w n t o t h e D ut ch colonis t s . of t h e fi rs t t o observe t hat t h e males assume t heir remar k able plumage for t h e breeding season only aft er wh ich t hey m oul t . observes L i k e t he o t her Weaver birds t h e presen t species - . mar k s and clear blac k or dar k bro w n elonga t ed surface mark s - . uniform bro w n plumage . b u t i n sp ri ng t h e male u t t ers a so f t w arbli n g song from t h e t o p of a bush or t all w eed In Nat al t his S p ecies breeds during . . The only nes t t hat I h ave seen con t ai ned young b i rds f rom ” t hree t o four in number . in summer t hey d isperse i n small part ies each con . begi nni n g of March A some what openly w oven domed nes t o f . feed in floc k s i n company w i t h o t her Finches and a ccording t o . . . “ Mr T Ayres w ri t es . t h e female D uring t h e au t umn and w in t er mon t hs t hey oft en . being t ied t oge t her over t he nes t so as t o co m ple t ely conceal i t . “ S t ar k . . . ” b e generally con t inues some minu t es w i t hou t res t ing S t ar k . .

In Nor t h eas t Africa according t o Henglin t h e males - . during t h e breedi n g season may of t e n be see n p erch ed on t h e cro wn of a t ree si n gi n g He fur t her remar k s t ha t he never . Mr P ease m e t w i t h t hem generally near - . . “ i t as common every w here n o t limi t ed t o grass plains b u t . I t migh t appear t hat in t his las t sen t ence t he w ords males and females have been misplaced in t h e prin t ing . . . in floc k s in t he O pen coun t ry Dr H inde w h ile he w as a t . . Macha k o s found floc k s of t hese birds common in t h e s w amps ’ . from t h e end t w i gs of a bough s o m e t hree o r four leaves w ere w oven t oge t her a t t heir ends formi ng a bag li n ed w i t h . . . Along t h e Z ambesi S ir Joh n Ki rk records . t ails w h ich t hey comme n ce t o assume t o w ards t h e end o f . nes t s from t h e t opm o s t t w igs o f t all acacia t rees They k eep . season found t h e nes t suspended so m e fi ve o r si x fee t over . . in a floc k t h e males predominat e t o a very large ” e x t en t over t h e females . much t o t h e w as t e plo t s of la n d n ear villages The males have .20 V ID U A S E R E N A In t h e Transvaal accord i ng t o Dr Rendall t h e species is . w ere generally accompanied by t w o or t hree hens or feeding . . W at er . Ale x a nder w ri t es Breeds i n large colon ies suspendi ng t heir . and reed beds . Oct ober . . . Fisch e r remark s t ha t t h e birds are said by t h e nat ive s t o be polygamous and he observes t ha t t he c o o ks. common in t h e Barbert on dis t rict and locall y k no w n as t h e ” Ka fli r F in k . . ” frequen t ing w oods and coming near houses and Mr Boyd . equally abundan t every w here t here have been very fe w no t es . Fro m C e n t ral and E as t ern Africa w here t he species is a bou t . co t t on and hair w i t h t h e i n t erior cav i t y rat her deep . m e t w i t h t he species nes t ing on t h e ground as Layard and . . made of any in t eres t . b u t possibly a t t h e t ime he made t hese no t es t h e females w ere S i t t ing o n t heir eggs . a lab o ured fl igh t as if t hey w ere w eighed do w n by t hei r long . Ay res did in S ou t h Afri ca b u t in t h e beginn ing of t h e rainy .

S haft t a i led B u n t i n g L at h G en S y n ii p t i p 1 8 3 - . Wollas t on have proc u red t h e species as far nor t h as Shendi o n t h e Nile Mr A L B u t ler procured a male in full plumage . fee t . . . b u t t hese da t es do n o t I t hi n k hold as a h ard a n d f as t rule possibly . M a le i n br eedi n g p lu ma g e F orehead cro w n s ides of head i n fron t . V ID U A R E G I A 21 w at er freque n t ing t h e high t rees and t h e t hic k bush Hengli n . . - . L a V eu ve a qu a t re B r in s V i e ill O i s Chan t p 59 p ls 3 4 3 5 . The t ime o f t h e t w o seasonal moul t s t o w hich t hese birds are subj ec t appears t o vary w i t h t h e cli m a t e . he m e t w i t h t hem i n Ta k ah S en n ar Kordofan and along t h e . . . . . . . . . V i dua r eg i a . . . b u t I doub t if a n y of t hese males fail t o go t hrough t h e t w o comple t e moul t s during t h e year . more open d is t ric t s also t h e pas t ure land hedges and plan . and n o t ascending t he m o un t ains beyond . . . . Whi t e Nile si n gly o r i n pairs b u t i n t h e au t umn more usually . . . Re i chen V og . . . . t h e m al es ass u me t heir beau t iful plumage a s soon as t h e rai n y season se t s i n . Afr iii p 2 2 1 . . w h ich is a l so t h e commenceme n t o f t h e breed ing season and spr ing o f t h e year and re t ain i t for ab o u t fi ve m o n t hs . . . . . . E qua t or from t h e end of March t o t he end o f July .N . “ a t Fach i Sh o ya i n Nove m ber a n d w ri t es A m uch scarcer . . . . . T e t ae nur a reg i a S harpe Cat B M xiii p 2 09 r . . . . . . . t at i o n near hab i t a t io n s T he Hon N C Ro t hschild an d Mr . . i n family part ies frequen t ing t h e h i gher bra n ches o f t rees i n . . . . damp places a n d fores t coun t ry as w ell as t h e bushes in t h e . . V i d u a reg i a S helley B . . . . E m beri a reg i a L i z i p 3 1 3 ( 1 766 ) Af ri c a . ” bird here t han V p a ra di s ea . . Af r . t hus i n . . . I No 3 1 5 . . o w ing t o t h e d i fl er e n t age and cons t i t u t ion of t h e birds t hem selves . S . . lat . nn . S ou t h Africa i t las t s from O c t ober t o March a n d nor t h of t h e . records t hem as ranging nort h ward t o be t w een 1 6 and 1 7 N ° ° . of the eyes bac k of lo w er n ec k bac k fo u r elo n ga t ed t ail feat hers i nn er .

hav i n g broad dark bro wn ce nt res s i m i lar t o t hose of t h e h i n d n ec k and m ant le t a i l shor t a n d s q u are t h e feat hers blac ki sh bro w n edged wi t h b uff . wi n g . t h e mos t sou t hern Colesberg i n Eas t ern Cape C olony This is n o t an . . fo u r - shor t o ut er pa i rs of t ai l fea t hers dark bro w n wi t h w h it e t erm i n al pat ches o n - . . . each s i de of t h e cro w n fro m t h e n os t ri ls t o t h e n ape form ed by t he feat hers . cro wn u n i for m bro wn an d t h e s i des . . . t hroat a nd s i des of body san dy b u fl fad i n g i n t o w h i t e o n t h e re m a i n der of ‘ . a m u ch m ore un i for m sandy bro w n . cu lm en - . . a n d broad i n co m ple t e w h i t e i nn er e d ges . 2 8 t ail . - . i s residen t and more abund a n t especially i n G erman Sou t h . . . s u rface o f qu i lls paler bro wn t han above an d wit h w h i t i sh i n n er marg in s . . of t h e head an d bac k o f n ec k un i form t aw n y b ufl . . I mma tu r e D iffers from t he ad u lt fe m ale i n t h e upper part s be i ng of . t h e i n n er w ebs of t h e o u t er t hree pa i rs “ Ir i s dark ha z el . The S ou t hern Shaft t ailed Whydah inhab i t s S ou t hern - ° ° Africa be t w een 1 5 S l at and 3 1 S l a t and w es t w ard from . u n der wi ng cover t s w h i t e un der . t ars u s 3 1 3 2 75 O m ar u ru (An dersson ) ‘ . In Mossamedes specimens have been collect ed by Anchie t a a t H u illa and by V a n der Kellen near Humbe in t h e U pper C u nene dis t ric t To t h e sou t h of t h e Cunene R iver t h e species . pr i mar i es a nd o u t er secon dar i es dark bro w n wi t h very n arro w o ut er edges . un der wi n g cover t s w h i t e . a n d t h e t hree o ut er pa i rs fade i n t o t ha t colo u r t o w ards t h e e n ds o f t he i r i nn er w ebs wi n gs blac ki sh bro w n t h e covert s broadly edged wi t h brow n i sh . . Adu l t ma le i n w i n ter S i m i lar i n pl u m age t o t h e fe m ale . Adu l t f ema le H ead a n d n ec k b u ff wi t h a broad dar k bro w n ban d o n . w here B e a u d u i n ob t ained a S pecimen and t h is m a y accoun t for . . ° 3 0 E long . of pl um age wi t h t h e e x cep t i on of t h e wi ngs a nd t ai l r u fo u s b uff .22 V DU A I R E GIA half of t h e wi n gs lo w er flan k s an d t h e un der t a i l cover ts blac k re m a in der . t h e breas t a n d t h e u n der t a i l cover t s T o t al lengt h 4 3 in ches . . unli k ely species t o have been shipped a s a cage bird t o B issao - . t ars u s 9 2 8 1 1 66 O n donga ( An dersso n) . b uff a n d t he q ui lls more n arro w ly so . b ill legs an d . . claw s coral red (F Oat es ) T o t al len gt h 1 2 3 i n ches cu l m en . . w es t Africa Layard records a specimen sho t by Mr Arno t a t . wi n g 2 7 t a i l . . . - . . . . V ieillo t and B onapart e believing i t t o be a na t ive of Wes t Africa . The mos t nort hern locali t ies k no w n t o me for t he species are H uilla in Mossamedes and Ta t i in Mat abeleland .

M . very pug n acious and are cons t an t ly fi gh t i n g and chasing one . - a sharp chi rp occasionally u t t ered b u t t h e cock in momen t s o f . V i d u a fi sc h e r i . . . feat hers . . - . . . M a le i n br eedi ng p lu ma ge F orehead and cro w n sa n dy b u ff . . . been m et wi t h i n Cape Colony Mr Barra t t found i t dis . B . . . t ars u s 3 9 1 2 O E rrer G oat a ( P ease) ‘ . . xiii p 2 1 0 ( 1 890) Ki li ma nj a ro . ing w ell w ooded coun t ry w i t h open pa t ches o f grass land . act ive habi t s t han are t h e lat t er birds Their c all no t e i s . A ccording t o S t ar k who m e t w i t h t h e S pecies in Na t al only . . S helley . . . . lo w er bac k an d u pper t ai l c ove t s pale bro w n wi t h n arro w dark ~ r . B Af I N o 3 1 4 V i d u a fi sc h e ri . p 2 22 . . t e n or t w elve females At t his season t h e beau t i f ul coc k s are . i t is polygamous each male in spring being accompan ied by . . u I r i s bro w n . t h e fo u r n arro w elon ga t ed t ai l feat hers - san dy bu ff of t h e sam e shade as t h e cro wn breas t t h i ghs a n d u n der t ai l . . m a n t le win gs a nd shor t t a i l . . . . . . t ribu t ed over t h e coun t ry from Kimberley t o Rus t enburg b ut . as is t h e case w i t h V serena They are indeed o f much more . Re i che n Orn Cen t ral b 1 8 8 2 p 9 1 U segua . o f t h e head a n d t h e e n t i re n ec k j e t blac k . . ano t her t he i r long t ails by no mean s incommoding t heir fligh t . L i n u r a fi s c h er i . Buck ley found t he species a t t he Limpopo Oa t es collect ed . four specimens a t T at i in Ma t abeleland in w hich coun t ry . legs oran ge red T ot al le n gt h 1 0 1 in ches cu l me n . cover t s flan k s sl i gh t ly s t reak ed wit h dar k bro wn . . feat hers more d u s k y blac k w it h so m e n arro w pale brow n edges t o t h e . . ” win g 2 6 t ai l . V ID U A F I S C H E RI 23 Colesberg w hich i s t he only ins t ance I k no w o f i t s having . r. . u n der s u rface of win gs black wi th so m e n arro w b ff edges t o t h e cover t s . . S harpe . . . re m a in der . . . feed almos t en t irely o n grass seeds . . cen t res t o mos t Of t h e feat hers . Re i che n Vog Afr iii . . . Re i che n J f O 1 8 8 2 pl 2 fi g 1 V i d u a ( L i n u r a) fi s c h er i . b i ll a n d . . Cat . Jameson and Ay res sa w several chasing eac h o t her near S e l e n i a P a n and f ound t hem fairly abundan t a t Kanye affect . considered i t t o be o f rare occurrence in t he la t t er d is t ric t . . e x ci t emen t indulges in a shor t and ra t her feeble song They .

. h ighla n ds o f M o t i o m w hich rise t o t h e nor t h w es t o f Kilima n . . . . having t h e iris bro w n t h e fee t brigh t coral red a n d t he b ill . The mos t sou t hern ran ge k no w n for t h e species is t h e U s eg ua coun t ry near Moun t Ki pu m b u i where t h e species has . almost uniform reddish bro w n head w i t h no la t eral blac k bands and t he so f t par t s are ak in t o t hose o f t h e male . cover t s “ B i ll red . . wi n g 2 6 t a i l . . T ot al length 4 5 i nches . w ere also presen t b u t each species k ep t apar t from t h e o t hers . . . . Dr Donaldson Smi t h me t w i t h i t a t . .24 V ID U A F I S C H E R I f ema le Above m o tt led . . t hes e he sho t o u t o f a s m all floc k a t a w at er hole i n - t h e w ilderness O t her floc k s o f V ser en a and V hgp oc her i n a . forehead a n d cro w n pale r ufo u s wi th blac k s t r i pes . - j aro and he collec t ed o t her speci m ens at N g u r u m a n near . . u nder s urface o f wi n gs d u s k y bro w n wi t h w h i t i sh edges t o t h e . season and he re m ark s t ha t t h e female as might have been . . blac ki sh bro wn wit h broad b ufl y bro w n ' Adu l t . males from t h e Kilimanj aro dis t ri c t collec t ed b y Mr Jac k son . . N a i w a s h a L ak e I n t h e Bri t ish Museum t here ar e t w o adul t . 2 1 2 97 . 9 3 0 1 1 97 Ara b s y o ( H a wk er) . o n t h e h i n der par t a n d shad i ng i n t o r u fo u s b u fl o n t h e s i des Of the head . . M a le i n w i n ter S i m i lar i n colo u r i n g t o t h e fe m ale . ” . been procured by Fischer w ho discovered t h e t ype on t h e . series o f si x specimens be t w een Ndai and Kinani April 2 . . . . 1 8 9 4 . . . ’ Fischer s Shaf t t ailed Whydah inhabi t s E as t ern Afri ca from - ° U s e g u a t o Shoa be t w een 6 S l a t and 1 1 N l a t ° . i r i s a n d legs l i gh t bro wn . ” dull coral red . . P rince Ruspoli sho t specimens a t a w at er hole t o t he sou t h - o f t h e Og o d a n dis t ric t . V fisc he ri w a s in f ull plum a ge and eviden t ly breeding a t t his . Bill dull pin k fee t pale dus k y p in k iris bro w n T he adul t males . u n der parts w h i t e shaded wi t h sa n dy b u fl o n t h e base of t hroa t an d s i des . . o f body . . Arab sy o ( H awk er) . edges t o t h e feat hers . e x pec t ed is very similar t o t h e hen of V s er ena b u t has an . . and Mr H un t er The former na t uralis t ob t aini n g a good . In Somaliland t h e species w as fi rs t ob t ained by R evoil .

S . 21 1 ( 1 8 9 0) Re i che n . . . E t i re head t hroat bac k wi gs t a i l s ides n . H eu g l Orn O Af r p 583 . a t h G e n S y n ii p t i p 1 78 L . L a V eu ve au Coll i er d Or . E mberi a parad i sea L in z . . c ul m en win g 3 t a i l t ars u s 3 3 0 3 73 . . u ly) Aby ss i ni a . . . . B Afr I . L i sb . 2 5 7 T a dej emu l ka B ocage J . . . Vi e i ll O i s Chan t p 6 3 . n. . t h e breas t b u fl wi t h t h e crop an d fro n t o f ches t ches t n u t . B M xiii p . u n der s u rface of . p . t h e la tt er m o t t led wi th blac k a t t h e be n d of t h e wi n g Ir i s dark bro wn . iii p . iii p . . V Og Afr . . . V ID U A P A R AD I S E A 25 Goura in S ep t ember and a t B u ssal e r in November and Mr . P . land and Mr P ease found t h e specie s in Sou t hern Abyssinia . . . . 1 904 . . S tegan u ra parad i sea . 2 23 V i du a verre au ni . . E llio t ob t ained i t a t H illier M r Ha wk er on November 3 0 . ( 1 7 6 6) Ango la . of abdo e m n an d t h e under a i l cover t s blac k h i n der half o f t h e n ec k a n d t - . p 31 2 . . . or n . N ( ed x ) p . . t h e end o f t ha t mon t h t he males moul t in t o t h e w in t er plumage w hich closely resembles t h at of t h e females and . . t ars i an d fee t d u s k y bro wn ( T Ayres) T o t al len gt h 1 6 i n ches . - . S t egan u ra sp h en u r a . . Cass r P hil a d Ac 1 8 50 ( u n e). . . . . . . 1 7 8 ( 1 7 58 ) i d ( ed xii ) i . . . . 82 S t T homa s I s l . of t h e cro w n above the eyebro w s from t h e n os t ri ls t o t h e n ape . a blac k pat ch o n t h e u pper an d h i n der por t i on o f t h e ear cover t s a nd a d u s k y spot - o n t h e lo w er por t i o n . . and December 2 observed i t i n floc k s n ear t h e w at er a t . . pl s 3 7 . Adu l t f ema le H ead b u f fy w h i t e wi t h a broad blac k ban d o n each s i de . . p 5 6 Aby ssi ni a . J . . V i d u a p ar ad i s ea . B W hydah i rd . . in t he high t rees bordering t h e marshes of t h e E rrer G o t a River and never in any o t her locali t y In Shoa D r Rag a zzi . . . . . B p Co m s p i p 4 4 9 ( 1 850. . . red bill Lord Lova t sho t on e at Hargeisa in Nort hern S omal i . S hell ey . N . . . . 22 3 ( 1 904) G ran t Ib i s . . . M a le i n br eedi ng p lu ma g e . V og . . . t h e S pring m ou l t t a k es place abou t March . . procured t w o specimens in full plumage in Augus t To wards . V i d u a parad i sea or i en t al i s . No 3 1 6 . Af r . . e q ui lls ashy bro w n wi t h t h e i n n er edges w h i t e l ik e t h e u n der wi n g cover t s / i _ . V i d u a parad i sea . 3 8 ’ . 1 9 04 . Arabsiyo and G eb il i t hey w ere t hen in w in t er plumage a nd had congrega t ed i n floc ks and w ere consp icuous only by t heir . n . . t h e b u ff o f t h e cro w n m o t t led o n t h e h i n der half . Re i chen . . J . b i ll blac k . T at i ( F Oat es) ‘ . . . S har p e C a t . p .

lo w er bac k a n d u p per t a i l cover t s u n i for m ashy - bro w n . fe w blac k feat hers . . - . " T ot al len gt h 5 2 5 i n ches cul m en wi n g 3 t a i l . I do n o t fi nd any record regarding t h e occurrence of t his species y e t i t appears t o be fairly plen t i ful i n Togolan d w here . and according t o P rof Barboza du B ocage i t is fairly abundan t . t ars i and fee t . cen t res t o t h e feat hers . . m o t t led wi t h blac k alo n g t h e be n d o f t h e wi n g . . . . win gs an d t a i l d ar k bro w n wi t h s o m e pale edges t o t h e feat hers . . . . Adu l t ma les i n w i n ter p lu mag e S i m i lar t o t h e fe m ales . t hroa t an d u n der s u rface of body w h it e shaded wi th san dy bro w n o n t h e crop an d s i des of t h e . Kalahari dis t ric t I canno t t race t he species fur t her sou t h in . pale . . Jen d i On follo w ing dow n t h e Wes t Coas t I again fi nd no . 9 28 1 1 8 2 . R u s t en bu rg ( T Ayres ) . b i ll l i gh t du s k y bro w n lo w er m an d i ble pale . lo w er t hroat a n d flank s sl i gh t ly m ar k ed wi t h d u s k y s t ri pes Ir i s . u n der wi n g cover t s a n d i n n er m arg i n s of - t h e q ui lls w h i t e t h e for m er . d us k y bro w n . Be t ween t his la tt er place and Gambaga a d is t ance of 9 00 miles . bro w n fadi n g i nt o w h it e o n t h e c e n tre o f t h e abdo men an d t h e un der t a i l covert s . speci mens h ave been collect ed a t B ismarc k burg Krach i and . . . . ' been col lec t ed b y Anch iet a at Capangombe and Qu illi ng u es . . record of t he species for ano t her mi les t ill w e co m e t o . body . s i des o f head t hroat a nd s i des o f body u ni form pale . land and Mr Fleck has procured S pecimens a t M o x o w i in t h e . fro m S t Thomas Island w as probably a cage bird Andersson . Museum t here i s a full plumaged m ale procured by Toulson - a t L oanda To t h e sout h o f t he Q uanza R iver specimens have . In Wes t Africa specimens have been procured by L a g l a i se at S t Loui s on t he mout h of t h e S enegal River by Marche . The P aradise Whydah ranges over Africa generally sout h of 1 7 N l a t ° . t arsu s . bac k of n ec k a nd m an t le sandy bro wn mo t t led wi t h blac k . I mma t ure U pper par t s u n i for m ear t hy bro w n of t e n m o t t led wi t h a . found i t no t unfrequen t a t La k e Ngami b u t scarce in Damara . . at Daran k a and Bat hurs t and B eaudou i n a t Ca s ama n s e . Angola : here t h e t ype w as discovered and i n t he B ri t ish . from Loanda t o Mossamedes T he only specimen recorded . .26 V ID U A P A R ADI S E A wi t h black .

According t o S t ar k : Th is species no w here very abundan t in . grass seeds The change of plumage from w in t er t o S pring . i t at t h e Diamond fi eld s near Kimberley - In Zululan d t he . ” t ill t h e lat t er end of December . . shor t undula t ing fligh t s ret urn ing i nvariably t o t h e same . . . grass i n w hich o n e of his l i t t le bro w n ma t es i s hidden for he . Vidua i s becoming much more plen t iful amongs t t he M ag a li e s bergen t han i t used t o be years back The n i t w a s scarcely . perch Occasionally he w ill hover for a fe w seconds over t h e . . Mr T . V ID U A P A R ADI S E A 27 Wes t ern Africa and i t has n o t been recorded fro m Cape Colony . ” and s w ift ness He fur t her w ri t es i n 1 8 8 5 : This handsome . in t he season t han mos t o f t h e family n o t being in full dress . has many from t e n t o fi ft y or more A t S hor t int ervals he . uncommon This species assumes i t s nupt ial plumage lat er . t o t h e w es t of King w illiams t o w n b u t Mr Barrat t m e t w i t h . “ Ayres remark s : During t he breeding season w hen t he w on . k no w n i n t he R u s t en b erg dis t ric t w here i t is no w by no means . . . . S ou t h Africa i s s t ill n o t rare in some par t s o f Nat al and t h e . w i t h much veloci t y and if approached mak es o ff w i t h ease . . i s fond of perching on a prominen t bush f rom which he t a k es . u t t ers a fl ut e li k e no t e and no w and t hen a fe w bars of his - . ‘ - . ’ Eas t ern Transvaal in ra t her open bush veld t locali t ies i n . . females a t E s c h o w e and t w o o t hers a t t he Blac k U mfolos i River so t ha t i t would appear t o be plen t iful i n t hat coun t ry . . - hang do w n b u t in fligh t t hey are carri ed horizon t ally Li k e . ” livery in t he males is comple t ed in abou t s i x w eek s . d er f u l t ail o f t h e coc k b ird i s fully developed he w ill some . Messrs Wood w ards procured a series of adul t males and t w o . . t imes rise un t il nearly o ut of s igh t w hen he suddenly descends . love so n g When at res t t he l o ng t ail fea t hers are allo w ed t o . t h e o t her Wido w birds t his species feeds almos t en t irely on - . w h ich l i t t le oases of grass are more or less surrounded by t horny bushes T he handsome cock i n spring an d summer . .

. “ Mr A L Bu t ler w ri t es t o me f rom Khar t oum : In J u ne . . In Somaliland F ischer procured t h e species at Bara w a Mr . o f a si n gle male and his many w ives o f t en feed ing on t h e . " U g o g o accord i ng t o Dr P r u en t h eir nat ive name i s Tumb w e . and February frequen t ing t h e grassy plains Of t h e Z ambesi and . ground i n company w i t h o t her species o f small Weavers In . . In Nyasa . a t Hargeisa a n d Arabsiyo . T hrou g hou t Eas t ern Africa i t is abundan t and generally t o . F Gille t t o t hers a t Waehal i an d Mr H a wk er found i t plen t iful . N a ma ra mb a . S pecimens have been collec t ed a t Z omba For t L i s t er So n gue . .28 V ID U A P A R ADI S E A S ir J o hn Kir k found t h e species in fu ll plumage in January . S h i r é Rivers In t his par t o f Africa according t o Mr B oyd . species plen t ifully d is t ribu t ed along t h e coas t and inland from K ilimanjaro t o Lak e B aringo . . . . . be m et w i t h in small floc k s o f from t en t o t w en t y consis t ing . t h e males w ere all beginning t o assume breed ing plumage b u t none at t ha t . . . collect ed t hem remar k s t hat t he species w as n o t common and . N t ond w e Chira d zulu Mpimb i and Chanda . “ ” land i t i s k no w n t o t h e nat ives as t h e N a m d u mb o and . dat e had t h e long t ails I sa w a male i n full breeding plumage . . . he n ever sa w any w i t h t he long t ail feat hers . . . “ ” a n d dis t inguished in t h e Ki k amba language as Mal nguru - o n accoun t of t heir long t ails Mr Jac k son m et w i t h t h e . . . I found t he m t olerably plen t if u l i n t h e t horn bushes n or t h of t h e Raha t River ( a t ribu t ary of t h e Blue Nile ) . . . t his w as in - April and May . . In t h e T ei t a dis t rict Hildebrand t found t h e c ook s in full plumage from F e bruary t o J u ly accompanied by m any hens . . . and several in w in t er plumage from Ka k a and E d D uem o n t h e Whi t e Nile Regarding t hese lat t er Mr Ha wk er w ho . From Cen t ral Africa t here are i n t h e B ri t ish Museum a full plumaged male O b t ai ned in U ganda by Dr M c Ca rt h y M o r ro g h . . Ale x an der i t is n o t nearly so common as V ser en a .

n ur a sp hen ura and Vi du a p a ra di s ea o r i en t a li s . . In t his dis t ric t according t o H englin i t i s generally di s t ri . pale ground colour is scarcely visible and measures 08 x - . does n o t range f u r t her nor t h t han 1 7 N l a t nor ascend t h e ° . . . t ails o n January 2 and 3 a t F a t a sh a Wells t w en t y miles . i n ac q u i r i n g by a spr i n g m o u l t a fri ll of rather broad le n g t hen ed fea t hers o n . the s i des a n d bac k of t h e n ec k I n i t s o t her charac t ers s u ch as t h e shor t . at Jebel Ain Novem b er 1 5 and a t Ka w a on t h e follo w ing . Oct ober They seem here t o begin t o change in t o t h e nup t i a l . COL I U S P A S S E R 29 at Duem S ep t ember 3 0 and numerous males w i t h long t ails . n arro w a n d sharply po i n ted fi rs t pr i m ary co u pled wi t h t h e m o t t led bro w n . C OL TU S P A S T h i s ge s i s di st i g i shed from all nu n u o t her P loc ei dw by t h e m ales th e ass u m i n g fo r t h e breedi n g seaso n an elon gat ed grad at ed t ai l of very . . - Augus t o r S ep t ember and re t ain t hem t ill December o r . . . bu t ed and very co mm o n t o a s far nor t h as B o g o sl a n d b u t . ” January . . w es t of Omdurman I have seen m ales in full plumage from . t h e lo n g t ail feat hers I also sa w males s t ill w i t h t heir long - . pl u m age o f t h e ad ul t m ale i n wi n t er i t sho w s i ts c l o se affi n i t i es wi th t h e . G e u s III n . u fle xi ble feat hers I t rese mbles U r o bra c hg a ( i t s n eares t ally ) an d P g r omela na . March wh ich is in full breeding pl u mage . From Abyssi n ia came t h e t ypes of Vi dua verr ea uni S tega . The egg i s grey so very closely S po t t ed w i t h blac k t hat t h e . . day At t his d at e a fe w o f t h e males had shed one o r t w o o f . . In t h e Bri t ish Museum t here are several specimen s from Aile t an d Ko o may l e i i n cluding a male sho t by General S t urt in . Vi du i n ae o n ly . au t um n . . Wes t er n Kordofan collec t ed by Cap t ain H N D u nn in . h ighlan ds above fee t H e m e t w i t h t hem moul t ing o u t . . . . . . . of t h e breeding plumage in O ct ober and in large flock s in t h e . plumage i n June have acqu ired t h e long t ailed fea t hers by .

. Cat M xiii p 2 2 0 . B . dela merei 3 . G ray . - 0 la ti c a u dus . . . N i obe Aug 1 8 5 1 . . S u n dev ( E f v K V e t Ak or b . . . U r obra c hya may be called t h e Marsh Whydahs . The genus is con fi ned t o Tropical and S ou t h Africa and . pl 3 6 . doing ei t her . 1 89 1 p . 0 a r dens . Cher a H ii b n 1 8 1 6 ( L ep idop tera ) . N i obe . . Chera . . . . . . . Rii p p N W i rh p 9 8 . . p 3 3 1 . . p . C la ti c a/udu s . B . u nder win g . 21 5 C p r oc ne . . . S t o c kh 1 8 4 9 . D i a t ro p u ra . Pr . . . . . t a i l S hor t er 2 . . . . ( 1 890) C mac roura . . . Have w e a righ t t o s et i t aside as has been do n e by Dr . P hi l ad . . . . . . S harpe . Ob e rh o l s e r . P e n t he t ri o p s i s . . Ca b Arch f N at ur g 1 8 4 7 . . M os t o f t h e pl u m age un i form blac k M a les i n breed i ng p lu mag e . . . a. wh ich t hey generally hide amongs t t h e herbage close t o t h e ground and lay spo t t ed eggs t hree somet imes four in number . . 2 46 C j ac kso ni . . Co li o s t r ut h u s . . comp r ises four t een S pecies I t s m embers as w ell as t hose o f . Out o f t h e eigh t generi c n ames proposed f o r members of t his genus t h e t hree follo w ing have been previously used in o t her branches of zoology : P en the tri a M e i g e n 1 8 02 ( Dip . . p 1 58 . C p roc ne . D r ep a n o p l ec t e s . . . . S . 1 89 9 . t ai l lon ger 2 . P e n t he t ri a . a S m all er . ( Crus ta c ea ) . C la ti c a udu s . tera ) . . fi g 2 ( 1 8 3 5 4 0) . oldes t name I can fi nd for t hi s group o f b ir d s is Oo li usp a s s er . . classical name ! We are n o t in my opin ion j us t i fi ed i n . Sharpe ( Ca t B M x ii i p 2 1 5 not e ) or t o subs t i t u t e a more . progne 7 . frequen t marshy dis t ric t s cons t ruct oval nes t s mos t ly of grass . a1 L esser win g c overt s scarle t . . harpe Ib i s . . I t appears t o me t o be confusing ra t her t han helping science t o separa t e t hese S pecies in t o several genera The . Re i chen b S i ngv p 6 1 ( 1 8 6 3 ) . F . G e n ii p 3 55 ( 1 8 49 ) . .30 COL I U S P A S S E R Coli u sp a sser . They all . . . ' 7 2 6 L arger . KE Y T O T H E S P E CI E S . - covert s blac k win g 4 5 t o 5 5 . Acad . .

a U pper bac k yello w 6 . . C OL I U S P AS S E R 31 b1 . - . 3 f L esser win g covert s san dy rufou s 4 . /J é b T ai l lon ger abou t 5 . l3 3 ed i an cover t s yello wi sh fa wn d6 M . wi n g 3 57 . un der wi n g cover t s m os t ly - blac k . N o pat ch of w h i t e o n t h e wi n g . ma les . [a b3 . r 2 b S m aller . wi n g n o t m ore t han 3 5 5 . soror . /a r e . a L arger . . - eques )2 I . 0 S m aller . a d9 . V a b 4 E n t ire plu m age blac k . macrouru s ‘4 U pper bac k blac k . wi n g 3 2 7 . . mac roc erc us . . - . - scarcely dark er t han t h e u n der cover t s . U n der win g cover t s blac k - . L esser wi ng covert s ches t nut or yello w - . a nd y oung bi rds . a sy mme tru ru s . scarle t o r yello w ardens . scarle t la ti c au du s . ' b . c on c o lor . a T ai l shor t er abou t 5 . t a i l very lon g an d arched j a c ksoni A f f . 9c d3 . t ai l feat hers very n ar - r ow p sa mmac romi us . a broad b u ff eyebro w un der part s w h i t i sh wi t h t h e crop an d flan k s S haded wi t h bro w n Adu l t ma les i n w i n ter f e . cl . 0 U pper wi n g cover t s e x cep t i n g 6 . win g covert s blac k Al l t h e - . . N o red o n t h e head . re m ai n der o f u nder win g cover t s blac k t ai l - feat hers broad ha r t lau bi P % . . a3 . U pper par t s m o t t led— san dy bro w n w i t h blac ki sh cen t res t o t h e fea t hers . a 4 A collar across t h e lo w er t hroat . win g n o t less t han 5 . L esser wi ng c - ov ert s ne ver scarlet . A large pat ch o f w h i t e o n t h e wi n g . d L arger . a l bono ta tus . wi n g less t han 0 2 . s L esser win g covert s yello w v d 4 . - . l ik e t h e o u t er u n der wi n g cover t s . t h e leas t ser i es sa n dy b ufl . B ac k of cro wn n ape an d a c ollar . c s . u n der wi n g cover t s w h it i sh wi t h t h e ben d of t h e wi n g yello w . e 4 L esser wi n g covert s yello w . 0 4 L esser win g covert s chestn ut .

W ing scarcely an y t race 3 7 of oran ge red o n wi n g cover t s - p r og n e 9 an d j uv . L arger . . e 5 . g t E dges of lesser win g covert s t i n ged . . . k4 . Co l i usp as s er proc n e S helley B Af r I N o 3 1 7 ( 1 89 6) W h i t ehead Ib i s . C o l i u sp a s s er p r o g n e . . g 3 . . ma c ro c erc us . . . F la k s more st riped n . p 39. L esser win g cover t s yello w - ma c ruru s . i 5 . a r d ens . L esser wi g covert s wi th l it t le n - or no ches t nu t j a c kson/i . L esser wi g cover t s yell o w n - p sa mma c romi u s 3 ad . F lan k s less s t reak ed . . g 5 . c on c o lor . r B u t ler F ore i gn F in ches i n Capt iv it y p 2 86 pl 5 0 .32 C OL I U S P A S S E R P R O GN E e 2 . . hz . B o dd . . soror 9 an d juv . . d1 U n der wi ng cover t s n o t blac k - . E m ber iz a lon g i cau da G m t c p 88 4 . . . prog n e Re i chen V og Afr D i at r o p u r a . L esser wi g cover t s chest t n - nu j a c ks oni 3 ad . d el a mer ei 3 ad . . - wi t h ru fou s egues 9 h4 E dges of lesser win g cover t s t i nged . f 2 . W i n g n o t m ore t han 3 i n ches l a ti c a u du s . . h5 . f 5 . 3 ad . wing han 4 in ches m ore t . . . iii p 1 4 4 . i4 . . . i 2 . L o xi a c afl a G m S N p 858 r . T abl P l . a l bon o t a t u s a nd a s y mme tru r us 3 ‘ ad . E mber i a prog e z n . . . ma c rocer c us . . - wi t h yello w a lbon o t a t us . . . . 1 903 p 2 2 4 Ora ng e R . sor or 3 ‘ ad . . prog ne 3 ad ! . U n der wi n g cover t s ru fo u s b u ff - . . . 9 a nd j uv . . E nl . g 2 . N o w h it e o n t h e win gs . O n ly a t race of yellow on lesser wi n g cover t s - ma c r uru s . . . . S o m e w h i t e o n t h e q u i lls an d great er cover t s e gu es . h3 . . lesser win g cover t s oran ge scarlet - . Chera proc n e S harpe Ca t B M x i ii p 2 1 3 ( 1 8 90) N a ta l T a n svaa l . U n der wi n g cover t s w h i t i sh - . . a sy mmet ru r us 2 is . . U n der wi n g cover t s pale d u s k y bro w n - ar dens . 9 a nd j uv .

the colo u r i n g o f t h e wi n g wi t h t h e e x cep t i o n o f t h e lesser wi n g cover t s wh i ch . m an t le a n d i n cl i n i n g t o b f f o n t he g reater wi n g cover t s i nn er l i n i n g of the . . ” . fi g 1 6 1 . . where An chie t a procured t w o ad u l t s and t w o young m ales whil e . T he Ka fli r Grea t t ailed Whydah ra n ges from Be n guela in t o - E as t er n S o u t h Afric a from Cape Colony t o t h e Tran svaal . . fee t dark brow n ( S tar k ) . u - wi n gs ashy bro w n wi t h t h e coverts blac k U n der par t s bu ff shaded wi t h - . . b ut according t o Mr T Ay res i t does n o t approach t h e Na t al . V i d u a p h oen i c o p t er a . . . . . 3 [O c t o b er . S w a i n s Class ii p 1 1 2 . Ma le a du l t i n w i n ter p lu mage Rese mbles t h e fe m ale i n t h e for m of . a t H umpa t a in M o s s a mm e de s V a n der Kellen also ob t ained . C OL I U S P AS S E R P R OG N E 33 E m ber iza i m per i al i s S ha w i n M i ller s Ci m el . . . lesser win g coverts . hys iii p 7 ’ . a specimen . wi n g 3 7 t ai l 2 5 t arsu s . . m ed i an covert s bu ff wi t h so m ew hat h i dden blac k shaft s . In Wes t ern Africa i t is k no w n fro m Caconda in Be nguela . . blac k wi t h broad pale bro w n edges o f a sl i gh t ly m ore t aw ny shade on t h e . T o t al len gt h 205 i nches c ul m en wi n g 5 3 t ai l 1 6 t ars u s . pr i m ari es wi t h t h e en ds paler a n d t erm i n al b u ff ed ges . t h e ta i l as w ell as i n t h e colo u r i n g of t h e head n ec k body a n d scap u lars b u t . wi t h t h e pale edges o f t h e great er cover t s a n d secon dari es broader . 1 904 . . bi ll horn bro w n . - oran ge scarlet . . bot h at P ort Eli zabe t h an d E as t London and w e may add . N at al ( E . A . have broad yello wi sh edges . . . rem ai nder o f the u n der s rface o f t h e u wi n g blac k Ir i s bro wn . as o n t h e fro n t a n d s i des of t h e breast I r i s dar k h a el . d i ffers i n t h e wi n g be i n g S i m i lar t o t ha t of t h e m ale i n breed i ng plu mage o n ly . T o t h e sou t h o f t h e C unene River I do n o t fin d t h e species recorded from any locali t y t o t h e w es t o f 2 5 E lo n g . U . . P . b u t ° . z tars i a n d fee t p i n ki sh bro w n T otal le n gth 6 1 i n ches cu l m en . from Colesberg an d according t o Mr Ri ck ard i t i s common. Nat al Z ulul a nd t h e O range R iver C olony and t h e Tran sv aa l . wi t h a bl u i sh blac k gloss o n t h e . B t ler)u . Adu l t pper par t s m ot tled t h e fea t hers all be i n g brow n i sh f ema le . B . . bro w n an d wi th bro w n shaft s t r i pes o n t h e m i ddle a nd lo w er t hroat as w ell - . ' 2 1 2 6 76 5. great er cover t s a n d t h e secon dar i es wi th b uff e dges . 3 28 1 0 8 1 . M a le i n br eedi n g p lu mag e lack . . B edges of the fea t hers of t h e head n ec k an d breas t . . . . Layard informs us t ha t Mr Arnold sen t h im several specime n s . - . b i ll l i gh t blu i sh ash . . I mma tu r e ma l e D iffers fro m t h e last phase an d rese mbles t h e fe m ale i n . N at al ( T E B u ck ley ) . . ” .

as Augus t b u t some o f t hem are n o t i n full breedi n g pl u mage . . assu m e t heir su m m er livery w i t h i t s lo n g t ail feat hers as early . t h e t a i l of t h e male d u ri n g t h e breeding season is i n m any . . - . be sa t isfac t orily accoun t ed for by assumi n g t h e species t o be ” polygamous . pro m inen t bush o r w eed They frequen t ly fly from bush t o . - fond o f si t t ing o n t h e t aller heads of grass or o n s o m e . go n e t hrough t h e v a rious s t a ges and t hi s w ould receive con fi rma t ion fro m t h e m ar k ed preponderance of t h e bro w n t ailless birds over t h e l o n g t ailed males i n t h e various floc k s - . . suffi cien t gro w t h o f gr a ss t o afford i t co n cea l men t and a shel t er for i t s nes t On brigh t s u n n y days t he long t ailed males are . . S o gre a t ho w ever i s t h e preponderance t ha t i t c a n really only . Regarding t h e habi t s o f t his s pecies S t ar k w ri t es This . ’ commones t birds i n t h e upper por t ion o f t h e c o lony b u t n o t . seem t ha t t h e bla c k plumage and lo ng t ail are n o t assu m ed by t h e males during t heir fi rs t year ( and perhaps t heir second ) for . . very co mmon summer residen t o n t h e borders o f t h e vleis and s w amps as w ell as o n t h e ope n veld t w herever t here is a . I t w ould . They roos t in hundreds o r even t ho u sands i n t h e reedy . specime n s w ere O b t ai n ed i n t he i m ma t ure o r female dress as la t e as Oc t ober 2 6 w hich could n o t possibly have s ubsequen t ly .34 C OL I U S P A S S E R P R O GN E coas t w i t hin e i gh t o r t e n m iles Messrs B u t ler Feil d en and . bush w i t h gr a cefully arched t ail apparen t ly n o t much i nc o m . . Reid w ri t e : “ C a lled by t h e Ka fli r s Saca bul o o ne o f t h e - . n o t n es t ing w hen w e lef t Ne w cas t le i n November . v le s floc k af t er floc k pouri n g i n from all sides abou t su n se t y. . t ill t h e w hole place i s a l ive w i t h t hem T h e males beg i n t o . par t s o f U pp er N a t al Z ululand and t he S o u t hern T ransvaal a . S prui t a f e w miles lo w er do w n o n t he P ie t er m ari t zburg road . a s la t e as O c t ober They w ere s t ill in floc k s an d apparen t ly . beau t iful Wido w Bird remark able f o r t h e e x t raordi n ary size of . observed in any grea t numbers belo w Ho w i ck o r ra t her Rei t .

fix ed o n a locali t y t h e females separa t e and each o n e proceeds t o const ruc t a nes t in a t h ic k t u f t o f grass The coc k mean w hile . C OL I U S P A S S E R P R O GN E 35 m o de d by i t s grea t size . b u t i n t h e e arly m o rni n g w hen t h e gra ss i s s t ill w e t w i t h d e w o r af t er a sho w er o f rain n o t a bird . small cat erpillars grubs a n d t ermi t es As soon as t he males . t hey are t hen h idin g under t h e grass so . . for a S hor t d is t ance t hen rise a n d fly OH un t il t he da nger . flo w ering t ops of grass and reeds I t is generally placed a fe w . k eeps a loo k o u t from some poin t o f van t age and spends mos t - of hi s t i m e i n drivi n g o fl o t her cock s w h o a t t e m p t t o t resp a ss o n t h e t erri t ory occupied by his harem H e t ak es no par t . - .The nes t is an oval do m ed s t ruc t ure w i t h a side . w ill be visible . upon which t h e hens leave t heir nes t s creep under t he grass . by i t s sides t o m any grass s t al k s t h e bla des a n d t ops of w hic h . . The eggs usually four i n number are smal l considering t he . . and each m ale a cco m panied by f ro m t en t o fi ft een females . begin t o assume t heir long t ails i n spring t h e floc k s brea k up . . who prize t h e lo n g t ail fea t hers as head dresses In au t umn . in t h e cons t ruc t ion o f a n y o f t h e nes t s . . . . . hampered by t heir w e t and heavy t ails as t o be u n able t o rise At such t imes n umbers are caugh t by t h e Z u lu boys . are ben t do w n and t ied t oge t her t o form an addi t ional c o n c e a l me n t and pro t ec t ion The female si t s for f our t een days . considerable e x t en t o n various insec t s The young are fed o n . is pas t . largely u po n g rass seeds mi lle t a n d grai n in summer t o a - . repairs t o some sui t able breeding place As soon as t hey have . . . inches off t h e ground in t h e cen t re of a t uft of gr a ss a t t ached . - or amo n g t hick bushes D uri n g a u t umn and w in t er t hey fee d . en t rance roughly w oven o u t o f fi n e grass lined w i t h t he . should he see a m a n or beas t of prey approaching he fl ies round w i t h a w arning c ry . season un t il t h e follo w i n g spri n g t hey roos t i n dense reed beds . bo t h o ld and y o u n g collec t i n floc k s o f t housands and freque n t ly leave t h e n eighbourho o d o f t heir breedi n g place At t his . .

36 COL I U S P A S S E R P R O GN E size o f t he bird . I called t h e a t t e n t io n o f my compa n io n t o i t w he n . ’ t h e large blac k t a il f ea t hers are u sed in bunches by t h e S w az i - ‘ Regimen t o f I n f a an s ( o r young men ) t o adorn t heir head dresses and shields w i t h grea t effec t The na t ives run t h e . assumed t heir f ull plumage i n N ovember and remar k s : . R id i ng once be t w een Table Far m and Grahams t o w n w i t h Dr At hers t one I sa w w ha t I t oo k . “ Bo w k er t he t ail of t he male in t he breeding season i s n o t an . . t he males w ere in ful l plumage in D ecember and January and . by i t s seasonally developed t ail a n d is a g o od ins t a n ce w here . ” advan t age spreading his t ail o u t li k e a fan . . “ Wherever w e t places a n d high reeds are found t h e long . so much as d uri n g a high w ind in w h ich he S ho w s O ff t o . . bi rds do w n o n w et days w hen t he mois t ure preven t s t hem fr o m . t ai led Wido w bird ( Cher a p r oc ne ) may usually be observed - pursui n g i t s laborious a n d diffi cul t fligh t heavily handicapped . ‘ . t o b e a blac k sil k n ec k erch ief drif t ing d o w n t o us i n a s t ro n g w i n d fro m a house o n a hill some 3 00 yards from o u r road . . moul t in t o t h e w in t er dress i n March According t o Mr H . t hey average 09 X Mr T Ayres re m ar k ed t ha t i n N a t al . . t hey are w hi t e o r bl u ish w hi t e closely m a r k ed . The - . w i t h sma ll spo t s a n d dashes o f dar k bro w n a n d sla t y grey . He appeared qui t e capable o f guiding h imself f o r h e t oo k care . . ” se x ual selec t ion is e x ercised a t t he e x pense o f pro t ec t ion . . his w i n gs flapping round a n d round li k e mill sails a n d his t ail spread in a co mpac t mass - . w i t h a laugh he t old me i t w as a male K a fi r fi nk . “ Mr Layard o bserves : . This S pecies is common o n t he fla t s round B arber t on To t h e na t ives i t is t h e S a k ub u l a and . decep t ion w as comple t e ! As he came near I sa w he w as dri ft i n g a t a prodigious ra t e . . Dr Rendall w ri t es . . Mr D is t ant w hile a t P re t oria found t ha t t h e birds had . . inco n venience t o h im he never in fac t S eems t o e nj oy himself . . ” never t o l e t me g e t w i t hin sho t o f him .

. D i a t ro p u a prog n e d el a m e e i Re i che n V g Af r iii p 1 4 5 r r . bird from t h e E qua t or being dis t inc t from t he Sou t h African form al t hough i t sho w s a great similari t y in general appearance . . . . . . . ” le ngth 2 5 5 i n ches c u l m en wi n g . t ail in propor t ion t o i t s size t han a n y o t her w ild species is separa t ed from t hat o f i t s neares t ally 0 p r ogn e by over . - . al w ays in t uf t s o f long herbage near t h e ground . Co li u sp a s s er d e la m ere i S helley B u ll B O C xiii p 73 . t h e P ret oria and Heidelberg dis t ric t s I t is seen flying abou t . o . t i n g u i s h e d by t h e grea t er le n g t h of t h e t a i l i n the m ales i n f ull breed i n g plu m age Ir i s bro wn b i ll pale hor n bl u e legs dar k shr i m p bro w n T o t al . . . . . t h e veld t every w here w h ich i s n o t t h e case w i t h a n y o t her . miles This fac t dre w my a t t en t ion t o t h e probabili t y of t he . The species apparen t ly does n o t range fur t her nort h in E as t ern A frica t han t he Transvaal . Ib i s 1 89 9 p 59 7 E lma tei ta L M a u R a vi n e . . . C o l i u s p a s s e r d e l a m er e i . u . M t Ke n ya ( D ela m ere ) . species o f Weaver so far as I am a w are T he nes t i n g seas o n . ” w i t h ligh t and purplish bro w n Th e nes t s he fou n d w ere . . . . C OL I U S P AS S E R D E L AM E R E I 37 rising af t er a fligh t o r t w o and t hey are k illed w i t h s t ic k s a nd . D e l am e r e ’ G rea t t a i led Whydah inhabi t s Bri t ish Eas t Africa s - t o t h e eas t o f V i ct oria Nyanza . . J ac k so n . S i m i lar i n all i t s pl u m ages t o 0 p r og n e b t sl i ghtly larger a n d d i s . . c o mmences i n Oc t ober and November The eggs are o f a dir t y . . . . . . . C hera proc n e ( no n B o dd ) S harpe Ib i s 1 89 1 p 2 44 M a sa i . t al l 2 1 0 t ars u s 3 1 7 3 00 . . I fi n d ho w ever t ha t i t diff ers i n t h e sa m e manner as 0 a sym . . . . . . . . . ” k nob k erries . The k no w n range o f t his w onderfu l bird wh ich has a l o n g e r . Mr H aag n er remar k s : This S pec i es 1 8 very common i n . t h e Transvaal so far as can be judged from my e x perience i n . grey w hi t e ground colo u r i n discrimina t ely d o t t ed and bl o t ched . .

M . bo t h o f t hese w ere ob t ained a t L i ki pi a o n January 1 9 T w o mon t hs la t er a t Ngari h e sho t . Ma le i n breedi ng p l umage J et blac k i n cl u d i n g t h e u nder wi n g cover t s . u nco m mo n w i t hin i t s very limi t ed ra n ge f o r Mr Jack son has . p2 5 7 H a r ra r D edg en . . 2 4 0) S i mi en . . varies from 2 0 t o 2 3 i n ches t he gr ea t es t le n g t h o f t ail I hav e m e t w i t h i n t h e So u t h African 0 p r og n e is 1 8 i n ches b u t i n t h e . males . . . . much w or n and h a ve faded in t o bro wn also a n adul t fe male . . . au t umn as w ell as a S pring nes t i n g season I t is apparen t ly n o t . . wi t h san dy b u fl edges t o so m e o f t h e feat hers o f t h e bac k win gs t a i l an d . . F ri gi lla l n a t i c au da . L i ch t V e r z D o ub l . . . b u t s t ill re t ai n ing t h e elonga t ed fea t hers of t h e t ail w hich are . harpe . 1 9 04 . . Af r . xiii p . fig ( 1 83 5 ' u . . - . t h e full plu m aged m ale I have described as t h e t ype and t w o hens i n fresh plu m age so t hat probably t h e species has an . . 21 8 ( 1 8 90) G ra n t Ib i s . P e n t h e t ri a l a t i c a u d a S . 9 8. . t o t h e nor t h o f La k e E l ma t e i t a a n d t o t h e eas t o f t h e M a n Ravine and t he females w ere al w ays more n u m erous t han t h e . . . V og . . I n t h e Bri t ish Museum t here are fi ve o f L o rd D e l a m e re s ’ specime n s com p rising a n adul t male almos t i n w i n t er plumage . 1 36 . h igh grass He af t er w ards m e t w i t h t hem i n similar si t ua t ions . Co li us p as s e r l a ti c a u du s . helley B Af r . S . . I N o 2 1 9 ( 1 89 6 ) Re i che n . . recorded a t 1 9 5 0 . iii p .38 C O L I U S P A S S E R L AT I C A U D U S m etr u r u s does from 0 a l bono t a tu s t ha t is i n t h e le n g t h of t h e . . . . . . . . . specime n described by S t ar k ( Fa u n S Afr B i p 1 3 9 ) i t is . Ca t . . Co l i u sp as s er t o rq u a t u s N R pp W i rh VOg p pl 3 6. . . D o r e t a he sa w a f e w mos t ly he n s i n a s w a m p frequen t ing t h e . p 2 4 ( 1 8 2 3 ) N u bi a . . B . . . li k e w i se in w or n plumage . . t ail o f t h e m ale i n ful l breedi n g pl umage I n t h is species i t . C o l i u s p a s se r l a t i c a u d u s . procu red ma n y speci m e n s t h e fi rs t w as a t t h e B o g o n o t o River i n M a s a i l a n d and during hi s j our n ey t o t h e coas t a ft er lea v ing . .

Adu l t f ema le U pper par t s as w ell as t h e u n der wi n g cover t s m o tt led . ” . wi ng 3 1 t ai l . On t h e sou t h w e s t er n sl o pes o f t h e Kilimanj aro Moun t ai n - Mr Jack son fou n d t hem fairly plen t iful i n o ne place o n ly . on t he moun t ains o f U ki ra a n d he found a nes t con t aining . . 21 2 99 J a w ah a . T a ve i t a and K i k uyu coun t ries . 3 4 1 99 . s t rongly glossed w hi t ish w i t h reddish bro w n and viole t grey . i n t h e wi n gs a n d t a i l be i n g blac k er t h e lat ter lo n ger an d t h e u n der wi n g . the red feat hers fad in g t o yello w or w h i t e t o w ards t he i r base a n d t hose of the bac k . . M a le i n w i n ter p lu ma g e S i mi lar i n colo u r i n g t o t h e fe m ale . - . spo t s mos t numer o us a t t he t hic k end and measured . The eggs w ere . doing w hen h e m e t w i t h t hem i n July o n Mo u n t Elgeyo a t an eleva t ion o f to fee t He w ri t es : Only seen i n . . Fischer collec t ed specime n s a t Kombo k o t o t h e so u t h w es t - o f Kili manjaro i n Arusha a t S usua and Lak e N ai w a s h a . This bird has a curious habi t o f m ak i n g a playg rou n d for i t self . u n der par t s pale san dy bro w n fad i n g i n t o b u ff t o w ards t h e ch i n . h i n der t w o t h i rds of the cro w n n ape a n arro w ban d . . ( L ova t ) . cover ts e n t i rely blac k Ir i s b i ll a nd legs dark bro wn . b i ll an d legs . t ars u s . o f t h e cro w n a n d t h e n ape have n arro w blac k edges Iri s bro w n b i ll and . legs blac k T ot al len g t h 1 0 7 i n ches c ul m e n . . C O L I U S P AS S E R L AT I CA U D U S 39 un der t ai l cover t s . “ . b ut d i ff ers . I no t i ced several i n t he lo n g grass and I sa w t h e male . . . crop a n d s i des o f body par t i ally s t reak ed wi t h bro w n i sh blac k h i s dark bro w n . - . . t hree eggs w hich w as p l aced i n a bush . x . 9 . . an d . . t ars u s 3 29 1 1 9 9 N y ro b e ( D elam ere ) . The Red naped Whydah ranges from t h e Ki limanjaro - Mou n t a in in t o Abyssinia . M r O sc a r Neuman n also procu red specime n s i n t h e . . 04 8 . . w here i n May t hey w ere a ppare n tly bree d ing as t hey w ere a lso . bro w ni sh blac k w i t h san dy bro w n edges t o t h e feat hers . . . . . . a n d o n t h e m i ddle of t h e breas t a n d abdo m e n . Ch elu n c o ( L ovat ) . pale bro w n T o t al len gth 6 0 i n ches c ul m en . . long reeds and b u lrushes a t t h e s wampy end o f t h e small lak e on t h e t o p of Elgeyo eviden t ly breeding I also found . ” win g 3 2 t ai l . . t hem very p le n t iful i n t he long gr a ss near La k e N a h u r o . . a w ell m ark ed b u ff - eyebro w . . o n s i des of n ec k a n d broad collar across t h e lo w er t hroa t scarle t .

. . gu a t a s R upp bo t h came from t he Nor t h Abyssinian dis t ric t . . o u t o f a large flo c k and wri t es : S t ill i n flock s co n sis t ing . ” most ly o f males l n mo t t led plumage . . . r . . . V i d u a ru b i t o rqu es S w a i n s B W Afr i p 1 7 4 r . . . . . t uf t lef t in t h e cen t re w i t h t w o o r t hree li t t le recesses a t t h e ’ ” base w hich are eviden t ly t h e resul t o f t he b irds play . . p 3 9 ( 1 78 3 ) Cap e Co lony B o dd . . . P e n t h e t ri a au r i c o lli s L i ch t N o me n c l p 4 9 . A n t i n o r i collec t ed a large series from April t o Sep t ember . . P e n t h e t i a arde n s S harpe Ca t B M xiii p 2 1 5 r . . E nl .4O C OL I U S P A S S E R A RD EN S eviden t ly playing as i t dar t ed several t imes in t o t h e air t o a . H englin found i t in floc k s w i t h 0 ma c r our u s ne a r Ado w a and . . . . C o l i u s p a s se r a rd en s . A k sum in t h e marshy dis t ric t s a n d t h e cul t ivat ed lands near . . . V i d u a l eno c i n i a L ess T ra i t é p 43 7 ( 1 8 3 1 ) Cap e Co lony . . . . J a w ah a w i t hin 1 5 0 miles w est sout h w est of Berbera In Shoa . . . Lord Lova t sho t t hree specimens a t Ch el u n c o Baroma and . . . . . ” o f j ump ing up and do w n . . . V i d a t orq u at a L ess Co m p l B uff v iii p 2 7 8 ( 1 83 7 ) Cap e u . . . . S hor t r i dge I b i s 1 9 04 p 1 7 8 P o ndo la n f l . . . . F ri gi lla arde s n n T abl P l . r . . In Nandi in April he sho t a male female and young bird . w orn a wa y in an irregular circle w i t h t h e e x cep t ion o f a small . . . . . . in t h e highlands of Abyssi n ia near An t alo and Agula and . E m beri a p an ay e n si s G m S N ii p 8 85 z . Re i che n V eg . On . . . heigh t o f abou t four fee t and t hen dar t ed do w n again T heir . t h e farms The t ype o f t h e species and t h e t ype o f 0 tor . E mber i a s ig na t a S cop D el F au n et F lor I n su b ii p 9 5 z . . The species has n o t been recorded from S omaliland b u t . Dr Blanford m et w i t h t he species o n t w o occasion s only . . . Af iii p 1 3 5 r . Co l i s p a s s e u n r arde s S helley B Af I N o 3 1 8 . playing ground is a w or k of some t ime as t h e grass is all - . hollo w s where t h e gr a ss is long I sa w t his bird a t i t s game . t h e M an P lat eau fee t ) he procured a male i n breeding “ plumage on Augus t 3 and remar k s : P len t if ul in boggy . . . - . . . . . . . . . . .

. . Adu l t f ema le Above m o t t led blac ki sh bro w n wi t h broad pale bro w n . . t h e u n der t a i l cover t s hav i n g blac k ce n t res - Ir i s du s k y bro w n b i ll l i gh t . wi ng 3 t ai l 9 t ars us 3 l 5 3 7 0 Al i ce . R u s t enb u rg ( W Lu cas) . . . covert s Iri s bro w n . b i ll t ars i a n d fee t pale bro w n ( S t ar k ) T o t al . . The Red collared Whydah inhabi t s t he eas t ern h a lf of - A frica sou t h of t h e E qua t or and ranges in t o Angola . . B lac k wi t h a broad scarle t collar across . gambia from w hence S w ainson n ominally received i t f o r all . . specimens of c on c o lor and one o f O a r dens The la t t er a n d . mark s t ha t in Maj or von M e c h o w s collec t ion t here w ere t hree ’ . the base of hroa t he tfea hers of w h i ch pass i n t o yello w an d w h i t e t . . ar den s . fee t d u s k y . Ad u l t ma le i n w i n ter p lu ma ge S i mi lar t o t h e fe m ale i n t h e for m of t h e . shaft s t ri pes . b ut t h e dar k ce n t res t o t h e fea t hers o f t h e u pper par t s blac k er t h e i nn er l i n i n g of t h e win g e n t irely blac k an d . fore I consider 0 c on c olor t o be S peci fi cally dis t inc t from . o n t h e ch i n a n d u pper t hroa t . t ars i redd i sh bro w n . . horn colou r u pper m an d i ble dark er . . . . ches t w ashed wi t h t a w n y bro w n a n d m ar k ed wi t h so m e sl i gh t ly dark er . i nn er li n i n g of t h e wi n gs d u s k y ash sl i gh t ly paler o n t h e - . any place in Africa t o t h e w es t o f 24 E long There ° . ” 1 2 i n ches c u l m e n . . . COL I U S P A S S E R A RD E NS 41 M a le i n breedi ng p lu ma ge . a loral ba n d a n d a ba n d beh i n d t h e eye blac k e an c o v e rt s b u ffi s h bro w n un der par t s b ufi wi t h a sl i gh t yello w t in ge . . S pecies from any par t of t he Wes t African subregion o r . . t ars u s P inet o w n . t h e Congo nor t h w ard belong t o 0 c on c olor Dr C aban is r e . lo w er throa t l ik e t h e fro n t a n d s i des of t h e . . a w ell m ark ed yell o wi sh w h i t e eyebro w an d a pat ch - o f t h e sa m e colo u r be n eat h t h e eye . . was probably a Sou t h African bird and n o t cap t ured in Sene . . . ” 3 8 7 78 . . . ( T L Ayres ) . from L o an d o are t h e only e x amples k no w n t o me of t his . . . . t h e represen t a t ive specimens I k no w o f from Wes t Afric a from . t a i l a n d t h e gen eral pl u m age . . a specimen presen t ed t o me by t h e la t e M r T T Tho m so n . th e t at t he i r bases “ B i ll t ars i an d feet black . . ” . The t ype of Vi dua ru br i tor qu es belongs t o t his S pecies and . C . “ . ’ L ay ar d ’ s B irds o f S ou t h A f rica . le n g t h 4 6 i n ches c ul m e n wi n g 2 6 t ai l . In Dr Sharpe s edi t ion o f. edges t o t h e feat hers . ir i s bro w n T o t al len g t h . Cape Colo n y ( L ayard ) .

” t hence survey t h e fi eld . o f herbage diving t o t h e bo t t om in a momen t w hile t h e males . . COL I U S P A S S E R A R D E NS “ occ u r t h e follo w i n g n o t es : This is a bi rd o f t h e e a s t ern port ion o f Sou t h A frica . w illiams t o w n Mr T C At more sen t several specimens from . Maj or Clar k e found t hem in small floc k s frequen t ing t h e reeds w hi ch gro w along t h e ban k s o f rivers . ” so as t o form an arched bo w er over i t In Nor t hern Na t al . genus over some of t he females concealed in t h e grass w ould . ’ informs us t ha t in Na t al t hey fly i n flock s fi ve o r S i x males . collar i s p robab ly due t o t h e cons t i t u t ion o f t h e individual bird and S imilar changes from red t o yello w o n cert ai n par t s . . w ere red collared specimens from S out h Africa from w hence - . aft er occasionally d oing ba t t le w i t h each o t her or hoveri n g . ’ El a nd s P os t where i t w as common and Capt ain Harford s . be t ak e t hemselves t o some eleva t ed head o f corn o r rus h and . w i t h t h e peculi a r j er k i n g flapping mo t ion common t o t hi s . w hich h a d yello w collars Thi s varia t ion in t h e colour o f t h e . . - being buil t in t o t h e w alls o f t h e nes t w hile o t hers are plai t ed . . a small en t rance a t t he side . . w at er Cap t ai n T revelyan says t ha t i t is common near King . . carefully w oven of fi ne grass in t h e cen t re o f a t hic k t uft o f grass many o f t h e gr a ss s t ems . . o f t h e plumage are by n o means co n fi ned t o t hi s species o r g enus . The habi t s o f all t h e members of t his genus are very much ali k e The t ype o f t h e species and t h e t ype o f Vi du a tor qu a ta . . “ mi x w i t h o t her Weaver birds The nes t s are domed w i t h - . Mr R ic k ard h a s fou nd t hem a t East . London and w e fell in w i t h t hem at Alice and o n t h e Blin k . i n w i t h t hem in t h e s wampy grass lands a n d fi elds of Ka ffir - corn a t Alice The females usually h id t he m selves i n t he sea . w i t h abou t fi f t y females Thi s w e also observed when w e fell . . According t o S t ar k i n w in t er t hey a ssemble i n flock s and . . also came t h e t ypes of Vi du a leno c i n i a a n d P en the tr i a a ur i c olli s .

Gener ally dis t ribu t ed and fairly common S ome specimens o f t he . ” con t ained li t t le w h i t e speck led eggs . a n d Mr T . M i l a nj i and Mpimbi B Ohm ob t a i n ed t h e species a t Karem a . Mashonaland Mr Guy Marshall f o u n d t h e species o n ly i n large . ” i n t ermedia t e s t age In Z u luland t h e Messrs Wood ward . Nile dis t ri ct t o w ards Lado i t appears t o be e n t irely replaced by t he Wes t Africa n 0 c on co lor . . . t o lerably commo n in t h e Shir e V alley n ear Chibisa a n d . “ w i t h a nes t in a clump o f t all grass f as t ened t o t h e s t al k s . Z ambesi Mr Boyd Ale x ander proc ured a specime n a t . . Z umba a n d Capello and Ivens me t w i t h i t a t Cap o n da . Ayres observed i t in t h e Lydenburg dis t ric t In . C OL I U S P A S S E R A RD EN S 43 Messrs But ler Feilden and Rei d wri t e f ro m Na t al . S ir John K ir k found t he species . collar orange ra t her t han scarle t b u t t his is doub t less o n ly an . Mauh an d Q u a Mpara . . . S ir John Kirk a t M a mb o i o a n d i n - U g og o E m in a t Mandera i n Nguru Neumann a t P angani . . specimens a t P o t chefs t room R u s t e n b e rg and n e a r P re t oria . reedy s w amps w here ho w ever i t is fairly plen t i f ul t h o ugh . very w ary and wri t es : T he m ale w hen sho w ing o ff e xpands . t o ma k e i t appear as deep as possible Along t h e U pper . specimens have bee n collec t ed i n Nyasaland a t Zomba M lo s a . i t w as a small do m ed s t ruc t ure composed Of fi ne grass and . . . Nyanza Dr Reicheno w records i t from t h e islan d o f U lia mb i r i . a n d from B u k oba a n d I canno t t race t h e range o f t his speci e s . . male w ere ob t ained near Ne w cast le i n November w i t h t h e . t h e fea t hers o f his curiously cons t ruc t ed t ail ver t i cally s o as . In t h e Tra n svaal and Ma t abeleland t h e S pecies is some wha t local b u t fa irly co mmon according t o S t ar k Mr Barra t t sh o t . ” found flock s of t h e species i n t h e Mealie gardens and m e t - . . . . . J a c k son fro m M ara r u i n T ei t a a n d fro m N t eb b i i n U ga n da On t h e w es t er n side o f V ic t oria . . furt her nor t h o r w es t in t his direct ion f o r in t h e U pper Whi t e . A n s o re i n U n y o r o . . in about 1 5 S la t ° . . . .

1 34 S i m i lar t o C . . pl 3 0 fi g 1 . cad . T o t al le n g t h 1 0 2 i n ches c u l m e n wi n g 2 8 t ai l .44 C OL I U S P AS S E R C ON C O L O R C o l i u s p a ss er c o n c ol o r . p 2 41 . and four t h days march aft er leaving Kampala f o r Moun t ’ Ru w enzori On e o f t hese l at t er specimens sho w s a fe w red . b u t four specimens have been recor d ed from Togoland and o n e from Cam ar o o n s . . Har t laub in 1 8 6 1 men t ions a specimen from t h e Gambia ’ i n V e rr e au x s collec t ion w hich i s t h e mos t nort hern range . k no w n t o me for t h is species T he t ype w as d iscovered by . V i d u a co n color . P hil a d . by Dr Ansorge at Masindi . Cass . t ars u s 3 . p . Dr F ulleborn a t T an d all a . 1 8 48 . fea t hers o n t he t hroa t and m a y be a hy brid be t w een t his species and 0 a r den s and resembles a speci men ob t ained by . ’ Cassin e Bl ac k Whydah ranges from S enegambia in t o Angola and Cen t ral Africa . . a rden s an d d i ffer i n g o n ly i n t h e f ull pl um aged m ales be i n g e n t i rely blac k . iii p. . . 66 i d J o u rn . Acad 1 8 4 9 . Afr . . Af z e l i u s a t S ierra Leone and in Liberia along t h e S uly m a h . i n U ny o r o a n d by Mr . . . Manyanga and in Angola specimens have been collec t ed by .U gan da ( J ac k so n ) . . Jac k son in U ganda o n t h e second . . P h i la d A . . I n C en t ral Equa t orial Africa t h e species has been p r o cured by Emin a t M e s w a . P roc . . . On t h e Congo R iver B o h n do rfi procured t h e species a t . . River Demery collec t ed t e n specimens . Fur t ado d A nt a s and by Maj or von Mecho w b u t i t i s apparen t ly ’ . Co li u sp asse r co n color Re i che n V o g . . . o f t h e species from o u r Bri t ish possessions o f t h e Gold Co a s t and N igeria . repla c ed by or mee t s w i t h 0 a rdens in t he sou t hern por t ion . . I fi nd n o men t ion . .

b i ll pale slat y bl u e . . . ’ by von Mecho w and S hii tt s s specimen from Malanga belong . lesser wi n g cover t s br i gh t er ches t nu t a n d t h e sa m e a m o u n t - O f w h i t e o n t h e wi n gs as i n t he i r breed i n g pl u m age . . . . . . Co li u s p a s s e r e q u es . u n der wi n g cover t s san dy bu ff rat her dark er alon g t h e be n d of - . legs . . V i d u a e q u es . . . m ed i a n cover t s wi t h b u ffy bro w n edges . t o O a r dens as w ell as o n e i n t h e B ri t ish Museum from . . bro w n edges t o t h e fea t hers . no w h i t e o n t h e wi n g w h i ch i s blac ki sh . . . “ blac k . Af r iii p 1 4 1 . . . Vog . U n . P Z . 3 23 Re i chen . . . q u i lls wi t h t he i r basal port i o n w h i t e . 1 5 T a bor a . Co l i u s p a s s er eq ues . ches t nu t . pl . H ar t l S 1 86 3 . t h e p i n i o n . ’ . . I mma ture L ik e t h e fe m ale 3 1 5 2 01 Roqu e c ha ( P ease) . P e n t h e t ri a e qu es . 3 8 3 00 M un i su ( D ela m ere ) . M . Ca t . . t h e wi n g . . scap u lars w h i ch are un i form blac k . . bro wn 9 2 5 96 M achak o s ( H in de) . . B . . as Taboro in t h e U n y a mw e si coun t ry In t his dis t rict B Oh m . . .2 4 2 00 W ala m o ( P ease ) . . ’ Spe k e s Whi t e w inged Whydah inhabi t s E as t Africa be t w een - 7 S l at and 1 0 N and eas t w ard o f 3 0 E long ° ° ° . S harpe . . i n cl in in g t o w h i t e t o w ards t h e ch i n an d ce n t re o f breas t Iri s b i ll an d legs . The t y pe w as discovered by Spe k e a t Kazeh be t t er k no w n . n ec k an d body . lesser wi n g cover t s . M a le i n w i n ter p lu mage S i m i lar t o t h e fe m ale i n colou r i n g of head . m os t o f t h e great er - coverts wi t h a con s i derable por t i o n w h i t e decreas i n g i n ex t en t t o w ards t h e . . l ik e t h e u n der cover t s t h e la t t er S li gh t ly t i n t ed wi t h r u fou s b u ff re m a i n in g . 2 20 Adu lt ma l e i form j et blac k e x cep t i n g t h e wi n gs . a broad eyebro w a n d t h e u n der par t s ge n erally bro w n i sh b u ff . - ches t nu t pass i n g i nt o yello w alo n g t h e edge o f t h e be n d of t he wi n g t o w ards . . dar k par t s o f pr i m ar i es j et blac k . . S helley . No . bro w n wi t h pale bro w n edges t o t h e feat hers a n d t h e lesser cover t s m os t ly . . xiii p . o u t er edges t o t h e secon dari es Ir i s bro wn . T o t al len gt h 6 4 i n ches cu lmen ” wi n g 2 9 t a i l 3 t arsu s . Af r I B . . Adu l t f ema le U pper par t s m o t tled bro w n i sh blac k wi t h broad pale . L o an d o . C OL I U S P A S S E R EQ U ES 45 of t ha t coun t ry f o r o n e o u t o f t h e four specimens procured . . . por t i o n of t h e qui lls un i for m blac k or wi th a fe w n arro w w h i t e o r bufl . p 1 06 . . me t w i t h i t at Ka k oma in February and March in small . . .

’ Spe k e s Gulf . Afr I N o B . Cass roc P hi la d Acad 1 8 4 8 . b u t. w ere in t he bro w n w in t er plumage The breedi n g season . e x ceedi n gly common among t h e cane li k e grass o n t h e ban k s - o f t h e river a t N z o i A t M a chak o s Dr Syd n ey H inde f ound ’ . Ca t . . . . In t h e Kenia d is t ric t Lord Delamere fou n d t h e S pecies already i n full plumage by t he beginning of February . . . .46 C OL I U S P A S S E R A L B ON OT AT U S par t ies consis t i n g o f a male accompanied by se v eral females . Mr Jac k son procured speci mens in t h e Kilimanj aro dis t ric t . H o l ul u River i n w hich dis t ric t Mr Oscar N e u ma n n procured . xiii p. . . . P . . U g o g o and by Fischer a t Maurui o n t h e P a n gani and a t . i n t h e U lu Moun t ains and at K w o Ki t o t o in Kavirondo . a t R o u e c ha in t ha t mon t h a n d a t H arrar in November q . Lak e Rudolf i n February and t hose m e t w i t h by Mr P ease . 65 N a ta l. . . V o g Afr iii p 1 4 0 . b u t t h e specimens procured by Mr H arrison a t Walamo near . N a ta l . - al mos t every n a t ive village w as freq u en t ed by a t leas t o n e pair D r Ansorge has collec t ed specimens as far w es t as t he . an adequat e supply of t h e food bes t sui t ed t o t h e young birds . near T ave t a a t Kik u mb u li u and U l u in U k amba an d a t Ndera . t o long grass in s w ampy d is t ric t s and he men t ions t hem as . B . . . T ra n sva a l . varies w i t h t h e climat e t he obj ec t probably being t o secure . 3 21 Re i chen . H e a lso fo u nd t h e males i n full pl um a ge a t t h e I f u me River in December I t has been m e t w i t h by E mi n a t Mrogoro i n . V i d ua a l b o n o t a t a . Co l i u sp as ser al b o no t a t u s . S harpe . a specimen a t K w a M t e ss e i n t h e S ingo Province a t t h e nor t h w es t corner o f V ic t ori a Nyanza and o t hers duri n g his j o u rney . . i n t h e T ei t a cou n t ry These Marsh Whydahs are very par t ial . P e n t h e t ri a al b on o t a t a . 21 9 ( 1 8 9 0 pt ) . . S hi re R . t hem very abundan t usually f requen t ing t h e reed beds . . . M . p . . C o l i u s p a s s er al b o n o t at u s . S helley .

- have much t h e habi t s o f t h e U r obra c hga a rei lla r i s I t frequen t s . . i form j e t blac k e x cep t i n g the wi n gs lesser wi ng cover t s U n - a nd edges o f be n d of w i n g br i gh t pale yello w . z u v i ole t legs blac k ( F Oat es ) T o t al len g t h 7 i n ches cu l m e n . . 3 J u ly . . . C OL I U S P AS S E R A L BO N OT AT U S 47 Adu l t ma le . ” his bro w n w ives i s concealed In t h e Bri t ish Museum t here .D urba n ( T L Ayres) . m ed i a n co ver t s wi th b ffy u bro w n edges . w h i t e t o w ards t h e ch i n and ce n t re of t h e breas t Ir i s b i ll a n d legs bro w n . . t ai l t ars u s 3 20 1 2 77 W ee n e n . frequen t ly puffi ng o ut t h e nec k fe at hers in t o a sor t o f ruff . . . w i t h upraised w ings over t h e grass w here doub t less o n e of . River in Z ululand o n e o f Wahl berg s from t h e T ransvaal . marshy ground on t h e borders of rivers w here in summer t h e . ano t her o f Ba r r a t t s from t h e Win t erberg dis t ric t one of ’ . male si t s on t he summ i t o f a t all s t em o f gr a ss or reed and sho w s off his glossy blac k plumage and yello w shoulder k no t - . lesser wi ng cover t s br i gh t er yello w a nd wi t h the sam e am ou n t of w h i te - . wi n g 2 9 . mos t w es t ern ra n ge k no w n f o r t h e species According t o . . li k e t h e B ishop bird wh ile open ing and shu t t i n g his w ings - . . Ad u l t ma le i n w i n ter p l uma ge Very s i m i lar t o the fe m ale b u t t h e . are specimens from U mbi lo ne ar Durban Weenen t h e Ivuna . b i ll pale bl i sh “ . wit h pale bro w n edges t o t h e fea t hers a n d t h e lesser cover t s m os t ly yello w . . o n t h e wi n g as i n the i r breed i n g pl u m age dar k par t s of t h e pri m ar i es blac k . . . . a broad eyebro w a n d t h e un der par t s gen erally bro w n i sh b u ff i n cl i n i n g t o . u n der wi n g cover t s sa n dy b u H ra t her dar k er alo n g the be n d of the wi n g - . . q u i lls wi t h t h e basal por t i on w h i t e l ik e t h e u n der cover t s t h e lat t er sl i gh t ly - t i n t ed wi t h r u fo u s b u ff rem ai n der o f q ui lls u n i for m blac k or wi t h a f e w n arro w pale o u t er edges t o t h e seco n dar i es I r i s ha el . The Na t al Whi t e w inged Whydah ranges from Na t al i nt o - U g og o . ’ . or occasionally t a k ing a shor t fligh t and hovering li k e a Vi du a . m os t of t h e great er cover t s wi t h a co n s i derable por t i o n w h it e decreas i n g i n e x t en t t o w ards t h e scap u lars w h i ch are u n i form blac k . . Adu l t f ema le U pper parts m o t t led bro w n i sh blac k wi t h broad pale . . bro w n edges t o t he feat hers n o w h i t e o n t h e wi n g w h i ch i s blacki sh bro w n . . . . . S t ar k Thi s very beau t iful and rare Wido w bird appears t o . Ar n old ) . The t ype of t he species came from Na t al w h ich is t h e .

as ins t ead o f po t t ering abou t among bushes and ge t t ing up almos t a t one s fee t t hey resor t ed t o t h e e x t e n sive marshy ’ . fligh t a t once at t rac t s at t en t ion Beyond Z umbo o n Decem. and measuring x . . . ” came across a n y i ndividuals in t h e t ran si t ional s t age . full breeding dress A t fi rs t i t w as hard t o realise t ha t t hey . . collec t ed by B Ohm a t Ka t ap a n a t o t he w es t o f Lak e M o ero . The egg is described by Mr N e h r ko r n as of a deep blue . ’ Oa t es s from t h e sou t her n t ri b u t aries o f t h e Z ambesi . . belonged t o t he same species as t hose w e had seen a t Z umbo . “ Ale x ander m e t w i t h a small floc k consis t ing en t irely of . . . loo k ing Weaver t h e bar of w hi t e o n t he w i n gs as i t t a k es t o . ber 2 4 w e observed f o r t he fi rs t t ime a small par t y of males i n . male birds i n full w in t er plumage They frequen t ed a s t ony . Why t e a t M pi m b e and Z omba and by S ir Alfred Sharpe a t .48 C OL I U S P A S S E R AL BON OT AT U S ’ Bradsha w s f rom t h e M a k al ak a Coun t ry and several of Fran k . by Fischer a t L ind i on t he coas t and by Emin in t h e U g o g o . La k e Nyasa specimens have been procured by Mr Ale x ander . F o r one t h ing t heir habi t s seemed t o have al t oge t her changed . reed beds and w ere as w ild as H a wk s t ravelling w i t h a s t rong - . bush gro w n locali t y near t h e village a n d hardly a day passed - . At Z umbo o n t h e Z ambesi o n November 7 Cap t ain . . . w i t hou t o u r fi nding t hem in t h e same spo t I t i s a remar k able . fligh t and as s t raigh t as a die for a considerable dis t ance before aligh t ing upon t h e ne x t group o f reed heads T heir - . D uring th e L iv ings t one E x pedi t ion S ir John Kirk sa w t h e species in a marsh by t he Z ambesi and brough t home a specimen from t h e Shir e R iver I n t his la tt er dis t ric t t o w ards . coun t ry . . furt her nor t h specimens have been . w i t h dull red and v iolet spo t s clust ered t o wards t he t hick end . Dedza in A n g o n i la n d . presence in t his blac k velvet y plumage came t o us all t h e more as a surpri se since f rom t h e t ime o f leaving Z umbo w e never .

P e n t h e t ri a a lb o n o t at a . . an ad u l t male fro m Cambambe i n Angola . . I n t h e Bri t ish Muse u m t here are t w o specimens in w in t er plumage from Gaboo n o f Du Ch aill u s collec t i n g . . . January 1 8 7 6 . The Angola Whi t e w inged Whydah i s con fi ned t o Wes t - Africa where i t ra n ges from Gaboon t o t h e Cune n e Ri v er . . . 8 45 Co li u s p a s ser m acro u r u s S helley . . B . 1 9 04 . . N . In Benguela Anch ie t a has collec t c d specimens a t Q uis - sange Ca t umbella a n d Caconda w here according t o his n o t es . t hree males . B F F ore i g n i n ches i n Cap t i v i t y . I No . P e n t h e t ri a a s y mm e t rura . . 1 89 2 . Re i chen J f O . . 3 22 Re i che n . B Afr . Ang ol a . t h e grea t er le n g t h o f t h e t ail i n adul t males in full breedi ng plum a ge . V eg Af r iii p 1 41 . S harpe . Congo . . t here are also t hree full plumaged m ales from Loan d a and t he Q uanza Rive r . ” i t is k no w n t o t h e na t ives as t h e D u n q u e qu i le l e I t has also . ( O c t o b er . Cat M xiii p 2 2 0 ( 1 9 00) u t ler . pl 5 2 .. . pt . . N ii p . . . M . . . . Af r iii p 1 3 8 . ’ . . high grass . Co li u sp a s s er a sy m m et ru ru s . 21 9 ( 1 89 0 . . . xiii p . . Gm S . been m et w i t h in t h e upper C une n e dis t ri ct by V a n der Kellen . ) i i lar i n colou r in g t o C a lbono ta tu s i n all i t s s t ages b u t t h e m ale S m . Af r . This bir d li k e 0 dela mer ei can be recognised easily by . p . . . . i n breed i n g pl u m age i s read i ly di s t i n g u i shable by i t s m u chJl o ng er t a i l w h i ch . 1 26 L oa ng o . L oxi a m acro ra u . S harpe . vari es fro m t o 5 5 i n ches . where Mr Mo n t eiro fou n d t h e species n o t uncomm o n i n t h e . . B . C OL I U S P A S S E R A S Y M M E I R U R U S 49 ' ‘ C o l i u s p a sse r a sy mm e t r u r u s . Af r . P e n t h e t ri o p s i s m acr u ra . Cat . . . . C o l i u sp a s s e r ma c r o u r u s . p 29 2 . . W . t w o in full breed i n g dress O b t ai n ed by P e t i t a t L andana in . . B . I o 3 24 ( 1 89 6 ) Re i che n V og . . S helley .

. t ha n t h e cro w n . Ma le i n breedi n g p lu mag e V elvet y blac k w i t h t h e man t le lesser wi n g . Demery fou n d i t a t t h e S u l e ma h R iver Mr B ii t t i k o f e r calls . . . P o n g (B oyd Ale x an der) . n - i n co m plet e bro w n i sh b u ff m arg i n s t o m an y of t h e win g feathers . marshes In February and March w hen I w a s on t h e Gold . . . . coverts edges of p i n i o n an d ben d of t h e wi g br i ght can ary yello w . Adu l t ma l e i n w i n t er p lu ma g e V ery s i m i lar t o t h e fe m ale b u t d i ff ers . . . i n Wes t A frica t o as f ar sou t h as Ang o la freque n t ing t h e . S i des of head l i gh t bro w n less m ott led . . lo w er m an d i ble “ . . u - . B . . Cape P almas I t is in fact common t hroughou t i t s range . 3 2 6 5 01 . . M a ny nat urali s t s have collect ed specime n s a t t h e Gambia . i t t olerably common in L iberia a n d Fraser ob t ai n ed i t a t . a n d flan k s Ir i s bro w n . t o t h e feathers ve ry sl i gh t ly shaded wi th yello w o n t h e lesser wi n g cover t s . . . - . Vid ua c h ry s o n o t u s . t ars i a n d fee t dark bro wn . . C oas t t hey w ere all i n t h e bro w n w in t er dress b u t a s t h e . u n der - wi n g cover t s sa ndy b u fi - I r i s bro w n . S w a i n s W Afr i p 1 7 8 . 3 S ho n ga ( F orbes ) . Adu l t f ema le U pper par t s m ot t led dar k bro w n wi t h broad pale edges . a pale bu ff eyebro w . . . edges an d t ip o f t h e lo w er m an d i ble b u ff . b i ll bl u i sh blac k wi t h t h e cu tt in g . 9 L o k oja ( F orbes ) . . . . . u pper m a n d i ble hor n y bro w n . . u n der par t s b u ff sl i gh t ly shaded wi t h bro w n o n t h e cr 0 p . . . . . . b u t according t o Dr Re n dall t h e S pecies is n o t common t here . Fr i g illa h n c r y so p t e ra . . The Yello w man t led Whydah ranges sou t h ward from S ene - gambia t h e Niam Niam co u n t ry U ganda a n d t h e mou t h . of t h e qu i lls . . . pl 4 1 a v o pt e r a . V e r re a ux ob t ai n ed i t from Ca s a ma n s e Beaudouin from B issao . . V i e i ll E n c M et h iii p 9 6 4 . ” t ars u s . i n t h e wi n gs be i n g blac k er a n d t h e lesser cover t s br i gh t yello w 3 9 2 72 . so m e . In t h e Bi s sa g o s Islands Fea has collec t ed a large series o n B ulama A t S ierra Leone i t has been m e t w i t h by Dr Clar k e . I mma tu re ma l e S i m i lar i n pl u m age t o t h e fe m ale . . . . . a n d legs paler T ot al le n gt h 5 3 i n ches wi n g 2 6 t ai l .50 C OL I U S P A S S E R MA C R OU R U S Fri g illa fl n V i ei ll O i s Chan t p 6 9 . o f t h e Ta n a River t o A n gola a n d t h e Z ambesi River . Accra ( S helley ) . . . . ” T o t al len gt h 7 6 i n ches c l m e n 0 5 5 win g 3 2 t a i l 4 t ars u s . r a i n y season se t s i n t h e males assume t heir blac k plumage . - u n der s u rface of wi n gs bro w n wi th pale edges t o t h e cover t s a n d i nn er w ebs .

rice and c o r n fie ld s B o hn d o r fl procured t h e species i n t h e ’ . . sa w large n umbers o f t hem o n t h e w ide grass plains flying from - . ’ o n t h e sou t hern ba n k s o f t he V ic t oria Nya n za a t S pe k e s Gulf . . t he mos t eas t ern range k no w n f o r t h e S pecies Bet w een t his . ing t his t h e na t ives ca t ch t hem by se t t ing a n o o se o n a n y grass . k no w - . ’ one of Mr Mon t eir o s S pecimens f rom A n gola and in t h e . The species has n o t bee n recorded from fur t her sou t h in Wes t ern Africa b u t ranges sou t h w a rd t o t h e Z ambesi . Z umbo ( 3 1 E Alo n g t h e S hi r é V alley S ir John Kir k ° . C OL I U S P A S S E R MA C R OU RU S 51 w hich here las t s from May t o S ep t ember In May Mr Boyd . Mr Boyd Ale x ander sho t a hen bird i n January 1 8 9 9 a t . lace and U anda I do n o t fi nd i t recorded . and he also procured a specimen near P or t Melinda which is . . . P or t uguese fron t ier a t an a l t i t ude of . Ca mar o o n s Du Cha i llu and Marche in G aboon Fal k e n s t ein . o n e grass head t o a n o t her al w ays selec t ing t h e highes t . Ale x ander found many in t h e full bree d ing plumage a n d . t o as far as Bi n d uri n ear Ga m b a ga In t h e Niger dis t ric t . . . species o n De dj a a moun t ain i n Cen t ral A n g o ni lan d on t h e . B o h n d o r ff on t h e Lo w er Congo and S t orms during his . b u t in t h e la t t er p g . o t hers s t ill in t h e bro w n dress He m e t w i t h t hem i n land . . ” head rising above t h e o t hers The breeding plumage he . In German E as t Africa S pecimens have been collec t ed by B Ohm a t I f u m e and near t h e Lu k umb i River by Fischer . Mr H ar t er t found t hem i n June a n d July a t Lo k o i n ful l . Ta n ganyi k a e x pedi t ion In t h e Bri t i sh Museum t here is . here . . t h e s t al k s In t his dis t ric t S ir Al fred Sharpe procured t h e . . . Lisbo n Museu m o n e proc ured by Wel w i t sch a t Galu n go Al t o - . was assumed in December and las t ed t hroughou t t h e w e t season The nes t w as made o f grass w oven amo n g . “ remar k s . . and P e t i t o n t h e Loango C oas t S perli n g Jameson and . Niam Niam cou n t ry Dr Rei cheno w and Mr S jOs t e d t i n - . . . plumage assembl i ng in large floc k s w i t h o t her Fi n ch es i n t h e . fee t .

M . . B k wi wi - yello . . bro wn . . . Gondar w here Rupp el l procured t h e t y pe o f 0 fla v i s c ap u la tus . r . Adu l t f ema le W in g 3 3 t ai l 2 4 . V og Af r iii p 1 3 7 . so m e pale bro n o r h t sh edges t o m an y o f t h e o t her n g w w ii w wi fea t hers . M i n breedi n g p lu ma g e a le lac . T ot al . B . . B Af r I N o 3 2 5 ( 1 89 6 ) . w i t h 0 la ti c a u du s in floc k s H eu g li n found i t common i n . .52 COL I U S P AS S E R M A CR OCE R C U S coun t ry i t has been m e t w i t h by Dr Ansorge and as B o h n d o r ff . u pper m a n d i ble blac k lo w er o n e bro w n i sh grey . ” len g t h 9 in ches c u l men . 98 ( 1 8 3 5 40) - Aby ssi n i a . . . i k i . P en t h e t ri o p s i s m ac ro c er c a . . . and 7 000 feet a n d also saw i t in t h e coun t ry surroundi n g . feet dark grey . e nd port on of t h e pr mar es d u s y u nder ng coverts b uff . t h t h e lesser n g coverts can ary . He records t heir fl igh t as n o t po w erful t h e n o t e as a mel a n . p . found i t in t h e Niam —Niam cou n t ry i t probably inhab i t s t h e w hole o f t h e C en t ra l African Lak e region . R upp . . . p 2 4 ( 1 8 2 3 ) N u bi a .Ve rz D o u b l . T he mos t sou t hern range k no w n t o m e for t hi s speci es is Baroma ( 9 N l a t ) here Lord Lova t m e t w i t h i t associa t i n g ° . xiii p . Fri g i lla m n a c r o c er c a . L i ch t . . . . M a le i n w i n ter U pper m an d i ble redd i sh bro w n lo w er o n e l i gh t er legs . Co li u s p a s s er m a c ro c er c u s . The eggs are pale green o r g reenish grey sp o t t ed w i t h . N . I t closely rese m bles 0 ma c ouru s i n all i t s o t her pl u m ages. . . . th i i i k wi wi - t h e edge of t h e be n d of t h e n g br gh t yello wi i w Ir s dar s t eel blu e b ll . T igré an d near Ado w a in large floc k s a t eleva t ions be t w een . W i rb . . . . S Abyss i n i a ( D ege n ) . 2 23 Co l i u s p a s ser fl a vi s c ap u l a t u s . . V og . grey and measure 08 x . . c ho l y pipe and remar . C o l i u s p a s s e r m a c r o c er c u s . S helley . wi n g 3 5 t a i l t ars us 0 9 5 3 1 1 7 02 . Re i che n . k s t ha t w he n alarmed t h ey hide among . S harpe . L i c h en s t ei n ’ s Yello w shoul d ered Whydah - inhabi t s t he Abyssin ian d is t rict . . - . Cat .

.

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r . in March al mos t in comple t e breeding plumage t w o i n May and . procured a male in February wh i ch had begun moul t ing ano t her . 29 . . . . M a le i n breedi n g p luma g e . . . . . Re i che n O n M o n a t s b 1 9 00 p 3 9 . . Ir i s bro w n b i ll wi th t h e upper m an d i ble blac k a n d t h e lo w er o n e horn y blu e wi t h a blac k base T o t al le ng t h 7 6 i n ches c u l m e n 0 55 win g . . . t ars u s 3 24 6 90 Kav i ro n do ( J ac k so n ) . . Re i chen . - . V eg . . . . . . . . T a n d a la . C OL I U S P A S S E R S O R OR 53 t he reeds w hi ch gro w abundan t ly in t he marshy dis tric t s t hey na t urally frequen t . " . . B lac k wit h lesser wi n g covert s le mo n t he - yello w . t hose of C mac r ou ru s . . fig . Ka w anga by Fischer I n t h e K a viro n do co u n t ry Mr Jac k so n . . This i s a smal l E qua t orial represen t a t ive of 0 ma cr oc er c u s . (P I . . 3 2 t ai l . med a n covert n d e t i re o ter - i - s a n u . aS i m i lar t o . . fig . which w as commencing t h e au t umn moul t H e fou n d t hem very . Afr iii p 1 3 8 . . . . . U n . Co li u sp a s ser p s a mmo c ro m i us . B i ll u pper m an d i ble pale ol i ve brow n low er o ne . P e n t h e t ri a soror Re i che n J f O 1 88 7 p 7 0 Ka w a ng a . . ’ Re i c h e n o wYello w shouldered Whydah inhabi t s t h e coun s - t r y t o t h e eas t o f t h e n or t hern h alf of V ic t oria Nya n za . inhab i t ing t he Kavi ro nd o dis t ric t The t ype w as procure d a t . 1 . Adu l t ma le i for m glossy j et blac k wi t h t h e e x cep t i on of the wi ngs . . lesser wi n g coverts br i ght l e m o n yello w . C ol i u sp a sser p sa m m o c ro mi u s . P e n t h e t i o p s i s soror S harpe Ca t B M xiii p 2 2 3 r . . plen t iful i n t h e Ka k as u e g a d is t ric t alo n g t h e car t r o ad t o - M a n i c u s b u t i t w as n o t seen by him in t h e Nandi coun t ry . June in t h e ful l blac k plumage and o n e a t B usoga in November . . r . Co li u sp a s s er soror S helley B Af . 1 N o 3 26 . . . w h it i sh horn colou r fee t pale fleshy bro w n wi th a blu i sh shade . F ema l e i mma tu r e ma le a n d du l t ma le i n w i n ter p lu ma g e . . Re i che n V og Afr iii p 1 4 3 pl . . P e n t h e t ri a p s am m o c ro m i u s . C o l i u s p a s s er s o ro r . .

xiii p . P e n t h e t ri a h art l aub i . u wi n g t ai l t ars u s 3 L iv in gst on i a (M c Clou n i e ) . . . J f O . S harpe . ° . Co li us p as se r h a r t l a u b i h u m e ali s Re i che n V eg Afr iii p 1 4 3 r . . . i n n er w ebs to so m e of t h e feat hers an d a fe w n e x t t o t h e pr i m ar i es en t i rely . . 259 Ca c onda Cab . V og . a . . . . . . of t he S pecies i s t ha t t h e t ai l fea t hers are peculiarly narro w - . . b i ll grey . are no w i n t he Bri t ish Museum t he t hree specime n s I have described . 1 88 3 . S harpe B u ll B O C xi p 5 9 ( 1 901 ) N a ndi . L ivi n gst o ni a ( M c Clouni e ) . L i sboa . D r F ii lle b o rn a t Tandala i n abou t 9 S l a t 3 4 E long . . . wi n g t ai l t ars u s 3 . B . t hese w ere c o llec t ed by Mr M c Cl o u n i e i n L i v ing . m ed i an cover t s edges o f t h e grea t er cover t s an d a broad . . C o l i u s p a s s er h a r t l a u b i . There ° . I No . . P e n t h e t ri o p si s h u m era li s . 5 93 . . s t o n i a t o t h e sou t h o f La k e N asa On e o f t h e charac t ers y . M le i n w i n ter p l umage H ead n ec k body an d t ai l as i n t h e fe m ale . . b u t d iffers i n hav i n g a - large port i o n of t h e u n der win g cover t s blac k F ro m 0 p rog ne i t d iffers i n- . . Ad u l t f ema le V ery s i m i lar t o t ha t o f C mac roc e c u s wi t h t h e sam e . . un der wi n g cover t s pale san dy bu ff wi t h blac k - . G alu n go ( An ch i e t a) . . u t ars u s 9 9 02 . T o t al le g t h n in ches c u lmen . . 3 2 0 ( 1 896) Re i chen . 1 8 79 . Afr iii p 1 42 . . Mi n br eedi ng p luma ge a le U n i for m blac k wi th t h e lesser wi n g cover t s . . . - oran ge yello w . o rn . being s c a rc e l v half so broad as in 0 har tla u bi . am o u nt of yello w edges o n t h e lesser wi n g cover t s . . . . a n d t h e wi n gs as i n t h e f u ll pl u m aged m ale 9 O2 L i v i n gs t o n i a ( M c Cl o u n i e ) . B ocage J . .54 C OL I U S P AS S E R H ART L AU BI w ebs of t h e great er cover t s pale san dy buff an d wi t h edges o f t h e sam e colo u r o n t h e seco n dar i es . M . F ii lle b o r n ’ Marsh Whydah i nhabi t s t h e Lak e Nyasa s dis t rict The t yp e a male i n full plumage w a s discovered by . blac k l ik e t h e re m a i n der of t h e wi ngs T o t al le ng t h 1 02 i n ches c l m e n . p . S helley . . . 21 9 Co l i us p a sser h a rt l au b i . r . . un der marg i n t o t h e be n d o f t h e wi n g r u fo u s bu ff Ir i s bro wn . Af r . a n d i n t h e seco n d pr i m ary reach i n g n early t o t h e e n d of t h e wi n g T o t al . . 21 8 Wa ka la . Ca t . . t h e blac k o f t h e u n der wi n g covert s n o t e x t e n d i n g t o t h e be n d of t h e wi n g - . le n g t h 6 4 in ches c l m en wi n g 3 6 t a i l . . . p . B . .

. . . . . o n e a t Mengo and i t is k no w n t o me by t h e t ype o f P en the . j oi n i n g M a c hi ng e co u n t ry S e si nan d o Marques procured a n o t her S pecimen w hich he i n forms us w a s k no w n t o t h e nat ives as . . Co l i u S p a sser j ac k so n i . tr i op s i s humera li s w h ich according t o t h e l abe l w as sho t a t . . . In E qua t orial Africa E min procured a specimen a t Wa k ala . F ii ll e b o ur n i n Ko n dil a n d . d escri b ed from Gal u n go i t d i fi e r s only i n t h e t ail m e a s u ri n g. r . . men a t Galungo o n t h e Be n g o Ri ver i n An gola w here i t s . Dr S t uhl m a n n . i n t h e san dy shade of t h e leas t wi n g cover t s t h e n early n i for m pale fa w n - . r . green . Na n d i a n d n o t o n Mou n t E lg o n a s recorded i n t h e original . 3 2 6 9 99. Co l ii p a s s e j a c k s o n i S helley B Af r I N o 3 2 7 r . 2 46. ” T ot al len gt h 1 3 i n ches c u l m en wi n g 3 5 ta i l t ars u s . “ t h e base a n d lo w er m an d i ble blac k re m a i n der of u pper m an di b le pale . Ki ku y u . S . descrip t ion On compari n g t his speci m en w i t h t h e o n e I have . . lesser win g covert s t h e leas t ser i es of w h i ch are al m os t or e n t i rely pale faw n - . Re i che n VOg Af iii p 1 43 . Ma le i n br eedi n g p lumage H ead n ec k body an d t ai l en t i rely blac k . . and Ko n d i l an d abo u t 1 0 S l a t . . i n c h es a n d I can n o t admi t i t t o be dis t inc t fro m 0 . ° . . . 5 M a sa i la n d . . M t S e t t i m a ( H J M a ki n de ) . . . win gs dark bro w n wi th pale edges t o t h e feat hers broades t t o w ards the . . u . colo u r of t h e sam e shade a s t h e u nder wi n g covert s Iri s bro wn b i ll wi t h - . . t h e t ype o f P en t hetr i a ha r tla u bi Cab 1 8 8 3 . A n chie t a discovered t h e t ype a t C a conda where i t w a s . . . . pl . . na t ive n ame is Xi t u c o a n d i t feeds o n seeds I n t h e a d “ ” . . . ha r tla u bi ( Boc a ge ) . . F ema l e S i mi lar i n gen eral pl m age t o t ha t of C ma c ro u r u s b u t d i ffers . C OL I U S P A S S E R J AC KS ON I 55 H ’ r t laub s M a rsh Why d ah ranges f rom Be n guela in t o t h e a U pper Whi t e Nile d is t ric t e a s t w ard t o Nandi o n t h e E q u at or . D r ep a n o pl e c t es harpe Ib i s 1 8 9 1 p j a c k so n i . “ ” t he B imba T o t h e eas t w ard i t has been ob t ained by Dr . ” k no w n as t h e Q u i n d e mb e r e He has since ob t ained a speci . . . u . .

t h e previous year h e S ho t a male i n t h e mo t t led bro w n plumage i n t h e Ki k uyu coun t ry H e ne x t me n t i o n s t h e . Li k e P en the . do w n o ut o f t h e grass Fro m a n a n t he a p close by I wa t ched . . . . . . flank s m ore s t r i ped . . t h e side li k e t h e n es t o f a Willo w Wren . . ’ J a c k s o n s Why d ah inhabi t s Bri t ish E as t Africa t o t h e eas t o f V ic t oria Nyanza be t w een 3 S la t a nd 1 N la t ° ° . - . . and a t r uly ridiculous sigh t i t w a s t o s e e t hese pi t ch blac k curious shaped obj ec t s bobbing up and - . . s of body Ir i s bro w n . W i ng 3 2 . t o de t ec t b u t also renders i t m ore w a t erproof . lined w i t h t h e s e ed heads of fi ne g rass w i t h an e nt ra n ce at - . o n w h ich t hey dance up a n d do w n on and o ff t hroughou t t h e d ay b u t m ore vigorously in t h e early morni n gs and la t e even . of 1 00 yards . s w amps w i t hin an inch o r t w o of t he gro u nd T he birds bend . . I fo u nd t h e n es t s b u t only one con t ai ned a si n gle egg The . n es t is ra t her a flimsy s t ruc t ure made o f fi ne dry grass and . . . fee t Jun e 2 1 8 9 8 and w ri t es : N o w comme n cing t o breed . t ai l N a i o b e ( M ac ki n der ) r . I t is placed on t h e - . 2 2 1 8 9 0 o u t o f fl o c k s freque n t ing t he high grass i n M a s ai l a n d . . Mr Jac k son procured t he t y pes a m a le and fe m ale July .56 C O L I U S P AS S E R J AC KS O N I colou r of t he u nder wi ng cover t s a nd t h e dar k t r i pes o n t h e crop a n d s i des - . . “ . do w n t h e s u rrounding blades o f grass and w eave t hem in t o t h e t o p of t h e nes t which ma k es t h e la t t er n o t only more d i fli c u l t . - . by hav i ng th e leas t seri es of wi ng cover t s pale fa w n colo u r - . species a s v ery plen t i ful i n l arge floc k s a t L ak e E l m a t e i t a i n April 1 89 6 also i n t he Nandi dis t rict a t an eleva t io n of . t r i a l a ti c a u da t h e coc k birds ma k e playgrounds f o r t hemselves . Adu l t ma le i n w i n ter S i m i lar t o t h e i m m a t u re b i rd b u t d i s t i n g u i shed . a n d t hey w ere t hen i n full breeding pl u mage I n O c t ober o f . I mma tu r e ma le V ery s i m i lar t o t h e ad u l t fe male b ut wi t h t h e crop a nd . - . b i ll t ars i a n d fee t p i nki sh bro w n . . ” . ings Yes t erday eveni n g I w a t ched several w i t hin a radius . edge o f s w ampy places b u t n o t on t h e coarse herbage o f t he .

. flock of t hese birds playing has a curious effec t as t hey j ump . A t nigh t t hey roos t i n t he t all reeds and ” rushes in t h e s w ampy hollo w s . fl a t inside t he ring e x cep t o n e t uf t i n t he very cen t re . posi t ion is as fo llo w s : The head i s t hro w n bac k li k e t hat o f a proud Tur k ey coc k t h e bea k bei n g held horizon t ally The - . A . . The w h o le . t h e grass is bea t en qui t e . t h e t ail is held s t raigh t up t ill i t t ouches t he ruff a t t h e base of t h e head a n d neck t h e e n ds o f . s t ra i gh t up in t h e air some t im e s fo r a fe w i n ches a n d s o me . While ac t ually rising i n t he a i r t h e half open w ings a r e - w o rk ed w i t h a very q u ic k sh i v eri ng m o t io n a n d t he fee t are . brigh t ly a t m y bac k I had a fi r st ra t e oppor t u n i t y o f n o t ici ng . m a k i n g a fairly accurat e dra w i n g o f t hem The ac t ual . presen t o n t h e playground T hey very O f t en assume t heir . t he f ea t hers f allin g in a curve do w n w ard w i t h t h e e x cep t io n . - and as t h e sun w as w i t hi n half an hour of se t t ing and shi n i n g . . . fee t hang d o w n w ards . ” e a c h bi rd j u m pi n g fr o m fi ve t o t e n t imes i n a mi n u t e I m ay . - h o w t hey assumed t heir curious a t t i t ude a n d succeeded in . t imes t o t h e heigh t o f t w o fee t a n d t he n drops . for res t The ga me w ould appe a r t o be so m e wha t fat iguing . circular abou t t w o f ee t i n dia m e t er . als o moved u p and do w n very rapidly The bird spr i n gs. W hile a t Machak o s D r Syd n ey H inde remark ed : The “ ’ . m ales o f t his species freque n t ly for m a pl a yground in t h e lo n g grass o n t h e plains The playgrou n d made by e a ch bird is . as t h e bird rarely m a k es m o re t han fi v e o r si x j umps a t a t ime w i t hou t a s h or t res t Only o n o n e occ asio n w a s a female . o f t h e plumage is much puffed o u t t hroughou t t h e perfo rm a n ce w hich i s repeat ed fi ve o r si x t imes w i t h a shor t i n t erval . curious j umping a t t i t ude some li t t le dis t ance before t hey arrive a t t heir playground . C OL I U S P AS S E R JAC KS ON I 57 for a l o ng t ime four c o ck bi rd s w i t hi n for t y yar d s of me . abo u t t hree fee t in t h e air a n d drop do w n agai n i n t o t he circle . o f t w o t ail fea t hers w hich a r e held ou t w ard and do w n w ard - .

place ab o u t Ja n u a ry and O c t ober . I n t h e B ri t ish Museum t here are m any specimens collect ed by Lord Delamere comprising males in w in t er plumage from . t h e w es t ern foo t o f t h e Moun t Se t t ima ra n ge S ir Harry . ber 2 0 T his sho w s t ha t t h e spring and au t umn moul t s t ak e . - . Also several a t Ngari Mosser a n d . w es t w ard The only w ood i n t h e ne i gh bourhood consis t s of . w hi ch i s a s t ream ab o u t t w o fee t w i d e an d t hree inches deep . On t he eas t side o f t h e s t a t ion i s a v a lle y a t t h e bot t om o f . si n gle t horn t rees sca t t ered abou t a t dis t a nces o f 2 00 yards - . E l b e dj e d a o n Moun t Ke n ia S pecimens w ere procured in t h e . moun t ains rise abrup t ly and some of t hem are .58 C OL I U S P A S S E R J A CKS ON I here a d d his brief b u t in t eres t ing descrip t ion o f t his dis t ric t ' ’ Macha k o s S t a t ion o n t h e U ganda road i s si t ua t ed a t t h e . . e dge o f a grassy plain w h ich s t re t ches for some miles t o t h e . . ” level . Dr Ansorge found t h e species a t N ai ro b e an d during t h e . ’ and in t h e w in t er plumage by Dr H i n de a t M G o n g o O c t o . . The n eares t fores t is a t Ki k u yu abou t for t y fiv e m iles a w ay . Ki k uyu in December and from L a k e Na k uro and Molo River . . fee t higher t han t h e s t at ion wh i ch is fee t above t h e sea . m os t nor t hern ra n ge y e t recorded for t hese Weaver birds - . i n t h e early par t o f January and f ull plumaged males in . . breed ing plumage by t h e M a ki n d er E x pedi t ion Sep t ember 2 6 . The w hole valley i s cul t i va t ed a n d a fe w pa t ches of ran k grass . g ro w in t he bed o f t he s t re am On i t s east er n side t h e . . M a ki n d e r E x pedi t ion t o Moun t Kenia i t w as m e t w i t h i n floc k s o f t hirt y or f or t y t oge t her and a ppeared t o be commo n al o ng . L i k i pi a January 2 1 . Johns t on o b t ai n ed t h e S pecies a t La k e Barin g o which i s t h e .

a . wi t h i t s golde n yello w lesser wi n g cover t s i s very d i s t i ngu i shable by t h e - . pale basal por t i on of t h e pr i m ar i es sho wi n g w ell i n fro nt of t h e un der wi ng cover t s - . . b u t of t hese U ajfinl s . . U ro b ra c h y a . un der w i n g coverts - . . . t o w ards 1 0 S l t a n d i n t o U p hw n i c ea abo u t 1 S l a t ° . Mos t n early all i ed t o Co li u sp a s se b u t t h e t ai l i s al w ays rou n ded an d r. 44 7 ( 1 850) U . . k ey t h e d i s t i ngu i sh i ng charac t er of n i n e n a m ed form s . are i n apparen tly t h e yo u n g m ale pl u mage o f U p hoen i c ea . U R OB R A C H Y A . U mec how i m ore . grea t er wi n g cover t s m ore - blac k t han r u fou s . a . r - a n d a por t i o n of t h e pper wi n g covert s r u fo s d r i n g t h e breed i n g seaso n u - u u t h e e n t i re head n ec k body a n d t a i l are u n i for m velvety blac k wi t h a r ff of . . . a1 . U R OBR A CH Y A 59 G enu s IV . . shor t er tha n t h e wi ng B i ll bro w n or hoary grey Ad u l t m ales have t h e. u po n as m ore t ha n a var i e t y o f U z a n z i ba ri c a an d t h e t ypes of U medi a . ’ i s probably a cage var i e t y o f U a x i lla r i s U hi ldebra n d ti I ca nn o t loo k . u by t h e br i gh t colou r i n g o f t h e lesser wi n g coverts w h i ch i s reta i n ed t hro u gh - . u broad elo n gat ed feat hers s u rro u n d i n g t h e s i des a n d bac k of t h e n ec k I n . S m aller wi n g no t m ore t han 3 5 i n ches . . axi llar i s . T yp e . - shou ldered gro u p of w h i ch U traversi i i s t h e n orther n for m U boc agei . - . . . a P ale port i on of wi n g m ore c inn am on 3 . U . i p . . . . large b i lled for m of t h e red shou ldered grou p i s c o n z a nz i ba r i c a . r ufo u s port i o n o f wi n gs dark er . T he ge s i s co fi ed t T rop i cal nu S o u t h Afr i ca n n I have g i ve n i n my o an d . a B lac k e n ds to pr i mary cover t s deeper 2 . B p Co n s p . lesser wi n g coverts scarle t oran ge o golde n yello w . . claw s slen der and m u ch cu rved . fi n ed t o E as t ern Afr i ca an d grad u a t es al mos t i m percep t i bly i nt o U a xi lla ri s . - t han broad . . . ° . . KE Y T O T HE S P E CIE S . th e . recen t ly n am ed U uga n d a i s t h e large b i lled represen tat i ve of t h e oran ge . wi n ter the ad ul t m ales ass m e a m o t tled bro n pl m age very s i m i lar to u w u t ha t of t h e fe m ales a n d yo u n g b i rds b t t hey m a y be read i ly d i s t i n g u i shed . . . . . N pale base t o pr i mar i es sho wi n g beyon d t h e o u n der wi n g cover t s - . o u t t h e year T ars i a nd fee t m oderat e .

P Re i che n V og Afr iii p 1 2 9 . M i n breedi ng p l uma g e a le lac k . i nc l in i ng to o yello w o n t h e base of t h e feat hers .L arger wi n g n o t less t han 3 5 in ches i n . l7 t 1 b1 . a fli n i s . . var . . ru fou s wi th t he leas t wi n g covert s . 1 1 1 ool S Afr Aves pl 1 7 ( 1 8 3 8 ) Kei R . body m ore r u fo u s medi a . S m i t h . p 1 2 2 . 1 882 . . . 4 d B i ll a n d wi ngs s m aller . lesser wi n g cover t s . . a G reat er wi n g cover t s m ore r u fo u s 4 . t . . B por t i o n s of t h e wi n g : l e ss er c o v er t s c ri m s o n s h ad ed scarlet . m ed i an cover t s . W i th pale bases t o pr i m ar i es sho wi n g beyon d t h e u n der wi n g cover t s . . 4 d B ill s m aller 3 . V i d u a a x i llar i s . . . 60 U R O B RA CH Y A AX I LLA R I S r ufou s wi t h t h e leas t win g coverts . . . f 3 t b P ale port i on of wi n g m ore chocolat e 3 . Ca t M xiii p 2 2 4 ( 1 8 90) S helley . . body w h i t er p h ce ni c ea ad . - golde n yello w boc a gei . 0 b B lac k e nds t o pri mary covert s s maller . U . B . basal half of pr im ary - . - t ha n r u fo u s hi ldebran d t i . 0 W i n t er pl m age : head n ec k a n d 4 . . . - leas t wi n g cover t s scarle t - . . . S harpe . to 3 7 i n ches t ra vers i i . . [ 7 t b . p 1 8 3 H u b id f O . - yello w a fii ni s . . U ro b ra c h y a a ffin i s . . . to i n ches mec how i . wi ng . . 0 B i ll larger 3 . . . . . . (P I . 2 . . Z . - t ha n blac k za nzi ba ri c a . J . wi t h t h e e x cept i o n o f t h e follo wi ng . 0 3 B ill a nd wi ngs larger . adu l t s r u fo u s por ti on of wi n g paler sandy c i n n a m o n leas t wi n g cover t s ora nge - . u . . B Af r I N O 3 2 8 ( 1 8 9 6 ) S hor t r i dge I b i s . d W in t er pl u m age : head n ec k a n d 4 . U ro b r a c h y a a xi llar i s . . 4 . ( 2 3’ 0 U ro b ra c h y a ax i l la r i s . l’ LV b G reat er wi n g cover t s m ore blac k 4 . - S carle t i ax i l lari s . wi ng 2 . 3 0. . . Ca b Orn Ce n t ra b l 1 88 1 . 1 9 04 p 1 7 8 on do la nd . fig . .

. n der - u wi ng coverts c i nn a m on Iri s bro w n b i ll t ars i fee t an d claw s pale bro w n - . blo t ches and a fe w s mall spo t s s o m e clear dar k olive o t hers . wi t h pale bro w n edges t o t h e feathers pass i n g i n to ora nge o n t h e lesser ' . . hav i n g t h e lesser wi n g cover t s ora nge scarle t a n d t h e q u i lls an d t a i l feathers - . - . . . . s i des of head a nd t h e u n der parts ge n erally bro w n i sh bu ff . flan k s wi t h blac ki sh bro w n shaft s t ri pes . t h e t i ps a n d edges of t h e m a nd i bles . . . . Va r U afli n i s . The Nat al Fan t ailed Whydah inhabi t s Sou t hern Africa - eas t o f abou t 2 5 E lo n g and sou t h o f 1 0 S l a t ° . T ot al le ngt h i n ches c u l m en wi n g t ai l t ars u s 0 8 5 . i n ches c u l me n . . . ' . wi n g 3 4 t ai l . - blac k 3 1 6 7 75 B o t ha s H i ll (T L Ayres ) . t h e reeds E ggs bluish gree n t in t ed w i t h olive w i t h large . . . . b i ll bl u i sh hor n colou r i ncl i n in g t o w h i te a t . . Ad u l t f ema le B ro w n . - c i nna m on Ir i s dark bro w n . . . . P in e t o w n ( T L Ayres ) . In Na t al and t hroughou t Sou t h eas t ern Africa i t is abun - dan t in t h e more m arshy dis t ric t s Cols B u t ler and Feilden and . . Adu l t ma le i n w i n ter p luma g e S i m i lar t o the fe m ale b u t d i ffer i n g i n . a . . e cover t s golde n yello w a n d t h e bro w n o n t h e w i n g cover t s of a sl ightly m ore - chocola t e S hade T o t al le n g t h i n ches c u l m e n . shaded wit h dark bro w n . near E as t London in O c t ober and Nove mber . 9 5 6 75 . . of grasses nearly spherica l w i t h a side en t rance buil t amo ng . . cro wn and bac k pale bro w n wi t h broad blac kish . m ar k ed o n the r u m p a n d u pper t a i l cover t s wi n gs a n d t ai l dar k bro w n - . t ars u s Cage b i rd Z oolog i cal G arde n s - . . U ROB RA CH Y A A X I LL A R I S 61 cover t s a n d a var i able por t i on of t h e edges of t h e great er covert s . ° . C ap t S avile Reid m e t w i t h t h e species in Na t al and o bser ve . D i ffers fro m t h las t o n ly i n hav i n g the lesser wi n g . . . t ars i a n d fee t blac k T o t al le n gth . . . r ( S helley ) . cured t h e t ype M r R ick ard has f o und t hi s Whydah nes t ing . . . . bro wn cen t res t o t h e feat hers o f t h e forehead cro w n a n d bac k less s t rongly . . . . cover t s . i t w as breeding The nes t i s a sligh t b u t s t ro ng cons t r u ct ion . . The mos t w es t ern k n o w n range for t his S pecies is t h e Kei River in E as t ern Cape Colony w here S ir Andre w Smi t h pr o . . blac ki sh ban d e x t e n d i ng fro m t h e gape t o t h e ear coverts wh i ch la t t er are - . u shade o n t h e lesser wi ng cover t s 3 an d S! P i n e t o w n ( T L Ayres ) - . wi n g 3 4 tai l 3 O t ars u s 3 2 5 2 7 4 D u b an . . I mma tur e S i m i lar i n pl u m age t o t h e fe m ale b t wi th less ora n ge red . . E x t remely common a t R ichmo n d Road in December w here .

success ion w i t h a w arning no t e up on w hich t h e si t t ing females . polygamous in t heir hab i t s and in spring t h e handsome males . rise o n t h e w ing t o f o llo w him t o a dis t a n ce The nest . t hose O f t he much larger and s t ro n ger Co li op a sser procn e w ho . may be seen fli t t ing over t h e reeds or grass w i t h a curious flopping fl igh t each o n e at t ended and closely follo w ed in all . as if w ashed over by the ground colour . o f t h e species L i k e all t h e members of t his genus t hey are . t ure oval in shape and domed w i t h a si d e en t rance near t h e . near t h e cen t re of h is harem and k eeps a sharp loo k ou t f o r .62 U R OBR A C H Y A AX I LL AR I S obscured . ’ a bunch a f e w yar d s behind t heir lord and mas t er Abou t ‘ . . S i t t ing t h e male s t a t ions himsel f o n a t all w eed some where . hampered by t heir long t ails s t and no chance i n a fi gh t w i t h . i t measures abou t f o u r inches and a h alf i n h ei gh t a n d . . o t her dangerous enemy approach he fl ies t o each nes t in . leave t heir nes t s creep under t h e grass for some yar d s t hen . . t o p . i t s movemen t s by t e n or t w elve females i n si g n i fic an t loo k ing . t oge t her al t hough t hey are all w i t hin a cer t ain dis t a n ce t hat . loo k i n g very brilliant and spruce i n t heir recen t ly acquired plumage o f velve t y blac k w i t h scarle t and ora n ge epaulet t es . t h e beginning o f November t h e females separa t e and c o m mence buildi n g t he ir n es t s These are never very close . . occasionally flying round t o see ho w ma t t ers are progressing a t his various es t ablishmen t s Should a man o r . and from w hich he drives o t her males of hi s k ind as w ell as . . builds and occup ies a separat e nes t During t h e t ime she is . - in t r u ders . t h e male seems t o loo k upon as h i s o w n e x clusive proper t y . t o a foo t o ff t h e ground i s a beau t ifully ligh t and airy s t r u c . t heir smaller b u t much more ac t ive a n t agonis t E ach female . 08 x The la t e Dr S t ar k gives t he f o llo w i n g accoun t o f t h e habi t s . - li t t le bro w n bird s w hi ch nearly al w ays k eep close t oge t her in . . usually buil t in t h e cen t re o f a t uft o f grass from eigh t inches .

. . . U R O BR ACH Y A A X I LL A R I S 63 t hree inch es in diame t er is cons t ruc t ed of fi ne g rass w i t h t h e . . Nyasaland t h e species has been ob t ained a t t h e P al u m b i River and a t Ko t a k o t a To t h e nor t h in G erm a n East Africa i t is . li n i n g The sides O f t he n es t are a t t ached t o m a n y o f t h e . . . . plumage of U a x i llari s caused by i t s havi n g lived f o r some . . polishe d surface o f a clear sea gree n mar k ed w i t h large . - . t ha t t h e sides can be seen t hrough w i t hou t a n y addi t ional . . - . I t appears t o be abundan t in t h e P or t uguese t erri t ory o n bo t h sides o f t h e Z am besi and in Nyasala n d M r Cavendish pro . . . . grasshoppers locus t s m an t i de s and t ermi t es als o upon . In . Aquarium and t here are t w o similar specimens i n t h e Bri t ish . Reicheno w has sugges t ed ( VOg Afr i ii p a varie t y o f . . They have a highly . U a fii ni s Cab w hich I have fi gured is I believe as Dr . being be n t over in t h e f orm o f a canopy so as t o comple t ely . flo w ering t ops a t t ached w ove n in a sort of open ne t wor k so . S po t s and blo t ches o f deep olive bro wn They measure . replaced by U za nzi ba r i c a and in Wes t Africa by U boc a g ei . . Maj or Clark e sa w a f e w full plumaged males i n damp places near Ingogo . cured t w o S pecimens a t M a pi c u t i in w in t er dress in Sep t ember . " w ander f a r from t heir breedi n g s t a t io n . and you n g birds form good sized fl o c k s b u t n ever seem t o - . . . x “ These Wido w Birds feed l argely o n insec t s i n cluding . surro u nding grass s t al k s t h e bl a des and t ops o f t h e lat t er - . t i me in cap t ivi t y The t ype i s a bird whi ch died in t h e B erlin . . ” he i n forms us i t is k no w n t o t h e na t ives as t h e M r i bb e . December are t hree in nu m ber . . . . . t hey w ere shy res t less and pug n acious . . . . . Museum bo t h of wh i ch w ere cage birds o n e i n t he Z oolo g ical . and U mec how i . and Dr S t u h l m a n n collec t ed t h ir t een n ear Q u i l i ma n e where . conceal i t from a b o ve The eggs laid t o w ards t h e e n d o f . various seeds especially small grass seeds In w in t er t h e o ld .

U ro b r a c h y a p h oen i c e a ( n o n S harpe . N . U boc a gei a speci es w hi ch I believe has never bee n proc u red . C . Ca t M xiii p 2 2 5 . e x a m ples o f U p hoeni c ea i n t h e Bri t ish Museum Dr Sharpe . . . . u r r ~ v r . B o 3 29. 1 88 1 . . P Z . p . Ca t M x i i i p 2 2 5 ( 1 890) Momba sa . . . . T ot al le n g t h 6 5 i n ches c u l men wi n g 3 4 t all 2 7 t ars u s . . . i i lar t o U aa i lla ri s i n all i t s s t ages of pl u m age a n d wi t h t h e sa m e S m . . S helley . . Re i che n V Og Af r iii p 1 3 2 . . ° . p . S harpe B ull B O . . shade o f scarle t o n t he lesser wi n g cover t s b u t d i f fers i n t h e b i ll be i n g - . . . The Z anz ibar F a n t ailed Why d ah inhabi t s E as t Africa - be t w ee n 1 S la t a n d 1 0 S l a t ° . . . k n o w n avi cul t uri s t Mr J Abr aham . U ro b r ac h y a n i g ro n o t a t a . . . from so far nor t h as t h e Q uan za River . . B . U ro b ra c h y a h i ld e b r a n d t i . ( Reicheno w J f O 1 8 9 2 p 4 5 ) are ali k e i n plumage so I . Meli n da . . . . . E . . . . E Af r I N o 3 3 0 ( 1 8 9 6 p t B . ( K i rk ) . . 64 U RO B RA CH Y A Z AN Z I B ARI C A G a rde n s Lon do n a n d t h e o t h er i n t h e possessio n o f t he w ell . I n t h e t ype t h e great er ser i es of wi n g cover t s are al m os t e n t i rely c i n n a mo n - . . On e c a n h ardly bel ieve t h a t t h e U afii n i s and U p hoen i c ea . r covert s al m os t en t i rely blac k wi n g i n ches Mo m basa ( H i ldebran d t ) . . . S . . S harpe . 51 6 P ang a ni . U sa m ba ra . . . M el i n d a . B . r a w colo u r i n g o f the grea t er wi n g cover t s W i t u (J ack son ) - . . . U r o b ra c h y a p h oe n i c e a h i lde b ra n d t i . wh ich Dr Reicheno w has I t hi n k w rongly referred t o . . (P I . . . . 3 0. . Re i che n V o g Afr iii p 1 3 0 ( 1 9 04 p t G erm an . U ro b r a c h y a z an z i b a ri c a . in 1 8 9 0 described o n e o f t h e t ypical specimens o f U za nzi . . S helley Af r I . L a mu . . S helley . . w o uld sugges t t ha t t h e former may belo n g t o U m ec how i . . . bari c a as t h e adul t m ale o f U p hoeni c ea “ and . . U r ob rac h y a za n zi b ar i c a . . . I can n o t look u po n t hese spec i m e n s as m ore t han var i et i es of o n e spec i es . larger a n d i n fu ll pl m aged m ales t h e p i m a y c o e t s are m ostly c in n a mo n . fig . . . 7 ( 1 8 9 7 ) W i tu . T he t ype of U ni g o not ta i s i nt erm e d i a t e be t w ee n t h e t o las t i n t h e . . vi i . ( 1 89 0 pt S o f q u ator ) . T he type o f U hi ldeb a nd t i di ffers o n ly i n hav i ng t h e great er wi ng . . O w i n g t o t h e abse n ce form erly o f any full plum a ged . . . .

l Ur obr a c hy a z a n z ib a r ica . 2 . n .

.

Ib i s . . . bra n dti Reicheno w w hich i nclude t h e specime n s collec t ed by . ’ cer t ainly belo n g all S ir John Kir k s speci m e n s from Pa n ga n i . . . . M a le i n br eedi ng p lu ma g e i i lar t o U axi llar is . U ro b r ac h y a p h oen i c ea m ed i a . . U ro b ra c h y a p h oen i c e a . According t o Fischer t h e species i s k no w n in . N i le . 1 S l a t as t h e b ou n dary be t w een U za n zi ba r i ca and U p hoe ° . . . . in s i e of b i ll a n d z colour in g wi h . . . p 9 5 7 Ka ka F P Z . . . U r o b r ac h y a m ed i a S harpe . . Re i che n V og Af r iii p 1 3 2 . procured by hi m a t Y o n t e in J u b a l an d ad 1 9 . . . . Mombasa one a t ypically colo u red bir d and t h e o t her t he t ype . . p 3 04 . S 1 9 00. . . . t the ti n e x cep o of the pr i m ary coverts - a n d greater wi n g [O c to b er. . . Jack son s from Wi t u ( t ype o f U ni g r on o ta ta ) a n d a specimen ’ . . . B Af r I N o 3 3 0 ( 1 8 9 6 ) Re i chen V o g Af r iii . 1 904 . . . p 1 1 8 W An ko le . . I doub t if ei t her o f t h e smaller billed allied forms ( U axi l - . t he Suaheli ” language as t h e T sh o n g u e . All t h e o t her S pecimens I have seen o f Mr Jac k son s . la r i s and U p hoeni c ea ) have been found in E a s t Africa be t w een . . S harpe . 5 _ . 1 0 and 1 S l a t T o t he large billed form U za nzi ba r i c a ° ° - . . . . . S helley . S m . Fischer H ildebrand t Kir k B oh n do r fi B Oh m Mar w i t z and . . . U r o b r ac h y a p h oen i c e a . . ’ S harpe s lead has confused t h e s y n o n o my and dis t ribut ion o f . . . J . F ii ll e b or n . . . U rob r a c h y a t ravers ii ( n o n low er . n i c ea and t o U za n zi ba r i ca I should refer s o called U p hoen i c ea . . H eug l f O 1 8 62 . . - . U R O B RACH Y A P H CE N I C E A 65 Dr Reiche n o w ( V Og Afr i i i pp 1 3 0 . also t w o specimens f rom . Coli usp as s er p h oeni c eu s . . from sou t h o f 1 S l a t and t h e w hole o f U p hoeni c ea hi lde ° . ’ of U hi ldebr andti t hree o f B o h n d o r ff s from M t o n i o n e o f . . p 1 67 . . . 1 863 . . . t hese t w o species . 1 9 02 . p 1 3 0 ( 1 904 . B . Cat M xiii p 2 2 5 ( 1 8 9 0 p t ) Whi te . S o ba t R . ' collec t ing belong t o U phoeni cea so t hat I t h in k w e may regard . U samb a ra Melinda and Lamu . by fo l lo w i n g Dr . . . . .

. i t s blac k fea t hers b t t h e t a i l pr i m ar i es a n d t h e lesser wi n g cover t s are as . t i nt . . . . i n Shoa by U tr a ver s i i . wit h t aw n y shaded bro w n i sh b u ff s i des t o t h e fea t hers . 2 8 t ail . - . . . . . . b i ll pale hor n “ - . . u . crop s i des of n ec k and - u . pale edges t o t h e i n n er seco n dar i es 3 2 6 1 0 8 9 K i s u mu ( J ac k son) . fee t sla t y blac k T ot al len g t h i n ches c u l m e n 0 6 wi n g . . . H Fan —t ailed Whyd a h replaces U za nzi ba r i c a i n e u g li n s ’ . . . p o ssibly ranges furt her sou t h o n t h e w es t ern si d e O f V i c t oria Ny a nza . . t h e fla n k s s t rea k ed wi t h ra t her b road blac k shaft s t ri pes Iri s bro wn b i ll - . procured specimens a t t h e H o l u lu River in t he Co n go Free . . t ars u s 3 2 8 5 98 N a n d i ( J ac k so n ) . . wi n gs as i n t h e f u ll pl u m aged m ales b u t wi t h broader . . . pale bro wn t h e lo w er m an d i ble w h i t i sh hor n . wi t h t h e blac k port i o n co n fi n ed t o t h e t hree i nn er mos t great er wi n g cover t s - a n d t h e e x t re m e e n ds of t h e pr i m ary cover t s I r i s bro wn . - i n t h e ord i n ary fe m ale . . . t hese specime n s In i t s m os t w es t ern k no w n range Dr Ansorge . . edges . In t h e Nile d i s t ric t He n gli n d iscovered t h e species a t t h e Soba t River a n d rem a r k ed t ha t t hese bir d s w ere ge n erally . fee t bro wn wi t h a blu i sh . T o t al le n gt h ” i n ches c u l m e n wi n g 2 9 t a i l 2 O t ars u s . . cover t s . . grea t er wi n g cover t s e n t i rely j e t blac k . a broad eyebro w a nd the s i des of t h e head r u fo u s b uff m o t tled wi t h blac k o n fron t of chee k s an d h i n der half of ear . . . Bri t ish E as t Africa from 1 S la t t o t h e Whi t e N ile and ° .66 U R OBR ACH Y A P H (E N I CE A covert s w h i ch are of t h e sa m e c i n n am on colou r a s t h e m ed i an covert s . N a nd i ( J ack son ) . has collec t ed a large series from N t ebbi Kampala Nandi and . u n derpart s t a w ny shaded bro w n i sh b ff . . The species i s apparen t ly a bun dan t t hroughou t t h e marshy dis t ric t s t o t h e nor t h o f V ic t oria Nya n za w here M r Jac k son . F ema le va r i ety . . . . lesser wi ng cover t s - wi t h the i r edges m ore oran ge . . Adu l t ma le i n w i n t er H ead n ec k body a n d t a i l s i m i lar i n colo u r i n g t o . o t her places I t has been recorded from B u k ome I t ale Me n go . broad r ufo u s bu ff ou t er edges T o t al len g t h 5 0 i n ches c u l m e n wi n g . pr i m ary covert s blac k w i th - - . Adu l t f ema le Cro w n bac k o f n ec k bac k wi n gs a n d t a i l m os t ly blac k . . ( S t u hl m a n n ) and fro m Bu k oba ( Emin ) b u t I have n o t seen . 9 28 5 98 . . t ars u s 9 23 6 98 N a n d i ( J ac k so n) . . V ery s i m i lar t o t h e m ale w h i ch h a s ass u m ed m os t of . S t a t e and o t hers in T o ru U g a n d a and U s o g a . . b u t is i t self replaced in A n gola by U m ec how i a n d . . m ed i a n wi n g coverts blac k w i th broad pale r u fo u s - . bl u e . ” t ai l . t hose o f t h e fe m ale .

. Kid eh coun t ry a n d by E m i n a t B a bira Bora a n d Lado Mr . also alo ng t h e river edge In t h e desola t e s w amps of t he - . w hat si m ilar varia t ion i n colour is t o be me t w i t h in femal es collect ed by Mr J a c k so n at N t e b b i and is probably a sign o f . . t hese S pecimens have t h e plumage more s t rongly shaded w i t h rufous t han a n y o t hers I have seen b u t a s o m e . - . . . 1 32 M a le black wi t h t he lesser win g covert s i n breedi n g p lu ma g e . Sudd w here t here w as no mi xt ure o f dry ground I n ever . me n t ions seeing floc k s o f hundreds o f t hese birds i n t h e lon g dry grass b y t h e W hi t e N ile near Ka k a and I h ave received . U RO BRA CH Y A TR AV E R S II 67 in noisy par t ies o f from si x t o t e n fre q uen t ing t h e heads of t he . H a wk er me t w i t h t hese Whyd ahs a t Fashod a a n d Kak a in floc k s frequen t ing t h e recen t ly b u rn t ground n ear t h e river . . G e n oa 1 888 p 28 7 S hoa . . B . p . - redd i sh ora n ge fad i n g i n to s lph u r yellow t o w ards t h e w h i t e basal half . U r ob rac hy a t r av e r s i i . . S harpe . . . r . V elvet y . . . M us . 2 26 S helley B Af I N o 33 1 . t w o male birds in t h e bro w n dress t h e t ypes of U medi a . U r o b ra c h y a p h oen i c e a travers ii Re i che n V og . . - . . high grass They have a melancholy fl u t e li k e no t e The . . . Af r i i i . . . M . . U ro b r a c h ya t ravers ii . - . . S ir Harry Johnst on procured a t T ar an g o l a i n Wes t An k ole . . imma t uri t y o r m ay be cau sed by r u s t in t he w a t er . . . xiii p . - Ka k a t o F a s ho da up t h e Bahr c l G a zel t o Mes h ra e r Re k and . . t h e fol l o w ing n o t es from Mr A L B u t ler : In February and . u of t hese feat hers . . . G ra Ib i s 1 9 04 p 2 57 S hoa . moul t s t a k e place i n July and November T he species has . . Ca t . . Sharpe . . and i n Apr il a n d May t he males w ere a ll in t he bro w n w in t er plumage Cap t S t an ley Flo w er also . Ann . ” sa w i t These birds have a heavy flopping fligh t . and t h e s w amps . . . S alvad . ’ . also been procured by him a t P o r t Re k by A n t i n o ri in t h e . ( 1 89 6 ) nt . March 1 9 02 I found i t common i n modera t e si zed fl o c k s fro m . pri m ary covert s great er and m ed i an covert s ( wi t h t h e - .

. . I n S ou t hern Abyssinia Lord Lova t procured specimens a t L e k a n i t i and w ri t es . . plumage in O c t ober and n o t rare Mr E Degen m e t w i t h i t . U r o b ra c h y a b o c a g e i . in flock s o f male birds only a t Manna Gasha w es t o f Adis Ababa in Ju n e . B . . . . t o Dabous w e passed t hro u gh coun t ry i n habi t ed fi rs t by t hi s species t hen during a fe w days march w e sa w only Pen the . . A very local b i rd b u t in large numbers . p 1 8 3 . fee t blac k T o t al len g t h 7 3 in ches cu l m en . p 1 2 2 Ang o la . . Ca b Orn Cen t ralb l 1 88 1 . . U ro b r a c h y a m e c h o w i . . seco n dar i es wi t h s om e i mperfec t b u ff edges . S helley . . . . - . . . . . .68 U R OBR A C H Y A M E C H O WI e x cept i on of t h e i nn erm os t feat hers ) un i for m c in namo n . Co lumbo Re i chen V og Afr iii p 1 3 3 ( 1 9 04 p t ) Qua nza R and . . U r o b ra c h y a m ec h ow i . ’ T r av e r si s Fan t ailed Whydah inhabi t s Shoa and Sou t hern - Abyssinia . i d . ’ tr i op s i s m a c r o c er c a a n d t hen o n ce more t h e U r o br a c hy a only . . . . I n t h e s i e o f th e b i ll a n d i n a ll i t s o t her s t ages of pl u m age i t closely z resem bles U p ha ni c ea a n d U a xi llari s . . p t S harpe Cat . ” remain ing cons t an t t hro u ghou t Mr P ease sa w large flock s . . . . 1 8 8 2 . I b i s . u n der wi n g covert s c i nn a mo n Ir i s bro wn b i ll - . . . . . 1 9 02 . . Shoa and specimens have been collect ed in t ha t coun t ry a t . . . f O . 56 Q u a nz a R . . U ro b ra c h a ffi n i s Re i che n J f O 1 8 9 2 ya . grey i sh hor n colou r . win g t ail t ars u s 3 3 0 6 02 S Abyss i n i a ( D ege n ) . . . . . U ro b ra c h y a ar er t B u ll B O C xiii p p h oen i c ea q u an z ae . p 1 6 5 Ka rung w es i . . M xiii p 2 2 6 ( 1 89 0) S p e. . Re i che n V og Af r iii p 1 3 3 . . o f t hese birds among t h e grass and sedge a t t he e d ges o f La k e Z wa i and procured specimens a t L ek amt i . . S u t t a and U rafa B o n at a by Dr Ragazzi w ho found i t in full . J . H t . . The species w as discovered by D r Traversi a t An t o t t o in . w a s m et w i t h t h e l ong t ailed Weaver P en thetri a la ti c a u da . . . p 4 5 M en go . U r o b ra c hy a a xi llar i s ( n o n S m i t h ). . w here i t is found On our w es t er n j ourney from A d is Ababa . . Ang ola . .

specimens in w in t er plumage sen t t o t h e Bri t ish M u seum by . b ut i s a larger b i rd wi t h a d i s t i n ct ly s t ro n ger b i ll - . wi n g cover t s blac k . . U R O B R AC H Y A M E C H O W I 69 T yp e o f U . . . in t h e same w ay as U a xi llar i s and U p hoen i cea d i fl er from . U ganda . a male in breeding plumage a t Colombo o n t h e Q uanza R i v er . re m a i n der of wi n g cover t s u n i for m . S t u hl ma n n s specimens fro m Mengo re ferred t o U afi n i s Cab ’ . To t his species undoub t edly belong t hree . f ul l plumage i n May o n e of w hich is t h e t ype o f U p hoeni c ea . . . ( P e m bert on) . procured several specimens a t Malandj e in December January . In Angol a Maj or v Mecho w di scovered t h e species and . and February A li t t le f ur t her sou t h Mr Mon t eiro ob t ai n ed . U t ra ver si i is t h e nor t hern represen t a t ive of U m ec how i from . t hi s river at B arraca Mr P ember t on collec t ed t w o males i n . qu a nzae H ar t er t . T o t al len g t h 6 5 in ches cu lm e n wi n g 3 8 t a i l . k no w n from Mossamedes and B enguela o n ly and may be said . S ir Alfred Sharpe from Kar u ng w e si close t o t he Ko l o ng a t si R iver w hi ch runs w es t w ard in t o Lak e Meru . . mar k ed species t o t h e n or t h o f t h e la t i t ude o f t h e Q uanza R iver The large size and colouring o f t h e w ings sho w s t ha t . . ’ M e c ho w Fan t ailed Whydah ranges from t h e Q uanza s - River eas t w ard t o Ka r un g w es i and nor t h w ard possi bly t o . U boc a gei one o f t h e bes t mar k ed species o f t h is genus is . za n zi ba r c a i . . t h e lesser wi n g cover t s sl i gh t ly ye l lo w er . t o be represen t ed by t he presen t form an almos t equally w ell . . . V ery s i mi lar i n colou r i n g t o U tra versi i wit h . t ars u s B arraca . . . . g u a nza . - pale c i n n am o n wi th th e e x cep t i o n of a por t i o n of t h e i nn erm os t great er . . . November 1 8 68 w hich is i n t h e B ri t ish M u seum Along . U . w hich t h e former differs in t h e smaller S ize o f t he bill much . I t s poss ible occurrence i n U ga n da res t s o n one o f D r . . . .

a n d ass u m e a br i ll i a nt n u pt i al dress i n w h i ch bri ght red or yello w a nd velve t y blac k are t h e m os t s t r ik i n g feat u res As . . . . t ars i n d fee t . B . “ a blac k T o t al le n g t h 7 i n ches c u l m e n . . B o cage s Fan t ailed Wh y d a h inhab i t s P or t u g u ese Wes t ' - Afri ca be t w een t h e Q uanza and C une n e R ivers . the of t he wi n g : lesser wi ng cover t s chro m e yello w re m a i n der of wi n g cover t s - . T he bes t char a ct er f o r dis t inguishing t h e S pecies f r o m a ll t h e o t h er members of t h e ge n us is t h e pale bases o f t h e prim a ries sho w i ng w ell in fron t o f t he under w i n g cover t s .7O U R OBR AC H Y A B OC A G E I U r o b ra c hya b o c ag ei . . . readily - dis t inguis h es i t from i t s larger n ear ally U mec ho w i C ab . . ” wi n g t ai l t ars u s . by a - . spr i n g m ou l t . S harpe Ca t Af r p 6 3 ( 1 8 70) H u i lla . . N o 332 . . t h e n ec k a t t h i s seaso n also beco m es decora t ed wi th a fr i ll o f le ngthe n ed broad feat hers he t ai l re m a i n s a t all t i m es shor t . . . Afr I . i d Ca t . . pl 9 ( 1 8 9 0 pt ) B eng uela S helley . . “ ” t h e la t t er t h e Lele The t ype which is i n t h e Bri t ish . - t his charac t er coupled w i t h t he w ing measureme n t . P Y R OM E L A N A . Q ua nza B . l ik e t h e W hydahs d i scard .M x i ii p 2 2 6 . . . U ro b ra c h a y b o c a g ei . base of pr i m ar i es b ff w h i ch colo u r sho w s w ell i n fro nt of u . - pale c i nn am o n . . t h e m odest m o tt led bro w n pl u mage . . i n t h e las t t w o ge n era . . . other wi se t h e stru c t u re closely rese m bles t hat of t h e other ge n era of t he Vi du i nce . M a le i n f u l l p lu mag e . ’ ” by t h e na t ives o f t h e former place t he Q ui c eng o a n d of . B lack wi t h e x cept i o n of t h e followin g par t s . M useum came from H uilla . . T a n d n early s q u are . B . G e nu s V . ( U p hoen i c ea gu a nzae H ar t er t ) . . B . b i ll w h i t i sh grey . t he u n der wi n g cover t s - I r i s bro w n . . w h i ch i s re t ai n ed throu gh o u t t h e year by t h e fe m ales . T ype 3 H ui lla ( An ch i e t a) . Re i chen V og Afr iii p 1 3 3 ( 1 9 04 p t ) S of . T he m ales o n ly of t h e B i shop b i rds . The species i s a t t h e prese n t t i m e k no w n fr o m C aconda and H uilla only an d acc o rding t o An c hi e t a s no t e s i t is c a lled . .

rarely a n y t race of b f f 3 . D . H yp era n t h u s G i stel N a t u g T hi err p ix . . . qu i lls wi t h r u fou s 2 . . t h i ghs ge n erally bro w n er . t h i ghs gen erally e n t i e l y blac k . 0 E nt i re cro wn yello w 2 . S . a Q i lls wi th broad r u fo u s b ff i n n er 3 . E u pl e c w ai n s Class B ii p 2 7 8 tes . u u m arg i n s . a B i ll s t ou t er 2 . wi n g abo u t 3 i n ches r a a n t ho mela s . . P . M et . B p Co n s p. b uff i nn er edges . 0 N ec k yello w form in g a broad t hroa t 3 . . Ory x ( n o n O k e n . app r ox i ma n s ) 7r . u i n n er m arg i n s . . T aha Re i chen b S i ng v p 73 ( 1 86 1 ) . " b . cl L o w er back a s w ell as u pper a nd u nder . ' t a i l cover t s yello w - . O yn Re i chen b Av S ys t p 7 6 fi g 2 8 ( 1 850) P r x. . . . . r . . . . . c ap ens i s . b S m aller . t h i ghs mos t ly bro n p haeni c omera A w . T he ge s i s co fi ed t T rop i cal nu n n o an d S ou t h Afr i ca . . collar . . . - pale yello w u nder t a i l cover t s blac k - . KEY T O TH E S P E C I E S FO U ND E D ON MA L E S IN . so m e br i gh t yello w o n t h e pl u m age . collar d N ec k blac k for m i n g a broad n u chal 3 . a . H ead a n d n ec k e n t i rely blac k . c ap ensi s . lo w er m an d i ble pale c ap e ns i s 7 . . P Y RO M E L AN A 71 P y ro m e l a n a S agg i o istr . ( 1 84 8) Xa n t h o me l an a i p 4 4 7 ( 1 850) P. . T rai t é p . 2 b Q u i lls blac k er . a L arger : wi ng m ore t han 3 in ches . m an t le a n d ' 1 - . B RE EDING P L U MAGE . 1 8 4 6 ) ess L . . . . . V er t ebr p 1 4 1 ( 1 83 1 ) . . f r anc i sc a na . . . . H ead an d n ec k n ever e n t i rely blac k . a1 L esser wi n g covert s a nd lo w er half of bac k . 43 7 ( 1 83 1 ) P . Bp . lo w er bac k oran ge yello w . b B i ll m ore slen der . o ri x . . . . b i ll e n t i rely blac k 4 . ta ha . b L e sser wi n g cover t s bro w n . c ap en s i s . P . An m i . 4 . . P . u n der t ai l cover t s wh i t e a u ea é 9 r .

e U n der wi ng cover t s pale 5 . L arger . e S i des of abdo m e n an d t h e un der t a i l 2 . e U pper t a i l cover t s red of t he sa m e 4 . n d Forehead an d fro n t of cro w n oran ge 2 . win g 2 7 t ars u s 5 . covert s . m ore yello w n ear t h e crop t a ha ) 8 K . s ides of body blac k wi t h . g Forehead blac k s . cover t s scarlet . w d S m aller . . L arger . re m a i n d er of t hroa t 8 . win g m ore t han 2 8 . . t hroat blac k n i g i ven ti s r . la doens is . on ly a pat ch of yello w n ear t h e crop . a . fro n t t w o t h i rds of cro w n blac k ori x 7 - . t hroa t red f ra n c i sc a na . 1 . 2 b L arger . w er t heri . l a d4 . su nd eva lli f b Red o n pl u m age m o re yello w6 . ge n erally so me yello w o n 3 3 t h e fl an k s . less . e Forehead an d cro w n scarle t . 5 . I C f U n der t a i l cover t s bro w n or blac ki sh 4 - . fron t half o n ly of t h e cro w n blac k . yello w s o m e red o n t h e n ec k . e n t ire 3 . - S hade as t h e e n t i re lo w er bac k . 1 0 h F orehead scarle t lik e th e crow n . a “ Red o n pl u m age m ore scarle t . a S m aller . ’ 6 2 f U n der wi n g cover t s blac k 5 . . a 9 d1 L ow er back as w ell as t ai l covert s n ever . n der wi n g cover t s black u fl a mmi c ep s - . f r i eder i c hs on - i .72 P Y ROM E L AN A c4 . oran ge red g i er o w i 4 3 . - . re m ai n der o f head blac k di a dema ta l . en t i re 3 . - . U pper half o f t hroat blac k a nsorg ei . f N o red o n abdo m e n n o r u nder t a i l 2 . u n der wi n g cover t s pale - . yello w n ear t h e crop s tr i c ta I 84 . f F orehead and cro w n black . I e 2 d Ch in blac k . red . wi n g less t han 2 7 . I M . S m aller . wi n g 5 tarsu s .

. be n d of t h e wi n g . b i ll hor n y b u fi feet pale bro w n W i n g . . . M a le i n w i n t er p lu ma ge S i m i lar t o t h e fe m ale i n colo ur i n g wi t h t h e . . 23 6 . o nl y on e ha s the lwr o e m an di b l e ne arly b l k ac . L o xi a capens i s L i . . great er c over t s an d qu ills wi t h very n arro w bro w n i sh bu ff edges . bro w n . . . 3 06 ( 1 7 6 6 ) Cap e of G o od H op e . are br i gh t yello w . . . . i nn er edges u n der wi n g cover t s ru fou s b u fl s h ad i n g i n t o yello w alon g t h e - " . Wi t h regard t o i t s habi t s S t ar k w ri t es : This large . . B lac k wit h . . . 6 2 i n ches c u l m en . un der s u rface of wi n gs as i n t h e m ales Ir i s dar k bro w n . . . . nor t h w ard t o Cl a n William a n d ea st w ard i n t o t h e George D is t ric t . b i ll blac k wi t h lo w er m an d i ble b u ff fee t pale bro wn T o t al len gth . . . . ’ . . . . beyond t his limi t ed ra n ge i t is replaced by a smaller very similarly coloured S pecies P app roa i ma ns . edges t o t h e fea t hers . r . . lesser an d m e di an wi n g cover t s an d lo w er half of - t h e bac k wi t h yello w edges t o t h e fea t hers . e x cept i on of t h e lesser a nd m ed i an wi ng cover t s an d t h e lo w er bac k w h i ch - . . . . . P y r o m el a n a cape n s i s S harpe B M xiii p . . 1 I n t h e B i i sh rt M u seu m S pe cim en s . . . L oxi a n oevi a G m S N i p 8 4 5 . the t h e leas ed i a ser i es wi n g covert s bri gh t can ary yello w scap u lars t and m n of - wit h broad pale bro w n edges . t ai l 2 1 Cape T o w n . Ca t . E u pl e c t es cape n s i s Re i che n V og Af r iii p 1 2 6 . E ssays an d P hot ographs p 1 03 pl 2 4 fi g 2 ( 1 9 01 ) n es t . . . T he Cap e Blac k and Yello w B isho p bird is con fi ned t o Cape - Colo n y The species i s abundan t abou t Cape T o w n ranging . S . Ad u l t f ema le U pper par t s m o tt led blac ki sh bro w n wi t h pale bro w n . . . . . I N o 3 3 4 ( 1 8 9 6) N eh rko rn Ka t E i e s p 1 2 4 ( 1 8 9 9 ) egg . wi ng 3 4 t a i l t ars u s 3 1 9 1 1 65 Cape . M a le i n breedi ng p luma ge lo w er half of t he bac k and . . T o w n ( An dersson) . P Y R OM E L AN A C AP E N S I S 73 P y r o m el a n a c ap en si s . H arri s . nn . t h i ghs pale bro w n or wi t h a fe w blac k feat hers I r i s dark . . . 1 . . B ishop bird is nearly every w here common in t he Wes t ern - Colo n y and alt hough i t seems t o prefer t h e vicini t y o f marshy . . N i p . . B u tler . Fore i g n F i n ches i n Capt i v i t y p 2 9 5 pl 53 ( 1 8 9 4) S helley B Afr . . u n der s urface o f q u i lls blac k wi t h broad r u fou s bu ff . Fr in g i lla ph alerat a Li cht V erz D oubl p 22 ( 1 8 2 3 ) Cap e . . . . . . .

smal l ca t erpillars and gr u bs This species nes t s in S ep t ember . - . . o r O c t ober . fond o f u t t eri n g hi s h arsh n o t es from t h e t o p o f a t all bush o r reed a n d is t hen very c o nspicuous i n his co nt ras t ing glossy . by t h e farmers o f w ork ing havoc w i t h t h e crops t hey dev o ur . . a h e n o r i s e x ci t ed t hey s t a n d o u t a t righ t angles t o t he body . i s w oven o u t o f fi ne grass a n d i s usually a t t ached by i t s . blac k and yello w plumage The female a t t his season is n o t . o ft en seen k eepi n g much t o t hic k reed beds o r bushes even . Layard re m ark s : The fi rs t t hi n g w hich changes is t h e bill . a n d are ” b a t c h e d in abou t four t een days Wi t h regard t o t h e moul t . deepes t black . . so m et imes i t i s buil t in - t h ic k bushes a t a heigh t o f four or fi ve fee t The eggs almos t . t h e blac k commences t o S ho w a t t h e t i p o f t h e lo w er man d ible . ” t o t h e impressionable femal e This mode o f cour t i n g t h e . colour nearly concealed by sp o t s blo t ches an d lines of dar k . breeding males are erec t ile a n d w he n t he bird is approachi n g . loose yello w fea t hers o f t h e lo w er bac k and rump o f t h e . of a series o f harsh and discordan t no t es Al t hough t hese . . birds feed largely o n gr a ss seeds o r grai n and are accused - . arid t ract s o f coun t ry The male in spring and s u mmer i s . wh ich gradually dar k ens from i t s usual horn col o u r t o t h e . bef o re t his i s accomplished t h e upper mandible .The n es t a domed s t ruc t ure w i t h a side en t rance . givi n g hi m an e x t raordinary appearance apparen t ly irresis t ible . . . al w ays four i n n umber have a pale greenish blue grou n d . a considerable n umber o f i n sec t s and feed t heir young o n . bro w n o r sla t e colour They average 08 5 x . bo t h se x es t oge t her w i t h t heir y oung form considerable flock s .74 P Y R O M E L AN A C AP E NS IS vleis o r s t reams i t m ay be frequen t ly found in very dry and . w hich do n o t separat e un t il t h e follo w ing spri n g The lo n g . sides t o t hree o r fo ur reed s t ems . w hen n o t S i t t ing o n her eggs In au t umn t h e old birds of . . hens has also b een remar k ed in t h e Shri k es belonging t o t h e “ genus Dr yos c opu s S t ar k fur t her remark s : The song consis t s . .

. . Ory n x a p p ro x i m a n s . b u t d ifi e r s i n be i n g s m aller . . E upl e c t e s a n t h o m el a s ( no n x B u t ler F e i lde n an d Re i d Z ool 1 882 . . . . . . . Ca b M . E upl ec t e s cape n s i s app o x i ma n s Re i che n V o g Afr iii p 1 2 7 ( 1 9 04 p t ) r . . . F ema le Cu lm e n . . ” manner I have here quo t ed L a y ar d s accoun t o f t h e m o ul t for i t ’ . H e in i p . includ ing specimens fro m t h e Knysna R iver ( where i t s ra n ge . gi v es a good idea o f wha t t a k es place i n t h e cha n ge from t h e w in t er t o t h e summer plumage i n all t h e fou r closely allied species . a n d i n f u ll breed i n g pl u m age t h e m ales have t h e lo w er m an d i ble blac k a n d t here i s l i t t le o r n o bro wn o n t h e t h i ghs o t al le n g t h 5 9 i n ches . t h e breas t n e x t sho w s a cha n ge and a fea t her . . . . us . T he Na t al Blac k and Yello w B ishop bi rd inhabi t s Eas t ern - Sou t h Africa from t h e Knys n a t o I n ha m b a ne in M o s a mb i qu e . . p 2 9 7 N a ta l . . . four in w hich t h e lo w er mandible changes t o blac k for t h e breeding season . . t t ars u s 3 2 6 1 0 81 . . . b u t t h e bird he t oo k hi s no t es from mus t have been a specimen of P app r ox i ma n s which i s t h e only o n e o f t he . . . . . . . . S helley . ab o u t July and is comple t e d i n S ep t ember which is t h e . B Afr I N O 3 3 5 . . P y r o m el a n a ap p r o x i m an s . . 1 77 ( 1 85 1 ) Kaflrari a (B er li n M us ) . bird cha n ges t o i t s splendid blac k This t ra n sfo rma t io n begins . Pi en t o w n ( T L Ayres ) . nes t ing season The moul t bac k again begins i n t h e same . P Y R OM E L AN A A P P R O XI M AN S 75 has begun t o black en and a fe w blac k feat hers are visible . . P y o m e l a n a m i n or S harpe Ca t B M r xi i i p 2 3 8 . E u p l e c t e s cape n s i s var m i n or G r i ll Z ool An t ec k n pp 1 0 2 2 . . t ail ' 1 9. t ars u s 9 1 4 5 78 . S i m i lar t o P c ap en si s i n all i t s pl um ages . . In t h e B ri t i s h Museum t here is a fai r s eries of t his species . . . N e w cas t le ( B u t ler ) . . round t h e nec k . wi n g 2 7. . T wi n g ai l 3 0. c u l m e n . or t w o on t h e bac k dark e n s and t h u s by d e g rees t he w hole .

River C olony a n d t h e Transvaal Mr W L S cla t er records . Blac k and Yello w B ishop b ird ra n ges from nor t h Rup pell ’ s - of t h e Orange River a n d L impopo in t o Angola and Abyssinia . .76 P Y R OM E L AN A XAN T H OM E L AS mee t s t ha t of P c ap en s i s ) from Na t al Z ululand t h e Orange . V Og Af r iii p 1 2 8 . . t he t h e leas ed i a ser i es wi n g cover t s br i gh t can ary yello w scapu lars t an d m n of - wi t h so me broad pale bro w n edges . i t from Inhambane w hich is t h e fur t hes t nor t h I can t race . B . . 1 9 04 . W in g 2 7 9 As h a n ghi ( B lan ford ) . . . . bro w n T ot al len g t h 5 5 in ches c u l me n . of t h e moun t ains .Af r I N o 3 3 3 . . Abyss i n i a ( Ruppell ) . S harpe . . . wi ng 3 0 t a i l t ars u s . B lac k wit h . . In P ort uguese Wes t A frica t h e S pecies has been procured by Mon t eiro w ho found i t t o be common in t h e Cambambe d is t ric t . . p 2 57 S hoa . E u p l e c t e s x an t h o m e la s . u n der s u rface of q u i lls e n t i rely blac k or wi t h obsolet e bro w n i sh buff i nn er edges un der wi n g cover t s r ufou s bu fi shad i n g - . P y r om el a na x ant h o m el a s . S helley . b i ll pale horn colo u r dark er a nd bro wn er o n th e u pper m an d i ble . colou r t h e u pper o n e dark er som et i m es en t i rely blac k . . Ib i s . . . t h e species In habi t s as i n plumage i t closely resembles . - Re i chen . . t h i ghs wi t h or wi t hou t a fe w pale bro wn feat hers Ir i s bro w n . i n t o yello w alo n g t h e ben d of t h e wi n g . . . . ” and k no w n t o t h e na t ives as t he S aca Anch ie t a has . . great er cover t s a nd q u i lls wi t h very n arro w bro w n i sh b u ff edges . . bro w n . G ran t . Maj or Clar k e has k in dly informed me t hat he m et w i t h t h e species near Ingogo frequen t ing only t h e higher slopes . t h e sa m e a m o u n t of yello w o n t h e wi n gs an d bac k as i n t h e f u ll pl u m aged males . M a le i n w i n t er p lu mag e S i m i lar t o t h e fe male b u t difl er s i n hav i n g . . lesser an d m e d i a n cover t s a n d fea t hers of t h e lo w er bac k wi t h pale edges . t o t h e fea t hers . . B . Adu l t f ema le Above m o t t led blac ki sh bro w n wi t h pale bro w n edges . . u n der s u rface o f wi n gs as i n t h e m ales Ir i s an d legs . . . P y r o m el a n a x a n t h o me l aen a . . . Rii pp N W i rb V og p 9 4 ( 1 83 5 4 0) Aby ss i n i a . M a le i n br eedi ng p luma g e lo w er half o f t h e back a nd . Cat M xiii p 2 3 9 ( 1 89 0) . t ars i an d fee t . . . . P c ap en si s . . b i ll wi t h t h e lo w er m a nd i ble grey i sh hor n .

it somet imes occurs in large floc k s in t h e ope n c o u n t ry and i s . ’ Fran k Oa t es s from Inya t i and H ope Fon t ein by Jameson s ’ . . . . Bri t ish Museum . . P Y ROM E L AN A XAN T H OM E L A S 77 collect ed specimens a t Caco n da a n d Q u i n dumbo and gives t h e names by w hi ch t hey a r e k no w n a t t hese places respec t ively . probably en t irely replaced by t h e presen t species which i s . x 0 6 6 ) are of a bluish green colour handsomely mar k ed . S ir John Kir k m e t w i t h t h e species along t h e Z ambesi and S hi ré Rivers and in Bri t ish C e n t ral Africa specimens have . b u t t h e follo w i n g no t es by An d ersso n refer t o t h e species : Thi s is a compara t ively scarce bird in Damara a n d Great N a m a qu e Lands b u t i s very abun d an t a t Lak e Ngami . i t is common and mos t ly see n i n t h e open coun t ry Mr Guy . ” underlying pa t ches o f violet grey . Marshall found i t much more generally dis t ribu t ed t han P s un deva l li and n o t so much a t t ached t o t h e reed beds an d . . he collec t ed a t C ape To w n t w o o f w hich are no w i n t he . been co lle c t ed a t Z omba M i l a n j e B u w a M k u k ula Ka t u nga . ’ quaqua i n Mashonaland There according t o Mr So werby . so as t o form a deep soft li ning The eggs . . T o t h e nor t h of t h e L i mpopo River P app rovi ma ns is . . . also found in small communi t ies i n t h e neighbourhood of w a t er ” and i n humid si t u at ions w here i t breeds The measuremen t s . . ” as P i n i n e and Q u i s en g o . he w ri t es The nes t is generally susp ended from a t w ig over w a t er and roughly b u t s t rongly buil t of coarse grass t h e seed . - . . f rom t h e U mf u li River and by S o w e r b y s fro m For t Chi . . . I have n o t seen a specimen from German S ou t h w es t Africa - . represent ed in t h e Bri t ish Museum by t w o S pecimens collec t ed by Mr T E Buck ley and Mr S elous in Mat abelelan d by . . . heads of w hich are ingen iously t w is t ed in t o t h e in t erior of t h e nes t . he gives are probably t a k e n fro m t he S pecimens o f P c ap en si s . w i t h surface blo t ches of bo t h dar k and ligh t bro wn and . .

E u p l ec t e s p h oen i c o m e ra . cured i h C en t ral Abyssinia by Rupp ell Hengli n m e t w i t h . I t s occurrence in S o m alila n d is k n o w n t o m e o nly by an immat ure specimen ob t ained by Dr Donalds o n S m i t h a t . 1 27 . M ag . i n g i n J u ly and Augus t Eggs t w o o r t hree Nes t i n lo n g . He also ob s erved t h e species n ear N a i w a s h a Lak e Nan d i and . Lak e T a nga n yi k a a n d specimens have been collec t ed by B Ohm . An n . t hro u gh o u t t ha t dis t ric t The t ypical specimens w ere pro . Cap t S t orms procured t h e speci es o n t h e w es t ern side o f . o n Moun t E lgo n a t a n eleva t ion o f fee t in Dece m ber . 336 . a t Karema b y Fischer a t L ind i in U g o g o a n d t h e U sambara . v . H i st (3 ) x p . t h e E ld o m a Ravine i n N o ve m ber he m e t w i t h t h e sp e cies i n “ ” small flock s a n d found t h e y o u n g birds of t h e y ear m o u l t i n g . Adis Ababa In S hoa t w en t y seven speci m ens have been . M . t hese Weavers in t h e highlan d s o f Wagara u p t o an eleva t io n of fee t a n d in t h e U pper Whi t e N ile dis t ric t An t i n o r i . . ” w i t h a sor t o f porch made o f t h e seed heads o f g ra ss At - . fou n d t hem in t h e co u n t ry o f t he Ki dj Negroes . . . . - . . 44 4 ( 1 86 2 ) Ca ma roons . . . “ ” Al fred Sharpe i t i s k no w n t o t h e n at ives a s t h e Chi unga . iii p . Ca t . . . coun t ry and a lo n g t h e h ill sides a t E lg e y u w here i t w a s breed - . . xiii p . . Re i chen . . Bu dd a On t h e n e i ghbouri n g b o r d er o f Abyss i n ia Lord Lova t . B . . grass a n d made o f fin e d ry grass very sca n t ily cons t ruc t e d .I No . . M agila Ki k u yu Moschi and U m b u g w e .78 P Y R OM E L A N A P H CE N I C OM E R A S ou t h An g o n i l a n d M al o s a a n d Chan d a a n d according t o S ir . . E up l e c t es cape n s i s ph oen i c o me rus . . N at . S ho t a specimen a t Waha Z i n z e r o and Mr P ease o t hers a t - . B Af r . . S usua Mr O scar Neumann m et w i t h i t a t Donj e N ai . S harpe . - collec t ed by An t i n o r i and Dr Rag a zzi so i t m us t be abund an t . V og Af r . . G ray . cou n t ries a lo n g t h e P an ga n i River a t Momb a sa Lamu a n d . 23 9 S helley . . P y r o m e l a n a p h oen i c o m e r a . Mr Jac k s o n found t h e S pecies fairly plen t iful i n t h e T ei t a . P y ro m el a n a p h oen i c o m era . . .

cured a fi n e series o f s p ecimens at eleva t ions ran ging f ro m to fee t More rece n t ly Dr Preuss has m e t . . eleva t ion in t ha t count ry t ha n fee t . . . ’ Bur t on s Blac k a n d Yello w B ishop bird is p robably con fi n ed - t o t h e highla n ds o f Ca m a r o o n s . . . 2 . . rRe i che . t ha t t hey refer t o P x a n thomela s . . Mr B o yd Ale x an d er refers a fe male speci m en he p r o . in t h e mou n t ains a t fee t and S ir H arry Johns t on pro . p . . 9. w i t h i t a t B uea so t hat i t has n o t been recorded from a lo w er . S w a i n s An i n M e n a g . under s u rface of q u i ll wi th broad . . i d B Af I N o 3 3 8 . . iii p . p . S harpe . u u . 8 46 P yr o m e l an a au rea . . represe n t i n g i t s e x t remely near ally P xa n tho me la s in t h e . . P Y R OM E L A N A A U R EA 79 V ery s m lar t o i i P . N ii p . cured a t K w o b i a o n t h e Gold Coast t o t his species and . high lands o f Ca m ar o o n s . . Afr i p 1 8 0) w ri t es : We suspec t t ha t t h e f u ll plumage is . belong t o t his species b u t i t appears t o me qui t e a s probable . . V Og Afr . . . fig . . . 310 . . 3 54 . B ocage J or Li sb 1 904 p 8 2 S t n . S wainso n under t h e heading o f E up lec t es c a p ensi s ( B W . B M xiii p 2 3 5 ( 1 890) S helley I b i s . wi n g 2 9 t ars u s . for al t hough t h e bird is common t o S enegal and o t her par t s of Africa specimens . ” usually seen are in i mma t ure pl umage T hese no t es may . Gm S . . t o t al le n g t h i n ches c u l m en w i n g 2 9 ta i l . . n o t acquired even af t er t h e fi rs t m oul t . n . i t an d t h e o t her t w o all i ed spec i es i n t h e b i ll be i n g sl i gh t ly m ore sle n der . tars u s 0 95 F e m ale . . 1 13 . . . L o xi a a rea u . P y r o m el a n a au r ea . . T homa s I s l . Here t h e species w as di scovered by t h e la t e S ir R Bur t on . I am incli n ed t o regard t h e species as a very loc a l for m . rat her obscu re r u fo s b ff i n n er edges t h i ghs m os t ly pale bro w n M ale : . colo u r i n g b ut d i ff er i n g fro m x a n t ho me la s i n si e z an d . . . L o w er m an d ible pale u p per o n e black . C a t .pl . E u pl e c t es au ri n o t u s . . . . . 1 88 6 .

. Ka t N E i er s p 1 2 4 ( 899 ) egg . . P y r o m e l an a af r a . Z ool 1 9 01 . u t ler . an d n early t h e w hole of t h e bac k br i gh t ora n ge yello w . . b i ll blac ki sh T o t al le n g t h . . . . . Benguela and t ha t local i t y is probab l y correc t for M Fur t ado .80 P Y ROM E L AN A A FR A Adu l t ma le ead t hroat an d breas t j et blac k h i nder half of t h e n eck . L o xi a m el an o gas t ra . T he t y pe o f t h e species fi g u red by Bro w n under t h e name o f . . . . . . . . from t ha t coun t ry con t ained an unlabelled e x ample o f t h e . . Worab ée . N i p . . Thom a s and probably ra n ges from Gaboon in t o B enguela . ov . 28 . . . . . . ath I n d Orn i p 3 9 4 ( 1 7 90) Af ri c a L . Af r I N O. Cha n t p 5 2 . . men t o P aris in his collect ion from Gaboo n In t he Bri t ish . . - b u fly w h it e ' I r i s . ” t he G olden b a c k ed Fi n ch w as supposed t o have come from - . . . . . ore ign . . . H ar t er t . Re i che n V o g Afr i i i p 1 1 6 . F L r in g i lla c ar u n c u la c e a . presen t species . - . . lo w er ru m p a n d u pper t a i l covert s d ark bro w n wi th paler edges . Gm S . t here . ” and t h e o t her Q ua n za R iver This la tt er s k in w as formerly . ” Q u e b l an c a n a j an i lo so w e may presume i t t o be abund a n t . B . p 3 4 4 N i ger . D A n t a s s collec t ion w hich w as mos t ly composed o f specimens ’ ’ . On t h e Islan d o f S t Thomas Mr F Ne w t on has collec t ed . 2 46 e h rk o rn . . L o xi a afra . B . Ca t M xiii p 2 4 1 ( 1 890) . i n ches c u lm en . t ars i a n d fee t bro w n . win gs a nd - t a i l blac k wi t h so m e b u ffy bro w n edges t o t h e fea t hers u n der wi n g cover t s . . a number o f specimens and informs us t ha t i t is k no w n as t h e . . B F F i n ches i n Capt i v i t y .I fi nd very li tt le de fi ni t e informa t ion regarding i t s occurrence on t h e A frican con t inen t G uj o n brough t a speci . H . t h e e n ds o f t h e feat hers of t he lo w er bac k broad a n d s qu are wi t h n arro w blac k m arg i n s . . . . - . i ch t V erz D o u b l p 2 3 ( 1 8 2 3 ) S eneg ambi a . N . Ois . wi n g t ars u s Q u an z a R ( B r i t M u s ) . . . . . i nn er edges of t h e qu i lls t h i ghs lo w er abdo m e n an d t h e u n der t ai l covert s . - . ’ i n my o w n collec t ion b u t I never k n e w t h e collec t or s name . V i ei ll . pl . . The Golden back ed B ishop bird inhabi t s t h e Island of S t . 85 7 P y ro me l a n a afra S harpe . ” Museu m t here are t hree e x amples t w o labelled W Africa . . p 2 9 8 pl 5 4 S helley .

a ban d across t h e u pper bac k n e x t t o t h e n ec k a nd t h e scap lars blac k wi t h u . In S enegambia t h e species has been o b t ained by Marche and De C ompi egne a t Daran k a by Dr Rendall near Ba t hurs t . e t hroa t crop s i des of t h e body a n d t h i ghs . b i rds appare nt ly d i ffer i n hav i n g n o s t reak s o n t h e crop an d flank s . cured t here by Drs Reicheno w and L uh de r so t ha t i t may be . t h e Bremen Museum t here is one from B issao I t has n o t been . and March w e n ever m e t w i t h t h e species n o r w as it p ro . Tog o lan d t h e species has bee n procured onl y at Man gu by ( O c t ob er. . t o some e x t en t migra t ory for my res ide nt frien d Mr John . o n t h e Gambia . s i des of body an d the u n der t ai l cover t s bri gh t - yello w . yello w t erm i n al edges t o the feat hers . crop a n d fla n k s s t reak ed wi t h . M ales i n wi nt er pl u mage are s i m i lar t o t h e fe m ale a n d t h e i mma t u re . . wi n g 2 3 t a i l. . n arro w blac k t er m i n al edges t o t h e fea t hers of t h e n ape a n d h i n d n ec k . Smi t h procured t w o specimens a t Accra aft er I le ft t h e . s i des of head ch i n u pper a n d m i ddle t hroa t a n d t h e . - Senegambia t o t he Niger possibly in t o B e n guela . wi ngs a n d t a i l dark bro wn wi t h . . . breas t blac k . fee t redd i sh bro w n T o t al len gt h 4 5 i n ches c u l m e n . edges t o t h e feat hers lo w er bac k an d u pper t a i l cover t s m ore u n i for m pale - bro w n u n der wi n g cover t s a n d i nn er e dges t o t h e qu i lls i sabell i n e a broad - eyebro w an d t h e u n der part s b ffy w h i t e wi th a shade of bro w n o n t h lo w er u . t h i ghs bu ff t i n t ed wi t h yello w Ir i s bro w n . . recorded from L iberia and i t i s n o t a common b ird o n t he . P Y ROM E L AN A A FRA 81 M a le i n breedi ng p luma ge U pper part s . t ars i a n d . . bri gh t ca n ary yello w wi t h . a broad yello w collar across t h e lo w er t hroa t shaded wi th ches t n u t i n t h e m i ddle . . t hree from Fan t ee and o n e from t h e V ol t a R iver collec t ed by U ssher w ho w ro t e : S een a t t imes in large flock s . specimen a t Karaga ( 1 0 N l a t ) in t h e h in t erland and i n ° . Adu l t f ema le U pper par t s m o t t led blac ki sh bro w n wi t h pale bro w n . s w amps . 6 . 1 9 04. . u n der wi n g cover t s a n d i nn er e d ges of - q u i lls i sabell i n e . . ” preferred by t hem Mr B oyd Ale x ander ob t ained a s i ngle . . . t ars u s E gga ( F orbes) . coun t ry These are n o w in t h e Bri t ish M useum along w i t h . The w es t ern Yello w cro w ned Bishop b ird ranges from . . n arro w b u ff edges t o t h e fea t hers . wi t h dar k bro w n b i ll pale horn y bro w n W i n g 2 0 9 E gga ( Forbes ) . V e r r e a u x received i t fro m Ca sa m a n se and i n . . . b ill blac k . G old C oas t for wh en I w as t here w i t h Buck ley in February .

. . collec t ed by Dr Hart er t at Lo k o by Forbes a t E gga and . . T he . II . in t h e form e r t h e w ing me a s u remen t is - and in t h e lat t er inches . . . t h e o t her t hree are scarcely dis t inguishable a t fi rs t sigh t t h e only cons t an t charac t er being t heir size . . . never any t race of yello w o n t h e si des of t h e ches t beyond t h e crop pat ch . t h e sides o f t h e ches t s t rongly mar k ed w i t h yel l o w w hi ch . P s tri c ta while i n t w o o t hers t h e flan k s are alm o s t en t irely . small es t is P la doen si s w i t h a w i n g me a surin g abou t . is pr o bably t h e o n e in t he Bri t ish M useum and t h e locali t y . . . . f o rms h ave a yel lo w pa t ch on t h e sides of t h e crop That t h e . i n t ermediat e in colouring In P ta ha and P s tr i c ta t here is . ch arac t er i s pr o ved by a series o f fi v e full plum aged males ob t ai n ed by E mi n at Lado in June and July . . . in one of t hese t h e sides of t h e ches t are un i form bl ac k as i n P t a ha and . . “ recorded by D r Reiche n o w ( V Og Afr i ii p 1 1 7)from B e n guela . . The group t o which I have ap plied t h e n ame o f Yello w cro w n ed B i shop birds compri ses four species The prese n t - . T hierry In t h e Niger d is t ric t specimens have been . i s n ever m et w i t h i n P afr a or P s tr i c ta al t hough all t h e . . Q u a n za co n t ained i n a s mall collect i on procured from Mr Whi t el ey f o r t h e L isbon Museum i n 1 8 76 I t i s als o . . . . by t h e la t e Cap t Thompson a t Iddah This la t t er specimen . o n e i s w e l l m ar k ed . . My obj ec t ion t o t h ese t hree lat t er named - l ocali t ies for t h e spec i es i s t ha t i t has n o t o t her w ise been m en t ioned from sou t h o f t h e Niger Rive r . . Fern ando P o incorrec t so I have n o t en t ered w i t h in t h e . yell o w o n t h e si d es of t h e ches t in P la doensi s is n o t a co n s t an t . r a nge o f t hi s species ei t her Fernando P 0 or t h e Q uanza River t h e la t t er local i t y res t ing o n a specimen labelled . .82 P Y R OM E L AN A A FRA L i eu t . yello w as in t h e t ype o f P la doensi s and t h e o t her t w o are . . . i t i s some t i m es b u t no t al w ays easily recog nisable by hav ing . inches inhab i t i n g Nor t h — eas t Africa t o t h e n or th o f t h e Equa t or .

I t d i ffers oft e n . i n hav i n g m ore yello w o n t h e S i des o f t h e body . P YR O M E L AN A L AD OE N S I S 83 P y r o m el a n a l a d o e n s i s . and t h e Abyssinian P s tr i c ta In t h e Bri t ish Museum t here . . . Re i che n . . bo t h have t h e w ing measuremen t s only inches so t hat - . B . p 2 1 8 L a do J . . N o 3 4 7 ( 1 8 9 6 ) Re i che n . . S pecies in March and April w hen i t w as in t h e bro w n w in t er . . . fig . eyebro w s sl i gh t l y shaded wi t h r yello w . E up le c t e s l ado e n s i s . wh i ch i n so m e spec i m e n s are e n t i rely bri gh t yello w Iri s bro w n . . . T he mos t w es t ern range k no w n f o r t he species is t h e Nile V alley E min records i t as abund a n t near Lad o wh ere he . Ca t M xiii p 2 44 . . t h e small size i s t h e only reliable ch a rac t er by w hich t h e species can be dis t ingui shed from t h e S ou t h Afric a n P ta ha . . . . full plumage d males . S harpe . plumage . (P I . Adu l t f ema le S i mi la t o t ha t of P ta ha . t w en t y miles of Fashoda Mr Ha wk er found t h e species . . ’ of t h e Z a r e f River and t hree of Mr H a wk er s from w i th in . . . S helley . wi n g 2 2 t ai l . are also — a specimen ob t ained by Capt Dunn a t t he mou t h . t his locali t y fi ve males i n full breeding plumage sho t i n June . . . . . . . . b u t n o t al w ays . . . BAfr I . b ut sl i gh t ly s m aller . V Og Afr iii p 1 1 5 . This is . procured t he t yp e In t h e B ri t ish Muse u m t here are from . t hey are li k e P ta ha i n colouring b u t . 29 . scarcely an y dark shaft s t r ipes n ear t h e crop 9 2 8 6 8 1 L ado - . t hey belong t o P la doen si s and Dr Sharpe w ri t es : . . ’ From Bri t ish E ast Afr ica I have seen t w o o f Mr Jac k son s . f O 1 8 85. M a le i n breedi ng p lu ma g e V ery s i mi lar t o P t a ha . . ( E mi n ). . . . P y ro mel an a l ad oe n s i s . b i ll blac k . fairly common i n flock s w i t h P fr a n ci s ca n a and o t her allied . . The Lado Yello w cro w ned B ishop bird inhabi t s Bri t ish . legs shr i m p bro w n ( J ac k son) To t al le n g t h 4 3 i n ches c u lm e n . amoun t o f yello w on t h e sides o f t h e ches t is variable a n d t ha t . and July These are mos t i n t eres t ing as t hey S ho w t ha t t h e . . t ars u s 3 1 1 8 79 L ado ( E min ) . . . - Eas t Afri ca and t h e Whi t e Nile .

. . ” . . .84 P YR OM E L AN A T AH A ” a small form o f P ta ha w i t h s m aller measur emen t s Mr . . . . . . “ u u bro w lo w er o n e paler . u u of wi ngs pale d s k y bro w n wi th t h e i n n er m arg in s of t h e q u i lls a n d t h e u . . . . cover t s bro n i sh b ff fad i n g i nt o w h i t e to w ards t h e be nd o f t h e wi n g . . . . s i des of head ch i n t hroat ches t a n d cen t re o f t h e abdo m e n j et blac k wi t h . . p 50 Kurr i c ha i n e . Jac k so n fi rs t m e t w i t h t hese birds breedi ng i n small numbers in a s w a mp t w o marches sou t h o f D or e t a i n M a s a i l an d and ’ . a pat ch of yello w o n each s i de of t h e ches t n e x t t o t h e crop Ir i s bro w n . pper m an d i ble l i gh t d s k y . P loceu s du b i u s S m it h Rep . Ka t B i ers p 1 24 ( 1 8 9 9 ) egg Re i che n . Donal dson S m i t h procured a male in t h e bro w n mo t t led plumage i n D ecember 1 89 9 w h ich m ay belong t o ei t her . V og . . t ars i a n d fee t d s k y bro w n T o t al le n g t h i n ches c u l m e n u . t o t h e feathers a broad b ff eyebro w . M a le a d u l t n w i n ter p lu ma g e i E x ac t ly l ik e t h e female B ill l i ght . . . N . . a broad blac k ban d across the h in d n ec k j o i n i n g o n t o the blac k s i des of the m ant le w h i ch lat ter . u n der s rface . . . stron gly m ark ed w i t h dar k bro w n shaft s t r i pes of a n an gu lar form o n t h e - crop an d fro n t of t h e ches t . P y r o m el a n a t aha C a t M xiii p 2 4 2 . . iii p 1 1 4 Afr . n . Af r I . . F orehead cro w ape bac k u pper a n d u n der t ai l covert s . si des of abdo m en a n d the ve n t br i ght can ary yello w . 3 i d 1 1 1 ool S Afr Aves pl 7 . t ars u s 0 6 5 3 T ran svaal ( T Ayres ) . . . . . stroo m ( T Ayres ) . 3 4 9 ( 1 8 9 6 ) N eh rk o r n . Adu l t f ema le U pper par t s m ot t led dar k bro w n wi t h pale bro w n edges . o B . . wi t h b ff i n n er m arg i n s u Ir i s l i gh t bro w n . Af r 1 83 6 . . Z . - . . wi n g 2 4 ta i l . bro w n wi t h very n arro w bro w n i sh b ff edges t o the feat hers . E x p ed C . u n der par t s b uffy w h it e shaded wi t h u . . b ill black . en tr . . p . $2 Adu l t ma le . 50 Kurr i c ha i ne . . L en g t h u . E u pl e c t e s t aha S mi t h . about t h e middle o f S ep t ember t hey w ere nes t i n g in lon grass At La k e Rud o lf D r o ' . . . . S helley . P la doen s i s o r P s tr i c ta as t h e t w o forms pro bab l y mee t . B . has the blac k feat hers part i ally edged wi t h yello w W i n gs a n d t ai l dar k . wi ng 2 4 t ai l t ars u s 2 1 2 6 79 P o t c h ef . . . ” i n ches c u l m e n . n. “ . . bro wn o n t h e lo w er t hroa t fron t of ches t a n d flan k s w h i ch part s are . . . . Rep E x p e d Ce n t r Af r 1 83 6 . tars i an d fee t l i gh t d s k y bro w n n. u n der wi n g cover t s san dy bu ff q u i lls bro w n - . w u . P y r o m el a n a t a h a . i n t h is d is t ri c t . also in t h e E ldo m a R avine .

The Taha Yel lo w cro w ned B ishop bird ranges fro m Ben . . In t h e Bri t ish Museu m t here are four males from Ond o nga . s t room t w o from t h e Che r i n g o m a dis t ric t o f M o s a mbi qu e a n d . P Y R OM E L AN A T AH A 85 d u s k y bro w n wi t h t h e m an d i ble pale paler t o w ards t h e base t ars i and fee t . t h e neighbourhood o f D urba n a large series from P o t c h e f . “ dress . Barra t t w ri t es : I have g o t t hem all t h e w ay up from t he Modder River t o P o t chefs t room near Bloemfon t ein Rus t en . . " 3 1 8 6 79 P o tchefs t roo m ( T Ayres) . am o ngs t t rees as w ell as o n t h e ree d y b a n k s o f ri vers a n d i n . In Por t uguese Wes t Africa accord i n g t o Anchie t a i t is . . l i gh t bro w n W ing . The Taha B ishop bird is a p paren t ly absen t from t h e w h o le - o f Na m aqualand and Cape C olony The la t e S ir Andre w . berg P re t oria Nazare t h and I t hin k I sa w a fe w near t h e . plumage and t h e o t hers k illed in January are i n breedi n g . Smi t h procured t h e t ype o f t he species and t h e t ype o f h is Plo c eu s du bi us at Ku r ri c h a i n e in Bechuanaland and Mr F A . ” k no w n t o t h e na t ives a t H u mbe as t h e C h angombe a n d t h e . t w o o f t hese collec t ed i n November are i n w in t er . ” reeds and coarse grasses . . . . . ” G old fi el d s In t h e B ri t ish Museum t here are specimens from . . “ Wi t h rega rd t o t h e habi t s o f t h e species S t ar k wri t es : I n . sever al from F o r t Lis t er and t h e P alombe River i n Bri t ish C en t ral Africa collec t ed by Mr Why t e . . . - guela a n d Ny a sa l a n d in t o Na t al b u t has n o t been recorded . also seen specimens from La k e Ngami I t i s foun d i n flock s . fro m Namaquala n d nor from Cape Colony . species has also bee n m e t w i t h in t his dis t ric t a t Hu m pa t a by V a n de r Kellen . . . . . . . . Andersson w ri t es : I do n o t recollect having me t w i t h t h is bird in Grea t Nam a q u aland o r in S ou t hern Dam a ra land b u t i t breeds i n grea t abu n da n ce i n Ondo n ga and I have . . m arshes w here i t suspends i t s nes t amongs t t he t all s t al k s o f . .

. almos t en t irely o n ca t erpillars an d sof t bodied larv ae No t hing - . F ri ng i lla abyss in i ca G m S N ii p 9 2 7 ( 1 788) Aby ssi ni a . never t ires o f w a t chi n g t hese fea t hered gems as t hey hover w i t h pu ffed o u t plumage over t h e reeds or grass in w hich t heir - ma t es are hidden lo o k ing as Ay res ap t ly remar k s li k e balls . . . p . eggs are laid abou t t he end o f December i n t h e Nort hern Transvaal b u t n o t un t il t w o mon t hs la t er i n t h e Nor t h of .86 P Y R OM E L AN A S TR IC T A t he T ransvaal and some par t s o f t h e O ra n ge Free S t a t e t hese li tt le B ishop birds collec t in imme n se floc k s t o war ds au t umn - a n d remain t oge t her un t il t h e f o llo w ing spring w hen t hey . . Af r . Orn p 1 29 . . “ The nes t s are nea t ly w ove n o u t o f long p ieces of fi ne gr a ss i n t h e form o f deep purses o r half closed bags sus . nud . x P y r o m el a n a st ri ct a . . Damaralan d They are four o r fi ve i n number of a glossy . brea k up in t o smaller co mpa n ies m any o f w hich appear t o . . summer t hey subsis t largely o n i nsec t s and feed t heir young . - . wh i t e d o t t ed and sprin k led all over w i t h very small speck s . nom . P y r o m e l a n a s t r i c t a Re i che n V o g Af r iii p 1 1 5 . migra t e w hile o t hers remai n t o breed i n sm all c o lonies in t h e . s w amps o r a m o n g reeds o n t h e borders o f vleis or s t reams . . E upl e c t e s s tr ictu s . . . . pen d ed fro m t hree o r four reeds u sually over w at er The . E up l e c t e s s c i o an u s S alvad An n M u s G e n o v 1 8 8 4 p 1 8 5 S hoa . ) S emi en H ar t l . . 3 9 ( 1 8 56 . . . Duri n g au t umn and w in t er t hes e b irds feed chiefly o n fallen grass seeds . . . . . W . S ys t U s h ers . - . . . . . . ‘ o f blac k and yello w floa t ing S lo w ly abou t over t h e grass ’ . of blac k or dark bro w n They measure on t he aver age . . . c a n e x ceed t h e b eau t y o f t h e m ales in t heir n e w l y a c qu i r e d ~ S pring plumage o f br illian t yello w a n d glossy black and one . t hey are also accused o f doi n g consi d erab l e - dam age t o t h e c o rn and especially t o mille t crops b ut in . H e u gl .

collec t ed t w o males in w in t er plumage a t Ounj i in February . Ma le i n f u ll p lumage S i mi lar t o P ta ha fro m w h i ch i t d i ffers i n . . . M . . in 1 8 57 by Har t laub The t ype being in t he bro w n w in t er . s m aller so m e t imes abse n t . H eu g l i n discovered t h e species in t h e S emien dis t ric t and named i t in 1 8 56 E up lec tes s tr i c t os b u t i t w as fi rs t described . Abyssinia Shoa and S omaliland . described as E up l ec tes sc i oa n us by S al v a dor i Hengli n me t w i t h t he species i n w in t er a t La k e Tana in Abyssinia and among t h e highlands o f S emien and t h e surrounding coun t ry w here i t w as residen t and usually seen in par t ies . all i t s plu m ages by i t s larger size ( w ing over . . t ai l t ars u s 3 1 8 8 77 . plumage w as p u t aside as unde t erminable in t he Berlin . . a nu s . In Shoa An t i n o ri found t hese B ishop birds apparen tly - breeding at Tuor Hamesh from June t o S e p t ember w he n he - . . t h e species a t Su t t a In S ou t hern Ab y ssi n ia Mr P ease . apparen t ly i t replaces t ha t bird t o t h e eas t o f t h e Nile i n . . . and he dges o f t h e p a s t ure land In Augus t he sa w t hem i n - . . procured t e n specimens including t he t ype o f E up lec tes s ci o . B . Ca t . . . . all o f w hich w ere males and D r Ragazz i has o b t a i ned . inches ) a n d . . o f from t hree t o eigh t in d ividuals f requen t ing t h e lo w bushes . be in g larger an d i n hav i n g the yello w pat ch o n t h e s i des of t h e ches t . . . . 241 ( 1 8 9 0) S helley . . . ” To t al len gt h i n ches c ul me n wi ng . . xiii p . . t h e breeding plumage . . b ll blac k . The Abyssinian Yello w cro w ned Bi shop bird inhabi t s - Nor t h eas t Africa - . . r . The species can bes t be dis t inguished from P la doe ns i s in . S hoa ( An ti n ori ) . Ir i s chest nu t . fee t d u sk y . . Museum un t il Dr Reicheno w poin t ed o u t t hat from t h e w i n g . Aru si Re i chen V Og Afr iii p 1 1 5 . S harpe . P y ro m e l an a t aha i nt e rc e d e n s E rla n ger O n M o n a t sb 1 903 p 23 . . . Af rB I N o 3 48 . . i . measuremen t viz inches i t mus t belong t o t h e large form . . P YR OM E L AN A S TR IC T A 87 P y ro m e l a n a s c i o an a . .

fro m w h i ch i t m ay . . . . . i . Adu l t ma l e i n w i n t er S m i lar i n pl u m age t o t h e fe m ale a n d also wi t h . i t h e b i ll pale hor n colo u r rat her dar k er bro w n t o w ards t h e c u l m e n . . a a. . bac k a n d scap lars yello w wi t h d u s k y bro w n cen t res t o t h e feat hers . . cover t s an d m arg i n s of t h e q u i lls u n der s u rface of wi ngs wi th t h e cover t s a n d . Fischer foun d t hese birds co m m on i n t he c o r n fi e l d s near t h e t o w n o f P anga n i and k no w n t o t h e na t ives a t Melinda . . a n d the ve t br i gh t ca n ary yello w . S helley . . . Ma le i n breedi ng p lu mag e Forehead a n d fron t o f t h e crow n yello wi sh . . . . scarlet . u t ai l t ars u s 3 1 4 6 91 W i t u ( J ack so n ) . . .88 P Y RO M E L AN A D I AD EMAT A and rem ar k s t ha t t heir spring m o ul t t a k es place i n Marc h . species t o w hich cer t ai nly belong s P ta ha i n terc ed ens procured . i n ches c l m e n . . - 6 S l a t and 1 N l a t fro m P anga n i t o La k e Bari n go ° ° . . P yr o m e l n a d i ade m a t a a S harpe Ca t B M xiii p 2 3 6 . . u pper . t ars i shr i m p u u . t h i ghs sa n dy b ff . O 1 8 78 . . re m ai n der o f t h e head a n d t h e n ec k blac k l ik e t h e ches t . . b i ll blac k . an d . r . . p 3 5 4 pl 2 fi g 4 Meli nda . . rem a i n der of t h e bac k u pper a n d nder t ai l cover t s S i des of t h e abdo m en . Adu l t f ema le V ery s i m i lar t o t ha t o f P f ra nc i sc n . u . ” and o n Lamu Island as t he Mbara . F sch Re i che n O n Cen t al b l 1 8 78 p 2 6 4 . id J f . . wi n gs a n d t ai l dar k n u bro w n wi th pale edges to the feathers shaded wi th yello w o n t he lesser . . . . i nn er ed ges o f t h e q i lls san dy b ff I r i s bro w n . . Re i che n V Og Afr iii p 1 1 7 . B Afr I N o 3 4 5 . . . . The Fire fron t ed B ishop bird inhabi t s E as t Africa be t w een . H i s specimens o n accou n t o f t heir la rge s i ze I refer t o t hi s . E u p l ec t es d i a d e ma t u s . in t he Ar u si dis t ric t o f G all al a n d . o n e o f t hese specimens has a t race o f t h e red fron t al pa t ch . . w ere referred t o P l a doensi s w h ich w hen i n t h e d ull br o w n . . plu m age t li e y much resemble i n c o louri ng as w el l a s i n S ize . S ir John Kirk collec t ed si x spe c ime n s i n w i n t er plu m age at Lamu wh ich are n o w i n t h e Bri t ish Mus e um w here t hey . bro w n toes dark er T o t al le gth . . . r . gen erally be d i st i g i shed by h aV n g a yello w shade o n t h e ed ges of t h e n u i q i lls a n d by the b i ll be i n g sl gh t ly shor t er n d s t o u t er W i n g u i a . u - . . wi n g n . P y r o m el a n a d i a d e m a t a . . . .

. The m os t sout hern ran ge k no w n t o me f o r t his species i s Qu i li ma n e o n t he M o s a mb i qu e coas t w he re Dr S t u hl ma n n . Ir s bro wn . . 1 25 M a le i n breedi ng p lu ma ge . . . 66 Z a n z i ba r i d J ou rn . b i ll . in ches . wi n gs a n d t al l dar k bro w n wi th n arro w pale edges t o t h e . P h i l ad 1 8 4 9 . n. 1 24 ( 1 899 ) egg . procured fi ve specimens so i t is appare nt ly abun d an t i n t ha t . . P yr o m el a na n i g ri ve n t r i s . 1 8 48 . S harpe Ca t B M xiii p . Fur t her inland he m e t w i t h t h e species i n full plu m age a t T ei t a in April and pl en t if u l in t h e lo n g grass a t t he river T igrish . 3 44 N e h rk o rn . . AfrB . The Blac k t hroat ed Fire bac k ed B ishop bird i nhab i t s Eas t . t h e feat hers . P Y RO M E L AN A N I G RI V E N T RI S 89 and all have t h e b ill S hor t er a n d s t ou t er t ha n in P l a doe ns i s . t hese B ishop birds common in t h e r i c e fi e l d s an d also a t Wi t u - . . . ° . . shaf t s t ri pes t o w ards t h e crop an d o n t h e flan k s - . iii p . . 23 0 S helley . Re i che n . F orehead cro w bac k pper der t ai l . u nder win g coverts a n d i n n er m arg i n s of t h e qu i ll r u fou s bu ff . t a i l M t o ni (E m i n) . . Mr Jack son has procured a n early full plumaged male i n . . . u an d u n covert s s i des of lo w er abdo m e n scarle t t h e m an t le sl i gh t ly d u ller an d an d . I No. . C ass . . near Nj emps t o war d s t h e sou t hern end o f Lak e Baringo i n . w hich la t t er species probably never ran ges so far eas t w ard . o n t h e s i des of t hroa t lo w er t hroa t fro n t a n d s i des of body a n d s o m e dar k . p 2 4 2 pl 3 1 . . - ch i n t hroat ches t a n d cen t re o f abdo m en j e t blac k . t ars i an d fee t bro w n i sh flesh colo ur ( Fi scher ) T o t al len gt h ” . p . . . . m e fo r t h e species . p . long . m ore r u fo u s . E u p l e c t es n i g ri ve n t ri s . V Og Afr . . . . F ema le U pper par t s m o t t led blac ki sh bro w n wi t h pale bro w n edges t o . . Ka t E i e rs . M a le i n w i n ter S i m i lar i n pl u mage t o t h e fe m ales . . t he same dis t ric t a t Jipi i n S ep t ember 1 88 5 w here he fou n d . c u l m e n win g 2 2 . cad . P y r o m el a n a n i g r i v e n t r i s . a broad b u ff eyebro w u n der par t s w h i t e shaded wi t h bro w n . P roc . P h i lad A . July This is t h e mos t nor t hern and w es t er n ran ge k no w n t o . “ i blac k . . fea t hers . . . . - A frica be t w een t h e Z ambesi and t h e E qua t or eas t o f 3 5 E .

. p . . T op an d . wi n g 2 4 . . ( Ale x an der) . dar k bro wn b i ll blac k t ars i and fee t bro w n i sh fl e s h colou r T o ta l length - . F ore i gn F in ches i n Cap t i v i t y p 3 08 pl 57 . velvet y blac k neck bac k scapu lars u pper t ai l covert s cheek s ch in t hroa t . th i ghs aw y b f h n t n u f “ Ir i s . coas t coun t ries from L ind i t o L amu Emi n m e t w i t h i t at - . 23 3 B u t ler . Re i chen V Og Afr iii p 1 22 . . . . n arro w pale bro w n edges t o t h e fea t hers a n d t h e u n der s urface t a w n y b uf f . r . . C . . . . . Fr B erl i . . . . . . . n. xi p . u n der t a i l cover t s a n d s i des of abdo m e n scarle t . resembles t ha t o f P fla ni mi c ep s and is of a leng t hened oval . . . P y ro m e l a n a fra n c i scan a p u s i lla H ar t er t B u ll B O . The . . . H also c o llec t ed specimens a t M bu si n i in U s e g u a e . . . L o xi a i g n i c olo r . n at . . - . . ’ B a nian i - Fi scher records i t a s abunda n t t hroughou t t h e . egg s . Af r I N o 3 4 1 ( 1 89 6 ) N e h rko rn Ka t B i ers p 1 2 4 ( 1 89 9 ) egg .90 P Y ROM E L A N A F R AN CI S C AN A coun t ry . eggs i n a nes t are t w o o r some t imes t hree in nu mber . . . Vi e i ll Oi s Cha n t . E u pl ec t e s fra n c i scan a H e u g l Orn N O Af pl 48 fi gs 4 5 ( 1 8 7 1 ) . . shape w i t h t h e O pening a t o n e S ide cons t ruc t ed of coarse grass . . . . . . . . . . 71 ( 1 901 ) L . p 9 2 pl 59 . . F ema le U pper par t s m o tt led blac ki sh bro w n wi th pale bro w n e d ges . t heir aver a ge me a suremen t is X P y r o m el a n a f r a n c i sc a n a . t h e ground t o t h e ree d s or t hic k cover t in marshy places . . t h e Kingani River and Mr Jac k son a t Wi t u w hich is t h e . an d a t Zanzibar w here i t is k n o w n t o t h e n a t i ves as t h e . G es . . . fur t hes t nor t h t ha t I can t race t h e S pecies The t ype . wi n gs dar k bro w n - wi th . . . . . . . . ” i n ches c u l m en . S tep ha n i e . . . 1 7 89 . . P y r o m el a n afran c i scan a S harpe Ca t B M xiii p . M a le i n br eedi ng p lumag e s ides o f head ches t and abdom e n . pale blue occasionally spo t t ed w i t h dus k y greyish bro wn an d . several nes t s and eggs T he nes t according t o him much . S helley B . . . . pl 9 3 3 2. . . . . wi t h a large port i o n of t e qu i lls d u s k y bro w . came from Z anz ibar and in t his dis t ric t Fischer procured . L o xi a fra ci sca a Isert S chr i ft n n . . . . . lined w i t h fi n e grass and a t t ache d some fi ve o r s i x fee t from . t hey are . . G rant Ib i s 1 9 04 p 25 7 S hoa . . . . t ai l t ars u s 3 22 6 01 Accra .

ab o u t April and Augus t a n d i t b reeds duri n g t h e rainy seaso n . . a fe w dark bro wn s t r i pes o n t h e s i des of t h e crop Ir i s bro wn . closely resembles t ha t o f t h e female At Acc ra i n Ju ne . I t hin k he mus t have overloo k ed t his b ird w hen i t w as i n t he bro w n plumage f o r duri n g my visi t t o t h e Gold . . t ai l t ars u s 9 4 3 01 T a d ej e m u l k a ( P ease ) . . I n f ull pl u m aged m ales t h e u pper t a i l cover t s reach beyo n d t h e e n d of t h e t ai l . . According t o t h e lat e Dr G ordon Fan t ee name . . Mr B oyd Ale x ander found t hem i n full breeding plumage In . frequen t ing t h e more open coun t ry i n February and March . . Coast w i t h T E B uc k ley w e found i t t o b e common in flock s . pale bro wn T o t al le ngth . T he Red t hroa t ed Bishop b ird inhabi t s Nor t hern Tropical . . The species i s f a irly abundan t t hroughou t i t s range wh ich . . . u n der par t s w h i te shaded wi t h . - Africa be t w een 2 2 N la t a n d t h e E quat or ° . is limi t ed in Wes t A frica t o Senegamb i a and Guinea From . t heir red fea t h e rs so gradually t ha t a l l s t ages in t ermedia t e ” w i t h t he females are t o be seen in Augu s t . w hen t h e males w ere all in t h e bro w n w in t er plumage w hich . . Niger Rivers The spring and au t u m n moul t s t ak e place here . . t all w eed o f t h e pea family — almos t i nv a riably T h e males lose . . M a le i n w i n ter S i m i lar i n pl u m age t o t h e fe m ale . Dr P Ren d al w ri t es : Builds a w oven grass nes t and lays . bro w n o n t h e S ides a n d lo w er half of the t hroat fro n t a n d s i des of breas t . i n ches . b i ll an d legs . . t w o or t hree eggs of a deeper bl ue t han t hose o f o u r H e d ge Sparro w The nes t has a hole in t h e s ide and i s buil t in a . ’ Al c hi m b u t u kr a - H av e m a d e t heir appeara n ce S ince t h e com . . c u l m e n win g 2 3 . t his par t o f Africa i t i s w ell represen t ed i n t h e Bri t ish Museum by specimens from S enega mb ia Gold C o as t and t h e V ol t a a n d . a broad bu ff eyebro w . . t h e Niger dis t ric t F orbes m e t w i t h t h e species i n full plum a ge in Augus t at Rabba and Ab u sc hi a n d according t o Dr H a r t er t . . m e n c e men t o f t h e rai n y seas o n in grea t abundance i n small ” floc k s . . P Y ROM E L AN A F R AN CI S C AN A 91 to t he feat hers .

. w hich w as procured a t Lak e S t ephani e by Dr Donaldson . . Fash o da S e n a a r Kor dof a n O md urman Shendi S hoa Sou t hern . Bo w d ler Sharpe ( Ibis 1 9 02 p 1 1 9 ) t ha t P fra n c i s c a n a p u si ll a . . I t is generally dis t ribu t ed o v er Cen t ral and Nor t h eas t - Africa from 2 2 N l a t o n t h e Nile ( from whence i t has been ° . . i n S ep t ember a t Kas c hi a . o n t h e Niger and Be n u e R ivers a n d he t oo k a nes t w i t h eggs . S m i t h w ho procured o t her specimens a t Barri i n C en t ral .92 P Y ROM E L AN A F R AN CI S C AN A it w as very commo n o n t h e h igher grou n d o f t h e in t erior bo t h . t h e B ri t ish Museum by speci m e n s from U ganda Lado Re d j a f . . . . a n d Mr Lor t Phillips w ri t es : . t h e brigh t breeding plu mage In S hoa An t i n o r i procured . February b u t in t h e early par t o f March t hey began t o assume . Spe k e m e t w i t h large flock s o f t hese B ishop b irds i n t h e - c o r n fi el d s o f U n o r o a n d Dr A n sorge f ound t hem near t h e y . . and Au g us t a n d Mr Degen m e t w i t h t he m t here in July B efore . . . w as also m e t w i t h i n large flock s by Lord Lova t w ho sho t . Abyssinia Lak e Bari n go E ld o m a Ravine and from Somali . . . I c a n dis t inguish no local forms and agree w i t h Dr . w ill n o t s t and even as a subspecies t h e t ype o f . . . specime n s a t Ha d o La k e H arar Meyer and Lak e Ch e rcher . procured specimens a t Elgey o in t he Ka ma ss i a Moun t ai ns and a t t h e E ld o m a Rav ine w hich is t h e mos t so u t hern range . Only plen t iful o n t he W e b b e S h eb ey li i n t h e c o r n fiel d s w here i t assembles i n large flock s . In So m aliland Mr G ille t t pro cured t h e species a t Bo d ew e n o . S o maliland . and Mr P ease collec t ed o t hers a t G o ra b o u t h a T a d ej e mu lk a . . . . ” Har t er t . . . have been collec t ed by Lord Delamere at Lak e B ari n go . . k no w n t o me for t h e species In t h i s d is t ric t specimens . recorded by H e u g lin ) t o t h e E qua t o r I t is represe n t ed i n . . sp e cimens in May and Sep t e m ber Dr Rag a zz i o t hers in April . . land . and F i l w a These w ere i n t h e w in t er dress f rom D ecember t o . ” of from fi f t y t o o n e h u ndred In Sou t hern Abyssinia i t . Rafu R iver i n t ha t coun t ry and at Ki b e r o Mr Jack s o n has . - . .

’ a t Khar t oum a n d Don g ola The nup t i a l pl u m a g e o u t here . . all i n w in t er plumage assembled i n a consi derable floc k near . . feeds . . Mr Ha wk er m e t w i t h t hem i n floc k s a t Fashoda in April . las t s from A u gus t t o Ja n uary I m e t w i t h t hem in t he . . . . Ro t hsch i ld a n d Mr Wollas t on w ri t e : . t hem very ple n t ifu l in t h e lo wla n ds o f Abyssi n ia up t o fee t He also me n t ions t hem as leavi n g t heir w i n t er qu a r . ° . . Th i s bird is u n iversally k no w n t o E uro peans . dozens of t hem collec t ing t oge t her o n a s m all pa t ch o f gree n . . b u t t h e t ree w as so t horny t hat I could n o t reach t h e nes t . bro w n plumage at Ge d aref i n J u ne and o n my re t u rn t o . . “ A L B u t ler . . The males i n t h e breeding seas o n are a mos t beau t if u l sigh t . t ra n si t ion The red plu m age disappeared i n Jan u ary havi n g . Kordofan and Nub ia t o as far n or t h as 2 2 N l a t and fo und . ” a bou t fi f t y miles sou t h i t w as e x cee d i n gly abunda n t . . - i n J u ne a n d J u ly w here he m e t w i t h t he m i n Ta k ah S e n a a r . breeding in a t hic k S on t — t ree near Khar t oum Oc t ober 2 0 . t ers i n t h e U pper Wh i t e Nile dis t ric t be t w een Oc t o ber a n d December . - . P Y ROM E L AN A F R AN CI S C AN A 93 and af t er t h e breeding season t hese B ishop b irds assemble t o - feed in floc k s a t t imes i n company w i t h o t her Weaver birds . previo u sly lost much o f i t s b r igh t ness I f o u n d a p a ir . v i d u al s w ere see n a f e w m iles sou t h w h ile a t W a d H a b u s h i . This bird freque nt s t he fi elds of mille t o r d h u r r u o n t h e seeds o f which i t ‘ ’ . f o r accordi n g t o h is n o t es t hey arrive i n Nor t h eas t Africa . - b u t I much doub t t heir bei n g migrat o ry as H e nglin s u gges t s . . t he river w i t hin a fe w miles o f Khar t oum The H o n N C . in t h e S oudan as t h e Dhurra bir d an d is very a bun d an t ‘ . . t h e So u dan from Ka w a S ep t e m ber 1 7 1 9 02 mos t o f t h e . . . Acc o rding t o t h e n o t es k i n d ly for wa rded t o m e by M r . . m ales w ere i n full pl u mage t h o u g h a fe w w ere s t ill i n . . i t i s n o t c o mmo n a t She n di b u t a good m any indi . . . . At abou t t h e same t ime o f t h e year Mr Wi t h e rb y f o u n d t hem .

94 P Y ROM E L A N A F RAN C I S C A N A dhurra They ha ve a p re t t y habi t of rising and hoveri ng . S everal v ie w s have been p u t for w ard t o accoun t for t h e ch ange o f plumage in birds b u t w hen t h e colouring gradually. . . P afr a t his i s eve n more no t iceable . o f a disguisi ng fi lm w ill n o t accoun t for t h e second O perat ion . . velve t black and t h e fi ery ora n ge in P fra nc i sc a na appear a s . comes a n d again recedes fro m t h e same fea t hers t h e cas t ing . purchased one au t umn fi ve m ales o f P fr a nc i s c a na and si x of . . - t o w ards t h e ou t er fringes of t h e fea t hers T his S po t t ing . - m a d e o u t o f t heir plu mage by na t ives o f t h e U pper Whi t e Nile t h e blac k a n d scarle t feat hers being s e t al t ernat ely in . mere s p o t s o r shaf t s t reak s wh ich gradually e x pand fan w ise - . “ At t h e cha n ge o f plumage t h e fl an k fea t hers a n d upper - t ai l cover t s are mo u l t e d o u t - being replaced by long sof t . - They - . ho w ever is very un even some fe at hers being developed in . “ P afr a and w ri t es : . balls o f scarle t and blac k velve t . appearance In t h e brigh t yello w and black plumage of . Wi t h regard t o t h e moul t in cap t ivi t y Dr A G B ut ler . nearly al w ays pu ff t hemselves o u t in t his manner w hen approaching a female I have seen beau t iful head dresses . t his ac t ion being a c c om p a n i e d w i t h a loud p urr r r purr r r ’ ‘ of t h e w i n gs . . resumed t heir w in t er plumage . . ” broad rings . All t hese birds con t i n ued t o develop t heir nup t ial plumage up t o t h e fi rs t fros t s w hen t h e change . In P yr omela na t h e change of plumage i s very slo w t h e ’ f ea t hers d aily gai n in in t ensi t y t h e pale b u fl of t h e under . . . w as arres t ed and t h e brigh t colouring gradually receded from t h e fea t hers so t ha t in abou t si x w ee k s t h e birds had all . advance o f o t hers so as t o give t h e bird a very pa t chy . par t s ge t t ing scarcely p e rcept i bl y deeper un t il a t leng t h t he . wi t h a j erk y fl igh t over t h e sea of glossy green dhurra blades w i t h t heir f ea t hers puffed o u t unt il t hey loo k li k e .

assumed t h e ordinary brigh t breeding plumage w i t hou t any abnormal colorat ion b u t o n losing i t once more became . . . . . legs l i ght . accoun t of a specimen o f P fr a nc i s ca na he had as a cage b ird . . . 3 43 W h i t ehead Ib i s 1 903 p 2 24 Ora ng e . . . S helley B Af I N o . B . . . F ema le U pper part s m o t t led blac ki sh bro w n wi th pale bro w n edges t o . bu t . N e w cas t le ( E A B u t ler ) . S . . 1 20 E upl e c t e s pseu dory x Re i che n b S i n g v p 5 6 fi gs 2 00 2 02 . qu i lls a n d t h e t h i ghs r u fo u s bu ff Ir i s dar k bro wn . . t hroa t ches t a n d m i ddle of abdo m e n blac k wi n gs a n d t a i l dar k bro w n w i t h . . . L o w er U mge n i R ( T L Ayres ) . . E mberi a z o ri x . . . u t h e t hroat an d body m ore s t ro n gly m ark ed Wi g 3 2 1 7 75 . . . comple t ely b u t w he n t his w as los t i t w as e x changed fo r . . " The la t e Mr J H Gurney in 1 8 8 2 gives a n in t eres t i n g . . . a deci d edly mel anis t ic o n e I n t h e foll o w i n g year i t agai n . on t h e s i des a n d lo w er half of t h e t hroa t a n d fro n t a n d s i des of body mo st . . N . . “ bro wn T otal len g t h . E up l ec t es e d w ard s i Re i che n b t c p 5 7 . . (x ) p . d ller u and more r fo s shade o n t h e m an tle scapu lars wi t h broad an g ular u u blac ki sh cen t res . . . . . b i ll blac k . M . . n arro w pale edges t o t h e fea t hers u n der wi n g cover t s i n n er m arg i n s of the - . - . Ad ul t ma le i n w i n ter S i m i lar t o t h e fe m ale b t wi t h t h e s t r i pes o n . . 23 0 B t ler F orei g u . t h e fea t hers a broad b u fl eyebro w u n der par t s w h i te shade d w i t h bro wn ’ . M a le i n b reed i ng p lu ma g e G e n eral pl um age ver mi l i o n o f a sl i gh t ly . Cat . S harpe . . . ' . . of w h i ch feathers have obsc u re dark er shaf t s t r i pes W i n g 9 1 8 6 81 - . . ” i n ches c u l m e n wi n g t ai l t ars u s . . are los t t hey simpl y undergo a gradual change o f colour . 1 77 S . Tran svaal ( T E B uck ley) . wh ich in 1 8 8 0 acquired i t s gorgeous breeding dress fully and . . . r . . . fro nt t w o t h i rds of cro w n s i des of h ead ch i n u pper - . . N . . xiii p . . . E p l e ct e s u P y r o m el a n a o ri z . 3 09 ( 1 76 6 ) P y ro m e l a n a o ri x . P Y ROM E L AN A O RI K 95 feat hers which droop over and almos t hide t he t ail . . . . L in n . n Fi ches n ap t i v it y p 3 04 pl 5 6 in C . . . melanist ic . . . S hort r i dge . . . . . none of t h e fea t hers of t h e head bac k breas t and belly . . Ib i s 1 9 04 p 1 7 8 P ondo la n d Re i che n V Og Afr i i i p . . ( xii ) i p . n . . .

t orn from t h e edges o f t h e branches o f young palms S ome . Grea t Namaqualand i t i s found i n t hose cou n t ries also c o n . n es t s are t h ic k ly lined w h ils t o t hers are q ui t e bare w i t h in . . This very handsome bird i s a bundan t a t La k e Ngami and i n O n donga and t hough rarer in Dam ara and . “ In Ondonga i t s n es t m ay b e found i n t hose mo n t hs i n a lmos t every palm bush . gombe Huill a a n d H u mbe collec t ed by A n chie t a w ho . I n t h e Bri t ish Museum t h e species is represe n t ed by specime n s fro m t h e Kuil River i n Cape C olony E la n d s P os t . spo t s a n d near Cape To w n t he o n ly place k no w n t o him f o r . . . P su nd eva lli . i t w as t h e s w ampy ground n ear t h e Royal Observat ory . and Mr Barra t t found i t s imilarly dis t ribut ed over t h e Orange . . ’ . in t h e la t t er t he eggs may be seen from t h e ou t side . . i n forms u s t hat i t is k no w n t o t h e na t ives a t Ca t umbella as ’2 t he Q ui se ng o I n Wes t ern S ou t h Africa a ccording t o . “ Ander s s o n . s t ro n g The eggs are o f a bluish colour and from t hree t o . . . ” f our i n number . According t o L ayard i t co n fi nes i t self t o cer t ain favouri t e .96 P Y ROM E L AN A O RI K The C ape Red B ishop bird ranges fro m A n gola an d t he - Li m popo River t o t h e C ap e o f Good Hope . Bloemfon t ein t h e U mgen i River n ear D urban Weenen . graceful some wh a t oval i n form a n d c o mp o sed o f t hreads . . In t h e Li sbon Museum t here is a S pecimen l abelled An gola and several from Ca t umbella Capan . . . g r e g a t i n g i n small communi t ies a n d frequen t ing mois t si t ua t io n s where i t br e eds in January and February . . t h e nes t is very p re t t y airy and . b u t he calls li t n o t an unco mmon bird t hro u gho u t Cape C o lony . Mari t zburg a n d Po t che f s t room t h e o t her specimens referred “ ” t o t his species in t h e Ca t alogue o f B irds all belon g t o . b u t n o t w i t hs t a n di n g t h e seeming looseness w i t h w hich t he t hreads are in t er w oven t h e app a ren t ly frai l s t ruc t ure i s i n reali t y very .

nes t s are cons t ruc t ed o f grasses domed w i t h a side en t rance . The . a frill loo k ing i n t h e bl a z ing sunsh ine li k e flames o f fi re . . ”’ a t t h e w a t er s edge . - . are for m ed abou t four o r fi ve fee t f rom t h e ground level and . young are at fi rs t fed o n small ca t erp i llars and o t her i n sec t s . . gliding over t h e reed beds w i t h a curious hovering fligh t - . n umbers alo n g t h e reedy s t reams n ear Mari t zburg . some o f t he nes t s con t ained eggs and o t hers you n g b irds i n December . in shape an d o f a uniform pale greenish blue colour They . average X 0 60 The female si t s f o r four t een days The . The eggs f our or fi ve i n number are some w ha t pyrifo rm . - or among bushes In su mm er t h e c o ok s may be seen slo w ly . seldom found a t any grea t d ist ance from marshy grou n d o r t h e reed overgro w n borders o f vlei s o r rivers I t appears t o be - . a residen t in t h e locali t ies in w h ich i t occurs I n w i n t er t hese . slo w ly drift ing t o and fro At t imes t hey da n ce abo ut in fron t. s t ages o f t ra n si t i o n from w in t er t o summer pl u mage in Oc t ober and November They w ere found breeding in considerable . lo w er bac k puffed o u t wh ile t ha t o f t h e n ec k is erec t ed in t o . during w h ich t h e body i s k ep t very erec t t h e plu m age o f t h e . dis t ribu t ed S pecimen s o f t he male b ird w ere o b t ained in all . . i ndividuals and frequen t ly feed in company w i t h o t her Finches . . . birds assemble in flock s some t i m es numberi n g t ho u s a nds o f . 1 9 04 . . a n d usually placed a m ong ree d s o n t h e s t ems o f w hich t hey . . o f t h e fem a les w i t h puffed o u t plumes t urni n g from S ide t o - . . . Feilde n and Reid found i t t o be common and also u n i vers ally . S t ar k re mar k ed t ha t t h e brilliancy and d ep t h o f colour o f t h e plumage o f t h e males i n summer increases w i t h age I t is . S i de as if t o sho w o ff t h e full beau t y o f t heir pl u m age . o n seeds a n d grain A t nigh t t hey roos t in e x t e n sive reed beds . ” incl u ding t h e larvae o f mosqui t oes . P Y R OM E L AN A O RIK 97 River Colony t o P re t oria in t h e T ransvaal I n Nat al B u t ler . [O c t o b er. and o n re t urning t o t h e same place i n t h e follo w i n g March t hey w ere a gain breed i ng eviden t ly for a second t ime .

. . . ches t . . The Red Bishop b ird inhab i t s Eas t ern Africa be t w een t h e - L impopo River and V ic t oria Nyanza . The mos t sou t hern range k no w n t o m e for t h e species is M a pi c u t i in t h e Ch e ri n g o m a dis t ric t near B eira in abou t . P y o m el a n a n i g i f o n s B Oh m J f O 1 88 4 p 1 7 7 . . i n Mashonalan d w here according t o M r Guy Marshall i t i s. . . . i p 4 46 (1 850) S Af B p Co n s p . . . . E u pl e c t es s u n de v alli . . There are f e w pret t ier sigh t s t han t h e m ale in his cour t ing fligh t floa t ing w i t h fea t hers puff ed up and quivering w ings . . . scap u lars wi th broad ang u lar blac k i sh ce n t res t h e blac k of t h e head i s res t r i cted t o t h e fro n t half of t h e cro w n s i des of head s i des an d occas i o n ally t h e ce n t re o f t h e ch i n . t his species so t ha t t h is is doub t l ess t h e form me t w i t h . b i ll blac k . . . . . . s . w edges t o t h e feat hers un der wi n g cover t s i n n er m arg i n s of t h e qu i lls a n d - . . . M arshall t c p 2 4 1 Ma s hona . very loca l b u t plen t iful w herever large reed —beds are f ou n d . r . P y ro me l a n a ory x ( n o n S harpe Ib i s 1 9 00 p 1 1 0 M ap i c uti . ( K i rk ) . . . . . S harpe Ca t B M xiii p 2 3 3 S helley B Af r I . . A . 2 0 S l a t w here i t has been procured by Mr Cavendish ° . . . P or i x b u t smaller . . “ ” Ca ff r ar i a and w as described by Bonapart e as similar t o . M a le G en eral colou r br i gh t scarle t of a d u ller i n breedi ng p lu ma g e . . T o t al le ng t h i nches c ul m e n wi n g 2 5 t ai l t ars u s . . . Al n . a n d m i ddle of abdo m e n blac k wi n gs a nd t a i l dark bro w n wit h n arro pale . . S pecimen ob t a i n ed by t h e la t e Mr F Oa t es a t Hope Fo n t ein . Ka rema . . . . . . . . a n d m ore r u fo u s shade o n t h e m an t le . . . near G u l ub ew e y o is in t h e Bri t ish Museu m and belongs t o . . . . . . . . . . . . F ema les a n d ma les i n w i n ter S i m i lar t o t hose of P f ra n c i s c a na . . N o 3 4 2 ( 1 89 6 ) Re i che n V o g Af iii p 1 2 2 . . . 1 8 8 6 pl 2 fi g 2 r r r . . . ’ The t ype w as from Wahl b erg s collect ion labelled ' . . . . .98 P Y R OM E L AN A S U N DE V A L L I P y r o m el a n a s u n d e v al l i . 3 Ch eri ng o m a D i s t r i c t . Z ambes i . P y o m e l an a r e x a der I b i s 1 89 9 p 56 7 Z a mbe i s u n d e v a ll i . r . t h e t h i ghs r u fo s b ff Iri s dar k bro wn . W i n g 2 5 $2 1 8 1 99 Z u m bo ( Ale x an der) . legs li gh t bro w n u u . ( Cave n d i sh ) .

” co nsis t o f a ri n g o f w oven grass . from t he e x t remi t ies of t he br a nches o f such t rees as t h e Acacia havi ng delica t e t w igs . great er por t ion of t h e y ear i t i s found in large flock s w hose . b u t t hey do n o t al w ay s g e t o ff s o o t free f o r I have more t han - . even ing Wi t h t hem safe t y lies i n numbers since t hey are . M r Boyd Ale x ander d uring his journey u p t he Z a m . . . numbers increase a t t imes o f feeding in t h e m orni n g an d . . direc t ed dOa a r ds B esi des breedi n g nes t s t here are . Throughou t t h e . - . ” S pider . a posi t ion overhanging w at er . borne a w ay In o n e locali t y t h e floc k s are of t en considera b le . P Y R OM E L AN A S U N D E V A L L I 99 o v er t he green reeds a liv i ng ball o f blac k and scarle t plush . . . . nes t s of t h e differen t E up lec tes are fou n d i n colonies hanging . . ’ besi procured a good seri es includi n g o n e from t h e Ru fu e . When a floc k t ravels over a region w here an a tt a c k is li k ely a s t rong and rap id fl igh t close t o th e ground i s resor t ed t o . i t appears t o be equally a t home among t he hu t s o f a nat ive village in reed beds o r i n t h ic k w o ods . . . once seen a floc k complet ely rou t ed and o n e o f t heir number . - . generally a number o f a differen t cons t ruc t ion in which t h e birds may res t These freq u en t ly have t w o openi ngs o r . cons t an t ly being preyed upon by Ha wk s (Ac c ip i ter mi n u llus) and t h e Blac k shouldered Ki t e ( E l anu s cw r uleus ) during t he - day t ime and t he R ed legged G o s li a w k ( M el ler ud ga ba r ) in t he . . S ir John Kir k duri n g t h e L ivings t one E x pedi t io n collec t ed . . ped u ncle of t h e same ma t erial The opening i s t ubular an d . - . a nu mber o f t hese b irds a t t h e Z ambesi and w ro t e : The . . “ Wi t h regard t o i t s habi t s he w ri t es : This i s t h e mos t plen t iful o f all t he Weavers being com m on every where a n d . The s t omach cont ained seeds small bee t les and an occ asional . is usually chosen The nes t is c o mmonly suspend e d by a lo n g . - ' evening w hen t hey resor t t o t h e reed beds f o r t h e nigh t . River w hich is t h e mos t w es t ern range k no wn for t h e species .

a very mo t t led and curious appear a nce By t h e end of . t ha t t hese large floc k s are re t iring i n t o t h e d ep t hs o f t h e green cover f o r t h e n igh t From t h e w i n t er plu m age t o t h e brillia nt . . do w n and u p w i t h o ut i n t errup t io n li k e a n e n dless chai n o n . rus t li n g o f i nnumerable w ings t a k es pl a ce t elli n g t h e O bserver . fl o ck af t er floc k w ill go ’ ‘ s w ish ing pas t in a lmos t be w ilderi n g succession t o some reed bed ahea d in t o wh ich t hey p i t ch l i k e s o many sho w ers - . in mono t one w hile n o w and again t he males climb t o t h e t o p . and o nly w h en t h e las t b ird leaves t h e p o ol d oes t h e cha t t ering o r si n ging w i t hin t h e reed beds cease Then t h e con f used - . . . w i t h a soft conf u sed cha t t ering for all t h e world li k e a fugue . sum m er dress t h e change i s slo w a n d during t h is period al l - . t h e brigh t su nlig h t across t h e w ide mealie fi e l d s bri s t ling - . seeing t o beh o ld a flock go pas t you t w is t i n g and t urni n g i n . t h e females an d t h e birds o f t h e previous season w ho s t ill . o f a reed bed w hose lo w es t dep t hs t hey pene t ra t e an d fi ll - . Ja n uary t h e males have comple t ely assumed t heir remar k able breeding dress b ut t heir numbers are small compared w i t h - .1 00 P Y ROM E L AN A SU N D E V AL L I and t here i s no be t t er t i me t o es t imat e t heir numbers t han t o w ards even ing w he n t hey j o u rney t o t h e reed beds . t here i s a pool close b y t hey t ravel t o t he con fi nes of t h e fi s h cane an d commence t o drop d o w n t o t he w a t er t o t a k e t hei r l a s t dri n k for t h e n igh t a con t inuous s t ring o f birds circling . k eep t h e bro w n plumage a n d t h e flock t ha t a w hile bac k w as . a w heel I t is a pre t t y sigh t There i s n ei t h er bick ering nor . o f bulle t s Soon amo n g t h e green cover o f t h e fi sh cane t here . . An - . accus t omed t ra c k is al w ays t a k e n . - w ill be hos t s o f W eavers ma k ing g reat cha t t erings and when . . quarrel each bird has a cha n ce t o dip i t s be a k i nt o t h e w a t er . s t ages o f plumage may be observed w hich impar t t o a floc k . no t hi n g m ore t han a s t u dy in bro w n bec o mes glo rious w i t h t h e gorgeous liveries o f t he male birds I t i s a sigh t w ort h . w i t h t h e fresh green bl a des t h e n o n t o t h e dar k green cover .

P y ro me l a n a n i g r i fro n s . ’ . In t h e Wembere dis t ric t o f Cen t ral German E ast Africa L ieu t Wer t her Ob t ained t h e t y pe . F or t G eorg e . . hi n der n ec k a n d m an tle yello wi sh r fou s pass i n g i n t o scarle t shaded oran ge u . ’ Wer t her s B ishop bird i n hab i t s t h e V ict oria Nyan za d is t rict - . . 1 9 00. P YR O M E L A N A W E RT H E RI 1 01 of t he t alles t reeds t heir loo k o u t pos t s and t h e se t t ing sun . Re i che n . procured several males i n bree di ng pl u mage i n February a t Mpimbi and found t hem i n w i n t er plumage a t Z omba in July . a . and Sept ember At Karema o n t he eas t er n shore o f Lak e . . . Tanganyi k a B Ohm procured t h e t ype o f P ni gr if rons an d . . A si m ilar e x ample . compan y w i t h P x a n t homela s d o t t ing t h e h igh gra s s w i t h t heir . ch i n m ottled wi t h blac k . M o na t s b . a fe w blac k shaft s t r i pes o n t h e . . H ar t er t . a nd s i des of head blac k . brigh t breedi n g pl u mage Fischer ob t ained P su ndeva lli a t . N ov Z ool . p . red par s be i g paler t n and of a ore oran ge s h ade F orehead fro n t of cro wn m . re m a i n der of t h e head a n d t h e n ec k scarle t shaded ochreo u s b u f f t h e fea t hers fad i n g i n t o w h i te . wi n gs an d t a i l blac ki sh bro w n wi th pale bro w n edges t o t h e . 1 89 7 . t o w ards t h e base a n d sl i gh t l y m o t tled wi t h br i gh t scarle t a t t he i r e n ds . In t he Nyasa dis t ric t t h e species has been m e t w i t h by S ir J o hn Kir k an d Dr P Ren d all in t he S h ir e V alley Mr Why t e . 4] Ka ses i . . u nder t a i l cover t s t a w n y b u f f w ashed wi th redd i sh ora n ge - T ot al le ngth . 1 60 We mbere . o n t h e lo w er bac k an d u pper t a i l cover t s . . Kag ehi o n Spek e s G u lf ’ . P y ro m e l ana w e rt h e ri . un d er wi n g cover t s a nd i nn er edges of t h e q i lls i sabell n e b fl - u i u ches t a nd ce n t re of abdo m e n velve t y blac k . . - . M a le i n breedi ng p l u ma g e Very l ik e P s un dev lli d i fferi ng o n ly i n t h e . glancing o n t heir plumage seems t o t urn each reed head i n t o - ” a brillian t ru by . . . . . . wi n g 2 8 t ai l t ars u s 0 8 T oro ( J ack son ) . id V Og Afr i i i p 1 22 . feat hers . found t h e species abunda n t in t h e Ka w e ndi co u n t ry o f t en i n . P y r o m el a n a w er t h e r i . . Or n . - scap u lars . 4 8 i n ches c u l m e n . s i des of abdo m e n th ighs an d . p .

( 1 902 ) H o i ma . 3 2 4 6 83 u . P y r o m e l a n a f ri e de ri c h se n i . T o t al le ngt h 6 i n ches c l m e n wi n g 3 2 t ai l t ars u s . p . . wi n gs u pper t a i l coverts a n d t a l blac k wi th pale bro w n - . . i s possibly only a pale varie t y of P s un deva lli b u t t w o full . in Toru and a t For t George o n t h e Alber t Nya n za w hich h ave . S harpe Cat B M xiii p 2 3 5 ( 1 890) .1 02 P YR OM E L AN A FRI E DE RI CH S E N I h as b een ob t ained by Mr Jack son a t Toro during t h e re t urn . ° ' . . b i ll blac k . t h e t y pe d i scovered by Fischer a t N g u r u m a n i n M as ai l a n d . . . . N o 339. pl . j ourney fro m t he Ru w enzori Moun t ains t o V ic t oria Nyanza . B Af r . pl u maged m al es procured by t h e la t e W G Dogge t t in U ganda . P y r o m el a n a an sor g e i . . cons t an t charac t er for t h i s species . . I . . M Ous t al e t from Bour e ne a r W i t u . . E u p l e c t es f ri e d e r i c h se n i . ’ F ri e de r i c h se n Red Bishop b ird inhab i t s M a s ail a n d s - . - i . ha v e yello w ish rufous ma nt les wh i ch i s perhaps t he m os t . F i sch . fi g 2 ( 1 89 9 ) M a si ndi . . . . . . 1 88 4 . T yp e . and specimens h ave be e n ob t ained by Dr Ansorge a t Kasesi . . been referred t o t h e l a s t species by Mr Hart ert so P w er ther i . . . . . . an d Re i che n J f O . . . 3 44 . abou t 2 S l a t 3 6 2 0 E long and a S pecimen recorded by ° . cover t s i sabell i n e Ir i s bro w n . P y r o m e l a n a f r i e d er i c h se n i . edges t o the fe a thers . Re i chen V Og Afr i i i p 1 1 7 . . . . . P y ro m el an a ar t er t i n An so g e s U n der Afr S u n p a n s o rg e i . u n der wi n g cover t s t h i ghs ve n t a nd u n der t ai l - . H r ’ . S helley . . . 2. P y ro m e l a n a x a n t h o c h l a m y s S harpe B u ll B O C xiii p 10 . . r . t ars i a n d fee t hor n y bro w n . Re i che n V og Af i i i p 1 1 7 . . . . 54 N g uru ma n . . . F ro t half of ead ear covert s a n d u pper half of t h e t hroat n the h . . . - u n i for m blac k l ik e t h e chest . . . The species i s I believe k no w n o n ly by t w o specime n s . t hroa t fir e red . . h i n der half of head n ec k bac k a nd lo w er . . N g u u m a n ( F i scher) r . . . .

n t h e n ec k w h i ch e x t en ds across o n ly t h e lo w er t hroa t a n d crop abdo me n a n d . ru m p an d u pper t ai l cover t s blacki sh bro w n wi t h paler bro w n edges t o - . P y r o m el an a g i e r o w i . . I . reg i o n . P Y ROM E L AN A G I E R OW I 1 03 T yp e G e n eral pl u mage j e t blac k . . . . F orehead fro half o f cro w n chee k ear cover t s ch i n e n t i re . u n der t a i l cover t s m o t t led wi t h bro w n i sh b ff edges t o t h e feat hers n der u . . . - . lo w er m an d i ble . ' B M . d iscovered by Dr A n sorge in June 1 8 9 7 a t Mas i n di i n . . . nt . bac k win g an d t a i l ( re m ai n s of t h e wi n t er pl u m age t hese par t s be i n g e nt i rely . . t ha t t h e females a n d males i n w i n t er pl u m a ge o f t h e t hree species closely resemble each o t her . . xiii p . 2 Qu ango . S harpe . J f O . . An so r g e ’ B ishop bird inhabi t s t h e E qua t orial Lak e dis t ric t s - t o t h e n or t h w es t o f V ic t oria Nyanza - . . n ec k ora n ge red fad i n g i n t o yello w o n t h e fro n t half of th e i n t erscapular . . . t h i ghs ve n t a n d u n der t a i l cover t s . . so m e bro w n i sh b uff edges t o t h e feat hers of t h e scapu lars lo w er . 2 03 . blac k i n t h e t y pe of P x a n t hoc hla my s S harpe ) T he blac k t hroa t e x t e n ds . P y ro m el a n a g i e ro w i . c u l men wi ng 3 4 t a i l 2 5 t ars u s 1 7 6 97 . n early to t h e crop a n d has t h e lo w er half co m pressed by t h e ora ge red of . u - . S harpe is i n Mr Jack son s collec t ion from t h e Ru w enzori . . t ars i a nd fee t dee p redd i sh bro wn T o t al le n g th i n ches . h i n der half of t he cro w n a nd t h e . re m ai n der of t h e head n ec k a n d . 1 06 . fig . 3 . The t ype o f t he s pecies a male i n breedin g pl u mage w as . pp . E u pl ec t e s g i e ro w i . . . V og Afr . r ( An sorge) . cover t s Ir i s bro w n b i ll black i n cl i n i n g t o bro w n o n t h e u n der part of t h e . t ars i a n d . . Ca t . - buff t h e lat t er wi t h blac ki sh cen tres Ir i s brow n . 1 880. . P gi er o w i k n o w n from t h e t ype o n ly These t w o species agree . B . . t h e fea t hers . . Afr . w ell w i t h P fl a mm i c ep s i n size a n d in t h e blac k c o louring of . M as i n d i i n U n y o o . T he presen t species is nearly allied t o . . iii p . 23 5 S helley . . 3 40 Re i chen . ’ ra n ge a t Hoi ma . . 118 T yp e . a xi llar i es l i gh t bro w n . N o . C a b . wi n gs t a i l a n d ches t u n i for m blac k . . s u rface o f wi ngs j e t blac k wi t h a t race of bro w n o n th e a xi llar i es an d i nn er . . b i ll bl a c k . . pl . u pper an d m i ddle bac k golde n yello w . U ny oro A second specimen t h e t ype o f P x a nt hoc hla mys . t h e under surface o f t h e w i n gs so t here can be li t t le d oub t . t hroat scarle t shaded yello w .

I o 338 . 1 06 ( l ap s . . P y ro me l a n a fl a mm i c e p s . S harpe Ca t M xiii p 2 2 8 u t ler . . B . . Re i che n . - b u ff I r i s bro w n . collec t ions from A n gola w here i t w a s proc u red by Mr Giero w . o f breas t w h i ch par t s are s t r i ped wi t h dar k bro w n ce n t res t o t h e feathers . Afr . V Og . e d ges t o t h e feathers . . . . B F F ore i g n i n ches i n Capt i v i t y . t /e a t “ p w P y r o m el a n a fl a mm i c e p s . ’ The t ype w as se n t t o B erl in i n one o f M r S c h ii t t s . B ocage . b i ll black . . . . . ° . . ch i n pper t hroa t a n d ce n t re o f t h e r . . u a broad b u ff eyebro w chee k s an d ear cover t s pale bro w n a n d very sli gh t ly - . t h i ghs a n d u n der t a i l covert s m o re u n i for m r u fo u s b u f f - Ir i s bro wn . n u .1 04 P Y R OM E L A N A FL AM M I C E P S fee t bro w n . . . Cro w n . pl 1 3 ( 1 8 3 7 ) S enega l . . 2 47 Aby s si ni a . b i ll . . p . both above an d belo w wi t h a t race of b u ff m arg i n s t o t h e ce n t re t a i l feat hers . t a i l t ars u s ’ G i er o w B ishop b ird inhabi t s Angola s - . 1 0. fig . . i n ches c l m e n wi n g 3 0 t ai l . N e h rk o r n . wi n gs a nd t ai l blac k - u . 4 46 . p 2 95 . . H artl P Z . L . . u n der s u rface of t h e wi n g u n i for m d s k y blac k . es M u rs i n L efeb vre s V o y Abyss p 1 1 2 . . . . . t he blac k u n der w ing cover t s from t h e o t her members of t h e - genus . P fl a mmi c ep s wh ich are all t hree read ily dis t i n guished by . . H eu g l . t ars i an d feet red d i sh bro w n T ot al len g t h . 1 8 E lo n g I t belo n gs t o t h e sa m e group as P a n s orgei and ° . . i n t he in t er i o r near t h e K u ango R iver in abou t 7 S l a t an d . scarlet S haded faw n colo r wi t h blac k a n gu lar ce n t res . B . . B . . . J f O . . 1 86 3 . . cu l m en wi n g 3 0. p . ch i n u pper t hroat an d of t en t h e fron t of the forehead j e t blac k . p 83 S t T homas I s l J . E fl a mm i c e p s . T ot al le g th n 6 i n ches . . S . u breas t w h i t e shad i g i nt o b ffy bro w n o n t h e lo w er throa t fro n t an d s i des . . . . p 1 86 . oran ge scarle a tle pper t ai l covert s m ore r u fou s s i des o f head t . or n i sb 1 904 . 1 S ch i ff B p Co n ep i p ( 1 850) Aby ssi n i a ” E upl ec t e s c ras p e dOp te r u s . seco n dar i es an d e n d s of t h e m ed i an wi n g cover t s breas t velve t y blac k wi t h - . . . t h e s i des of t h e abdo m e n fa w n colo u r t h i ghs a n d u n der t a i l cover t s r u fo u s . 1 86 4. scap u lars . L D o xi a ( E u ple c t e s ) pe t i t i . pl ’ . st eak e d l ik e the s ides of t h e n ec k . . . . M a le e nt i re n ec k a n d lo w er half o f back i n br eedi ng p lu ma ge . Ad u l t f ema le U pper par t s m o tt led blac ki sh bro w n wi th pale bro w n . N . . . - . S w ai n s up l ec t e s W Afr i . . E up l e c t es p y rrh o z o na . Af r iii p 1 1 8 . u t ars u s S i erra L eo n e . . m n a nd u - . . . pl 55 ( 1 89 4) S helley . Ka t B i ers p 1 2 4 egg . E upl e c t e s fl avi c ep s .

These B i sh o p birds are abun d an t t hroughout o u r Gold - C oas t possess ion s and i n T ogo land w here t h e males assume . . Ga mbia . . t he brigh t red plumage for t h e breedi n g and rainy season . on G all i l e e Moun t ai n and accord ing t o h is no t es t h e adul t . . and i n t h e Bri t ish Museu m t here is a speci men from S ierra L eone Demery ob t aine d speci mens a t t h e S ul y m ah River . P Y R O M E L AN A F L A M M I CE P S 1 05 tars i a nd feet bro w ni sh flesh colo ur W in g 2 5 t ai l t ars u s Co n nor s . hours qui t e is o la t ed fro m o t her bir d s and even fro m t hei r . . t he hig h g rass a n d cons t ruc t ed o f fi n e g rass Mr B o yd . . ° . i n t h e mos t obv ious m an n er . males frequen t t h e t ops o f t h e ca n es w here t hey remai n f o r . - generally be t w ee n 1 7 N l a t and 1 8 S l a t ra n gi n g fro m ° . The t ype of t h e species came f rom S enegambia S ir A . . . B eaudouin a t B issao B ulger and Fea o n Bulama one o f t h e Bi ss a g o s Islands . an i e d by P f ra nc i s c a n u s Drs Reiche n o w and L ii h d er fou n d p . wi t h t he wi n gs blac k er 3 2 6 2 7 2 Abo k ob i ( S helley ) . o n t h e grassy plains beh ind S c h i e ff e l i n s v i l l e a t Old fi eld and . fe males and you n g o n es be i ng a p paren t ly proud o f t heir . . i n t o Abyssin ia i n E as t ern Africa . brilli a n t plu m age as t hey are indefa t igabl e in e x posing i t . . i n Liberia a n d Mr B ii t t i k o f e r recor d s t hem as t olerably ' . . young in Augus t The nes t is of t h e same ova l form as w i t h . t hem breeding ab u ndan t ly on t h e plains o f Accr a a n d w i t h . . . . . Moloney a n d Dr P Re ndall have procured specimens a t t he . . . They frequen t t h e more open co un t ry of t en in flock s ac c o m . w hich las t s fro m t h e lat t er par t o f April t o t h e end o f Aug u s t . Adu l t ma le i n w i n ter p lu mag e S i m i lar i n colo u r i n g t o t h e fe m ale b u t . ’ H i ll ( S helley ) . . . The F ire cro w ned B isho p bird inhabi t s T ropi cal Africa . m embers of t h e genus H yp ha n tor n i s b u t is hung si n gly from . . common i n t h e vicini t y of Robert spor t a t Grand Cape Moun t . . S enegal i n t o B e ng u ela o n t h e w es t a nd fro m t he Z ambes i . V e r r e a u x from Ca s ama n se . . . . .

by Fu r t ado d A n t a s i n t h e Bri t ish Muse u m ’ . . b y C a p t S t o r m s d u ri n g h i s e x ped i t i o n up t ha t river t o La k e . . la t e f ri end Ja m es o n w hile w i t h t he S t a n ley E x pe d i t i o n m e t . . I n t h e N i ge r d i s t ri c t t h e S pecies has bee n m e t w i t h by Fal k e ns t e i n a t B o n n y . ” t h e dep t hs o f s o m e r eed bed be i n g espec i ally l o u d af t e r ra i n - . b r eed i n g plu mage ple n t i f ul i n t h e da m p r eedy l o cal i t i es . . . . a n d by D r Ha r t e r t a t Lo k o o n t h e B e n u é w here . C a p t G i ff a r d o b t a i n ed a m ale speci m e n t here i n Augus t . S i r J o h n Ki rk i n 1 8 6 4 r ec o r ded t h e spec i es f r o m the Zambes i a n d Sh i r e R i ve r s I n Nyasala n d a cc o r di n g t o Ge n er a l Ma n n i ng . he r e by Kelle n a t B o ma by B o h n d o r ff a t Ka ss an g o a n d . h male i s pec l i a r — a r u n n i n g v o luble t i z u t t e r ed f r o m ’ of t e u . Wel w i t sch . Jan ua r y t o May t his spec i es w as n o t o bse r ved al t h o ugh . . . . At t he Z a mbes i R i ve r t o w a r d s Z u mb o M r B o yd . whi ch s i t ua t i o n s t hey appea red t o leave af t e r t he n es t i n g seas o n . ” A r o u n d C ape C o as t a n d Accra he f o u n d t h e species i n .1 06 P Y R O M E L AN A FL AM M I C E P S “ Ale x an der w r i t es : D u ri ng o ur s t ay a t Gambaga f r om . . Loa n g o Coas t Al o n g t h e c o u r se o f t he C o n g o R iver my . w i t h t h e S pec i es a nd o t he r spec i me n s have bee n collec t ed . “ ” t h e nat i ves as t h e Ko pi s o n g and i t has bee n r ec o rded . p r o cu r ed t h e species a t Jau n de w here i t w as k n o w n t o . fl i gh t by t he i r la r ge r s i ze a nd blac k i sh w i n gs The so n g . . . a r e spec i m e n s f r o m Gab o o n a n d f r o m La n da na o n t h e . I n t h e Bri t i s h Museu m t here . Ta n gan y ik a There is a spec i m en f r o m A n g o la o b t ai n ed . Be mbe a n d C a mba m be a n d by A n ch i e t a at Q u i ssan ge . . . “ Ale x a n de r fo u n d t hese B i sh o p b i r ds n o t s o c o mm o n as P - . su n d eva lli f r o m w h i ch t hey c a n be read i ly d i s t i n g u i shed i n . and i t has bee n r ec o r ded as abu n da n t by M r Mo n t e ir o a t . fo u n d i t k n o w n t o t h e n a t i ves a t Gal u ngo al t o as t h e S ac o ” - . . . f r o m S t Tho mas Islan d . by F o r bes i n full plu m age i n Augus t . he fo u n d i t fa ir ly abunda n t I n Ca m ar o o n s D r Z en k er . . a t Ab u t c h i .

i n U sog o F r o m fu r t he r w es t i n Ce n t r al Afr i ca E m i n p ro . be ple n t i ful i n t h i s c o u n t r y as spec i me n s have been c o llec t ed . d r ess . . . . a n d Ap ri l a r e i n t h e b ri gh t b r eed i n g plu m age a n d i n . Th i s spec i es i s abu n da n t a n d ve r y ge n e r ally d i s t ri bu t ed o ve r Ge r man E as t Af ri c a w h ere S i r J oh n K i rk B oh m . . . I n t h e P o r t uguese t e r r i t o r y a t Q u i l i ma n e t he speci es i s . a la r ge series ob t a i n ed by M r Ale x a n de r Why t e a t Z o mba . . . F i sche r a n d E mi n have c o llec t ed spec i m e n s a t m an y places . Acc o r d i n g . U lumb a T h e spec i m e n s p r ocu r ed i n N o ve mbe r Ja n ua r y . . at Z o mba M t o n d w e M k uk ul a K o t ak o t a N a mi w a w a a n d . . . . c u red spec i me n s a t T i n g a s i a n d K u bb i fi ve o f w h i c h a r e . a m ale i n b r eed i n g pl u m age a t D i n d i i n Kav ir o n d o July 1 6 . “ and Muan a S e r p o P i n t o r eco r ds i t f r o m I b o Isla n d o ff . t h e mo r e n o r t her n la t i t udes f r o m May t ill Aug u s t . . a n d t his i s t h e m os t eas t e r n l o cal i t y k n o w n t o m e fo r t h e speci es I t has n o t bee n r ec o r ded f r o m S o m al i la n d a n d t he . . t o H e u g li n t hey b r eed i n Au us t a n d S ep t e m ber i n t he h i gh g . . i n w h i c h la t t e r cou n t r y w ere p r o c u r ed t h e t ypes o f Or yx p eti ti E u p l ec tes c r a sp edop tem s an d E p yr r ho zon a . He als o p r ocured spec i m e n s a t Z a n z i ba r a n d i n t he U s eg u a “ ” co u n t r y w he r e i t i s k n o wn t o t he n a t i ves as t h e Ba n i a n i . ” “ called by t h e n at i ves M r i bb a acc o rd i n g t o D r S t u hl ma n n . . . A t Mel i nda F i scher f o u n d i t beg i n n i n g t o b r ee d i n May . n o w i n t h e B ri t i sh Museu m alo n g w i t h t w o f r o m Ab y ss i ni a . P Y RO M E L AN A F L AM M I C E P S 1 07 “ ” it i s k n o w n t o t h e nat i ves as t h e Mk an j e a n d i t m us t . spec i es i s appa r e nt ly r a r e i n Br i t i sh E as t Af ri ca f o r M r . . ’3 t h e M o s a m b i q u e C o as t i n 1 2 3 0 S l a t ° ’ . . J ac k s o n p r o cu r ed o nly a s i n gle pa i r a t E lg ey u i n Aug u s t . be t w ee n Ju n e a n d No vembe r all ar e i n t he b r o wn wi n t e r . . . F r o m t h e ab o ve r ec o rds i t i s e vi de n t t ha t the species b r eeds i n i t s sou t h e r n r a n ge f r o m N o ve mbe r t o Ap r i l a n d i n . S i r Ha r r y J o h n s t o n o b t ai n ed . . 1 8 9 0 a n d o n e a t Ka b in d o . a spec i me n a t Nand i an d D r A n s o r ge m e t wi t h t h e spec i es .

B . in D eck e n R e i s iii p . . B Af r I N o 2 9 2 . 9 Cri t h a g r a re n d a ll i . . . . . 2 76 Cri t h a gr a c h l o r op s i s (n o n Bp . . Afr . . The eggs gen e r ally t h r ee i n numbe r a r e o f a pale g r ee n i sh . w hich fl o w f rom t h e Kasa ngo Mou n t a i n s P r i n ce Paul o f . sp o t s a n d meas u r e o n an a ve r age . bel o n gs t o t h e Vi dui n ae . . . pl . S helley . . 3 0 ( 1 9 01 ) A i mber bi s . (P I .1 08 AN OM AL OS P I Z A I M BE R B I S grass an d bush i n t h e Djur cou n t ry a n d alo n g t h e s t reams . rese m bles t hat o f S eri nu s fla vi ver tex T he bare c u l m e n reced i n g bac k . . An o m a l o s pi z a i m b e rb i s R e i che n Or n M o n a t sb 1 903 p 1 68 . . . str u c t u re o f t h e w i n gs a nd feet t h e sam e as i n P y romela na a n d Quelea . . . Cab J f O 1 868 p 41 2 n o t e Z a nzi ba r Coa s t . u . A N OM A L O S P I Z A . V 63 . B ll B O C x ii p u . c u tt i n g edge of t he l o w er m an d i ble ben t i n t o a sharp an gle a t the base wi t h t h e p o ster i o r s i de d i rect ed i n a s t rai gh t . n o d o u b t o n acc o un t o f t h e c o l o u r i n g o f t h e f u ll pl u m aged m ale w h i ch mu ch . . T r i s t ra m . . i d . . an d S o u th Afr i ca T h i s spec i es w as o r i g i n ally placed i n t h e gen u s Cr i tha g a . ) Cab . . A n o m al o sp i za i m b er b is . S er i n u s r en d alli . . . Ib i s . 3 0. l i ne w i th t h e ce n tre o f th e n o str i ls . feathered p o rt i o n o f the fo rehead . T he ge s i s represe ted by nu n spec i es w h i ch i s c o n fi n ed t o T r o p i cal o ne . . p . p 1 8 0 T r a n s va a l . . . An o m a l o s p i z a re nd a ll i . thro u gh t h e fro n t al feathers i s a character o f t h e P loc ei d ce an d n o t o f an y o f the Afr i ca n m e m bers o f t h e F i ng i l l i dce T he s m all sharply p o i n t ed fi rs t r . Cri t h a gr a i m b erb i s . An o m a l o sp i z a . . u ll O C x ii 3 0 B . r . . S helley . pr i m ary i n c o nj n c t i o n wi t h the s t r i ped m an t le o f t h e fe male sh o w s t hat i t . S helley . 1 89 5 . . iii p . blue w i t h o r w i t h o u t s m al l r edd i sh b r o w n a n d g r ey i sh b ro w n . . . B i ll very deep c o m pressed a t t h e s i des . e x p o sed c u l m en an d m u ch s t rai gh t fr o m the t i p t o t h e n o s t r i ls nd e x te n d i n g far bac k par t i n g t h e a . . . W ur t emb erg f o und t h e spec i es i n S o u t he r n S e n aar a n d I . x G en u s V I . ca n n o t t r ace t h e r an ge fu r t her n o r t h i n E as t e r n Af ri ca .

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I r i s da rk . 9 1 6 2 9 4 B arbert o n d i s t r i c t ( R e n dall ) . . b r o w n u ppe r m a n d i ble h o r n c o l o u r l o w e r m an d i ble fee t a n d - . t ail tars u s . by B oh m i n t he U n i a m w es i coun t r y . yello w . b i ll h o r ny br o w n paler be n eath . . The Ca n a r y l i k e B i sh o p b i r d r a n ges f r o m S i e r r a Le o n e a n d . edges t o the feathers W i n gs br o w n i sh blac k wi th m o derately br o ad d u ll . dar k ce nt res t o the feathers m ch n arro w er o n the head an d n ec k than o n u t h e m a n tle . . tai l tars u s 3 1 6 2 94 B arbert o n d i str i ct ( Ren dall ) . . - t h e U ppe r W h i t e Nile o ve r Ce n t r al a n d E as t e r n Af r i ca t o as fa r sou t h as t he T r an svaal . The spec i es has bee n o b t ai n ed by E m i n i n t h e U ppe r W hi t e N i le d i s t ri c t a t F a dj ull i a n d Ob b o b y M r O sca r Neu m an n i n . o t he be n d o f the w i n g S i des o f the head a n d n ec k a n d t h e u n der parts . T o tal le ngth i n ches c u l m e n w in g 2 7 . . AN OM AL OS P I Z A I M BE R BI S 1 09 Adu l t ma le e n eral pl um age can ary yell o w F o rehead an d fro n t o f . M r R o b i n Ke m p du ri n g a v i s i t t o S i e r r a L e o n e i n 1 9 02 . p r o c u r ed a n adul t m ale o f t h i s spec i es a t B o i n S ep t e mbe r . - . re m ai n der o f the cro w n bac k o f n ec k back . W i n g 2 75 . re m a i n der o f the u pper parts s i m i lar i n patter n t o that o f the ad lt m ale u . tars i . i nt o pale br o w n o n t h e ear c o verts a n d bac k o f chee k s w h i ch are sl i ghtly - . a n d wri t es The o n ly spec i m e n I have see n w as caugh t w i t h b i r d l i m e by a n at i ve a t t h e edge o f a r i c e fie l d - . u . G . scapu lars u pper tai l c o vert s an d t h e tai l br o w n i sh blac k w i th br o ad yell o w . o f t h e q u i l l s a n d the u n der c o verts w h i t ey br o w n w ashed wi th yell w al o n g - . ” cla w s d u s k y flesh c o lo u r . . black i sh br o w n u n i fo rm o n the fo rehead an d fr on t o f the cr o w n b u t wi th . u U pper parts o . . yello w e dges t o all t h e feathers e x cept i n g the pr i m ary c o verts i n ner edges. . U s o g a a t K w a Lub w a . . . . cro wn u n i fo r m yello w . . F ema l G e n eral pl m age br w n w i th n o br i ght yell o w e . . b u t w i th t h e e d ges o f the feathers pale br o w n i n stead o f y ell o w an d the . . th i ghs sl i ghtly - shaded wi th bro w n Ir i s bro w n . . flan k s streak ed wi th n arro w blac k i sh shaft str i pes . a n arr o w yell o w i sh w h i t e part i ng e x t e nd i n g bac k fro m t h e c u l m en . streak ed wi t h dark er br o wn u n der parts w h i tey br o w n s i des o f n ec k an d the Op wi th s m all lan ceo late dark br o w n shaft str i pes . a n d feet pale br o w n T o tal le n gth 4 9 i n ches c u l m e n . a br o ad yell o w i sh b u ff eyebr o w e x t e n ds fr o m the n o str i l t o ab o ve the ear c o verts fr o n t half o f s i des o f head yello w i sh b ff shad i n g - u . . fla nk s bo ld ly cr - streak ed w i th dar k br o w n B i ll paler than i n t h e fu ll pl m aged m ale .

. . . . i n t he Ba r be r t o n d i s t ri c t o f t h e Tra n svaal o u t o f a la r g e floc k . . p e r ase al l t h e refe r e n c es t o Cr i tha gr a i mber bzs a n d ' . . G en u s V II . . D r Re i chen o w assures m e is no t t he case . . . They w e r e ve r y wi ld a n d gave hi m a n e x c i t i ng ri de af t er t he m o ver t h e o pen veld t befo re he c o uld secu r e b o t h se x es These spec i mens are n o w i n t h e L i verpool . Feb r ua r y 1 7 . . Z o m b a all of . . . . w hi ch refe r t o t h e p r esen t spec i es S i m ilar c o r rect i o n s should . T he alterat i o n i n the pl u m ag e o f t h e adul t m ale by t he spr in g mou l t i s sl i gh t mo st m ark ed by the head o r thr o at ass u m i n g s o m e clear blac k o r red . The t yp e w as d i scove r ed b y Dec k en n ea r t he Z an z i bar c o a s t b u t t h e e x ac t l o cal i t y has n o t bee n rec o r ded a nd i t . Wi t h r eg a r d t o my a r t i cle o n S er i n us i mber bi s ( B Afr III . S er i n u s w hich pr o ves n o t t o be t he case . w h i ch d i st i n g u i shes i t fro m t h e fem ale t h e bac k d o es no t chang e b u t . . . s o m et i m es ac qu i r i n g a cr i m s o n shade I n gen eral str u c t ure i t cl o sely . QU E L E A . . . . . a n d the u pper t a i l c o ver t s d o n o t e x t e n d so far o ver t h e t ai l - . u n de r t h e n a m e o f An oma losp i za r enda l li bel i ev i n g at t h e t i me . be made i n t h e C a t alogue o f t h e B i rds o f t h e B M x ii p 3 5 5 . . . . M useu m an d I had t he m fi gu r ed fo r m y prese n t w o r k i n 1 9 01 . n a m ed S er i n u s i mber bi s Sha r pe S S ha rp i i u n der t h e i mpres . t hat t hey w ere d i s t i n c t f r om Cr i tha gr a i mber bi s C ab w h i ch . F r o m fu r t he r sou t h t h e speci es i s k no w n by t h e t ypes o f Cr i tha gr a r enda lli a m ale a n d fe m ale sh o t by D r P R endall .110 QUE L E A at Kak o m a an d by F i sche r i n U g a i a o n t h e eas t e r n c o as t of . . s i o n t ha t Cr i tha gr a i mber bi s Cab bel o n gs t o t h e sam e genus . . rese mbles P y romela na b ut l i k e Anoma losp i za i t n ev er has a ruff o n the n ec k . . re m ai n s bro w n wi t h blac k i sh c ent res t o the feat h ers t h e n ec k a n d breast . . V i ct o r i a Nya n za a n d also a t Z anz i ba r . ” c hlor op s i s a n d t hose t o S e ri n u s i mber bi s a ft e r . . r ema i n ed h i dden i n t h e B erl i n Museum f r o m 1 8 68 u n t i l t h e beg i nn i n g o f t h i s ce nt u r y whe n I bel i eve Mr Neuma n n r e .

. . Q quelea . . . . ashy . . e B i ll larger u pper half o f thro at deep 2 . F o rehead cro w n a n d s i des o f head m o re . p . Q u e l e a q u el e a . cr i m s o n shad i n g al mo s t i n t o blac k d o w n . . Q u elea s angu i ni o st r i s l a t h a m i Re i che n V og Af iii p 1 1 0 r . . . . . . 3 1 0 ( 1 7 6 6) a . . E n t i re f o rehead blac k 6 q u elea a 2 . . . KE Y TO TH E SP E CI E S . . 02 . . N 7 d l N o red o n head o r t hr o at . . . Lo x i a lat h ami S m i th Rep E xp ed Ce nt r Afr 1 8 3 6 p 5 1 Kurri c ha i ne . t hr o a t w h i t i sh M a les i n . . . . . m s si . . B Afr I N o 3 50 . . va r . . . Li nn . . . . S i des o f head a n d the upper thr o at n o t blac k . . Q u elea r u ss i S harpe Cat B M x iii p 2 60 pl 1 0 fi g 6 ( 1 8 9 0 . . . . . . / ° v I 7 f B i ll s maller e n t i re thro at bri ght scarlet 3 . w i n te r p lu ma ge a nd t he f ema les . . . of thr o at br i ghter san dy b u ff o r pale bro w n . . . B u tler F o re i g n F i n ches i n Cap t i v it y p 2 98 pl 58 . . F ema les o f bo th sp ec i es . Q u elea elea S harpe Cat B M x iii p 2 5 7 pl 1 0 fi g 3 qu . (x ) p . Em ber i a z qu elea . . head red i n breed i n g pl u m age M a les . . . . N . . . . T h o m as Isla n d i n t h e B i gh t o f B e n i n a n d c o m pr i ses f o u r spec i es . R Q qu elea . . . . . S helley B Afr I N o 3 53 . T h i s ge n u s i s c o n fi n ed t o T r o p i cal a n d S o u t h Afr i ca i n cl ud i n g S t . . I E n t i re f rehead b u fi ( typ i cal) ° 6 ( e t h i op i c a 2 o . . d2 . . . . . . . S . . P l o ce u s r uss i Fi n sc h G e fie d W el t 1 8 7 7 p 3 07 W Af r . B i ll red . c a r di na li s . 0 1 F o rehead br i gh t cr i m s o n o r scarlet e n t i re . . F rehead s i des o head an d t h e u pper . . . . S i de o f head n d t h e u pper thr o at blac k a I a l es i n b i ZV eedi i i g p l u ma g e . . . . . . . 1 77 ( x ii ) 1 . . . . a . a1 . r . . the ce n tre ery t hrop s . g . . . . . Q u elea o cc i den tal i s H artl O n W Afr p 1 2 9 ( 1 857 ) S enega mbi a . S helley . 19 . . 13 1 . . . Q u elea s an gu i n i ro s t i s ( no n Re i che n V o g Af r iii p 1 08 r . Q UE L E A QU E L E A 11] Q u elea e i chen b S ys t N a t pl 7 6 fi g 1 ( 1 8 50) . Di o c h V i e ill Oi s Cha n t p 4 6 pl s 2 2 2 3 . . r . . . H y ph a n t i c a Cab M u s H e i n i p 1 80 ( 1 8 5 1 ) . . B i ll blac k o bro w n r .

z dar k r o sy red . u . . P o tchefstro o m . i n t h e plu m age o f Q rus si F i n sc h I n t ha t c o u n t r y M r J S . . b i ll . . u 9 1 1 1 2 76 P o t chefs t ro o m ( T Ayres ) . . ch i n a n d u pper thro at san dy b uff T ra n svaal . . . ear c o verts T o t al le n gth - . m in o f n ec k gl o ssy san dy b f f w i th t h e n ape ashy br o w n l i k e the bac k o f the u . I n t he . breast - . . . l i n g i n la n d f r o m t h e G o ld C o as t m e t wi t h t hese b ir ds i n fl o ck s . i n ches c u lm e n w i n g 2 5 t ai l tars s . ad u l t m ale f r o m Ki b e r o o n t h e eas t e r n s i de o f t h e Albe r t Nya nza a n d f r o m t h e Albe r t E d w a r d Nyan za t here a r e fi ve . - . . app r o ach Q qu elea t han Q w t/Li op i c a b u t a r e i n t e r m e d i a t e . bac k w i n gs a n d t ai l dark br o w n w i th pale edges t o t h e fea t hers . . . . . . . . . . fro n t o f ches t a n d s ides o f bo dy wi t h a - w ash o f bro w n o r wi t h bro w n ce n tres t o the feathers Ir i s l i ght ha el . The Blac k fr o n t ed Di o c h i nhab i t s Af ri ca sou t h fr o m t h e - S en egal R i ve r t h e Albe r t Nya n z a and Lak e Nyasa . 20 1 2 71 . . . . spec i m e n s c o llec t ed by M r S c o t t E ll i o t w h i ch m o r e n ea r ly . B ri t i sh Museum t here i s a s i n gle spec i men fro m t h e Ga m b i a .112 Q UE L E A Q UE LE A M a le i n b reedi ng p l uma g e rehead cheek s ear c over t s ch i n a n d . . fo r m s . n ec k . Fo . th i ghs an d u n der tai l c o vert s b u ff . . s i des o f head ch i n a nd thro at b fl wi th a shade o f br o w n o n the . I d o n o t fin d t h e speci es r eco r ded f r om Wes t Af ri ca . . ” . pr i m ar i es an d m o s t o f t h e t a i l feathers edged wi t h chro m e yell o w . There i s i n t he B ri t i sh Museu m a t yp i cally c o l o u r ed . . cu lm en w i n g 2 6 tai l tars u s 3 1 1 1 2 76 . “ ” “ “ ” ” labelled Senegal Ca s am a n s e an d Gu i n ea . . Va r a P ale p o r t i o n o f head t hro at a n d breas t w ashed w i th cr i m s o n . P o tchefstr o o m ‘ . . tars i a n d fee t br i gh t red bro w n T ot al le n gth i n ches . u n der - W i n g c o verts sa ndy . q u i lls ashy br o w n wi t h w h i t i sh i n n er edges . u pper thr a blac k o t re a der o f the hea d an d thro at as w ell as the s i des . . . . o f t h e head a n d n ec k fo rehead a n d cr o w n ashy bro w n l i k e the bac k o f the n ec k . . a t B i ndu ri t o t h e n o r t h o f Ga m baga . H a r t laub descr i bed h i s Q oc c i den ta li s f r o m spec i men s . . ( T Ayres ) . . B u d g e t t f o u n d t he spec i es com m o n a n d b r ough t h o me a n e x am ple f r o m N i an i m aru Mr B o yd Ale x an der while t r avel . . Va r b S i m i lar t o t h e last b u t w i th t h e f o rehead chee k ear c o ver t s . . . Adu l t f ema le C o l o u red l i k e t h e m ale fi rst descr i bed w i th the e x cep t i o n . .

Nga m i i n Ju n e The t ype o f L oxi a la tha mi ca m e f r o m Ku r r i . seve r al i n m y av i a r y a n d obse r ve t ha t i n su mmer w he n t h e . cha i n e a n d i s a female o r male i n wi n t e r plu m age . Q UE L E A Q U E LE A 113 be t w een Gamb aga a n d t h e Loa n g o Coas t I n t h e la t t e r . t h e wi n t e r seas o n fl o c k s o f t h i s S pec i es a n d also o f P yr om ela n a . “ d i s t ri but ed An de r sso n w r i t es : . . . ” f e m ales t ur n yello w . . . . at Durban Maj o r Cla rk f o u n d i t abu n da nt a t t h e M o dde r . w a r d a n d a t I n ha mban e by D r Pe t ers I n t he Tra n svaal i t i s . . g o i n g t o t he i r f eed i n g grou n d a n d i n r e t urn i ng t o t he i r r o o s t i n g places t h e b i r ds o f each spe c i es k eep by t he m selves . aft e r t h e b r eed i n g seas o n a n d i t i s also c o m m o n i n t h e La k e . . . These li t t le b i rds see m t o be pa r t i cula r ly fo n d o f t h e t o w n o f K r o o n s t ad w hich t hey f r e que n t i n large n u m be r s . . appa r e n t ly m o r e ple n t i ful f o r acco r d i ng t o M r T Ay r es i n . R i ve r a n d i t has been me t w i t h i n Z ulula n d by M essrs Wood . . . . s w a m ps i n t he eve n i n g Al t hough t h e d i ff e r e n t spec i es feed . ta ha a n d P c r iaz come f o r m i les up t h e ri ve r fr o m t he i r ' . ” r eg i o n s . 8 . . 1 9 04 . ob t a i ned spec i me n s a t C apan g o mbe a n d Humbe an d over . t oge t he r also of t e n i n c o m pa n y w i t h floc k s o f P a ss er a r cu a tu s . Th i s i s a ve r y c o mm o n spec i es i n Damarala n d w he r e i t c o ng r ega t es i n i mm e n se fl o c k s . cou nt r y i t has bee n p r o cu r ed by F a lk e n s t e i n a n d Maj o r Mecho w m et w i t h i t i n A n g o la I n B e n g u ela A n ch i e t a . fav o u ri t e pa t ches o f ree d s i n t h e s w amps w here t hey r o o s t . Kalaha ri i n May a n d fou n d i t i n fl o c k s a t Boli w a o n La k e . Mr Flec k m e t w i t h i t a t G a n s i s an d Ko r i z i i n t h e . s o cl o sely t ha t t hey m a be k i lled by t h e same sho t y e t i n y . F r om t he O r a n ge R i ver C o lo n y M r E Sy m o n ds wr o t e : . males g e t t he i r r ed colou r ab o u t t h e head t h e b i lls o f t h e . S ou t h Af ri ca w i t h t h e e x cep t i o n o f Cap e C o l o n y i t i s ge n e r ally . I n Na t al t h e speci es has been procu r ed by M r T L Ay r es . ( Oc t o b er . . I have . . t o feed o n t h e m i n u t e g rass seeds i n t h e o ld cul t i vat ed g r ou n d - ab o u t P o t chefs t r o o m re t u r n i n g i n la r ge fl i gh t s t o t h e sa me . .

. . . On e o f t h ese fo r ms has bee n p r ocu r ed by S e n h or Ca r d o sa a t Cape Delgad o w here i t i s called by t he n a t i ves ” . . . . . .114 QUE LE A E T H I OP I C A i n separa t e fl o ck s no t wi t hst an di n g t heir h abi t o f m i ngl i ng . . James o n a t Ko o r o om o o r o o i Pan i n B e t ua n al a n d I n Ma t a . S helley B Afr I N o 3 52 ( 1 89 6 ) G ra n t Ib i s 1 904 p 2 5 7 . I n B ri t i sh C en t r al Africa spec i m e n s have bee n collec t ed by M r Why t e o n t h e Ny ik a Pla t eau a t Kar o nga a nd o n Mou n t . females had also u n de r g o n e a change t h e fea t hers o f t h e uppe r . . . . Q u el e a aet h i o p i c a . . . . . m ales w ere i n full b r eed i n g d r ess w h ile t he plu m a g e o f t h e . f r e q ue n t i n g t h e e x t ens i ve beds o f fish ca n e nea r t h e r i ve r and - m ak i n g t h em r es o u n d w i t h t he i r s i n g i n g w hich i s n o t unl ik e . . . . . Fu r t her nor t h i n E as t Af ri ca t o t h e co n fi n es o f No r t h eas t - Af ri ca Q qu elea a n d Q aethi op i c a have a ppa r en t ly f r eely i n t er . . U pp e r G a lla . i n cl i n e m o r e t o w a r ds Q aethi op i c a t han t o Q qu el ea f r om w hich . . m o r e d i s t i n c t a n d t h e eye s t ri pe a n d t h e w hole o f t h e u n der . . buffy w h i t e e d ges t o t h e sec o n da ri es and feat he r s o f t h e m an t le - havi n g d i sappeare d t h e yello w e dg i n gs t o t h e q u i lls be i ng . - ” pa r t s be i n g w ashed w i t h a san dy b u fl . . . par t s hav i n g bec o m e d a rk e r espec i ally on t he c r o w n t h e . “ Ale x an de r i t i s l o cally d i s t r i bu t ed a n d f o u n d i n la r ge flock s . . M r H e llm ay r Alo n g t he Z a mbes i acc o r d i n g t o M r B o yd . w hils t feed i n g He als o m et w i t h i t w hile in co m pa n y w i t h . . t ha t o f S t a r l i n gs when t o ge t he r A t t h e e n d o f Dece mber t he . . F 6 h S t o c kh 1 850 p 1 2 6 r . . . . . . . . . b el el a n d t h e spec i es has been p r o cured at t h e Ka m i R i ver by . b u t as a r ule t hese hyb ri ds — Q i n ter medi a Rei che n . Q u elea ae t h i op i ca S harpe Cat B M x iii p 25 9 pl 1 0 fi g 5 . . P l o ce u s var ae thi o pi c u s S un dev CE fv K V e t san g u i n i ro s t ri s . b r ed . . M l o s a an d by S i r Al f r ed Sha r pe a t La k e M o ero . . Ak ad . one ma infer t ha t t h e f o r me r i s poss i bly t he older r a ce a n d y t ha t Q qu elea is scarcely more t han a subspec i es . . E pe r a . . . .

. . . a n d n ear La m u Isla n d a n d Fischer s collec t ion co n t a i n ed m a n y ' . . H yph a n t i c a . . ‘ . D ur a ma . . var m aj o r S un dev (E f v K V et Ak ad . . . F c rh . Ai le t ( J esse) . B oh m ha s collect ed spec i me n s at Q ua Mpa r a i n t h e Tan a n i ka d i s t r i c t a t G o n da a n d a t M d a b u r u i n U g o g o he r e g y . 2 59 . P l o ce u s sa ng u i n i ro s t ri s . . presen t spec i es wi th a fe w scat t ered blac k feathers o n t h e fo rehead ep e r r sent Q n tei medi a T hese lat ter are pro bably hybr i ds be t w ee n Q quelea a nd . i ‘ . . e n d o f V i c t o r i a Nyan za a t several places n ea r t h e L o w e r T a n a . . Dr Re i chen o w in h i s las t w or k r efe r s all t h e spec i m ens . s t ro n ger an d i n f u ll pl u m aged m ales t h e fo rehead an d bac k o f hea d are . e x a mples fr o m t h e Pa n ga n i d i s t ri c t Ka g ehi a t t h e s o u t he r n . . Ve ry s i m i lar Q qu elea b u t d i ffers i n t h e b i ll be i n g very sl i gh t ly to . . . Q U E LE A E T H I OP I C A 115 Q u el e a s a ng u i n i ro s t r i s a et h i o p i ca Re i che n V og Afr iii p 1 09 . R e i che n J f O . . . t h e prese n t spec i es a n d are represe n t ed i n t h e B r i t i sh M se u m by spec i . . 4 ( 1 890) S helley B Afr I N o 3 5 1 . o z i nt er med i at e be t w ee n th i s fo rm a nd Q qu el ea . . . 1 886 . . . p . ” Mau m b i S i r J o hn K i r k als o c o llec t ed spec i men s in U g o g o . B a ra w a . . . . san dy b ff l ik e the cro w n . . Q u elea i n ter m edi a S harpe Cat B M x iii p . . . S t o c kh 1 8 50. tars u s 3 29 6 68 . . T h i s spec i es i s s u bjec t t o the sa m e s t yle o f var i at i o n s o f pl u m age as Q qu elea T h o se o f bo th spec i es w h i ch have n o blac k o n t h e head o r thro at . . . . The B u ffl f ro n t e d Di o c h i nhab i t s E as t ern Afr i c a be t w een 8 S l a t and 1 7 N l a t ° ° . N di . . b o t h o f wh i ch fo r m s ra n ge i n t o t h e G r ea t . . . w he n i n f u ll dress have rece i ved the n a m e o f Q ru ssi a n d o thers o f the . 3 93 G on d a . was probably f o u n ded up o n c r oss b r ed b i rds be t w ee n Q quelea - . a nd Q aetli i op i ea . . . breas t ge n erally sl i ghtly m o re u n i fo rm T o t al u . . fig . a n d i n t h e Br i t i sh Museu m t here i s a ve r y t yp i cal e x a m ple o f Q aethi op i c a f r o m U g o g o . . . R i ve r an d also at Bara w a in So m al i la n d In t h e c o u nt r y t o . . u m e n s fro m L a m a n d thers fr o m the Alber t E d w ard N ya n a are n early u. f r o m Ge r m a n E as t Afr i ca t o t his spec i es H i s Q i n ter medi a . . p . . . pl . acc o rd i n g t o Dr S T P r u e n i t i s k n o w n t o t h e n a t i ves as t he . La k e d i s t ri c t o f Cen t ral Af r i ca . 1 0. aet h i o p i ca var i n t erm ed i a . le n gth 4 8 i n ches c u l m e n wi n g 2 7 tai l . .

116 Q UE L E A J
E T H I OP I CA

t he w es t K i l i m an ja r o M r Osca r Neu m an n m e t w i t h i t a t
of .

U mb u g w e a n d N g u r u m a n M r Ja c k s o n f o u n d i t a t Macha k o s
. .

a n d i n t h e T ei t a c o u n t r y I n t he B ri t i sh Museu m t here a r e
.

spec i me n s f r o m K i l i m an j a r o t h e A t hi R i ve r La k e Rud olf an d, ,

S o m al i la n d w here i t has bee n r ec o r ded by M Ou s t al e t and by
, .
,

M r E ll i o t w h o w ri t es :
.
,
Th i s Weave r b i r d w as f r e que n t ly -

see n i n la rge fl o c k s o n t h e pla t eau I t w o uld so m e t i m es r o o s t .

i n g r ea t n u m be r s near the c a m p i n s o me t r ees o ve r g r o w n w i t h
v i n es w h i ch a fl o r d e d a t h i c k shel t e r A t t h e place w here o u r
,
.

speci m e n s w e r e c o llec t ed a la r ge n u mbe r w e r e sh o t an d se r ved
f o r b r eak fas t t h e n e x t m o r n i n g a n d w ere as n i ce a m o r sel as ,


i s o u r r eed o r r i ce b i r d t h e m uch pe r secu t ed B o b a l i nk
-

,
- -
.

D r B o w dle r S ha r p e i n a n a r t i cle up o n D r D o n alds o n
.
,
.

S m i t h s c o llec t i o n f r o m S o m al i la n d o bse r ves

The w ay i n ,

wh i ch t h e blac k va ri es i n e x t e n t o n t h e l o r es i n t h i s se ri es

m ak es me ve r y d o ub tful o f t h e val i d i t y o f Q i n ter medi a . .

I n S o u t he r n Abyss i n i a L o r d Lova t f o u n d i t du ri n g Jan ua r y
i n fl o c k s w i t h o t he r F i n ches a t Lak e Ha r r ar Meye r Ba r o m a ,

a n d G a d a b u rk a and M r Pease m e t w i t h i t n ea r t h e w ells
, .

a n d p o o ls a t F u ll f u ll
y An t i n or i a n d Rag a z z i have c o llec t ed
.

s i x t een spec i m e n s f ro m m an y places i n Sh o a i n c lud i n g r ep r e ,

s e n t a t i v e s o f Q mthi op i c a S u n d e v
.
Q i n t ermedi a Re i che n a n d
,
.
, .
, .
,

Q r uss i F i n sc h M r A L Bu t ler wri t es t o m e : Q uelea
.
,
. . .

.

er thi op i ca I m e t w i t h i n la r ge fl o c k s ( w in t er plu m age ) o n t h e

Bl u e N i le be t w ee n Kha r t o u m a n d Wad Meda n i i n M a r ch a n d ,

als o f o u n d i t abu n d a n t a t Geda r ef a n d G allaba t i n May an d
J u n e s t i ll i n large fl o ck s c r o w d i n g t o d ri n k a t p o o ls i n t he
, ,

r o ck y kh o r s d ur i n g t h e h ea t o f t he day R o un d t hese p o o ls

.

t h e g r o u n d had t h e appea r a n ce o f hav i n g been t h i c k ly
spr i nk led w i t h ri ce f r o m t heir d r o pp i ngs On May 2 7 I ki lled .

t h ir t y se v e n wi t h o n e sh o t a n d o f t hese o n e o n ly w as beg i n
-

,

ning t o assu m e t h e b r eed i n g plu m age C o n s i de r able damage .

i s done t o t he c r o ps by t h e vas t fl o c k s o f t hese b i r ds a n d
Xa n tlt op hi lu s ga lbu la

.

Q UE L E A E RY T H R OP S 117

Acco r d i n g t o He ngl i n i t is m i g r a t o r y i n K o r d o fan Se nn aa r , ,

S o u t her n N ub ia a n d Ta k ah a r ri v i n g t he r e w i t h t h e fir s t ,

su m m e r ra i n s t r avell i n g s o u t h w ard in S ep t e mber a n d Oc t obe r ;
,

and he me t wi t h n umbers o f t hese b i r ds al o n g t he Whi t e N i le
i n Janua r y .

Cap t D u n n has pr o c u r ed t h e spec i es a t t h e Z e r a t R i ve r
.
,

a n d M r Ha wk e r f o u n d i t abu n da n t a t Fashoda i n fl o c k s al o n g
.
,

w i t h H i/p li a i i t07 n i s ta ni op ter us I n t h e Bri t i sh Muse u m t her e
'
r
.

are spec i m e n s f r o m K o r d o f a n ( t h e m o s t w es t e r n r a n ge k no w n
t o m e f o r t h e spec i es ) fr o m S e n n aa r B e j o o k A i la t a n d , , ,

M ar a g a z Th i s lat t er spec i me n is i n t h e Q ru ss i plu m age
. . .

Dr Bla n fo r d w r i t es
. O nly m e t wi t h i n N o r t he r n
Abyss i n i a ; i t w as fi rs t see n a t A i la t an d o ccu r r ed abu n da n t ly ,

in t h e Anseba Val ley I t w as seve r al t i m es see n feed i n g o n .

i nsec t s and even pu r su i n g wi n ged a n t s and ca t ch i ng t he m
,

i n t he ai r I t was al w ays in floc k s and d i d n o t appear t o be
.
,

breed i n g in t h e ra i n s .

Q u e l ea e ry t h r Op s .

Plo ceu s e ry t h ro p s H artl Re v Z oo l 1 8 48 p 1 09 S t T homa s I s l
, . . .
,
. . .

Q u ele a ery t hro p s S harpe Cat B M x iii p 2 5 5 pl 1 0 fi g 1 ( 1 89 0)
, , . . . . .
,
.
,
.

S helley B Afr I N o 3 54 , R e i ch en V og Afr iii p 1 1 1
. . . . . . . . .

r i n g i lla ery th
F ro c e
ph ala , L es M rs i u n L e f eb vr V o y A byss p
. . . . 119
Q u elea cap i tata , Du B u s ,
. B ll Acad
u . . R .u B r x xx ii
pt 1 p . . .
, . 1 51 ( 1 8 55 )
S en eg a l .

F o udi a h aem at o c ep h al a , H eu g l . J f O . . . 1 864 , p . 2 5 0 B ongo .

Adu l t ma le . S i m i lar t o
Q qu elea fro m w h i ch i t di fler s i n hav i n g the b i ll
.
,

blac ki sh and t h e e n t i re head a nd u pper half o f the thr o at cri m s o n shadi n g ,

alm o s t i nt o blac k o n the ch in and do wn t h e c e nt re o f t h e t hro a t Ir i s .

bro w n ; b i ll blac k i sh w i th t h e base o f t h e lo w er m an d i ble pale t ars i and feet
,

redd i sh bro w n T ot al len g t h 5 1 i n ches c ul m e n
.
"
w ing ta i l ,

t arsu s 3 3 6 86 K i her o ( E m i n )

. . . .

Adu lt f ema le V ery s i m i lar t o t hat o f Q quelea b ut may be readi ly
. .
,

d i s t i n g u i shed by the b i ll be i n g dar k br o w n w i th t h e u n der m an d i ble paler , .

Wi n g 2 4 a G ab oo n ( D u Ch a i llu)
.
,
.

118 Q UE L E A E RY T H ROP S

T he t ypes o f E ery t hrop s y o u n g o r n ot i n ful l breed i n g pl um age are
.
, ,

descr i bed by H artlaub B re m en 1 89 1 p 20) as fo llo w s , , .


M a le . S i mi lar t o Q quelea i n the c o l o ur i n g o f t h e b o dy w i n gs a nd t a i l ;
.
,

u pper parts d u s k y br o w n wi t h pale edges t o t h e feathers ; cr o w n dar k er wi t h
, ,

cr i m s o n o n t he head c o n fi n ed t o the fo rehead eyebro w s lo res a n d feat hers , ,

s u rr o un d i n g t h e bas e o f t h e l o w er m an d i ble ; u n der part s bro w n wi t h t h e ,

t hr o a t a n d ce n t re o f abd o m e n w h i te ; u n der w i n g c o vert s a n d ben d o f w i n g -

i sabell i n e B i ll an d legs d ar k br o w n
. .

F ema le D iff ers i n t h e part s be i ng yello w w h i ch are red i n t he male
.
,
.
"

The Da rk t h r oa t ed Red headed Di oc h i nhab i t s S t Thomas
- -
.

I slan d a n d r a nges f r o m Se n egal t o t h e Q uanza R i ver eas t w a r d
,

i n t o t h e B o ngo cou n t ry a n d t he Z an z i bar d i s t r i c t sou t h f r om
t h e Tana R i ve r .

The spec i es w as d i scove r ed in S t Tho m as Islan d by We i ss . ,

a n d i s abu n da n t t here The t ype o f Q c ap i ta ta came fro m
. .

Se n egamb i a a n d V e r r e a u x rece i ved speci m e n s from Casa
,

man se I n L i ber i a M r B ii t t i k o f e r fou n d i t in co m pany w i t h

. .

o t her small b i r ds in t h e bushes a t Be n d o near F i scher ,

m an s La k e a t S c h i effel i n s v i ll e and by t h e Fa r m i ng t o n R i ve r

, , ,

feed in g o n g r ass seeds a n d v i s i t i n g t h e r i c e fie l d s w h en t h e
-

g r a i n w as r i pe n i n g While I w as on t he G old Coas t wi t h
.

T E B uck ley w e fou n d t he spec i es abun da n t i n t h e ope n
. .

co u n t r y near Acc r a R ii s b r ough t ho m e spec i m e n s f ro m h i s
.

e x ped i t i o n i n t o A q ua pi n U ssher m e t w i t h i t a t t h e V ol t a R i ve r
, ,

and D r B ii t t ner i n T o g o land
'

. .

In Ca m ar o o n s M r S j ost e d t procured a spec i me n at B ibund i
.
'

,

a n d on Pr i nce s Isla n d Dr D o hrn and M r Ke n l e m a n s sa w t he m

. .

i n flock s o f t w en t y t o e i gh t y i nd i v i duals usually i n compan y ,

w i t h S p erm es tes c u c u l la t us I n Gab o on i t mus t be commo n . ,

f o r Du Ch a i l l u s collec t ion co n t ai n ed a n um ber o f spec i mens

f r om t h e M o o n d a a n d G amma R i ve r s On t h e Loan go Coas t .

S pec i m e n s have been c o llec t ed by Fal k e n s t e i n a t Chi n c h o n x o ,

a n d by Luca n a n d Pe t i t a t Lan da n a S t orms brough t bac k .

e x amples in h i s collec t i o n f ro m La k e Tangany ik a a n d t here ,

Q UE L E A CAR DIN ALI S 119

i s a spec i men i n t he B r i t i sh Museu m f r o m t h e Q ua n za R i ve r ,

w hich i s t h e f ur t hest sou t h I c a n t race t h e spec i es .

The m os t sou t her n ran ge k no w n t o me f or t h e spec i es i n
E as t e r n Af r i ca i s M t o n i o n t h e K i ngan i R i ve r 6 3 0 S l a t
° ’

, , . .

Here Mr B o hn d o rff has p r ocu r ed a spec i men F i sche r r e c o r ds
. .

i t as r are a t Pa n ga n i a n d he als o m et w i t h i t at U al i mi , ,

on t he Ta n a R i ve r I t i s cer t a i n ly scarce i n E as t er n a n d
.

Ce n t r al Afr i ca for t h e o n ly o t her spec i m e n k n o w n t o m e
,

fr o m t hese par t s is t h e t ype o f F ou di a haema tocep ha la p r o cured ,

a t a ma r sh i n t h e Bo n go coun t r y ab o u t 7 N l a t
° °
28 3 0 E

,
. .
, .

lo n g t o t he w es t o f t he U pper Wh i t e N ile a n d w as t he o n ly
.
, ,

speci me n fo un d by He ngl i n .

The egg i s desc r i bed by Mr Kuschel as oval in form o l i ve .
,

g r ee n w i t h d us ky sp o t s a n d a sl i gh t gloss an d measures ,

x

Q u el e a ca rd i nali s .

cardi n al i s H ar t l J f O 1 880 p 3 2 5
H y p h an t i c a pl 1 fi g 1 L ad o
, . . . .
, . .
,
. .

Q u elea card i n al i s S harp e Ca t B M x iii p 2 56 pl 1 0 fi g 2 ( 1 890)
, , . . . . .
, .
, .

S helley B Af r I N o 3 55 , . N e h ko n Ka t B i ers p 1 2 5
. . . r r , . . .
,

pl 3 fi g 3 4 ( 1 8 9 9 ) egg ; Re i chen V og Afr iii p 1 1 2
.
, . . . . . .

Adu l t ma le S i m i lar t o Q ery t hrop s , fr o m w h i ch i t d i ff ers i n t h e h i n der
. .

cro wn a n d bac k o f head be i ng m o ttled w i t h black i sh ce n t res t o t h e feathers ;
ch i n a nd en t i re t hro at u n i fo rm bri gh t scarle t b i ll mu ch s m aller Ir i s bro wn .

b il l blac k i sh ; t ars i an d feet redd i sh bro w n T o tal len gt h 4 3 i n ches , c ul me n .

w ing 2 3, tai l tars u s 3 3 0 6 8 1 L a do ( E m n )

. . . i .

Adu l t f ema les a nd y ou ng ma les . i i
S m lar i n pl u m age t o t hose o f t h e o t her
m e m bers of ge nu s
the be , b u t m ay i i i i
read ly d st n g u shed by the m u ch s m aller
b i ll ; u pper m a n d i ble dar k bro wn ,
l o w er o ne paler . 5
2 ad , an d

3 j uv .

13 8 . . 79 .L a do ( E m i n) .

°
The Card i n al Di o c h i n hab i t s E as t ern Afr i ca f r o m 7 S l a t . .

t o 5 N l at
°
. .

The species i n hab i t s b o t h si d es o f La k e Ta n ga ny ik a ,

f o r i t w as con t a i ned i n Cap t S t o r m s s c o llec t i o n a n d B dh m

.
,

m e t wi t h i t a t Karema F i scher rema rk ed t ha t i n h ab i t s .

E ST RILD IN E .

it cl o sely r ese m bled t h o se o f t he o t he r m e m be r s o f t h e genus ,

w as e x t r e m ely c o mmo n a t N g u r u m a n i n fl o ck s o f o n e hu n d r ed
a n d fi f t y t o t w o hu n dred b u t he d i d n o t observe i t else w he r e
, .

I t f r e q ue n t ed t h e c o un t r y cove r ed w i th g r ass a n d scrub in ,

w h i ch i t w as breed i ng The n es t s he fou n d con t a i n ed t hree
.

eggs a n d i n s t r uc t u r e rese mbled t hose o f P yromela n a n i gri
,

ven tr i s t ha t i s a n oval nes t c o n s t r uc t ed o f g r ass wi t h t h e
, , ,

e nt r a n ce a t o n e s i de .

M r Jack s o n f o u n d i t very plen t iful i n t h e lo n g bushy g r ass
.

a t Nj emps o n La k e Bar i n g o
, a n d in floc k s a t Na n d i up t o ,

fee t Mr Neu m a nn reco r ds i t fr o m Kav ir o n do a n d
. .
,

D r A n s o r ge collec t ed specimens i n U n y o r o and a t M a s i n d i
. .

E m i n has se n t m an y spec i m e n s f r om Wadela i a n d Lad o and ,

a t t h e la t t e r place o b t a i n ed t h e t ype o f t h e spec i es .

Su bfami ly II . E S T RI L DI N E .

T he m m e bers o f t h i s s u bfam i ly l i k e t hose o f the Vi du i n ce are d i s t i n
,

g ui s h e d fr o m the P l oc ei dae by t he i r fi rs t o r bas t ard pr i m ary be i n g v e ry s m all ,

n arr o w a n d sharply po i n t ed a n d i n t h e la tt er t h e ta i l i s al w ays s qu are o r
,

r o un ded an d shor t er than t h e w i n g
, .

T h e E s tri ldi n ae are di s t i n gu i shed fr o m t h e Vi du i n ae by the u pper parts
be i n g o ften barred b u t n ever str i ped by hav i n g n o d i st i n ctly m ar k ed seas on al
,

plu m age an d by t h e se x es be i n g a t all t i m es very s i mi lar i n plu m age
,
.

B i ll vari able i n le ngt h an d s t ren gt h t h e c ul me n ( e x cept i ng i n S p ermes tes
,

f ri ng i l lo i des) sh o rt er t han the t arsu s s m alles t a nd m o s t n arr o w i n N es oc ha ri s
, ,

w i des t a n d stro n gest i n P yr enes tes i n w h i ch t h e u pper m an d i ble ge n erally
,

h a s a t o o th l i k e n o tch
-
I n N i g ri ta i t i s s o m e w ha t fla t te n ed a n d w i de n ed t o
.

s u ch an e x t e n t that o n e o f the spec i es w as f o rm erly referred t o t h e M a s ai
c up da
i N o str i ls ge n erally b u t n o t al w ays h i dde n b y the fro n t al fea t hers
.
, , .

Win g (e x cept i n g i n Ama di n a a n d P hi leta i i u s ) r o u n ded ; fi rs t or bas t ard '

pri mary very s m all seco n d pr i m ary ge n erally shor t er t han the fi fth b u t i s
, ,

o n e o f the l o n gest i n Amad i n a P hi le t a i ru s P a dda , U ro lonc ha Or tyg osp i z a
, , ,

a n d S p er mes t es T a i l ( e x cep t in g i n P h i le t a i r us ) ro u n ded o r grad u a t ed o f
.
,

the same s i z e an d fo r m at all seas o n s a nd ( e x cept i n g i n U m g i nthus) n o t,

lo nger than the w i n g .

M e mbers o f the gen era L ag onos t i c ta a n d P y teli a may be r e ad i ly rec o g
n i se d by t h e ter m i n al t h i rd o f t h e fi rs t l o n g pr i m ary be i n g very n arr o w an d ,

gen erally d i s t i n c t ly c u t a w ay o n t h e i nn er w eb .

E S T R I L D I N ZE 1 21

KE Y TO TH E G E N E RA .

a . N s t r i ls e x p o sed
o .

a 1
W i n g po i n t ed e n d o f i nn er pr i m ary fall i n g sh o r t o f
.
,

t i p o f w i n g by n o t less t han le n gth o f tars u s .

a T a i l sh o r t a n d r o u n ded i nn er pr i m ary fall i n g sh o rt
~
.

o f t i p o f w i n g by m o re tha n le n gth f tars u s ; m ales o

wi t h red o n head o n ec k r Ama di n a . P 12 . 2

b T a i l s q u are ; i n n er pr i m ary fall i n g sh o rt o f t i p o f
2
.

w i n g by le n gth o f tars u s ; n o red o n pl u m age P hi le t a i r us :2
.
7
W i n g r o u n ded ; b i ll m o re flat t e n ed br o ader than deep
.

b 1
N i gr i t a
,
j
. .

,0
,
I g
b . N o str i ls h i dde n by fr o n t al feathers .

c
l
S ec o n d pr i m ary o ne o f t h e l o n gest
. .

T ai l fa i rly l o n g a n d sl i gh t ly grad u ated w i t h t h e ,

ce n t re pa i r o f feathers m o re el ngated a nd p o i n ted o .

a Claw s less c u rved ; b i ll a n d legs p i n k ; bac k u ni
3
.

fo r m grey ; qu i lls br o ad P a dd a . W 8
b Claw s mu ch c u rved ; b i ll an d legs bro w n ; head
3
.

a n d u pper t hroa t frec k led . U r o lonc ha .
l o 1 Co
d T a i l sh ort a nd evenly ro un ded
3
. .

0 O ut st ret ched fee t e x t en d i ng bey o n d t h e t ai l ;
3
.

c u l men n early s t rai gh t . Or tygosp i za
'

.
j o
is e

.

d O u t s t re t ched fee t n o t reach i n g t o end of tai l ;
3
.

c u l m en c u rved S p ermes tes .

) 9 1 J7
d 1
S eco n d pr i mary sh o rter t ha n the fi fth .

e B i ll less p o w erf ul ; n o t oot h l ik e pro j e c t i on on t he
2
.
-

c u t t i n g edge o f t h e b i ll .

e B ac k an d upper t ai l c o ver t s o l i ve ; bre as t grey or
3
.
-

m o stly s o n o spo t s n o r bars .

a B i ll very s m all a nd n arro w ; tai l sh o r t a nd

.

r o u n ded no t e x t en d in g bey o n d t h e o u t s t re t ched
,

fee t N es o c ha r i s .

b B i ll s t o ut ; ta i l gradu ated a nd e x t e nd i n g w ell
4
.

beyo n d t h e o ut s t re t ched feet . Chlores tri lda .

) ,flt ,

[ U pper t a i l c o ver t s n ever ol i ve w he n t h e breas t
3 -

i s m o st ly grey an d t h e pl u m age u n sp ot t ed .

0 Li tt le o r n o cr i ms o n o n t h e w i n gs
4 . .

a F i rs t l o n g pr i m ary e n t i re n o t n arro w ed
5
.
,

t o w ards t h e e n d .

“ U pper t a i l c o v er t s bl u e
a .
; t a i l l o n ger t ha n
-

t h e w i n g a n d str o n gly grad u ated U r w gi n t hus .

b U pper t a i l c o vert s n ever bl u e
6
.
-
.

a B i ll fo r ming o n fo rehead a ri ght angle ;
7
.

spo t s w hen presen t o n plum age s mall
an d c o n fi n ed t o s i des o f breas t .

Cab Arch N a t ur g 1 84 7 . - q u i lls n ever red n or yello w breas t gen er ally w i t h m i n u t e w h i t e sp o ts L a g o no s t i c t a . j ! 2 v5 d T a i l feat hers n arr o w er o u t er m arg i n s o f 6 . by mo re than the le n g t h o f the tars u s . o u t er an d i nn er t oes . p 3 3 1 . . . c u rved t h e base en d i n g i n a r i ght an gle o n t h e fo rehead . ab o u t equ al h i n d claw lo n g a nd c u rved P lum age o f t h e se x es d iff er i n g i n .G reater por t i on o f w i n gs cr i m s o n Cryp tosp i za l 2 7 g . b B i ll fo rm i n g o n fo rehead a n acu te an gle 7 . B i ll arr w er . . S p o ro t hl a s t es . c ul men flat t en ed a n d o ut an d . fea t her fall i n g sh o rt o f t i p o f t a i l by less tha n len gt h o f c u l me n Coc c op y gi a f ~ 2 y 3. . sharply po i n ted . S w a i n s ool . . . ever wit h n o n t he en t i re der m an d i ble pale a n d u pper man un b di ble blac k t a i l less r o un ded B i ll bro ader . P 1 t I G en u s I . Am a di na . A . J . 2 3 a n d 4 l o n ges t an d ab o u t e qu al T a i l sh o rt a n d . w h i ch h a s cau sed them t o be k no w n as Ri bbo n F i nches an d Cut thro at - S parr o w s I shall call t he m Ri bb o n W ax b i lls . k eel c urved . AM AD I N A . o u t er m arg i n s o f s . t h e m ales o n ly hav i n g s o m e red o n t h e head or t hr o at . A . r oun ded T arsu s m o derat e . T he ge s i c fi ed nu ro p i cal and S out h Afr i ca and c ompr i ses t hree s on n to T . c T ai l feat hers br o ader . . B i ll very st sh o rt s w o lle n at t h e base . spec i es I n t h e t yp i cal spec i es the m ales have a red band acro ss t h e t hro at . . f 2 B i ll very p o w erfu l gen erally w i th a t o o t h li k e pro - j ec t i o n o n t h e cu t t i n g edge o f t h e u pper m an d i ble plu m age o f t w o c o lo urs bro wn a n d cr i m s o n o r blac k . a . adu lt s wit h e n t ire u n der e . . . j ! .1 22 A M AD I N A as . pr i m ar i es 1 s m all n arr o w a nd . f asci a ta . edges o f u pper m an d i ble fest oo n ed t o w ards t he gape . . ad ults w i th larger a n d mo re n u mero u s pale t w i n spo t s n o t c o n fi n ed t o s i des o f - breas t H yp argos b F i rs t l o n g pr i m ary w i t h the ter m i n al th i rd 5 n arr o w an d ge n erally d i s t i n c t ly c u t a w ay o n t h e i nn er m arg i n . f as c i a ta . - . Z o u rn iii p 3 49 ( 1 8 2 7 ) . a n d cr i m s o n P y renes tes . d 4 . n o s t r i ls covered by t h e fro n tal fea t hers Wi n g p o i n t ed the t en t h qu i ll fall i n g sh o r t o f t h e t ip . t o es lon g a n d sle n der . . m o m a n di ble pale an d u pper m an d i ble blac k t a i l r o u n ded e n d o f o u t er . - q u i lls red o yell o w breas t barred r P y te li a P 1 ‘ V. . E s tr i lda .

S harpe . i p 1 9 7 pl 1 5 . . . W . I mma t u re U pper par t s n early un if o rm br o w n w i t h the blac k bars . w i th the ce n tre o f t h e ches t c i nn a mo n . - . ‘ c . z . N e h rko r n Ka t E i e rs p 1 2 5 . T he Co mmo n R i bbo n Wax b i ll ra n ges o ver E as t e r n Afr i ca . r . L x i a fasc i a t a o G m S N ii . . . B u tler F o re i gn F in ches i n Cap . “ z . . . . A ma d i n e f as c i at a . a br o ad . . i n t o S enegamb i a and poss i bly t h e Co n g o reg i on . . . . t h e b uff feathers o f t he fr o n t a n d s i des o f t h e breas t crossed by an g ular blac k bars . . R e dj a f ( E m i n ) . a 1 B lac k l i n es o n u n der part s s ub marg in al . feet flesh c o l o u r . Afr . . re m ai n der o f w i n g m o re u n i fo rm bro wn . N o red o n head or n ec k F ema les a n d y ou ng ma les . u n der tai l —c o verts wi th large d u s k y blac k i sh ce nt res Iri s ha el . ° . . . par t s are m o re m o t t led w i t h blac ki sh bars o n t h e feathers Wi ng 2 6 9 . . . . 8 59 Am a d i n a fasc i at a . . s ubterm i n al an gu lar blac k bars . . . . 58 Adu l t ma le rehead cro w n bac k a n d s i des o f n ec k bac k w i n g . f a s c i a ta 3 . . cr i m s o n ban d e xt en ds fro m t h e t o p o f t h e ear c o ver t s acro ss t he t hro a t . u . . - re m ai n der o f the head ch i n an d t hroat w h i te s o m e w hat mo t tle d w i th . B . . E n t i re head red ery t h oc ep ha la 3 r . " T o t al le n gt h 5 1 i n ches c l m en w in g 2 6 t ail tars u s . p . . . . . L a L o x i c fasci é e V i eill O i s Chan t p 90 pl . br o wn i sh blac k lo w er thro at a nd abdo m en w h i te shad i n g i n to r fo u s buff . F r i n g i lla d e t ru n c a t a L i cht V e r D o u b l pp . . . B ogos (E sler) . b i ll h o rn y . . . - be t w een 1 7 N l at a n d 1 5 S l at a n d c r o sses t he con t i n e n t ° . t ai l ' dar k bro w n w i t h w h i t e en ds t o all b u t t h e cen t re pai r o f feathers i n creas i n g . . Cat B M x iii p 2 8 9 . t i vi t y p 1 83 pl 3 5. S w ai n s . . b . . i n s i z e t o t h e e x t er n al o n es w h i ch have t h e o u ter w eb also w h i te . . c o verts i nn er sec o n dar i es a n d the u pper ta i l c o verts pale r u f o u s bro w n w i th . . 2 5. a. t o t h e fea t hers ma rgi na li s 3 . p 1 46 . Adu l t f ema le D iffers i n hav i n g no red o n the head o r t hro at w h i ch . . . Re i che n V o g Af r iii . w i th t h e u n der c o verts an d i n n er m arg i n s o f t he qu i lls r u fo u s b u fl . S helley B Af I N o 3 59 . ( 1 8 99 ) egg . . Acr i m s o n ban d acro ss t he t hr o at . . Fo . . . . A M ADI N A FA SCI AT A KE Y TO TH E SP E C I E S . u . 2 6 ( 1 823 ) S en ega mbi a . . . 1 7 1 2 83 . appe ar i ng o n the scapu lars an d u pper t a i l c o verts W est Afr i ca - . ‘ b 1 B lac k l in es o n u n der par t s fo rm i ng edges .

I have n o t seen i t b ut w o u ld sugges t . . . - . . “ ” U n g a r u ng a i n t h e bushy w ilderness bet w ee n t h e R i ver . . Oat es Ma t abelelan d a n d V i c t or i a . . fo u n d t h e spec i es b r eed i ng in Augus t a t L a mm o a n d pr o cu r ed a pa i r a t Gou r a M r . - . . . N g u r um an a n d We m be r e as l o cal it i es w here t h e species occurs . Man ya n ga o n t he L ew e r C o n g o has been refe r r ed t o t h i s . Weave r by Ha r t laub . w i t h n o k no w n hab i t a t . la r ge flock s n e a r Tofan i n Augus t . S ol a t er p r ocured a male and female a t t he Z ambes i R i ver las t . Accord i n g t o He n gl i n t h e spec i es is abu n da n t alo ng t he . O t her w ise t he Commo n R i bbo n Wa x b i ll - w as n o t k no w n as a n a t i ve of S o u t h Afr i ca un t il Dr W L . . . Tsavo a n d K i b wez i I n S o m al i lan d Dr Donalds o n Sm i t h . Feb r uary . A er y thr oc ep ha la ( non . es c a r p m e n t a t Dalado ” In S hoa A n t i n o r i m e t w i t h i t in . . R i ve r i n Mat abeleland Th i s spec i m e n has bee n r efe r red t o . A specimen p r o cured by Mr B o h nd o r ff a t Ngo m b i . Falls p 3 2 0 . . as t hey ca m e do w n t o dr i n k a t a r o ck y pool k n o w n a s . “ S o ut her Ab y ss i i a M r Pease w r i t es : The R i bbon o r Cu t n n . g o t t hese b i r ds a t w a t e r p o ols “ G e b i li i n Dece m ber 1 8 9 7 . . . . . in German E as t Af ri ca and r ema rk s t ha t t h e eggs are pure . - . wh i t e an d m easu r e o n a n aver age 0 7 5 x 0 5 . D r Re i che n o w m e n t i o n s Da r e s S alam B ag a m oi o U s e g u a . M a y Novembe r a n d Dece m be r and Dr Ragazz i f o u n d i t i n . . w here t hey came i n fl o c k s i n t h e m i ddle of t he day ” F r om . .